WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical composition by material content

  1. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Khalil, H.P.S. Abdul; Bakar, A. Abu; Khanam, P. Noorunnisa

    2011-01-01

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB/Jute, i.e. 4:1, the fibre loading was optimized and different layering pattern were investigated. It is found from the chemical resistance test that all the composites are resistant to various chemicals. It was observed that marked reduction in void content of hybrid composites in different layering pattern. From the different layering pattern, the tensile properties were slightly higher for the composite having jute as skin and oil palm EFB as core material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study tensile fracture surfaces of different composites.

  2. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  3. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  4. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  5. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP content was calculated as nitrogen (N × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD, true organic matter digestibility (TOMD, ME, and partitioning factor (PF values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT. Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum to 9.51% (maize, but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources.

  6. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content of Panicum maximum-Moringa ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2015) > ... Tannin concentrations in these diets were below the 6.00g/100g toxic level for small ruminants.

  8. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  9. Application of electron-chemical curing in the production of thin composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetchenov, V.; Shik, V.; Konev, V.; Kurapov, A.; Misin, I.; Gavrilov, V.; Malik, V.

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of tons of various thin composite materials in rolls for electrotechnical and domestic application including a whole range of electrical insulating materials, such as varnished and polymer fabrics, glass-micatapes, prepregs, thin laminated plastics and clad laminates, materials for decorative and domestic purposes - pressure sensitive adhesive tape and laminates, covering and finishing compositions based on fabrics, films and papers are produced. An important advantage of the electron-chemical processing in the production of composite materials is an essential energy saving (reduction of energy consumption 3-5 times). Absence of the organic diluents in binders decreases fire and explosion hazards of the production and sufficiently decreases danger for the environment of the technology used. Research and Production Company ''Polyrad'' is engaged in the development of technologies and equipment for the production of thin composite materials by the Electron-Chemical Method. (author)

  10. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  11. Effect of teapot materials on the chemical composition of oolong tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zih-Hui; Chen, Ying-Jie; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, Maw-Rong; Mai, Fu-Der; Rairat, Tirawat; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2018-01-01

    The flavor and quality of tea are widely believed to be associated with the pot in which the tea is made. However, this claim is mostly by experiences and lacks solid support from scientific evidence. The current study investigated and compared the chemical compositions of oolong tea made with six different teapot materials, namely Zisha, Zhuni, stainless steel, ceramic, glass and plastic. For each tea sample, polyphenols and caffeine were examined by HPLC-UV, volatile compounds by GC/MS, amino acids by LC/MS and minerals by ICP-MS. The results suggested that tea infusions from Zisha and Zhuni pots contain higher levels of EGC, EGCG and total catechins and less caffeine than those from ceramic, glass and plastic pots and tend to have the lowest total mineral contents, potassium and volatile compounds in tea soup. The statistical differences were not all significant among Zisha, Zhuni and stainless steel pots. Based on the overall chemical composition of the tea infusion, Yixing clay pots (Zisha and Zhuni) produce tea infusions that are presumably less bitter and more fragrant and tend to contain more healthful compounds than tea infusions from other pots. The results could partially explain why Yixing clay pots are among the most popular teapots. The beneficial effects of long-term repeated use of these teapots warrants further study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Application of electron-chemical curing in the production of thin composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopetchenov, V.; Shik, V.; Konev, V.; Kurapov, A.; Misin, I.; Gavrilov, V.; Malik, V. (Polyrad Research and Production Co., Moscow (Russian Federation))

    Thousands of tons of various thin composite materials in rolls for electrotechnical and domestic application including a whole range of electrical insulating materials, such as varnished and polymer fabrics, glass-micatapes, prepregs, thin laminated plastics and clad laminates, materials for decorative and domestic purposes - pressure sensitive adhesive tape and laminates, covering and finishing compositions based on fabrics, films and papers are produced. An important advantage of the electron-chemical processing in the production of composite materials is an essential energy saving (reduction of energy consumption 3-5 times). Absence of the organic diluents in binders decreases fire and explosion hazards of the production and sufficiently decreases danger for the environment of the technology used. Research and Production Company ''Polyrad'' is engaged in the development of technologies and equipment for the production of thin composite materials by the Electron-Chemical Method. (author).

  13. Toxicological characterization of chemicals produced from laser irradiation of graphite composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.

    1990-11-01

    One of the major potential hazards associated with laser machining of graphite composite materials is the toxic fumes and gases that are generated. When exposed to the intense energy of the laser beam, the organic polymer matrix of the composite material may decompose into various toxic by-products. To advance the understanding of the laser machining process from a health and safety viewpoint, this particular study consisted of the following steps: collect and analyze gaseous by-products generated during laser machining; collect particulates generated during laser machining and chemically extract them to determine the chemical species that may have absorbed or recondensed onto these particles; and review and evaluate the toxicity of the identified chemical species

  14. [The characteristics of chemical composition of content of unicameral bone cysts depending on their growth stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Mitrofanov, A I; Tkachuk, E A

    2012-11-01

    The article deals with the results of study of chemical composition of solitary cysts and blood serum of 27 patients. The results demonstrated that qualitative composition of f content of unicameral bone cysts is identical to chemical composition of blood serum. The results of analysis of total proteolysis activity and acid phosphatase activity in content of cysts can be used as criteria to determine the stage of cyst growth and to evaluate the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  15. Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition revealed a low lipid ...

  16. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masarin Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during

  17. Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.C.; Sudersanan, M.; Ravindran, P.V.; Kalekar, B.B.; Mathur, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

  18. Content of heavy metals and chemical composition of the hydraulic cement marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas Padilla, Jimmy; Calderon Jimenez, Bryan; Sibaja Brenes, Jose Pablo; Salazar Delgado, Jorge; Rodriguez Castro, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals, specifically lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and mercury (Hg), and also the chemical composition (CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 among others) were quantified of the hydraulic cement marketed in Costa Rica. The physical parameters of density and fineness confirmed the homogeneity of the samples to determinate accurately the content of the major components and heavy metals in the cements. The mineralogical constitution was determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Specifically, the cements showed a mass fraction in the range of (61.22 - 63.12) % of CaO, (18.10 - 26.14) % of SiO 2 , (3.70 - 6.05) % of Al 2 O 3 , (2.57 - 3.36) % Fe 2 O 3 and (0.60 - 4.09) % de MgO. Other components such as MgO, TiO 2 , K 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Na 2 O and Mn 2 O 3 were found on an average mass fraction lower than 1%. Moreover, using the ignition test results and assuming a complete decomposition of the limestone, it was possible to estimate (indirectly) the content of CaCO 3 and CaO given by the raw materials. The metal content of the heavy metals was determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS), and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS). The analysis demonstrated that the Pb in cements is present in different concentrations ranging the (2.45 ± 0.72) mg kg -1 to the (8.95 ± 1.34) mg kg -1 . Chromium (Cr) was presented in higher concentrations of (10.69 ± 0.92) mg kg-1. The Hg concentration was below 0.141 ± 0.021 mg kg -1 . In general terms, the hydraulic cements marketed and used in Costa Rica have a suitable chemical composition compared with some cements marketed in Germany. The results of the content of heavy metals presented in this study provide significant information for future studies in the area of toxicology, ecotoxicology, standardization and national regulation. (author) [es

  19. ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE MATERIALS FROM HARD COAL BURNING IN VIEW OF THEIR AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Czech

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of electric power in Poland bases on burning brown and hard coal. Currently over 90 % of electricity originates from this source. Generating electric power, like many other human activities, inevitably involves production of wastes. Considering the previous trends of these waste materials utilisation, one should analyse also potential use of biogenic components which they contain as fertilizers. The main objective of conducted investigations was an assessment of potential application of selected waste materials, i.e. fly ashes from production, fly ashes from the landfill site and slag sand from “KRAKÓW S.A.” heat and power plant for agricultural and environmental purposes. The assessment was made on the basis of analyses of the following physical and chemical properties of studied materials: pH, granulometric composition determined by Bouyoucose-Casagrande method in Prószyński’s modification, total alkalinity, total nitrogen content assessed by means of Kjeldahl’s method, organic carbon by Tiurin’s method, total contents of trace elements and the content of available forms of trace elements soluble in 1 mol · dm-3 HCl solution. On the basis of conducted laboratory analyses it should be stated that the amounts of heavy metals determined in the studied materials did not exceed the content allowable for waste materials designed for soil liming. The analysed materials reveal physical and chemical properties which do not exclude their potential application for soil liming. In this respect, fly ash from production seems the best. However, it contains about twice lower amounts of CaO in comparison with other calcium fertilizers available on the market.

  20. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus leaf, corn (Zea mays stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum. These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier grass and to investigate the fiber morphology of these crops. The chemical components analyzed include the following: cellulose (Kurshner-Hoffner method, holocellulose (chlorination method, hemicellulose (chlorination method, ash content (TAPPI method T211-om-93, lignin content (TAPPI method T222-om-98, and soluble sodium hydroxide (TAPPI method T203-om-98. All handsheets morphologies were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated each crop has the potential for use as a fiber in paper making. SEM images indicated a condensed composition of the fiber structure. The observed chemical composition and morphology of these three crops indicate their suitability for use as fiber sources for the paper industry.

  1. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  2. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  3. Chemical composition of lunar material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J A; Abbey, S; Champ, W H

    1970-01-30

    Chemical and emission spectrographic analyses of three Apollo 11 samples, 10017-29, 10020-30, and 10084-132, are given. Major and minor constituents were determined both by conventional rock analysis methods and by a new composite scheme utilizing a lithium fluoborate method for dissolution of the samples and atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry. Trace constituents were determined by optical emission spectroscopy involving a d-c arc, air-jet controlled.

  4. Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nano materials and Nano composites 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X.; Jiao, T.; Balan, L.; Chen, X.; Hu, M.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interests in nano materials and nano composites call for the development of processing techniques to obtain multiple functionalization nano structures and achieve the tailoring of specific features of the nanometer size. Functional nano materials and nano composites will expand the applied range of the original material and at the same time promote the development of inter discipline. Thus, the chemical functionalization and bottom-up assemblies of nano materials and subsequent applications will accelerate the development of nano science and nano technology.

  5. Associating Physical and Chemical Properties to Evaluate Buffer Materials by Th and U Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Yi-Lin; Chen, Tzu-Yun; Cheng, Hwai-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Tseng, Chia-Liang; Wei,Yuan-Yaw; Yang, Jen-Yan; Ke, Cheng-Hsiung; Chuang, Jui-Tang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2003-02-27

    The physical and chemical properties of buffer materials to be used for a radwaste disposal repository should be evaluated prior to use. In a conventional approach, independent studies of physical and/or chemical characteristics are conducted. This study investigated the relationship between the plastic index (PI) and distribution ratio (Rd) of buffer materials composed of varying ratios of quartz sand and bentonite. Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) were the nuclides of interest, and both synthetic groundwater and seawater were used as the liquid phases to simulate conditions representative of deep geological disposal within an island. Atterberg tests were used to determine PI values, and batch sorption experiments were employed to measure Rd values. The results show that Th reached maximum sorption behavior when the bentonite content exceeded 30 % of the mixture. Contrariwise, the sorption of U increased linearly with bentonite content, up to bentonite contents of 100%, and this correlation was present regardless of the liquid phase used. A further result is that U has a better additivity with respect to Rd than Th in both synthetic groundwater and synthetic seawater. These results will allow a determination of more effective buffer material composition, and improved estimates of the overall Rd of the buffer material mixture from the Rd of each mineral component.

  6. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Okuskhanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC, and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%. Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g, threonine (5.38 g/100 g, and valine (5.84 g/100 g predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g, methionine (3.29 g/100 g, and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.

  8. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food. PMID:28717313

  9. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  10. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  11. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  12. Study of the mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations in rubber-resinous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharova, L.B.; Astakhova, L.G. Trufanova, N.D.; Persinen, A.A.; Vasil'ev, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Materials based on butadiene-nitrile rubbers reinforced by phenol-formaldehyde resins presently find wide application as reliable heat-insulating coatings for various metallic constructions and are utilized under exposure to ionizing radiation. In this connection, when estimating the assured lifetime of heat-insulating coatings, it is necessary to take into account the character and degree of their radiation-chemical transformations. The aim of the present work was to study the radiation-chemical transformations of materials based on a composite of butadiene-nitrile rubber and phenol-formaldehyde resin. The investigations were carried out on model materials S-O, S-25, S-100, S-130, and S-150 based on the SKN-40M rubber with a varied content of SF-010A brand phenol-formaldehyde resin, the content of which in parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber is indicated in the specifications of the materials. The possible directions of the radiation-chemical transformations in the rubber-resinous vulcanizates were studied by the method of disrupted total internal reflection (MDTIR) IR spectroscopy

  13. Influence of mechanical and chemical degradation on surface gloss of resin composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Braut, V.; Uhac, I.; Benbachir, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krejci, I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the changes in surface gloss of different composite materials after simulation of mechanical and chemical aging mechanisms. Methods: 36 specimens were fabricated for each material and polished with 120-, 220-, 500-, 1200-, 2400- and 4000- grit SiC abrasive paper, respectively.

  14. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  15. Thermally emissive sensing materials for chemical spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Zsolt; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2018-05-08

    A sensor using thermally emissive materials for chemical spectroscopy analysis includes an emissive material, wherein the emissive material includes the thermally emissive materials which emit electromagnetic radiation, wherein the electromagnetic radiation is modified due to chemical composition in an environment; and a detector adapted to detect the electromagnetic radiation, wherein the electromagnetic radiation is indicative of the chemical interaction changes and hence chemical composition and/or chemical composition changes of the environment. The emissive material can be utilized with an optical fiber sensor, with the optical fiber sensor operating without the emissive material probed with a light source external to the material.

  16. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Glodok Fish by High Thermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purwaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glodok is an economically underrated fish with a high nutrient content. The research aims to study the changes on chemical composition, fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3 ratio in glodok muscle after processing with different methods of boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt (3%. The results showed that the treatment (boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt gives a significant effect (α=0.05 in water content, ash, lipid content, nervonat acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA. The best processing method was steaming. The ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 in fresh glodok fish was 2,1:1, which is higher than WHO recommendation of 0,6:1,7.Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acid, glodok fish, processing

  17. Effect of natural and artificial drying of leaf biomassof Psidium guajava on the content and chemical composition of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is native to Central and South America. It is widely distributed and well adapted to Brazil, a producer of essential oils rich in terpenes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. grown in Rio Verde (GO. The two treatments consisted of drying fresh leaves either naturally in the shade or artificially at 40°C. Chemical composition was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas coupled with mass spectrometer chromatography (GC/MS and gas chromatography using a flame ionizer (GC-FID, respectively. The method of drying changed the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves. Drying in the shade reduced the content and altered the constituents of the essential oil, whereas drying in an oven at 40°C, despite having reduced the amounts of the constituents, exhibited the highest essential oil content and increased the concentration of certain major constituents as compared to that in the natural shade drying method. The major components found in the essential oil of leaves regardless of the drying processes were trans-caryophyllene, ?-humulene, aromadendrene, ?-selinene, and selin-11-en-4?-ol. According to reports in the literature, these compounds possess fungicidal, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, among others beneficial actions.

  18. Chemical composition separation of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer by high temperature solvent gradient interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Phiri, Mohau Justice; Ndiripo, Anthony; Pasch, Harald

    2017-11-03

    A propylene-ethylene random copolymer was fractionated by preparative temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF). The structural heterogeneity of the bulk sample and its TREF fractions was studied by high temperature liquid chromatography with a solvent gradient elution from 1-decanol to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. HPLC alone cannot resolve those propylene-ethylene copolymers with high ethylene content in the bulk sample, due to their low weight fractions in the bulk sample and a small response factor of these components in the ELSD detector, as well as their broad chemical composition distribution. These components can only be detected after being separated and enriched by TREF followed by HPLC analysis. Chemical composition separations were achieved for TREF fractions with average ethylene contents between 2.1 and 22.0mol%, showing that copolymers with higher ethylene contents were adsorbed stronger in the Hypercarb column and eluted later. All TREF fractions, except the 40°C fraction, were relatively homogeneous in both molar mass and chemical composition. The 40°C fraction was rather broad in both molar mass and chemical composition distributions. 2D HPLC showed that the molar masses of the components containing more ethylene units were getting lower for the 40°C fraction. HPLC revealed and confirmed that co-crystallization influences the separation in TREF of the studied propylene-ethylene copolymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of in-plant reference material for composition of chinese cabbage with certified selenium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In-plant reference material for composition of Chinese cabbage with certified selenium content was developed for accuracy control of the results of selenium determination and within-laboratory quality control of analytical work in the analysis of food raw material.

  20. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer

  1. Chemical composition and strength of dolomite geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, E. A.; Al Bakri, A. M. M.; Liew, Y. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The chemical composition of dolomite and the compressive strength of dolomite geopolymer composites were studied. The both composites prepared with mechanical mixer manufactured by with rotor speed of 350 rpm and curing in the oven for 24 hours at 80˚C. XRF analysis showThe dolomite raw materials contain fewer amounts of Si and Al but high Ca in its composition. Dolomite geopolymer composites with 20M of NaOH shows greater and optimum compressive strength compared to dolomite geopolymer with other NaOH molarity. This indicated better interaction of dolomite raw material and alkaline activator need high molarity of NaOH in order to increase the reactivity of dolomite.

  2. Effects of chemical composite, puffing temperature and intermediate moisture content on physical properties of potato and apple slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabtaing, S.; Paengkanya, S.; Tanthong, P.

    2017-09-01

    Puffing technique is the process that can improve texture and volumetric of crisp fruit and vegetable. However, the effect of chemical composite in foods on puffing characteristics is still lack of study. Therefore, potato and apple slices were comparative study on their physical properties. Potato and apple were sliced into 2.5 mm thickness and 2.5 cm in diameter. Potato slices were treated by hot water for 2 min while apple slices were not treatment. After that, they were dried in 3 steps. First step, they were dried by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their moisture content reached to 30, 40, and 50 % dry basis. Then they were puffed by hot air at temperature of 130, 150, and 170°C for 2 min. Finally, they were dried again by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their final moisture content reached to 4% dry basis. The experimental results showed that chemical composite of food affected on physical properties of puffed product. Puffed potato had higher volume ratio than those puffed apple because potato slices contains starch. The higher starch content provided more hard texture of potato than those apples. Puffing temperature and moisture content strongly affected on the color, volume ratio, and textural properties of puffed potato slices. In addition, the high drying rate of puffed product observed at high puffing temperature and higher moisture content.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of modified inter-polymer complexes and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Inter-polymer complexes (IC) are rather perspective and can occupy the important place in technology of materials, as find out a number of the most valuable properties. In essence, they are new polymeric materials with a complex of new qualities and operational characteristics. In the present work the influence of a nature and structure of cooperating components both on structure, and on properties of received final products is investigated. It is shown new opportunities of use of the IC for reception composite materials formed IC on the physical properties, rather close to amorphous compounds. The opportunity of reception polymeric composite materials with the given properties and structure is shown; the purposeful regulation of process of hardening inter-polymeric composite materials with disperse fillers of a various nature and contents is established. The properties of such composite materials are determined by amount of entered components, both their distribution and chemical nature of a filler, that allows to increase stability properties in 2.5-3 times. By using phenomenological analysis of the contact phenomena the differential equations are made which are used for the analysis of VAC sandwich-structures metal-IC-metal. In a range of voltage V=0 -1 -10 2 V the experimental VAC are described by dependences close to Ohmic J∼V n , n=1. It is shown that the presence of breaks σ=f(T) at temperature ∼ 300 K specifies on ionic character of conductivity of samples. The chemical resistance of inter-polymeric composites in relation to water, to a solution of NaCl and 'to aggressive environment' is comprehensively characterized. The optimum degree of filling of the fillers Cv=2-3 is determined at a specific surface of fillers 0.2-0.3 m 2 /g

  4. Reference material certification of chinese cabbage composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupakhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. The reference material of composition with the established metrological characteristics including a certified value and an expanded uncertainty is necessary to ensure an effective accuracy and precision control of results of element composition determination in food ingredients and products. This paper represents the development of a reference material of food crop composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Methods. To identify the selenium the hybrid atomic absorption method was used, to identify the nitrogen and phosphorus the photometric method was used, to determine the potassium flame-photometric method was used. When determining the metrological characteristics of the reference material the Russian national instructions and recommendations MI 3174-2009 and P 50.2.058-2007 were applied. Results. Based on the research findings the reference material of Chinese cabbage composition with a certified value and an expanded uncertainty was developed: for selenium 0.044 ± 0.017 mg/kg; for nitrogen 4.09 ± 0.27 %; for phosphorus 0.69 ± 0.14 %; for potassium 2.87 ± 0.22 %.

  5. Mechanical and microstructure of reinforced hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate nano-composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheri, Hanan H.; Mohamed, Khaled R.; El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano sized of HA and CS powders were prepared. ► Mechanical of HACS composites enhanced with content of CS. ► The apatite formation onto the composites is proved. -- Abstract: In this study, the nano sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium silicate (CS) powders prepared by both chemical precipitation and sol–gel methods respectively. Biphasic nano-composites materials containing different ratios of HA and CS were fabricated and assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared reflectance (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of variation of ratios between HA and CS on mechanical properties, microstructure and in vitro study was studied. The results proved that the mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing the CS ratio in the composite. In vitro study proved the formation and nucleation of apatite onto composites surfaces which contain low content of CS after one week of immersion. Finally, it is concluded that the HACS composites containing high HA content at the expense of CS content will be promising for bone substitute’s applications, especially in load bearing sites.

  6. Chemical and phase composition of powders obtained by electroerosion dispersion from alloys WC-Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    A consideration is given to the dependence of chemical and phase compositions of dispersed powders on the conditions, the medium of electroerosion dispersing and the content of cobalt in an initial alloy. It is shown that dissociation of carbon from tungsten carbide proceeds even on dispersing in liquid hydrocarbon-containing media (kerosene and machine oil). The phase composition is determined to a large extent by a medium of dispersing and a cobalt content in the initial alloy. In all powders complex tungsten-cobalt carbides and even Co 7 W 6 intermetallic compounds are found [ru

  7. Chemical and Phase Composition of Powders Obtained by Electroerosion Dispersion from WC - Co Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putintseva, M. N.

    2004-03-01

    The dependence of the chemical and phase composition of dispersed powders on the mode and medium of electroerosion dispersion and the content of cobalt in the initial alloy is considered. It is shown that the dissociation of carbon from tungsten carbide occurs even in dispersion in liquid hydrocarbon-bearing media (kerosene and industrial oils). The phase composition is primarily determined by the dispersion medium and the content of cobalt in the initial alloy. Compound tungsten-cobalt carbides and even a Co7W6 intermetallic are determined in all the powders.

  8. Metal Matrix Composite Material by Direct Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Marants, A.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, P. H.; Smurov, I.

    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a laser cladding process for producing a protective coating on the surface of a metallic part or manufacturing layer-by-layer parts in a single-step process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility to create carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite objects. Powders of steel 16NCD13 with different volume contents of titanium carbide are tested. On the base of statistical analysis, a laser cladding processing map is constructed. Relationships between the different content of titanium carbide in a powder mixture and the material microstructure are found. Mechanism of formation of various precipitated titanium carbides is investigated.

  9. Processing and characterization of composite CuO/CuO/Cu-CGO obtained by a chemical synthesis route in one step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, A.R.O. de; Menezes, A.J.; Souza, G.S.; Lima, C.G.M. de; Souza, G.S.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Macedo, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the processing and characterization of composite CuO / ceria doped with 10 mol% gadolinia (CuO-Ce0,9Gd0,1O1,95) obtained by a chemical synthesis route in one step. It was varied CuO content at 40, 50 and 60% by weight, resulting in resin precursor, which was mixed with the CGO and then heat treated at 350 ° C and subsequently calcined at 1050 deg C. The particulate materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry using powders, it was possible to synthesize and deposit, by serigraphy, films of the anodes of the three compositions CGO electrolyte. The technique of impedance spectroscopy allowed the analysis of the electrical properties of the material, as well as the understanding of their behavior when subjected to different atmospheres of hydrogen and methane. (author)

  10. Chemical compositions of magnetic, stony spherules from deep-sea sediments determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Chemical compositions of magnetic, stony spherules from deep sea sediments were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. High Ir, Au, Ni and Co contents indicate their extraterrestrial origin. The obtained compositions are considerably different from those of chondrites. It can be qualitatively interpreted, however, that cosmic matters having the compositions of chondrites are changed into magnetic, stony spherules by thermal degenerations during their atmospheric entry. (author)

  11. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  12. Determination of the chemical composition, the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the seed of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), the physicochemical properties of the seed oil and the amino acids profiles of the seed protein have been determined. In proximate composition, the crude fat content of 58.41% indicates that the plant seed is an oil seed. Its protein content of ...

  13. Content of Chemical Elements in Wood-Destroying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21 chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Lemešany (Slovakia had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

  14. Multifunctional materials and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Jeon, Ki-Wan

    2017-08-22

    Forming multifunctional materials and composites thereof includes contacting a first material having a plurality of oxygen-containing functional groups with a chalcogenide compound, and initiating a chemical reaction between the first material and the chalcogenide compound, thereby replacing oxygen in some of the oxygen-containing functional groups with chalcogen from the chalcogen-containing compound to yield a second material having chalcogen-containing functional groups and oxygen-containing functional groups. The first material is a carbonaceous material or a macromolecular material. A product including the second material is collected and may be processed further to yield a modified product or a composite.

  15. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

  16. Autonomic composite hydrogels by reactive printing: materials and oscillatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramb, R C; Buskohl, P R; Slone, C; Smith, M L; Vaia, R A

    2014-03-07

    Autonomic materials are those that automatically respond to a change in environmental conditions, such as temperature or chemical composition. While such materials hold incredible potential for a wide range of uses, their implementation is limited by the small number of fully-developed material systems. To broaden the number of available systems, we have developed a post-functionalization technique where a reactive Ru catalyst ink is printed onto a non-responsive polymer substrate. Using a succinimide-amine coupling reaction, patterns are printed onto co-polymer or biomacromolecular films containing primary amine functionality, such as polyacrylamide (PAAm) or poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAAm) copolymerized with poly-N-(3-Aminopropyl)methacrylamide (PAPMAAm). When the films are placed in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) solution medium, the reaction takes place only inside the printed nodes. In comparison to alternative BZ systems, where Ru-containing monomers are copolymerized with base monomers, reactive printing provides facile tuning of a range of hydrogel compositions, as well as enabling the formation of mechanically robust composite monoliths. The autonomic response of the printed nodes is similar for all matrices in the BZ solution concentrations examined, where the period of oscillation decreases in response to increasing sodium bromate or nitric acid concentration. A temperature increase reduces the period of oscillations and temperature gradients are shown to function as pace-makers, dictating the direction of the autonomic response (chemical waves).

  17. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yong-Z; Zhang, Jian-Y; Zhao, Li-H; Ma, Qiu-G; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-25

    This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  18. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  19. Mineralogical, chemical and physical study of potential buffer and backfill materials from ABM. Test Package 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L.

    2011-07-01

    In the ABM experiment, three test packages with centre steel heaters surrounded by stacks of compacted bentonite rings of various clay materials were placed in boreholes in Aespoe tunnel. The first parcel was saturated with Aespoe groundwater and the heater was turned on simultaneously with the start of saturation. This parcel was excavated 30 months after its installation. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the MX-80, Dep-CaN, Asha and Friedland clay samples from the ABM parcel 1 were analysed and compared to reference samples. Chemical analyses (ICP-AES, C, CO 3 , S, water soluble SO 4 , Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ), exchangeable cation analyses, mineralogical analyses (XRD, FTIR) and selective extractions were used to determine changes in the chemistry and mineralogy of ABM materials. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed both for extracted samples and for ground and recompacted samples. Major changes in exchangeable cation composition were observed in all samples originating from equilibration with Aespoe groundwater and interactions with equilibrated waters from neighbouring block materials. Some minor changes in chemical composition were observed as well. Increases in soluble sulphate content in the vicinity of the heater were thought to result from precipitation of sulphate salts. Decreases in sodium content and increases in calcium content were ascribed to changes in exchangeable cations. Interaction with iron was observed to occur only in the close vicinity (first few mm) of the heater. No significantly measureable change in mineralogical composition was seen in any of the studied materials. Extracted Dep-CaN samples showed a slight decrease in swelling pressure. However, when the material was ground, compacted and measured again the swelling pressure was fully recovered. No related change in hydraulic conductivities was observed. (orig.)

  20. Composite phase change materials prepared by encapsuling paraffin in PVC macrocapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yingbo; Zhang, Shifeng; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Yusheng; Zhang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PVC macrocapsules coated with SiO 2 were synthesized. • Paraffin was encapsuled in the capsules. • The composite PCM has high heat capacity. • The composite PCM has no surpercooling. - Abstract: A novel phase change material capsules with SiO 2 in their surface was prepared by absorbing paraffin into PVC hollow capsules and by the polycondensation reaction of TEOS in different conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine chemical composition and microstructure of the composite capsules, respectively. Enthalpy capacity and thermal stability of the composite capsules are systematically characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and thermocycling tests. The composite has high heat capacity with good stability and absence of supercooling phenomena

  1. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  2. Characterization of SiC based composite materials by the infiltration of ultra-fine SiC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.; Lee, S.P.; Byun, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication route of SiC materials by the complex compound of ultra-fine SiC particles and oxide additive materials has been investigated. Especially, the effect of additive composition ratio on the characterization of SiC materials has been examined. The characterization of C/SiC composites reinforced with plain woven carbon fabrics was also investigated. The fiber preform for C/SiC composites was prepared by the infiltration of complex mixture into the carbon fabric structure. SiC based composite materials were fabricated by a pressure assisted liquid phase sintering process. SiC materials possessed a good density higher than about 3.0 Mg/m 3 , accompanying the creation of secondary phase by the chemical reaction of additive materials. C/SiC composites also represented a dense morphology in the intra-fiber bundle region, even if this material had a sintered density lower than that of monolithic SiC materials. The flexural strength of SiC materials was greatly affected by the composition ratio of additive materials.

  3. Chemical composition determination of Bohunice 1 and 2 RPVs and hardness measurements of RPVs material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupca, L.; Brezina, M.; Beno, P.; Kniz, I.

    1994-01-01

    The base informations of all activities concerning the material properties recovery performed before and after annealing procedure on the first two units V-230 type in NPP V-1, are the topic of this paper. The samples of weld and base metal from both RPVs NPP V-1 were prepared by special apparatus in the very narrow gap between the outside surface of the RPV and the reactor thermal shielding in the reactor cavity, from the critical circumferential weld joint no.4. The chemical composition of the samples was analyzed in Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute (VUJE) laboratories. Except these results achieved from the analysis of the irradiated samples are presented the evaluation results of the chemical composition influence on the RPVs materials brittle fracture temperatures. All these results which served as input data for the irradiation embrittlement recovery evaluation of the both RPV NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice, are presented in the form of the trend curves for both RPVs. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  4. 226Ra and 228Ra in scale and sludge samples and their correlation with the chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, José Marcus; da Cruz, Rosana Petinatti

    2003-01-01

    In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the Brazilian petroleum industry, the present work presents the chemical composition and the (226)Ra and (228)Ra content of sludge and scales generated during the offshore E and P petroleum activities in the Campos Basin, the primary offshore oil production region in Brazil. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra content on 36 sludge and scales samples were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Based on X-ray diffractometry results, a chemical analysis schema for these samples was developed. The results have shown that scales are 75% barium and strontium sulfates, with a mean (226)Ra and (228)Ra content of 106 kBq kg(-1) and 78 kBq kg(-1), respectively. On the other hand, sludge samples have a much more complex chemical composition than the scales. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra content in sludge also varies much more than the content observed in the scales samples and ranged from 0.36 to 367 kBq kg(-1) and 0.25 to 343 kBq kg(-1), respectively.

  5. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich, E-mail: komkrich28@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93210 Thailand (Thailand); Pinitsoontorn, Supree [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 Thailand (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content. - Highlights: • We prepared nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloys by a novel chemical reduction process. • Elemental compositions could be well controlled by the molar ratio of metal sources. • Particle size and magnetic properties clearly depended on the Ni contents. • Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 10}Ni{sub 40} exhibited high saturation magnetization of 126.3 emu/g.

  6. Determination of chemical composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of xylanthemum macropodum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiullah, A.; Tareen, R.B.; Khan, N.; Akber, A.; Ali, I.; Khan, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of the phytochemistry, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the endemic plant of northern Balochistan Xylanthemum Macropodum of the Asteraceae family, is reported for the first time in this document. Chemical composition of Xylanthemum Macropodum was determined using well-established chemical tests and modern spectroscopic techniques. Extracts were taken from the whole plant using methanol and the extracts were tested for phytochemicals (secondary metabolites), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The phytochemical (biochemical) examination of Xylanthemum Macropodum exposed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, coumarins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, and quinines. TPC of crude methanolic extract (CME) of plant was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. The TPC determined was 256mg of tannic acid Eq/g of extract. Antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically using the DPPH assay and Ferric ion (Fe/sup +3/) reducing antioxidant power assay. The potency of the DPPH assay of Xylanthemum Macropodum extract was 68% for the 0.10 mg/ml concentration and the FRAP value of the extract was 3.368 mmol Fe/sup +2//g of extract. Xylanthemum Macropodum has proved to be very rich in secondary metabolites, natural phenolics and has a very potent antioxidant activity. (author)

  7. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  8. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm-1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m-1 K-2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  9. Bioactive carbon-PEEK composites prepared by chemical surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Matsunami, Chisato; Shirosaki, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much attention as an artificial intervertebral spacer for spinal reconstruction. Furthermore, PEEK plastic reinforced with carbon fiber has twice the bending strength of pure PEEK. However, the PEEK-based materials do not show ability for direct bone bonding, i.e., bioactivity. Although several trials have been conducted for enabling PEEK with bioactivity, few studies have reported on bioactive surface modification of carbon-PEEK composites. In the present study, we attempted the preparation of bioactive carbon-PEEK composites by chemical treatments with H 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 . Bioactivity was evaluated by in vitro apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite formation on the carbon-PEEK composite was compared with that of pure PEEK. Both pure PEEK and carbon-PEEK composite formed the apatite in SBF when they were treated with H 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 ; the latter showed higher apatite-forming ability than the former. It is conjectured that many functional groups able to induce the apatite nucleation, such as sulfo and carboxyl groups, are incorporated into the dispersed carbon phase in the carbon-PEEK composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  11. Characterization of Wood-Plastic Composites Made with Different Lignocellulosic Materials that Vary in Their Morphology, Chemical Composition and Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Chang Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four kinds of lignocellulosic fibers (LFs, namely, those from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, Taiwan red pine (Pinus taiwanensis, India-charcoal trema (Trema orientalis and makino bamboo (Phyllostachys makinoi, were selected as reinforcements and incorporated into high-density polyethylene (HDPE to manufacture wood-plastic composites (WPCs by a flat platen pressing process. In addition to comparing the differences in the physico-mechanical properties of these composites, their chemical compositions were evaluated and their thermal decomposition kinetics were analyzed to investigate the effects of the lignocellulosic species on the properties of the WPCs. The results showed that the WPC made with Chinese fir displayed a typical M-shaped vertical density profile due to the high aspect ratio of its LFs, while a flat vertical density profile was observed for the WPCs made with other LFs. Thus, the WPC made with Chinese fir exhibited higher flexural properties and lower internal bond strength (IB than other WPCs. In addition, the Taiwan red pine contained the lowest holocellulose content and the highest extractives and α-cellulose contents, which gave the resulting WPC lower water absorption and flexural properties. On the other hand, consistent with the flexural properties, the results of thermal decomposition kinetic analysis showed that the activation energy of the LFs at 10% of the conversion rate increased in the order of Taiwan red pine (146–161 kJ/mol, makino bamboo (158–175 kJ/mol, India-charcoal trema (185–194 kJ/mol and Chinese fir (194–202 kJ/mol. These results indicate that the morphology, chemical composition and thermal stability of the LFs can have a substantial impact on the physico-mechanical properties of the resulting WPCs.

  12. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.C.G. [Federal University of Sergipe, Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program P" 2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Pedrosa, A.M.Garrido [Federal University of Sergipe, Departament of Chemistry (DQI), São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Souza, M.J.B., E-mail: mjbsufs@gmail.com [Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ), Av. Marechal Rondon S/N, 49100-000, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Cecilia, J.A.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E. [University of Málaga, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Faculty of Sciences, 29071, Málaga (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO{sub 2} capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO{sub 2} and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity.

  13. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Federal University of Sergipe, Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program P2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil))" >Santos, S.C.G.; Pedrosa, A.M.Garrido; Souza, M.J.B.; Cecilia, J.A.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO 2 capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO 2 capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO 2 and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity

  14. Effects of intra- and inter-laminar resin content on the mechanical properties of toughened composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Dodd H.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1991-01-01

    Composite materials having multiphase toughened matrix systems and laminate architectures characterized by resin-rich interlaminar layers (RIL) have been the subject of much recent attention. Such materials are likely to find applications in thick compressively loaded structures such as the keel area of commercial aircraft fuselages. The effects of resin content and its interlaminar and intralaminar distribution on mechanical properties were investigated with test and analysis of two carbon-epoxy systems. The RIL was found to reduce the in situ strengthening effect for matrix cracking in laminates. Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to increase with increasing RIL thickness over the range investigated, and Mode 1 interlaminar toughness was negligibly affected. Compressive failure strains were found to increase with increasing resin content for specimens having no damage, holes, and impact damage. Analytical tools for predicting matrix cracking of off-axis plies and damage tolerance in compression after impact (CAI) were successfully applied to materials with RIL.

  15. SiC-Based Composite Materials Obtained by Siliconizing Carbon Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunov, S. L.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a method for fabrication of parts of complicated configuration from composite materials based on SiC ceramics, which employs the interaction of silicon melt with the carbon matrix having a certain composition and porosity. For elevating the operating temperatures of ceramic components, we have developed a method for depositing protective silicon-carbide coatings that is based on the interaction of the silicon melt and vapor with carbon obtained during thermal splitting of hydrocarbon molecules. The new structural ceramics are characterized by higher operating temperatures; chemical stability; mechanical strength; thermal shock, wear and radiation resistance; and parameters stability.

  16. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  18. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae; Park, Hee Sang

    2017-01-01

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method

  19. Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluoresence mapping of enamel and dental materials after chemical erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sídnei; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-10-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was employed to test the hypothesis that beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization will change the chemical properties of dental materials and enamel mineral content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 45) each received two cavity preparations (n = 90), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin; GIC: glass-ionomer cement; RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: saliva; E: erosion/Pepsi Twist®; or EM: erosion+mouthwash/Colgate Plax®). It was found that mineral loss in enamel was greater in GICE samples than in RE > RMGICE > RMGICEM > REM > GICEM. An increased percentage of Zr was found in REM indicating organic matrix degradation. Dental materials tested (R, GIC, and RMGIC) were not able to protect adjacent enamel from acid erosion by the soft drink tested. The use of mouthwash promoted protection of enamel after erosion by the soft drink. To avoid chemical dissolution by mouthwashes, protection by resin composites with surface sealants is recommended.

  20. Study on the chemical composition features of Longquan celadon excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province by EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Song-Lin; Feng, Xiang-Qian; Xu, Qing; Yan, Ling-Tong; Ma, Bo; Huo, Hua

    2011-07-01

    A mass of Longquan celadon shards were excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province, China. These celadon shards were fired during the period of the Late Yuan Dynasty to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty, as identified by archaeologists at Nanjing Museum. In order to research the chemical composition features of this ancient celadon porcelain, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for non-destructive analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the porcelain body and glaze in these shards. The results indicate that Ti and Fe in the body of Longquan celadon are characteristic elements which can distinguish porcelain produced during the Late Yuan Dynasty from those produced in the Ming Dynasties. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) show that different body and glaze raw materials were used for the production of porcelain in different periods and the raw materials of the body and glaze are also different for various vessel shapes. The chemical compositions in the porcelain body of civilian ware are slightly different. The imperial and civilian Longquan celadon porcelains produced during the Hongwu era to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty are distinguishable by the MnO, Fe2O3, Rb2O and SrO content in their porcelain glaze.

  1. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  2. Chemical composition of material fractions in Danish household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    batches of 80-1200 tonnes of unsorted household waste was incinerated and the content of the waste determined from the content of the outputs from the incinerator. The indirect method is believed to better represent the small but highly contaminated material fractions (e,g., batteries) than the direct...... like paper, cardboard anti organic fractions. The single fraction contributing most to the total energy content is the non-recyclable plastic fraction, contributing 21% of the energy content and 60% of the chlorine content, although this fraction comprises less than 7% by weight. Heavy metals originate...... mainly from inert fractions, primarily batteries....

  3. Composite material and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Samuels, William D.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2004-04-20

    The composite material and methods of making the present invention rely upon a fully dense monolayer of molecules attached to an oxygenated surface at one end, and an organic terminal group at the other end, which is in turn bonded to a polymer. Thus, the composite material is a second material chemically bonded to a polymer with fully dense monolayer there between.

  4. Compositional characterisation of rare earth magnet materials by glow discharge quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.A.; Shekhar, R.; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, glow discharge quadrupole mass spectrometric (GD-QMS) studies on Sm-Pr-Co compound magnetic materials are reported. The composition of these magnetic materials produced from different manufacturing routes (imported, indigenous) was determined. The results are compared with the results obtained by an alternative analytic technique, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), after complete dissolution of the material in the appropriate acids. For perfectly homogeneous material both the wet chemical method and direct solid analysis method should give the same result. A close examination of both the results indicates that for imported materials the values obtained by wet chemical method and direct solid method are in close agreement. This indicates that the imported (solid) material is highly homogeneous. For indigenous materials, it shows a large difference in the values of Co and Sm. This reveals that the solid material prepared is not as homogenous as the imported materials

  5. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of various bentonite and smectite-rich clay materials Part A: Comparison and development of mineralogical characterization methods Part B: Mineralogical and chemical characterization of clay materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L.

    2010-06-01

    Mineralogy is an essential issue in understanding thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) behavior of bentonite materials. Mineralogy affects, among others, chemical composition of pore water, susceptibility for erosion, and transport of radionuclides. Consequently, mineralogy affects the designs of the buffer and backfill components. The objective of this work was to implement and develop mineralogical and chemical methods for characterization of reference clays considered for use as buffer and backfill materials in nuclear waste disposal. In this work, different methods were tested, compared, developed, and best available techniques selected. An additional aim was to characterize reference materials that are used in various nuclear waste disposal supporting studies, e.g., the SKB's alternative buffer material (ABM) experiment. Materials studied included three Wyoming-bentonites, two bentonites from Milos, four bentonites from Kutch district, and two Friedland clays. Minerals were identified using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and polarizing microscopy. Mineralogical composition was estimated using Rietveld-analysis. Chemical methods were used to support and validate mineralogical interpretation. Total chemical composition was determined from decomposed samples using spectrometry (ICP-AES) and combustion (Leco-S, Leco-C). Ferric and ferrous iron species were distinguished titrimetrically and the amount of soluble sulphate was determined using ion chromatography. In addition, cation exchange capacity and original exchangeable cations were determined. Chemical composition of fine (<2 μ m) fractions and poorly crystalline Fe-, Al- and Si-phases determined by selective extractions were used in structural calculations of smectite. XRD is a basic method for all mineralogical characterization, but it is insensitive for detecting trace minerals and variations in the structural chemical composition of clay minerals. Polarizing

  6. Controlled optical properties via chemical composition tuning in molybdenum-incorporated β-Ga2O3 nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Anil K.; Manandhar, S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ramana, C. V.

    2017-09-01

    An approach is presented to design refractory-metal incorporated Ga2O3-based materials with controlled structural and optical properties. The molybdenum (Mo)-content in Ga2O3 was varied from 0 to 11 at% in the sputter-deposited Ga-Mo-O films. Molybdenum was found to significantly affect the structure and optical properties. While low Mo-content (≤4 at%) results in the formation of single-phase (β-Ga2O3), higher Mo-content results in amorphization. Chemically-induced band gap variability (Eg ∼ 1 eV) coupled with structure-modification indicates the electronic-structure changes in Ga-Mo-O. The linear relationship between chemical-composition and optical properties suggests that tailoring the optical-quality and performance of Ga-Mo-O films is possible by tuning the Mo-content.

  7. Chemical composition, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of pigeon meat as influenced by meat-type breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomianowski, J F; Mikulski, D; Pudyszak, K; Cooper, R G; Angowski, M; Józwik, A; Horbanczuk, J O

    2009-06-01

    Two muscles, breast and thigh, were excised from 3 pigeon meat-type breeds (Europigeon, Wrocławski, King) and were analyzed for proximate analysis, cholesterol content, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Among the breeds considered, the lowest protein content of breast muscle was found in Kings (21.73%), whereas the highest fat (7.07%) and ash (1.11%) content of breast muscle (P pigeons. The cholesterol content of both muscles was lowest in Europigeon (23.6 to 25.2 mg/100 g of tissue) as compared with the King and Wrocławski pigeons (30.2 to 44.4 mg/100 g of tissue). The total content of polyunsaturated FA was lower in thigh than in breast muscles (by 4.5 to 12%, depending on the breed). As far as FA composition is concerned, pigeon meat resembles meat types of poultry species. However, due to low cholesterol and a fairly high protein content, pigeon meat can be used as a valuable inclusive component of the human diet.

  8. Composites as structural materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megusar, J.

    1989-01-01

    In fusion reactors, materials are used under extreme conditions of temperature, stress, irradiation, and chemical environment. The absence of adequate materials will seriously impede the development of fusion reactors and might ultimately be one of the major difficulties. Some of the current materials problems can be solved by proper design features. For others, the solution will have to rely on materials development. A parallel and balanced effort between the research in plasma physics and fusion-related technology and in materials research is, therefore, the best strategy to ultimately achieve economic, safe, and environmentally acceptable fusion. The essential steps in developing composites for structural components of fusion reactors include optimization of mechanical properties followed by testing under fusion-reactor-relevant conditions. In optimizing the mechanical behavior of composite materials, a wealth of experience can be drawn from the research on ceramic matrix and metal matrix composite materials sponsored by the Department of Defense. The particular aspects of this research relevant to fusion materials development are methodology of the composite materials design and studies of new processing routes to develop composite materials with specific properties. Most notable examples are the synthesis of fibers, coatings, and ceramic materials in their final shapes form polymeric precursors and the infiltration of fibrous preforms by molten metals

  9. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly degreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  10. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykter, M.; Kymalainen, H.R.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pectinase enzyme treatment followed by thermal treatments (steam explosion and dry heating) on the microbial quality and chemical composition of hemp fibres. Before these treatments, the fibres were separated manually from the stems...... materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 degrees C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content...... increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Investigations of chemical reactions between U-Zr alloy and FBR cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2005-07-01

    U-Pu-Zr alloys are candidate materials for commercial FBR fuel. However, informations about chemical reactions with cladding materials developed by JNC for commercial FBR have not been well obtained. In this work, the reaction zones formed in four diffusion couples U-10wt.%Zr/PNC-FMS, U-10wt.%Zr/9Cr-ODS, U-10wt.%Zr/12Cr-ODS, and U-10wt.%Zr/Fe at about 1013K have been examined and following results were obtained. 1) At about 1013K, in the U-10wt.%Zr/Fe couple, the liquid phase zones were obtained. In the other couples U-10wt.%Zr/PNC-FMS, U-10wt.%Zr/9Cr-ODS and U-10wt.%Zr/12Cr-ODS, no liquid phase zones were obtained. The obtained chemical reaction zones in the later 3 couples were similar to the reported ones obtained in U-Zr/Fe couples without liquid phase formation. In comparison with the reaction zones obtained in the U-10wt.%Zr/Fe couple, the reaction zones inside cladding materials obtained in the PNC-FMS, 9Cr-ODS, and 12Cr-ODS couples were thin. 2) From the investigations of relationship between the obtained depths of the chemical reaction zones inside cladding materials and composition of the cladding materials, it was considered that the depth of chemical reaction zone would depend on the Cr content of the cladding materials and the depth would decrease with increasing Cr content, resulting in prevention of liquid phase formation. 3) From the investigations of the mechanisms of chemical reactions between U-Pu-Zr/cladding materials, it was considered that the same effect of Cr obtained in the U-Zr/cladding materials would be expected in U-Pu-Zr/cladding materials. Those seemed to indicate that the threshold temperatures of liquid phase formation for U-Pu-Zr/PNC-FMS, U-Pu-Zr/9Cr-ODS, and U-Pu-Zr/12Cr-ODS might be higher than that for U-Pu-Zr/Fe. (author)

  12. Preparation of functional composite materials based on chemically derived graphene using solution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M; Hyun, W J; Mun, S C; Park, O O

    2015-01-01

    Chemically derived graphenes were assembled into functional composite materials using solution process from stable solvent dispersion. We have developed foldable electronic circuits on paper substrates using vacuum filtration of graphene nanoplates dispersion and a selective transfer process without need for special equipment. The electronic circuits on paper substrates revealed only a small change in conductance under various folding angles and maintained an electronic path after repetitive folding and unfolding. We also prepared flexible. binder-free graphene paper-like materials by addition of graphene oxide as a film stabilizer. This graphene papers showed outstanding electrical conductivity up to 26,000 S/m and high charge capacity as an anode in lithium-ion battery without any post-treatments. For last case, multi-functional thin film structures of graphene nanoplates were fabricated by using layer-by-layer assembly technique, showing optical transparency, electrical conductivity and enhanced gas barrier property. (paper)

  13. Chemical behavior of lanthanides-tungsten composite materials used in thermo-emissive cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoret, K.; Cachard, J. de; Martinez, L.; Millot, F.; Hennet, L.; Douy, A.; Licheron, M.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents the crystallography and chemistry of new lanthanides-tungsten composite materials developed to manufacture thermionic cathodes for power grid tubes, based on the same principle than thorium-free cathodes. By mean of x-Ray diffraction at high temperature and under vacuum with synchrotron radiation facilities, we followed in real time the different phases and phase transitions that can occur during the heating process and the carburization at 1550 o C of such tungstates deposits on thin tungsten ribbons. Melting points for composition between 9 La 2 O 3 - 1 WO 3 and 2 La 2 O 3 - 9 WO 3 were specified under the pressure of 1x10 -6 mbar. After interpretation of x-ray diffraction results, phase diagram of n La 2 O 3 - m WO 3 system under vacuum in equilibrium with metallic tungsten have been deduced. Moreover we underline by these works the fact that using a lanthanum-rich tungstate involves better stability and chemical homogeneity of the cathodes surfaces with temperature. (author)

  14. Experimental Study on Impact-Induced Reaction Characteristics of PTFE/Ti Composites Enhanced by W Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal/fluoropolymer composites are a category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under highly dynamic loadings. In this paper, the chemical reaction mechanism of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene/Ti/W composites is investigated through thermal analysis and composition analysis. These composites undergo exothermic reactions at 510 °C to 600 °C, mainly producing TiFx. The tungsten significantly reduces the reaction heat due to its inertness. In addition, the dynamic compression properties and impact-induced reaction behaviors of PTFE/Ti/W composites with different W content prepared by pressing and sintering are studied using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and high speed photography. The results show that both the mechanical strength and the reaction degree are significantly improved with the increasing strain rate. Moreover, as W content increases, the mechanical strength is enhanced, but the elasticity/plasticity is decreased. The PTFE/Ti/W composites tend to become more inert with the increasing W content, which is reflected by the reduced reaction degree and the increased reaction threshold for the impact ignition.

  15. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  16. Beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Comparative Chemical Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia BOBIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beebread is a valuable bee product, both for bee nutrition and for humans. The high nutritional and bioactive properties of beebread were evaluated by chemical composition analysis of beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Bee bread harvested from Romania and India, coming from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata bees, were evaluated for their chemical composition. Analyses were made in APHIS Laboratory from USAMV Cluj, using validated methods for bee products. Lipids were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method, total protein content was determined by Kjehldahl method, sugar spectrum was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-IR. Water content of beebread samples were situated between 11.45 and 16.46%, total protein content between 16.84 and 19.19% and total lipids between 6.36 and 13.47%.  Beebread has high bioactive properties which can be expressed as antioxidant and/or antibacterial activity. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of beebread is influenced by floral origin of the pollen which the bees collect and place in combs for fermentation. Also the climatic conditions have an important role in developing different fermentation compounds, that may act as antioxidants or antibacterial agents.

  17. Flame-Resistant Composite Materials For Structural Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-fiber composite materials developed for structural members occasionally exposed to hot, corrosive gases. Integral ceramic fabric surface layer essential for resistance to flames and chemicals. Endures high temperature, impedes flame from penetrating to interior, inhibits diffusion of oxygen to interior where it degrades matrix resin, resists attack by chemicals, helps resist erosion, and provides additional strength. In original intended application, composite members replace steel structural members of rocket-launching structures that deteriorate under combined influences of atmosphere, spilled propellants, and rocket exhaust. Composites also attractive for other applications in which corrosion- and fire-resistant structural members needed.

  18. Comparison of chemical composition of materials used in dental restorations 08 years after the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio; Santos, Adimir dos; Fernandes, Marco A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on the materials commonly used in dental restorations (amalgam, composite resin and Compomer), to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, observed when the teeth are restored within the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to the beam of radiation from a source of cobalt-therapy, and analyzed by a X-ray fluorescence technique, by comparing the chemical composition of samples before and after irradiation. Gamma spectrometry was performed with detector of NaI and HPGe in the same samples. Then, the samples were kept in an appropriate place and after 08 years is repeated the same analysis. With these tests, it was possible to verify small changes in the composition of bodies of evidence due to the interaction 08 years after exposure to gamma radiation beams, simulating a patient who develops deleterious effects of radiation after the end radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  19. Comparison of chemical composition of materials used in dental restorations 08 years after the irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio; Santos, Adimir dos, E-mail: mfmaio@ipen.b, E-mail: asantos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marcosrf@salesiano-ata.b [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on the materials commonly used in dental restorations (amalgam, composite resin and Compomer), to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, observed when the teeth are restored within the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to the beam of radiation from a source of cobalt-therapy, and analyzed by a X-ray fluorescence technique, by comparing the chemical composition of samples before and after irradiation. Gamma spectrometry was performed with detector of NaI and HPGe in the same samples. Then, the samples were kept in an appropriate place and after 08 years is repeated the same analysis. With these tests, it was possible to verify small changes in the composition of bodies of evidence due to the interaction 08 years after exposure to gamma radiation beams, simulating a patient who develops deleterious effects of radiation after the end radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  20. Estimates of diet selection in cattle grazing cornstalk residues by measurement of chemical composition and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy of diet samples collected by ruminal evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Emily A; Smart, Alexander J; St-Pierre, Benoit; Selman, Susan L; Bailey, Eric A; Beck, Erin E; Walker, Julie A; Wright, Cody L; Held, Jeffrey E; Brake, Derek W

    2018-05-04

    Six ruminally cannulated cows (570 ± 73 kg) fed corn residues were placed in a 6 × 6 Latin square to evaluate predictions of diet composition from ruminally collected diet samples. After complete ruminal evacuation, cows were fed 1-kg meals (dry matter [DM]-basis) containing different combinations of cornstalk and leaf and husk (LH) residues in ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and 100:0. Diet samples from each meal were collected by removal of ruminal contents after 1-h and were either unrinsed, hand-rinsed or machine-rinsed to evaluate effects of endogenous compounds on predictions of diet composition. Diet samples were analyzed for neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), acid detergent lignin (ADL), crude protein (CP), and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate diet composition. Rinsing type increased NDF and ADF content and decreased ADIA and CP content of diet samples (P content of diet samples. Differences in concentration between cornstalk and LH residues within each chemical component were standardized by calculating a coefficient of variation (CV). Accuracy and precision of estimates of diet composition were analyzed by regressing predicted diet composition and known diet composition. Predictions of diet composition were improved by increasing differences in concentration of chemical components between cornstalk and LH residues up to a CV of 22.6 ± 5.4%. Predictions of diet composition from unrinsed ADIA and machine-rinsed NIRS had the greatest accuracy (slope = 0.98 and 0.95, respectively) and large coefficients of determination (r2 = 0.86 and 0.74, respectively). Subsequently, a field study (Exp. 2) was performed to evaluate predictions of diet composition in cattle (646 ± 89 kg) grazing corn residue. Five cows were placed in 1 of 10 paddocks and allowed to graze continuously or to strip-graze corn residues. Predictions of diet composition from ADIA, ADL, and NIRS did not

  1. 210Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ('black-powder') and its correlation with the chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Jose Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the 210 Pb content in 'black-powder' found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with 210 Pb concentration evaluated. Typical 'black-powder' generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide (∼81%) and residual organic matter (∼9%). The 210 Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04 kBq kg -1 and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, 226 Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. 228 Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest 226 Ra content

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for the determination of the chemical composition of complex inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarek, Łukasz; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Wójcik, Michał R.; Kozioł, Paweł E.; Stepak, Bogusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a fast, fully optical method, that needs little or no sample preparation. In this technique qualitative and quantitative analysis is based on comparison. The determination of composition is generally based on the construction of a calibration curve namely the LIBS signal versus the concentration of the analyte. Typically, to calibrate the system, certified reference materials with known elemental composition are used. Nevertheless, such samples due to differences in the overall composition with respect to the used complex inorganic materials can influence significantly on the accuracy. There are also some intermediate factors which can cause imprecision in measurements, such as optical absorption, surface structure, thermal conductivity etc. This paper presents the calibration procedure performed with especially prepared pellets from the tested materials, which composition was previously defined. We also proposed methods of post-processing which allowed for mitigation of the matrix effects and for a reliable and accurate analysis. This technique was implemented for determination of trace elements in industrial copper concentrates standardized by conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy with a flame atomizer. A series of copper flotation concentrate samples was analyzed for contents of three elements, that is silver, cobalt and vanadium. It has been shown that the described technique can be used to qualitative and quantitative analyses of complex inorganic materials, such as copper flotation concentrates.

  3. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO2/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Karima; Hbaieb, Souhaira; Amdouni, Noureddine; Kalfat, Rafik; Chevalier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO 2 and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO 2 particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO 2 particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO 2 content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO 2 blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO 2 when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co 3 O 4 formed by chemical decomposition of Li x CoO 2 . Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO 2 was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO 2 into Co 3 O 4

  4. On the possibility of high-dispersed composite material obtaining in impulsive high-enthalpy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Brodyagin, A.G.; Ivanov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic possibility for the formation of TiC-Mo composite dispersed material in 1200-2800 K temperature interval and effect of H/Cl, C/Ti relation on the composite material composition are demonstrated. Investigation into the plasmo-chemical process of producing high-dispersed composite material in the pulsed regime has pointed out to a possibility of the product chemical composition regulation by changing the energy, flow-rate parameters and by conditions of component introduction into the plasmochemical reactor. Molybdenum-carbide composition powders produced are characterized by the particle size of ∼ 10 nm and high Mo and TiC distribution steadyness which allows one to exclude the stage of a long-term component mixing under the composition production

  5. Fabrication of Cf/SiC composite by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2003-07-01

    This technical report reviewed the fabrication process of fiber reinforced ceramic composites, characteristics of the chemical vapor infiltration process, and applications for C f /SiC composite to develop a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite. Infiltration process was performed by the chemical vapor infiltration process using methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen gas as a source and a diluent, respectively. Infiltration behavior, phase analysis, microstructure observation were carried out. Parameter study results of C f /SiC composite fabricated with some variables such as reaction pressure, reaction temperature, input gas ratio and preform thickness were described

  6. RF electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ferrite polymer composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosoudil, Rastislav; Usakova, Marianna; Franek, Jaroslav; Slama, Jozef; Olah, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The frequency dispersion of complex initial (relative) permeability (μ * =μ ' -jμ ' ') and the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of composite materials based on NiZn sintered ferrite and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix have been studied in frequency range from 1MHz to 1GHz. The complex permeability of the composites was found to increase as the ferrite content increased, and was characterized by frequency dispersion localized above 50MHz. The variation of return loss (RL) of single-layer RF absorbers using the prepared composite materials has been investigated as a function of frequency, ferrite content and the thickness of the absorbers

  7. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [R and D, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method.

  8. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  9. Review on effect of chemical, thermal, additive treatment on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Naman; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Chauhan, Sakshi

    2017-12-01

    Basalt fiber is emerging out the new reinforcing material for composites. To overcome some of the disadvantages of fibers such as poor bonding to polymers, low thermal stability and high moisture absorption fiber characteristics are modified with chemical, thermal and additive treatments. Chemical treatment corrosive resistance to alkali and acid were investigated which were used to clean and modify the surface of fiber for higher bonding with resins. To improve the thermal stability and reduce moisture uptake thermal treatment such as plasma and non thermal plasma were used which increased the surface roughness and change the chemical composition of surface of basalt fiber. Additive treatment is used to improve the mechanical properties of fibers, in basalt fiber additive treatment was done with SiO2 additive because of its chemical composition which contains major content of SiO2. In present investigation review on the effect of different treatment such as chemical, thermal and additive were studied. Effect of these treatment on chemical composition of the surface of basalt fiber and corrosion to acidic and alkali solution were studied with their effect on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composite.

  10. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  11. Porous Silicon–Carbon Composite Materials Engineered by Simultaneous Alkaline Etching for High-Capacity Lithium Storage Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Hyeong-Il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Hansu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A porous Si–C anode is obtained by alkaline etching of a non-porous Si–C composite. • The pores in the carbon frame are created by simultaneous etching of Si and carbon. • The cycle life is greatly improved after the alkaline treatment. • The porous Si–C composite electrode shows high dimensional stability during cycling. - Abstract: Porous silicon–carbon (Si–C) composite materials have attracted a great deal of attention as high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), but their use suffers from the complex and limited synthetic routes for their preparation. Herein we demonstrate a scalable and nontoxic method to synthesize porous Si–C composite materials by means of simultaneous chemical etching of Si and carbon phases using alkaline solution. The resulting porous Si–C composite material showed greatly improved cycle performance, good rate capability, and high dimensional stability during cycling. Porous Si–C electrode showed an expansion of the height by about 22% after the first lithiation and only 16% after the first cycle. The material synthesis concept and scalable simultaneous etching approach presented here represent a means of improving the electrochemical properties of Si-based porous anode materials for use in commercial LIBs.

  12. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA HAUTĂ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  13. Influence of the chemical modification and content of the clay on the mechanical properties of polypropylene and national bentonite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libano, Elaine V.D.G.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The polypropylene/national clay composite was prepared by melt intercalation in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder, using bentonite as filler either in the natural (BENT) form or modified with the ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (BENT-org). The clay was used in 1, 3 and 5%w. The influence of the modification and content of clay on the mechanical properties of this system was analysed. The analyses of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that clay organophilization did occur. The tensile modulus and the tensile strength at the yield point were not affected by chemical modification (BENT and BENT-org) or clay content. On the other hand, it was evidenced that the elongation at the yield point decreased with the addition of BENT and BENT-org to polypropylene. According to the thermogravimetric results, it was evidenced that the incorporation of clay into polypropylene improved thermal stability of the polymer in the composites with 5%w of BENT and 3 and 5%w of BENT-org. (author)

  14. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  15. Biomedical composites materials, manufacturing and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials are engineered materials, made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Due to their special mechanical and physical properties they have the potential to replace conventional materials in various fields such as the biomedical industry.

  16. Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties for both lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food products manufacturing and provide consistency in food processing, analogous to other food legumes. Therefore, the research findings can be used by ...

  17. Chemical composition of silica-based biocidal modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the amount of fungi spores and micotixines causes the increase in the number of different diseases. Because of this, ensuring the biological safety in buildings is becoming more and more important today. The preferred way to guarantee the biological safety of a building is to employ modern building materials that prevent the settlement of the fungi colonies on the inner surfaces of walls. Such building materials can be produced using novel biocidal modifiers that allow controlling the number of microorganisms on the surface and in the bulk of a composite construction. The precipitation product of zinc hydrosilicates and sodium sulfate is one of the mentioned modifiers. Till now, the exact chemical composition of such precipitation product is controversial; it is obvious, though, that the efficacy of the biocidal modifier is mostly determined by the type of the copper compounds. In the present work an integrated approach is used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the biocidal modifier. Such an approach consists in the examination of the modifier’s composition by means of different, yet complementary, research methods: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DTA. It is shown that the chemical composition of the modifier mainly depends on the amount of precipitant. X-ray diffraction reveals that the major part of the modifier is represented by amorphous phase. Along with the increase of the precipitant’s amount the crystalline phase Zn4SO4(OH6•xH2O formation takes place. Such a crystalline phase is not appropriate as a component of the biocidal modifier. Another two methods - DTA and IR spectroscopy - reveal that the amorphous phase consists essentially of zinc hydrosilicates.

  18. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  19. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  20. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  1. Environmental isotopes, chemical composition and groundwater sources in Al-Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; Awad, M.A.; Froehlich, K.; El Behery, M.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater samples collected from a number of localities, in Al-Maghara area, north central part of Sinai, were subject to various chemical and isotopic analysis. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the groundwaters are recently recharged or not in order to adopt an efficient water management policy. The hydrochemical results indicate that they are mainly of primary marine origin, dilution of this water by meteoric water changes its chemical composition to be mixed water type, which has the major chemical components: KCl, NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 and Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 . The tritium content confirm the meteoric water recharge recently especially for wells with high tritium content. The stable environmental isotopic composition of the groundwater reflects the isotopic composition of precipitation and flooding with some evaporation enrichment prior to infiltration. There is also mixing with palaeowater (water recharge in the past cooler climate periods), by leaking through faulting in the area. (orig.) [de

  2. Electrical Conductivity and Chemical Composition of Soil Solution: Comparison of Solution Samplers in Tropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Lopes do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil solution samplers may have the same working principle, but they differ in relation to chemical and physical characteristics, cost and handling, and these aspects exert influence on the chemical composition of the soil solution obtained. This study was carried out to evaluate, over time, the chemical composition of solutions extracted by Suolo Acqua, with the hydrophilic membrane (HM as a standard, using soils with contrasting characteristics, and to determine the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC and concentration of ions and pH of soil solution samples. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions, using three soils samples with different clay and organic matter (OM contents. Soil solution contents of F−, Cl−, NO−3, Br−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were analyzed, as well as inorganic, organic, and total C contents, pH, and EC, in four successive sampling times. Soil solution chemical composition extracted by the Suolo Acqua sampler is similar to that collected by the HM, but the Suolo Acqua extracted more Na+ and soluble organic C than the HM solution. Solution EC, cation and anion concentrations, and soluble C levels are higher in the soil with greater clay and OM contents (Latossolo and Cambissolo in this case. Soil solution composition varied over time, with considerable changes in pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations, especially associated with soil OM. Thus, single and isolated sampling of the soil solution must be avoided, otherwise composition of the soil solution may not be correctly evaluated. Soil solution EC was regulated by pH, as well as the sum of cation and anion concentrations, and the C contents determined in the soil liquid phase.

  3. Time influence in chemical treatment of Brazilian raw materials type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argolo, F.; Dias, C.; Machado, A.; Volzone, C.; Ortiga, J.; Valenzuela Diaz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays are part of raw materials in different industries. The mineralogical composition and purity greatly influence the application thereof. Chemical treatments applied, such as acid attack, modify their properties and thus their possible uses. Taking in to account that, clay minerals, may differ by more or less resistance to chemical attacks, two types of clay were studied with different mineralogical composition to assess the degree of resistance to chemical attack treatment such as acid. Acid treatments that were applied, differ mainly in the contact time between the solid and the liquid. The solids were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical analysis and infrared analysis

  4. Composite materials. From gammas to weight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    A gamma photons backscattering gauge called 'Filbor 2' has been designed by the CEA/DAMRI (Saclay, France) and allows to measure the resin content of fiber wicks (boron, carbon, kevlar, glass..) devoted to the manufacturing of elements made of composite materials. (J.S.)

  5. Flood pulse influence and anthropic impact on the chemical composition and energy content of Oryza glumaepatula in an Amazonian lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enrich-Prast

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the flood pulse influence and the anthropic impact caused by bauxite tailings on the chemical composition of O. glumaepatula in Batata lake (PA, Brazil. Sampling was carried out in stands of O. glumaepatula in the low-water, filling, high-water, and drawdown periods in impacted and natural areas of Batata lake. During the low-water and drawdown periods the stands of O. glumaepatula were exposed, and in the filling and high-water periods the water depth was respectively 1.4 and 3.8 m. The collected material was dried at 70ºC, ground, and concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and energy content were determined. The results indicate that the biomass increase, caused by the rise in water level, has a dilution effect on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in O. glumaepatula. The energy contents did not present significant differences in any of the studied periods. The results suggest that from the low water to filling period, nitrogen becomes more limiting to O. glumaepatula in the impacted area, whereas phosphorus becomes more limiting in the natural area. The population of O. glumaepatula contributes to the recovery of the impacted area of Batata lake as the detritus from this species accumulates over the sediment. This accumulation impedes future re-suspension of the bauxite tailings and increases the organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the impacted sediment.

  6. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.

  7. New generation poly(ε-caprolactone)/gel-derived bioactive glass composites for bone tissue engineering: Part I. Material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Michal; Menaszek, Elzbieta; Zagrajczuk, Barbara; Pawlik, Justyna; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based composite films containing 12 and 21vol.% bioactive glass (SBG) microparticles were prepared by solvent casting method. Two gel-derived SBGs of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system differing in SiO2 and CaO contents were applied (mol%): S2: 80SiO2, 16CaO, 4P2O5 and A2: 40SiO2, 54CaO, 6P2O5. The surfaces of the films in contact with Petri dish and exposed to the gas phase during casting were denoted as GS and AS, respectively. Both surfaces of films were characterised in terms of their morphology, micro- and nano-topography as well as wettability. Also mechanical properties (tensile strength, Young's modulus) and PCL matrix crystallinity (degree of crystallinity, crystal size) were evaluated. Degradation behaviour was examined by incubation of materials in UHQ-water at 37°C for 56weeks. The crystallinity, melting temperature and mass loss of incubated materials and pH changes of water were monitored. Furthermore, proliferation of MG-63 osteoblastic cells by direct contact and cytotoxic effect of obtained materials were investigated. Results showed that opposite surfaces of the same polymer and composite films differ in studied surface parameters. The addition of SBG particles into PCL matrix improves nano- and micro-roughness of both surfaces, enhances the hydrophilicity of GS surfaces (~67° for 21A2-PCL compared to ~78° for pure PCL) and also makes AS surface more hydrophobic (~94° for 21S2-PCL compared to ~86° for pure PCL). The nucleation density of PCL was increased with increasing content of SBG particles, which results in the large number of fine spherulites on composite AS surfaces observed using polarized optical (POM), scanning electron (SEM), and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. Higher content of SBG particles causes a notable increase of Young's modulus (from 0.38GPa for pure PCL, 0.90GPa for 12A2-PCL to 1.31GPa for 21A2-PCL), which also depends on SBG chemical composition. After 56-week degradation test, considerably higher

  8. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  9. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  10. Controlling the Sn-C bonds content in SnO2@CNTs composite to form in situ pulverized structure for enhanced electrochemical kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yayi; Huang, Jianfeng; Qi, Hui; Cao, Liyun; Luo, Xiaomin; Li, Jiayin; Xu, Zhanwei; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-07

    The Sn-C bonding content between the SnO 2 and CNTs interface was controlled by the hydrothermal method and subsequent heat treatment. Electrochemical analysis found that the SnO 2 @CNTs with high Sn-C bonding content exhibited much higher capacity contribution from alloying and conversion reaction compared with the low content of Sn-C bonding even after 200 cycles. The high Sn-C bonding content enabled the SnO 2 nanoparticles to stabilize on the CNTs surface, realizing an in situ pulverization process of SnO 2 . The in situ pulverized structure was beneficial to maintain the close electrochemical contact of the working electrode during the long-term cycling and provide ultrafast transfer paths for lithium ions and electrons, which promoted the alloying and conversion reaction kinetics greatly. Therefore, the SnO 2 @CNTs composite with high Sn-C bonding content displayed highly reversible alloying and conversion reaction. It is believed that the composite could be used as a reference for design chemically bonded metal oxide/carbon composite anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Chemical characterization of nuclear materials: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Amrit; Nandi, C.; Patil, A.B.; Khan, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to stringent chemical specifications like boron, cadmium, rare earths, hydrogen, oxygen to metal ratio, total gas, heavy metal content, chlorine and fluorine etc. Selection of technique is very important to evaluate the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses have to perform inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of advanced analytical techniques being developed and used in chemical characterization of nuclear materials specially fuels during their fabrication. Nuclear fuels comprise of fuels based on UO 2 , PUO 2 , ThO 2 and combination of (U+Pu)O 2 , (Th+U)O 2 , (Th+Pu)O 2 , (U+Pu)C, (U+Pu)N etc depending on the type of reactors chosen Viz. Pressurized Heavy water Reactor (PHWR), Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Fast Breeder Test Reactor and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Chemical characterization of these fuels is very important for performance of fuel in the reactor. It provides means to ascertain that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the chemical specifications for the fuel laid down by the designer. The batches of sintered/degassed pellets are subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. Chemical Quality Control of fuel is carried out at different stages of manufacture namely feed materials, sintering, vacuum degassing and fuel element welding. Advanced analytical technique based on titrimetry, spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, XRF and XRD have largely been used for this purpose. Since they have to be handled inside special enclosures, extreme care are being taken during handling. Instruments are being developed/modified for ease of handling and maintenance. The method should be fast to reduce

  12. Composite Materials: An Educational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

  13. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Engineering of polymers and composite materials. Catalysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning polymer and composite materials technology as well as catalysis in chemical engineering. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  14. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO{sub 2}/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchichi, Karima, E-mail: ferchichikarima1@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Hbaieb, Souhaira, E-mail: souhaira.bouchaira@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Amdouni, Noureddine, E-mail: nouredin.amdouni@fst.rnu.tn [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kalfat, Rafik, E-mail: rafik.kalfat@gmail.com [Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); Chevalier, Yves, E-mail: chevalier@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Génie des Procédés (LAGEP), CNRS UMR 5007, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO{sub 2} and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO{sub 2} particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO{sub 2} particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO{sub 2} content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO{sub 2} blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO{sub 2} when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed by chemical decomposition of Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO{sub 2} was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO{sub 2} into Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  15. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  16. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, L.L.; Bastian, F.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering], e-mail: ledjane@metalmat.ufrj.br; Calado, V.M.A. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexible, steel catenary risers (SCRs) and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. Besides, composite materials present some attractive attributes for the offshore service, such as: high specific strength and stiffness. This paper focuses on the development and characterization of a polymer matrix (epoxy) and of material composite (epoxy/fiber glass), which will be used in a development for composites risers by the filament winding process (wet winding). (author)

  17. Analysis of waste coal from the enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Akst, D. V.; Fomina, O. A.; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of waste coal from mining enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of building ceramics is given. The results of studies of material, chemical and mineralogical compositions of waste coal from Abashevskaya processing plant (Novokuznetsk) are presented. It was established that the chemical composition of waste coal refers to aluminosilicate raw materials with a high content of alumina and coloring oxides, the residual carbon content in the wastes is 12-25 %. According to the granulometric composition the waste coal is basically a sandy-dusty fraction with a small amount of clay particles (1-3 %). Additional grinding of coal waste and the introduction of a clay additive in an amount of up to 30 % are recommended. The results of the study of the mineral composition of waste coal are presented. Clay minerals are represented in the descending order by hydromuscovite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, minerals-impurities consist of quartz, feldspar fine-dispersed carbonates. The results of the investigation of ceramic-technological properties of waste coal, which belong to the group of moderately plastic low-melting raw materials, are given. As a result of a comprehensive study it was been established that with chemical, granulometric and mineralogical compositions waste coal with the reduced residual carbon can be used in the production of ceramic bricks.

  18. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  19. An Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Composites at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhu; Li, Yu-Yu; Lu, Can; Liu, Jian

    2018-05-21

    In this study, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) fiber reinforced composites were made at indoor temperatures. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the CBPC composites were studied. The CBPC matrix of aluminum phosphate binder, metakaolin, and magnesia with different Si/P ratios was prepared. The results show that when the Si/P ratio was 1.2, and magnesia content in the CBPC was 15%, CBPC reached its maximum flexural strength. The fiber reinforced CBPC composites were prepared by mixing short polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers or unidirectional continuous carbon fiber sheets. Flexural strength and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined, and the microstructures of specimens were analyzed by scanning electron micrography, X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray computed tomography. The flexural performance of continuous carbon fiber reinforced CBPC composites was better than that of PVA fiber composites. The elastic modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the fiber composites were measured through dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that fiber reinforced CBPC composites are an inorganic polymer viscoelastic material with excellent damping properties. The reaction of magnesia and phosphate in the matrix of CBPC formed a different mineral, newberyite, which was beneficial to the development of the CBPC.

  20. Apparent Surface Free Energy of Polymer/Paper Composite Material Treated by Air Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Terpiłowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasma treatment consists in changes of surface properties without changing internal properties. In this paper composite polymer/paper material is used for production of packaging in cosmetic industry. There are problems with bonding this material at the time of packaging production due to its properties. Composite surface was treated by air plasma for 1, 10, 20, and 30 s. The advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide, and diiodomethane were measured using both treated and untreated samples. Apparent surface free energy was estimated using the hysteresis (CAH and Van Oss, Good, Chaudhury approaches (LWAB. Surface roughness was investigated using optical profilometry and identification of after plasma treatment emerging chemical groups was made by means of the XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. After plasma treatment the values of contact angles decreased which is particularly evident for polar liquids. Apparent surface free energy increased compared to that of untreated samples. Changes of energy value are due to the electron-donor parameter of energy. This parameter increases as a result of adding polar groups at the time of surface plasma activation. Changes of surface properties are combination of increase of polar chemical functional groups, increase on the surface, and surface roughness increase.

  1. Chemical composition in Parmesan cheese marketed in Paranavaí - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Duarte Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grated Parmesan cheese is among the most consumed cheese in the country and also among the most fraudulent, since the fragmentation facilitates the incorporation of various adulterants. Brazilian law establishes as the parameters to be evaluated in grated cheese only the moisture content and the fat content in dry matter (GES. However, it is important to analyze other parameters, in order to characterize the products commercialized in Brazil, as quality can be compromised. The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and presence of starch in different samples of grated Parmesan cheese, commercialized in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná. Fifteen samples were analyzed, being three different batches of five brands. The chemical composition (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differed from one sample to another; however, all samples were in compliance with Brazilian legislation, considering the moisture content. For the GES content, 60% of the samples showed values higher than those established by Brazilian legislation for semi-fat cheese, such as grated Parmesan cheese. One sample showed a high carbohydrate content, however, starch was not detected by the lugol test. It is concluded that 60% of grated cheese commercialized in the city of Paranavaí present disagreement with Brazilian law, because they had higher fat content in the dry matter than the established.

  2. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  3. Metallic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommeyer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and properties of metallic composite materials and composite materials with metallic matrix are considered. In agreement with the morphology of constituent phases the following types of composite materials are described: dispersion-strengthened composite materials; particle-reinforced composite materials; fibrous composite materials; laminar composite materials. Data on strength and electric properties of the above-mentioned materials, as well as effect of the amount, location and geometric shape of the second phase on them, are presented

  4. Preparation, chemical composition and storage studies of quamachil (Pithecellobium dulce L.) aril powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Galla Narsing; Nagender, Allani; Satyanarayana, Akula; Rao, Dubasi Govardhana

    2011-02-01

    Quamachil aril powder samples were prepared and evaluated for chemical composition and sensory quality by packing in two packaging systems during storage for six months. The protein contents were 12.4 and 15.0% in white and pink aril powders respectively. The titrable acidity of white and pink aril powders were 2.4 and 4.8% respectively. Ca and Fe contents in white aril powder samples were 60 and 12 mg/100 g where as in pink aril powder 62 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanin content in pink powder decreased from 50.5 to 11.2 and 14.1 mg/100 g in samples packed in polyethylene (PE) and metalised polyester polyethylene laminated pouches respectively. Total polyphenol amount increased in both the powders irrespective of packaging material. Sorption isotherms indicated that both white and pink aril powders were hygroscopic and equilibrated at low relative humidity of 28 and 32%, respectively.

  5. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method; Analise quimica de material superconductor atraves do metodo de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T., E-mail: georges@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Eng. Metalurgica e Materiais; Bispo, E.R.; Polasek, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, H.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  6. Microwave Measurements of Ferrite Polymer Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the microwave measurements performed on the nickel-zinc sintered ferrite with the chemical formula Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 produced by the ceramic technique and composite materials based on this ferrite and a non-magnetic polymer (polyvinyl chloride matrix. The prepared composite samples had the same particle size distribution 0-250um but different ferrite particle concentrations between 23 vol% and 80 vol%. The apparatus for measurement of the signal proportional to the absolute value of scattering parameter S11 (reflexion coefficient is described and the dependence of measured reflected signal on a bias magnetic field has been studied. By means of experiments, the resonances to be connected with the geometry of microwave experimental set-up were distinguished from ferromagnetic resonance arising in ferrite particles of composite structure. The role of local interaction fields of ferrite particles in composite material has been discussed.

  7. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Krauklis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  9. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  10. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  11. Chemical composition, water vapor permeability, and mechanical properties of yuba film influenced by soymilk depth and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siran; Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Yookyung

    2018-03-01

    Yuba is a soy protein-lipid film formed during heating of soymilk. This study described yuba as an edible film by analyzing its chemical composition, water vapor permeability (WVP), and mechanical properties. Three yuba films were prepared by using different concentrations and depths of soymilk: HS (86 g kg -1 and 2.3 cm), LS (70 g kg -1 and 2.3 cm), and LD (70 g kg -1 and 3.0 cm). As yuba was successively skimmed, the protein, lipid, and SH content decreased, but carbohydrate and SS content increased. Though both the initial concentration and the depth of soymilk affect the properties of the films, the depth of soymilk influences WVP and tensile strength (TS) more. The WVP of the HS and LS changed the least (13-17 g mm kPa -1 m -2 day 1 ), while that of the LD changed the most (13-35 g mm kPa -1 m -2 day -1 ). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the TS between the HS and LS. LD had the greatest decrease of TS and the lowest TS among the groups. The earlier the yuba films were collected, the greater the elongation of the films was: 129% (HS), 113% (LS), and 155% (LD). The initial concentration and the depth of soymilk changed the chemical composition and structure of the yuba films. The LS yuba produced more uniform edible films with good mechanical properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (Pmeat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermo-chemical characterization of a Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composite modified by Cu powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlouli-Zanjani, Golnaz; Wen, John Z.; Hu, Anming; Persic, John; Ringuette, Sophie; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First study on the copper modified powder-type Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites. • Experimental findings were unique in identifying the AlNi formation and comparing with the Al/CuO thermite. • Potential applications in material joining and bonding. - Abstract: Thermo-chemical properties of the Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites modified by the micro-sized copper additive were investigated experimentally. Their onset temperatures of ignition and energy release data per mass were characterized using differential thermal analysis measurements. These microstructures and chemical compositions of reaction products were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel-rich Al/NiO/Cu composites produced two types of metallic spheres. Copper spheres were formed from melting and solidification of the copper additive, while AlNi composite spheres were identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that the amount of the copper additive did not significantly influence the onset temperature of thermite peaks, but caused a dramatic change in energy release. The aforementioned ignition and energetic properties were compared with these from the Al nanoparticle and CuO nanowire composites

  14. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  15. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH)_2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m_t_a_b"−"3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH)_2, expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  16. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta, E-mail: getav2001@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Madalina Georgiana [Department of Collagen, Branch of Leather and Footwear Research, National Institute of Research and Development for Textile and Leather, 93 I. Minulescu Street, RO-031215 Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, 8 B.P. Hasdeu Street, RO-050568 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  17. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  18. Development of Composite PCMs by Incorporation of Paraffin into Various Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we focused on the development of composite phase-change materials (CPCMs by incorporation of a paraffin through vacuum impregnation in widely used building materials (Kaolin and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. The composite PCMs were characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA techniques. Moreover, thermal performance of cement paste composite PCM panels was evaluated using a self-designed heating system. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of paraffin retained by Kaolin and GGBS was found to be 18% and 9%, respectively. FT-IR results show that CPCMs are chemically compatible. The phase-change temperatures of CPCMs were in the human comfort zone, and they possessed considerable latent-heat storage capacity. TGA results showed that CPCMs are thermally stable, and they did not show any sign of degradation below 150 °C. From thermal cycling tests, it was revealed that the CPCMs are thermally reliable. Thermal performance tests showed that in comparison to the control room model, the room models prepared with CPCMs reduced both the temperature fluctuations and maximum indoor center temperature. Therefore, the prepared CPCMs have some potential in reducing peak loads in buildings when applied to building facade.

  19. [Biomimetic nanohydroxyapatite/gelatin composite material preparation and in vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siriguleng; Hu, Xiaowen

    2014-09-01

    To prepare nHA/gelatin porous scaffold and to evaluate its physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility. We used nano-powders of HA and gelatin to prepare 3D porous composite scaffold by freeze-drying technique, and used scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and universal testing machine to characterize the composite material. Osteoblasts were primarily cultured, and the third-passage osteoblasts were co-cultured with the composite material. The cell adhesion and morphology were examined under scanning electron microscope. The cell viability analysis was performed by MTT assay, and the alkaline phosphatase activity was measured with alkaline phosphatase kit. Scanning electron microscope showed that the scaffold possessed a 3-dimensional interconnected homogenous porous structure with pore sizes ranging from 150 to 400 μm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the composite material had a strong chemical bond between the inorganic phase and organic phase. The scaffold presented the compressive strength of (3.28 ± 0.51) MPa and porosities of (80.6 ± 4.1)%. Composite materials showed features of had good biocompatibility. Mouse osteoblasts were well adhered and spread on the materials. The grade of the cell toxicity ranged from I to II. On the 5th and 7th day the proliferative rate of osteoblasts on scaffolds in the composite materials was significantly higher than that in the control group. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was obviously higher than that in the control group on Day 1 and 3. Nano-hydroxyapatite and gelatin in certain proportions and under certain conditions can be prepared into a composite biomimetic porous scaffolds with high porosity and three-dimensional structure using freeze-drying method. The scaffold shows good biocompatibility with mouse osteoblasts and may be a novel scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  1. Chemical characterization of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    India is fabricating nuclear fuels for various types of reactors, for example, (U-Pu) MOX fuel of varying Pu content for boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), prototype fast breeder reactors (PFBRs), (U-Pu) carbide fuel fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), and U-based fuels for research reactors. Nuclear fuel being the heart of the reactor, its chemical and physical characterisation is an important component of this design. Both the fuel materials and finished fuel products are to be characterised for this purpose. Quality control (both chemical and physical) provides a means to ensure that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the specifications for the fuel laid down by the fuel designer. Chemical specifications are worked out for the major and minor constituents which affect the fuel properties and hence its performance under conditions prevailing in an operating reactor. Each fuel batch has to be subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. A number of advanced process and quality control steps are required to ensure the quality of the fuels. Further more, in the case of Pu-based fuels, it is necessary to extract maximum quality data by employing different evaluation techniques which would result in minimum scrap/waste generation of valuable plutonium. The task of quality control during fabrication of nuclear fuels of various types is both challenging and difficult. The underlying philosophy is total quality control of the fuel by proper mix of process and quality control steps at various stages of fuel manufacture starting from the feed materials. It is also desirable to adapt more than one analytical technique to increase the confidence and reliability of the quality data generated. This is all the most required when certified reference materials are not available. In addition, the adaptation of non-destructive techniques in the chemical quality

  2. Evaluation of material fracture energy by its heat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, G.A.; Pasichnyj, V.V.; Polezhaev, Yu.V.; Frolov, A.A.; Choba, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Based on published and experimental data it is shown that there is a simple relationship between the heat of evaporation and heat content. This allows in some instances the evaluation of a rate of material fracture by its content. Experimental and theoretical data for quartz glass ceramics, and glass-reinforced plastic are presented

  3. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Brazilian Commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Castro Melo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves, seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68% the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  4. Investigation of the composition-structure-property relationship of AsxTe100 - x films prepared by plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Dorosz, Dominik; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Kudryashov, Mikhail; Zelentsov, Sergey; Usanov, Dmitry; Logunov, Alexandr; Mashin, Aleksandr; Gogova, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    AsxTe100 - x amorphous films of different chemical content were prepared by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). For the first time the optical properties of As-Te chalcogenide materials have been measured in UV-VIS-IR ranges (from 0.2 to 25 μm) for a very wide range of chemical compositions (20-80 at.% As). As-Te films have been tuned from 0.80 to 1.10 eV. The IR results obtained have been juxtaposed with the Raman spectroscopy findings to establish the correlation between optical and structural properties of the materials developed. Reversible and irreversible changes in the phase composition of the As-Te films under annealing of the surface by laser irradiation have been demonstrated and studied. In order to determine the potential areas of application of the prepared As-Te films the thermal and photo sensitivity has been also investigated.

  5. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and colour of broiler meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and colour of broiler meat as affected by organic and conventional rearing systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... A lower protein, but higher fat content was measured in the thigh meat of slow-growing broilers reared both in the organic and conventional systems, ...

  6. Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casavola C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI. Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

  7. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning.

  8. PREMATH: a Precious-Material Holdup Estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.; Bruns, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program, PREMATH (Precious Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. PREMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, PREMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balances for thorium (a less valuable material than uranium) during steady-state process operation

  9. Functional materials - Study of process for CVD SiC/C composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Jin; Wang, Chae Chyun; Lee, Young Jin; Oh, Byung Jun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The CVD SiC coating techniques are the one of high functional material manufactures that improve the thermal, wear, oxidization and infiltration resistance of the surface of raw materials and extend the life of material. Silicon carbide films have been grown onto graphite substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using MTS(CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}) as a source precursor and H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} as a diluent gas. The experiments for temperature and diluent gas addition changes were performed. The effect of temperature from 900 deg. C to 1350 deg. C and the alteration of diluent gas species on the growth rate and structure of deposits have been studied. The experimental results showed that the deposition rate increased with increasing deposition temperature irrespective of diluent gases and reactant depletion effect increased especially at H{sub 2} diluent gas ambient. As the diluent gas added, the growth rate decreased parabolically. For N{sub 2} addition, surface morphology of leaf-like structure appeared, and for H{sub 2}, faceted structure at 1350 deg. C. The observed features were involved by crystalline phase of {beta}-SiC and surface composition with different gas ambient. We also compared the experimental results of the effect of partial pressure on the growth rate with the results of theoretical approach based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. C/SiC composites were prepared by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI). In order to fabricate the more dense C/SiC composites, a novel process of the in-situ whisker growing and filling during ICVI was devised, which was manipulated by alternating dilute gas species. The denser C/SiC composites were successfully prepared by the novel process comparing with the conventional ICVI process. 64 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  10. Multifunctional composite material based on carbon-filled polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovskaya, T; Melentyev, S; Pavlov, S

    2015-01-01

    The research paper deals with the performance of composite resistive material heating coatings based on the polyurethane binder, filled with colloidal-graphite preparation C- 1, which can be used in structures of electric heaters. Frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients, dielectric permeability of composite materials with the various content of carbon fillers (technical carbon, graphite) in polyurethane varnish in ranges of frequencies 26-40 GHz and 110-260 GHz are experimentally investigated. (paper)

  11. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Hess

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were conducted in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak sawdust were 250–350 °C for 30–120 min and 220–270 °C for 30 min, respectively. Torrefaction of miscanthus at 250 °C and a residence time of 30 min resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components—hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and volatiles—changed only marginally. Increasing torrefaction temperatures to 350 °C with a residence time of 120 min further reduced the moisture content to 0.54%, with a significant decrease in the hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatiles by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. Regression equations developed for the moisture, hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatile content of the samples with respect to torrefaction temperature and time have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on R2 values of >0.82. Surface plots based on the regression equation indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 280–350 °C with residence times of 30–120 min can help reduce moisture, nitrogen, and volatile content from 1.13% to 0.6%, 0.27% to 0.23%, and 79% to 23%, with respect to initial values. Trends of chemical compositional changes in white oak sawdust are similar to miscanthus. Torrefaction temperatures of 270 °C and a 30 min residence time reduced the moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen content by about 79%, 17.88%, 20%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas the carbon content increased by about 3.5%.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Delamination Inside of Composite Materials by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koung Suk; Yang, Kwang Young; Kang, Ki Soo; Ji, Chang June

    2004-01-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for quantitative evaluation of delaminations inside of a composite material plate is described. Delaminations caused by the impact on composite materials are difficult to detect visual inspection and ultrasonic testing due to non-homeogenous structure. This paper proposes the quantitative evaluation technique of the defects made in the composite plates by impact load. Artificial defects are introduced inside of the composite plate for the development of a reliable ESPI inspection technique. Real defects produced by impact tester are inspected and compared with the results of visual inspection which shows a good agreement within 5% error

  13. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  14. Chemical segregation of progeny of camphor trees with high camphor c.q. Linalool content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khien, P.V.; Chien, Ho Trung; Dung, N.X.; Leclercq, A.X.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The propagation of open pollinated seed from two camphor trees with a high camphor and linalool content, respectively, yielded 115 progeny. The chemical composition of the leaf oils of these trees was analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. Four chemotypes could be distinguished among

  15. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  16. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian propolis in foodborne pathogens and its quantitative chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Nedji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of propolis samples collected from different regions of Algeria and their chemical composition. Methods: The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis against Bacillus cereus (IPA, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923R, Escherichia coli (ATCC25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27893R was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and determined as an equivalent of the inhibition zones diameters after incubation of the cultures at 37 °C for 24 h. The investigation of the polyphenol and flavonoid contents was done spectrophotometrically. Results: The ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis samples inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria. Polyphenol and flavonoids contents were variable, depending on the propolis samples and a positive correlation between antimicrobial activity and chemical composition was observed. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activity, polyphenol and flavonoid contents were variable, depending on the propolis sample. The strong antimicrobial activity of Algerian propolis may be due to high total phenolic and flavonoid contents and this study suggests potential use of propolis in foods.

  18. Influences of Thermo-Vacuum Treatment on Colors and Chemical Compositions of Alder Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With high temperature-heat treatment, the dimensional stability and durability of wood is improved and wood color is darkened as well. In this paper, alder birch wood (Betula alnoides was treated by the Thermo-Vacuum Treatment (TVT. The changes of wood color parameters and the chemical composition were determined by the CIE1976 L*a*b* method and the chemical analysis method, respectively. The results were revealed as follows: (1 A lower value of lightness, L*, and a higher value of total color difference, △E*, were obtained at the higher heat-treatment temperatures and longer treatment time. (2 The higher the heat-treatment temperatures and the longer the heat-treatment times were, the lower the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose were and the higher the content of lignin was. Moreover, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis demonstrated that the characteristic absorption peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin diminished. The acetylation reaction of hemicellulose and the degradation reaction of groups of lignin side chain occurred during TVT. (3 TVT degraded the chemical composition of cell walls, which resulted in further changes of the wood color. A significant correlation existed between the differences of color indices and the differences of the chemical composition after TVT.

  19. Prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of cereal grains and by-products for poultry from its chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, B.; Blas, C. de; Garcia-Rebollar, P.; Cachaldora, P.; Mendez, J.; Ibañez, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to predict the metabolisable energy content of ninety batches of cereal grains and cereal by-products for poultry, regression models derived from different sample aggregations and using chemical components as independent variables were compared. Several statistics have been calculated to estimate the error of prediction. The results indicate that the highest levels of significance and coefficients of determination were obtained for equations derived from the larger data sets. However, the lowest prediction errors were associated to equations calculated for data or groups of data closer to the ingredient studied. (Author)

  20. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  1. Study by three techniques of the elastic response of Al(6061) matrix composite material with a high content (40 % vol) of SIC; Estudio mediante tres tecnicas del modulo elastico de un material compuesto de Al(6061) con un alto contenido (40%vol) de SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Hunicke, U. D.; Mundt, K. H.; Acosta, P.; Kowalski, W.; Schulz, G.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the elastic behavior of a discontinuously reinforced composite material, Al(6061)-40vol%SiC, by using three different procedures; Extensometry in uniaxial testing, pendulum elastomeric, and propagation of acoustic signals in the materials. The high ceramic content of this material provides it with a high stiffness without a significant increase in density. Because of this, the material is suitable as structural component in the automotive and aerospace industry. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1989-11-01

    This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  4. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  5. Defining chemical expansion: the choice of units for the stoichiometric expansion coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrocchelli, Dario; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Bishop, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical expansion refers to the spatial dilation of a material that occurs upon changes in its composition. When this dilation is caused by a gradual, iso-structural increase in the lattice parameter with composition, it is related to the composition change by the stoichiometric expansion coeffi...... are provided for changes in oxygen content in fluorite, perovskite, and Ruddlesden-Popper (K2NiF4) phase materials used in solid oxide fuel cells....

  6. Assessment of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) butter content and composition throughout fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servent, Adrien; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice; Pinot, Marie-Neige; Tardan, Eric; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Hue, Clotilde

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. A 4.71% increase in free fat was measured in the Ecuadorian samples fermented for 144 h. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. Triglyceride and total and linked fatty acid kinetics (0 to 6 days) of the butter remained statistically stable during fermentation, as did unsaponifiable matter. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA. This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. This phenomenon causes butter content retention but is slowly broken after 72 h fermentation. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Content and chemical composition of Hyptis marrubioides essential oil in function of seasons - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v32i3.3415

    OpenAIRE

    Botrel, Priscila Pereira; UFLA; Pinto, José Eduardo Brasil Pereira; UFLA; Ferraz, Vany; UFMG; Bertolucci, Suzan Kelly Vilela; UFLA; Figueiredo, Felipe Campos; Campus-Pesquisa

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are odorous principles stored in special plant cells. The essential oil in the Hyptis genus is traditionally used as an anesthetic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and can induce abortion in high doses. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of seasons in essential oil content and chemical composition of species H. marrubioides. A completely randomized complete design was used with four treatments (winter, spring, summer and autumn) and six replications, tota...

  8. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and dry matter digestibility of stylo ( stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of stylo. Methods The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Conclusion Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  10. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order Bby BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  11. The chemical composition and pharmacological activities of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith in northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Maria José Abigail Mendes [UNESP; Búfalo, Michelle Cristiane [UNESP; Conti, Bruno José [UNESP; Fernandes Jr., Ary [UNESP; Trusheva, Boryana; Bankova, Vassya; Sforcin, José Maurício [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Geopropolis is produced by stingless bees from resinous materials of plants, adding salivary secretions, wax, mud or clay, and has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases and dermatoses. Therefore, it is important to study its antibacterial, antitumor and immunomodulatory properties are important to confirm the ethnopharmacological applications. This work aimed to evaluate its chemical composition, and its antimicrobial, anti-tumoral and immunomodulatory acti...

  12. Making use of guava seed (Psidium guajava L): the effects of pre-treatments on its chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying Ping; Tan, May Ping; Lok, Wai Li; Pakianathan, Suganthi; Supramaniam, Yasoga

    2014-03-01

    The guava processing industry in Malaysia produces by-products in the form of seed core and peel. These by-products can be regarded as underused resources but there are concerns about their composition that prevent their use in the food and feed industries. This study aims to analyze the respective effects of heat treatments (boiling or autoclaving) and germination periods on the nutritional composition and phytochemical content of guava seeds. The guava seeds were found to contain 618, 78, 72, and 5 mg/g dry weight total dietary fiber, fat, protein, and ash, respectively. The tannin and saponin contents, but not the phytic acid content, were below the respective anti-nutritional thresholds. The heat treatments did not affect the total dietary fiber and ash contents but reduced all other chemical components to different extents (15-91%). Boiling did not reduce the phytic acid content substantially but autoclaving caused a reduction of 91% to a level below the anti-nutritional threshold. Germination for 14 days caused a significant reduction in nutrient contents in the range of 16-79%. Germination also reduced the phytic acid content by 90% in the seed but did not significantly affect the saponin content. Thus, guava seed can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate its chemical composition to enable its use in the food and feed industries.

  13. Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, M.Y.; Shahid, M.R.; Subhani, T.; Sharif, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

  14. The Chemical Composition of Different Sources of Liming Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of some liming materials on soil chemical properties. The treatments comprised Cocoa Husk Pod Ash (CPHA), Oyster Shell Ash (OSA), Palm Bunch Ash (PBA), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Kitchen Residues Ash (KRA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) at five levels ...

  15. Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Ali

    2016-01-01

    Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation proper...

  16. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge–charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na + ,K + -ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of − 38 to − 56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal cellular responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Charge density of membranes was increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc decreased viability and proliferation of all

  17. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2013-10-15

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge–charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of − 38 to − 56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal cellular responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Charge density of membranes was increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc decreased viability and proliferation

  18. Chemical characterization of materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-11-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was procured for trace elemental determination in diverse samples. Since its installation a number of analytical measurements have been carried out on different sample matrices. These include chemical quality control measurements of nuclear fuel and other materials such as uranium metal. Uranium peroxide, ADU, ThO 2 , UO 2 ; isotopic composition of B, Li; chemical characterization of simulated ThO 2 + 2%UO 2 fuel; sodium zirconium phosphate and trace metallic elements in zirconium; Antarctica rock samples and wet phosphoric acid. Necessary separation methodologies required for effective removal of matrix were indigenously developed. In addition, a rigorous analytical protocol, which includes various calibration methodologies such as mass calibration, response calibration, detector cross calibration and linearity check over the entire dynamic range of 109 required for quantitative determination of elements at trace and ultra trace level,, has been standardized. This report summarizes efforts of RACD that have been put in this direction for the application of ICP-MS for analytical measurements. (author)

  19. Sea urchin skeleton: Structure, composition, and application as a template for biomimetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapkin, Nikolay P.; Khalchenko, Irina G.; Panasenko, Alexander E.; Drozdov, Anatoly L.

    2017-07-01

    SEM and optical microscopy, chemical and EDX analysis, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy of three sea urchins skeletons (tests) show that the test is a spongy stereom, consisting of calcite with high content of magnesium. The tests are composed of mineral-organic composite of calcite-magnesite crystals, coated with organic film, containing silicon in form of polyphenylsiloxane. In the test of sea urchin pore spaces are linked into united system of regular structure with structure motive period about 20 um. This developed three-dimensional structure was used as a template for polymer material based on polyferrofenilsiloxane [OSiC6H5OH]x[OSiC6H5O]y[OFeO]z, which is chemically similar to the native film, coating sea urchins skeleton.

  20. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2013-01-01

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  1. A strategy to synthesize graphene-incorporated lignin polymer composite materials with uniform graphene dispersion and covalently bonded interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Ma, Yifei; Sun, Yan; Hong, Sung Yong; Kim, Ye Chan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    Graphene-incorporated polymer composites have been demonstrated to have excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In the field of graphene-incorporated composite material synthesis, there are two main obstacles: Non-uniform dispersion of graphene filler in the matrix and weak interface bonding between the graphene filler and polymer matrix. To overcome these problems, we develop an in-situ polymerization strategy to synthesize uniformly dispersed and covalently bonded graphene/lignin composites. Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified by 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to introduce isocyanate groups and form the urethane bonds with lignin macromonomers. Subsequential polycondensation reactions of lignin groups with caprolactone and sebacoyl chloride bring about a covalent network of modified GO and lignin-based polymers. The flexible and robust lignin polycaprolactone polycondensate/modified GO (Lig-GOm) composite membranes are achieved after vacuum filtration, which have tunable hydrophilicity and electrical resistance according to the contents of GOm. This research transforms lignin from an abundant biomass into film-state composite materials, paving a new way for the utilization of biomass wastes.

  2. Zirconia/Hydroxyapatite Composites Synthesized Via Sol-Gel: Influence of Hydroxyapatite Content and Heating on Their Biological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollino, Flavia; Armenia, Emilia; Tranquillo, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) and zirconia-based glasses and ceramics are materials proposed for use in the dental and orthopedic fields. In this work, ZrO2 glass was modified by adding different amounts of bioactive and biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp). ZrO2/HAp composites were synthesized via the sol-gel method and heated to different temperatures to induce modifications of their chemical structure, as ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The aim was to investigate the effect of both HAp content and heating on the biological performances of ZrO2. The materials’ bioactivity was studied by soaking samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF). FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) analyses carried out after exposure to SBF showed that all materials are bioactive, i.e., they are able to form a hydroxyapatite layer on their surface. Moreover, the samples were soaked in a solution containing bovine serum albumin (BSA). FTIR analysis proved that the synthesized materials are able to adsorb the blood protein, the first step of cell adhesion. WST-8 ([2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt]) assay showed that no cytotoxicity effects were induced by the materials’ extract. However, the results proved that bioactivity increases with both the HAp content and the temperature used for the thermal treatment, whereas biocompatibility increases with heating but is not affected by the HAp content. PMID:28773116

  3. Effect of soaking in water and rumen digeta solutions on metabolizable energy content and chemical composition of barley seeds for use in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabee, S N; Sadeghi, G H; Tabeidian, S A

    2007-03-15

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking in water and different rumen digesta solutions on nutritional value of dry barley seeds. Treatments were included distilled water as control and rumen digesta that diluted with distilled water to obtain 20, 40 and 60% digesta solutions. Solutions have added to 10 kg of barley seed samples to achieve final 30% moisture content. After 21 days the chemical composition and energy content of barley seed were determined. Gross energy of barley seeds did not affected by different experimental treatments. Use of 20% rumen digesta solution resulted to a significant (pcontent of barley seeds. Barley seed that treated with 40% of rumen digesta solution had highest TME and TMEn content and its different from seeds that treated with 60 and 100% rumen digesta solutions was significant (prumen digesta solutions increased crud protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash content of barley seeds numerically.

  4. Structure and content of competitive group compositions in sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Moshenska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to make the analysis of modern competitive group compositions in sports aerobics. Material & Methods: pedagogical, sociological and methods of mathematical statistics were used. 10 coaches took part in the experimental part; analysis of protocols and video records of competitions of the aged category of children of 9–11 years old, who perform in the nomination of triplets and quintuples (group exercises, is carried out. Results: the content of competitive compositions and the allocated indicators are studied which defined it. Conclusions: the basic structural elements, which characterize competitive compositions, are allocated. Their components, quantity and time of performance are defined. It is established that variety of aerobic contents, spaces, and means of registration, musical compliance and logicality of creation of the whole competitive composition at high quality of performance characterizes teams – winners.

  5. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce (moromi, and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format. Keywords: Fish sauce, Chum salmon, Fermentation, Chemical properties, Color

  6. Magnetic losses in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprecht, J; Sjoeberg, D

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some of the problems involved in homogenization of a composite material built from ferromagnetic inclusions in a nonmagnetic background material. The small signal permeability for a ferromagnetic spherical particle is combined with a homogenization formula to give an effective permeability for the composite material. The composite material inherits the gyrotropic structure and resonant behaviour of the single particle. The resonance frequency of the composite material is found to be independent of the volume fraction, unlike dielectric composite materials. The magnetic losses are described by a magnetic conductivity which can be made independent of frequency and proportional to the volume fraction by choosing a certain bias. Finally, some concerns regarding particles of small size, i.e. nanoparticles, are treated and the possibility of exciting exchange modes are discussed. These exchange modes may be an interesting way to increase losses in composite materials

  7. Optical spectroscopic characterization of amorphous germanium carbide materials obtained by X-Ray Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Antoniotti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous germanium carbides have been prepared by X-ray activated Chemical Vapor Deposition from germane/allene systems. The allene percentage and irradiation time (total dose were correlated to the composition, the structural features, and the optical coefficients of the films, as studied by IR and UV-VIS spectroscopic techniques. The materials composition is found to change depending on both the allene percentage in the mixture and the irradiation time. IR spectroscopy results indicate that the solids consist of randomly bound networks of carbon and germanium atoms with hydrogen atoms terminating all the dangling bonds. Moreover, the elemental analysis results, the absence of both unsaturated bonds and CH3 groups into the solids and the absence of allene autocondensation reactions products, indicate that polymerization reactions leading to mixed species, containing Ge-C bonds, are favored. Eopt values around 3.5 eV have been found in most of the cases, and are correlated with C sp3-bonding configuration. The B1/2 value, related to the order degree, has been found to be dependent on solid composition, atoms distribution in the material and hydrogenation degree of carbon atoms.

  8. On possibility of fabrication of monolith composite materials on niobium carbide base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploshkin, V.V.; Ul'yanina, I.Yu.; Filonenko, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to fabricate the composite material on niobium carbide base possessing the elevated heat resistance, erosion and chemical resistance in special media, as well as capable of withstanding sufficient thermal shocks. Powder of niobium carbide of 10 μm fraction was used as base material, the powder of pure copper of 10...12 μm fraction - as binder. It was shown that samples of composite mateiral on niobium carbide base fabricated by the method of hydrostatic pressing possessed the minimal porosity as compared to samples fabricated by usual methods of powder metallurgy. The basic phases of composite material-copper and niobium carbide - distribute uniformly over sample cross-section and don't interact with each other under any conditions. The fabricated composite material possesses sufficient thermal shock resistance and isn't subjected to brittle fracture

  9. Prediction of strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.K.; Emam, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wood is a biological material integrating a very large variability of its mechanical properties (tensile and compressive), on the two directional longitudinal and transverse Ultrasonic method has been utilized to measure both wood physical and / or wood mechanical properties. The aim of this article is to show the development of ultrasonic technique for quality evaluation of trees, wood material and wood based composites. For quality assessment of these products we discuss the nondestructive evaluation of different factors such as: moisture content, temperature, biological degradation induced by bacterial attack and fungal attack. These techniques were adapted for trees, timber and wood based composites. The present study discusses the prediction of tensile and compressive strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic testing. Empirical relationships between the tensile properties, compression strength and ultrasonic were proposed. The experimental results indicate the possibility of establishing a relationship between tensile strength and compression values. Moreover, the fractures in tensile and compressive are discussed by photographic

  10. Composite materials for Tokamak wall armor, limiters, and beam dump applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.E.; Wallace, T.C.; Dickinson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes materials which are composites of carbon fibers and low Z number carbides. The composite materials are fabricated by applying chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coats of either low Z number elements (i.e., boron, titanium, silicon, or nickel) or carbides (B 4 C, TiC, or SiC) onto graphite fibers, in the form of yarn, cloth, or three-dimensional structures, and then hot pressing the coated material to full density. The benefits of this approach are: (1) Each graphite filament (approx. 9 μm diameter) is surrounded by a refractory carbide which offers better resistance to erosion loss than graphite. If some material is spalled from the surface, the underlying graphite fibers are still coated, and thus still protected from hydrogen bombardment; (2) The composites should have longer thermal fatigue lives than carbides because of the graphite fiber reinforcement running through the composite; (3) Enhanced mechanical properties are obtained because of completely interconnected networks of carbide and graphite

  11. Influence of load and reinforcement content on selected tribological properties of Al/SiC/Gr hybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Veličković

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials with the metal matrix are important engineering materials due to their outstanding mechanical and tribological properties. Here are presented selected tribological properties of the hybrid composites with the matrix made of aluminum alloy and reinforced by the silicon carbide and graphite particles. The tribological characteristics of such materials are superior to characteristics of the matrix – the aluminum alloy, as well as to characteristics of the classical metal-matrix composites with a single reinforcing material. Those characteristics depend on the volume fractions of the reinforcing components, sizes of the reinforcing particles, as well as on the fabrication process of the hybrid composites. The considered tribological characteristics are the friction coefficient and the wear rate as functions of the load levels and the volume fractions of the graphite and the SiC particles. The wear rate increases with increase of the load and the Gr particles content and with reduction of the SiC particles content. The friction coefficient increases with the load, as well as with the SiC particles content increase.

  12. Superconducting composites materials. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerjouan, P; Boterel, F; Lostec, J; Bertot, J P; Haussonne, J M [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 22 - Lannion (FR)

    1991-11-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs.

  13. Fast and simple method for prediction of the micromechanical parameters and macromechanical properties of composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Aguilar, Marc; Julián Pérez, Fernando; Pèlach Serra, Maria Àngels; Espinach Orús, Xavier; Méndez González, José Alberto; Mutjé Pujol, Pere

    2016-01-01

    The method described in the present work was assessed through the production of composite materials made of polypropylene reinforced with chemical thermomechanical pulp of hemp core fibers. Composite materials were obtained by extrusion and injection molding, and by the addition of a coupling agent to ensure a good interphase between fiber and matrix. In all cases, the composite materials were considered as semi-aligned reinforced. Tensile strength was selected as a representative...

  14. Superconducting composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjouan, P.; Boterel, F.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.P.; Haussonne, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs [fr

  15. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content) and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce ( moromi ), and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format.

  16. [Preparation of sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material for bone repair and its biocompatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmei; He, Jiacai; Li, Quanli; Shen, Jijia

    2014-02-01

    To prepare sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material and to explore its feasibility as a bone repair material. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material was prepared using chemical cross-linking and freeze-drying technology. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and its porosity was measured by liquid displacement method. The fifth passage of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) were incubated on the composite material and then growth was observed by inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs were cultured with liquid extracts of the material, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to calculate the relative growth rate (RGR) on 1, 3, 5 d and to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Fresh dog blood was added into the liquid extracts to conduct hemolysis test, the spectrophotometer was used to determine the optical density (OD) and to calculate the hemolysis rate. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material displayed porosity, the porous pore rate was (88.6 +/- 4.5)%. BMSCs showed full stretching and vigorous growth under inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs cultured with liquid extracts of the material had good activities. The toxicity of composite material was graded as 1. Hemolysis test results showed that the hemolysis rate of the composite material was 1.28%, thus meeting the requirement of medical biomaterials. The composite material fabricated in this study has high porosity and good biocompatibility.

  17. Preparation and characterization of nano hydroxyapatite/polymeric composites materials. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: kh_rezk1966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Rashidy, Zenab M. [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, Aida A. [Biophysics Dept., Faulty of Science, El-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} The formation and coating of CHA increased by increasing polymer content. {yields} The size of the prepared CHA was within nano-range scale. {yields} The composites had homogeneity and CHA formed within the polymeric matrix. - Abstract: The present study is focused on preparation of nano composite materials and the effect of citric acid on their different properties. The formation of nano HA and its interaction with chitosan (C), gelatin (G) polymers and citric acid (CA) materials were studied. The Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize these composite materials. The compressive strength (CS) was also measured to know the reinforcement of the prepared composites. The results show that carboxylic and amino groups play crucial role for HA formation on chitosan-gelatin polymeric matrix in the presence of citric acid (CA). The formation of nano HA particles and its average size of crystallite is increased with increase of CG content and decreased with addition of CA. Also, the HA formation and binding strength between its particles are improved into the composites especially with CA. The nano-composites containing the best ratio of nHA (70%) with CA (0.2 M) are promising for medical applications in the future.

  18. Study of the influence of chemical composition on the pozzolanicity of soda-lime glass microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, R.B.C.; Mohallem, N.D.S.; Aguilar, M.T.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of residues presents interesting possibilities for obtaining eco-efficient concretes. Research has investigated the use of glass residue in Portland cement composite, whether as an aggregate or a supplementary material. However, there is still no consensus on the influence of the chemical composition of glass on the behaviour of the composites in which it is used. This paper aims to analyse the influence of this composition on the performance of cement composites produced with microparticles of colourless and amber glass. Pozzolanicity was assessed by means of direct tests (modified Chapelle and electrical conductivity) and indirect tests (chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction, thermo analysis and pozzolanic activity index). Most of the results show that microparticles of both types of glass display pozzolanic activity, with no significant differences between them. This indicates the potential for the use of glass microparticles as a supplementary material in cement composites. (author)

  19. Changes in the chemical composition of the light crude by short-term weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.; Ma, Q.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an oil spill, it is important to unambiguously identify the oil and link it to the known source in order to determine environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behaviour of spilled oil depends on several physical, chemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photooxidation. The chemical composition of the spilled oil changes with weathering. The changes can have a significant effect on the oil's toxicity and can add to the difficulty of identifying spilled oil. This paper presents the results of changes in chemical composition of light crude oil by weathering under natural environmental conditions. Oil samples were analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Light crude oil was obtained from the oil cabin of a tanker which spilled oil near the Dalian Sea near China in April 2005. It was shown that the saturated hydrocarbons of light crude oil distribute between n-C 8 and n-C 23 . The most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C 10 to n-C 16 . The main chemical compositions of the light crude oil are the n-alkanes and the isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical compositions of the light crude oil. A simulated weathering experiment showed that less than n-C 12 of the n-alkanes, toluene, 1,3-dimethyl benzene is lost after 1 day of weathering. The n-C 13 , n-C 14 , naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering. N-C 15 alkane composition indicates some weatherproof capability. The ratios of n-C 17 /pristine and n-C 18 /phytane were unchanged and useful in identifying the source of the light crude oil during the first 8-day weathering period. By the twenty-first day of weathering, the chemical composition underwent extreme alteration, and the source of the pollution could not be determined by the ratios of pristine/phytane. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  1. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  2. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  3. Formation of anodic layers on InAs (111)III. Study of the chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valisheva, N. A., E-mail: valisheva@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Tereshchenko, O. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Prosvirin, I. P.; Kalinkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Goljashov, V. A. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Levtzova, T. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    The chemical composition of {approx}20-nm-thick anodic layers grown on InAs (111)III in alkaline and acid electrolytes containing or not containing NH{sub 4}F is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that the composition of fluorinated layers is controlled by the relation between the concentrations of fluorine and hydroxide ions in the electrolyte and by diffusion processes in the growing layer. Fluorine accumulates at the (anodic layer)/InAs interface. Oxidation of InAs in an acid electrolyte with a low oxygen content and a high NH{sub 4}F content brings about the formation of anodic layers with a high content of fluorine and elemental arsenic and the formation of an oxygen-free InF{sub x}/InAs interface. Fluorinated layers grown in an alkaline electrolyte with a high content of O{sup 2-} and/or OH{sup -} groups contain approximately three times less fluorine and consist of indium and arsenic oxyfluorides. No distinction between the compositions of the layers grown in both types of fluorine-free electrolytes is established.

  4. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voroshilov, Ivan, E-mail: Nixon.06@mail.ru; Endzhievskaya, Irina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru; Vasilovskaya, Nina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru [FSAEI HVE Siberian Federal University, 82 Svobodny Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660130 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  5. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  6. A simple method to evaluate the composition of tissue-equivalent phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of a method to calculate the composition of phantom materials with given density and radiation-physical parameters mixed of components, of which are known their chemical composition and their effective specific volumes. By an example of a simple composition with three components the method is illustrated. The results of this example and some experimental details that must be considered are discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  8. The effect of dolomite type and Al2O3 content on the phase composition in aluminous cements containing spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Naghizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of dolomite type and Al2O3 content on the phase composition in aluminous cements containing MA spinel is investigated. For this reason, the raw and calcined dolomites are used as raw materials along with calcined alumina in the preparation of the cement. Then, different compositions are prepared at 1350°C using the sintering method and their mineralogical compositions are investigated using the diffractometric technique. Also, their microstructures arre evaluated. The results indicate that raw materials used have great effect on the type and amount of formed phases in cement composition. Independently of the dolomite type used, a mixed phase product consisting of spinel accompanied by CA and CA2 is obtained. The content of CA phase in the cement composition is decreased with increasing of Al2O3 in the raw materials composition. On the other hand, the content of CA2 phase is increased with the addition of Al2O3. In addition, the results show that the formation of C12A7 is favored by use of calcined dolomite.

  9. MANUFACTURING BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON POLYETHYLENE AND FUNCTIONALIZED BY ALCOHOLYSIS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Shabarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The continuous growth of production and consumption of plastic packaging creates a serious problem of disposal of package. This problem has ecological character, because the contents of the landfills decompose for decades, emit toxic com¬pounds and pollute the environment. The work is devoted to obtaining and investigation mechanical and rheological properties of biodegradable composite materials based on polyethylene and starch. Materials and Methods. In this work the author used polyethylene grade HDPE 273- 83 (GOST 16338-85, Sevilen brand 12206-007 (TU 6-05-1636-97 and potato starch (GOST 53876-2010 as a filler. Functionalization of sevilen was carried in the 30 % ethanol solution KOH at a temperature 80 °C during 3 hours. Compounding components was carried out at the laboratory of the two rotary mixer HAAKE PolyLab Rheomix 600 OS with rotors Banbury. Formation of plates for elastic strength and rheological studies were carried out on a hydraulic press Gibitre. Elastic and strength tests were carried out on the tensile machine the UAI-7000 M. Rheology tests were carried out on the rheometer Haake MARS III. The humidity filler (starch authors determined by the thermogravimetric method on the analyzer of moisture “Evlas-2M”. Results. It is shown, that the filler should not contain more than 7% moisture. Functionalization of ethylene with vinyl acetate copolymer (sevilen has performed by the method of alkaline alcoholysis. By the method of IC – spectroscopy the authors confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the polymer. Using as a compatibilizer functionalized by the method of alcoholises has greatly ( significantly improved physical, mechanical and rheological properties of composite materials. Optimal content of sevilen (F in the compound according to the results of experiments amount 10 %. Discussion and Conclusions. Using of functionalized by the method of alcoholysis ethy-lene-vinyl acetate copolymer as a

  10. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  11. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  12. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboril, Radek; Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek; Sharma, Virender K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10 −2 s −1 ) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10 −8 –10 −6 s −1 ). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  13. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  14. Effects of heat treatment and formulation on the phase composition and chemical durability of the EBR-II ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. E.; Dietz, N. L.; Janney, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste salts generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II will be immobilized in a ceramic waste form (CWF). Tests are being conducted to evaluate the suitability of the CWF for disposal in the planned federal high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In this report, the results of laboratory tests and analyses conducted to address product consistency and thermal stability issues called out in waste acceptance requirements are presented. The tests measure the impacts of (1) variations in the amounts of salt and binder glass used to make the CWF and (2) heat treatments on the phase composition and chemical durability of the waste form. A series of CWF materials was made to span the ranges of salt and glass contents that could be used during processing: between 5.0 and 15 mass% salt loaded into the zeolite (the nominal salt loading is 10.7%, and the process control range is 10.6 to 11.2 mass%), and between 20 and 30 mass% binder glass mixed with the salt-loaded zeolite (the nominal glass content is 25% and the process control range is 20 to 30 mass%). In another series of tests, samples of two CWF products made with the nominal salt and glass contents were reheated to measure the impact on the phase composition and durability: long-term heat treatments were conducted at 400 and 500 C for durations of 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year; short-term heat treatments were conducted at 600, 700, 800, and 850 C for durations of 4, 28, 52, and 100 hours. All of the CWF products that were made with different amounts of salt, zeolite, and glass and all of the heat-treated CWF samples were analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction to measure changes in phase compositions and subjected to 7-day product consistency tests to measure changes in the chemical durability. The salt loading had the greatest impact on phase composition and durability. A

  15. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  16. Effect of chemical composition on corneal tissue response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and hydrogel material compatibility towards ocular anterior segment tissues, particularly the corneal endothelium. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Then, the 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from photopolymerized materials were placed into the ocular anterior chamber for 4 days and assessed by biomicroscopic examinations, corneal thickness measurements, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The poly(HEMA-co-AAc) implants prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good biocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the enhanced inflammatory response, decreased endothelial cell density, and increased ocular score and corneal thickness were observed, probably due to the influence of surface charge of copolymer membranes. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelium exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of the implants having higher amount of AAc incorporated in the copolymers (i.e., 15.1 to 24.7 μmol) and zeta potential (i.e., -38.6 to − 56.5 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal tissue responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal tissue responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Carboxyl groups in copolymers increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc raised ocular score and caused corneal endothelial loss and edema. • High anionic charge density stimulated inflammation

  17. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  18. Composite material dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  19. Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Caputo, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  20. Shape-stabilized phase change materials with high thermal conductivity based on paraffin/graphene oxide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The composite PCM was prepared with impregnation method. ► Shapes stabilized phase change material made with paraffin and GO composite. ► Determine effects of GO composite on shape stabilized PCM properties. ► The composite PCM has good thermal stability and form-stability. ► The composite PCM has much higher thermal conductivity than that of paraffin. - Abstract: This paper mainly focuses on the preparation, characterization, thermal properties and thermal stability and reliability of new form-stable composite phase change materials (PCMs) prepared by vacuum impregnation of paraffin within graphene oxide (GO) sheets. SEM and FT-IR techniques and TGA and DSC analysis are used for characterization of material and thermal properties. The composite PCM contained 48.3 wt.% of paraffin without leakage of melted PCM and therefore this composite found to be a form-stable composite PCM. SEM results indicate that the paraffin bounded into the pores of GO. FT-IR analysis showed there was no chemical reaction between paraffin and GO. Temperatures of melting and freezing and latent heats of the composite were 53.57 and 44.59 °C and 63.76 and 64.89 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling tests were done by 2500 melting/freezing cycling for verification of the form-stable composite PCM in terms of thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was highly improved from 0.305 to 0.985 (W/mk). As a result, the prepared paraffin/GO composite is appropriate PCM for thermal energy storage applications because of their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and thermal conductivities

  1. Fluoride uptake from restorative dental materials by human enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, L.; Rytoemaa, I.; Anttila, A.; Keinonen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the uptake in vitro of fluoride from restorative materials by tooth enamel and whether prior etching of the enamel causes a change of uptake. The outermost layer of the labial surface of extracted canines was removed by grinding and the enamel was covered with five different fluoride-containing materials ; a silicate, a composite resin, an amalgam, a silicophosphate, and a polycarboxylate luting cement. The material was either removed immediately or after storing the tooth in distilled water. The fluoride content was determined using a sensitive physical method based on the 19 F (p, αγ) 16 O reaction. In addition, the fluoride content of enamel after etching for different periods of time and of etched enamel which had been in contact with silicate cement was determined. The mean fluoride content of uncovered interior enamel was 226 parts 10 6 . All materials, except the composite, increased clearly the fluoride content of the underlying enamel. Etching of interior enamel also increased the fluoride values. No difference could be shown in fluoride uptake from silicate and composite resin between etched and unetched enamel. (author)

  2. Compressive Strength of EN AC-44200 Based Composite Materials Strengthened with α-Al2O3 Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurzawa A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of compressive strength investigations of EN AC-44200 based aluminum alloy composite materials reinforced with aluminum oxide particles at ambient and at temperatures of 100, 200 and 250°C. They were manufactured by squeeze casting of the porous preforms made of α-Al2O3 particles with liquid aluminum alloy EN AC-44200. The composite materials were reinforced with preforms characterized by the porosities of 90, 80, 70 and 60 vol. %, thus the alumina content in the composite materials was 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.%. The results of the compressive strength of manufactured materials were presented and basing on the microscopic observations the effect of the volume content of strengthening alumina particles on the cracking mechanisms during compression at indicated temperatures were shown and discussed. The highest compressive strength of 470 MPa at ambient temperature showed composite materials strengthened with 40 vol.% of α-Al2O3 particles.

  3. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  4. Fabrication of flower-like tin/carbon composite microspheres as long-lasting anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyung-Seok [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang-Kook [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung-Do, E-mail: kdsuh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of the flower-like tin/carbon (Sn/C) composite microspheres using sulfonated semi-interpenetrating polystyrene (SPS) microspheres as a carbon precursor. The sulfonation degree of SPS has great effects on the resulting particle size, morphology, amount of introduced Sn, and the carbonization yield of the microspheres after heat treatment. The obtained Sn/C composite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused-ion beam SEM, and X-ray diffraction. The flower-like Sn/C composite electrodes exhibited higher charge-discharge capacities than those of graphite as an anode material for a lithium ion battery. In addition, they show a long lasting cyclability, even through 400 cycles. - Highlights: • Tin nanocrystals are introduced in flower-like carbon spheres with many ripples. • Long lasting cyclability is exhibited at 1 C rate up to 400 cycles. • Tin content of composite spheres depends on chemical treatment of polymer microspheres.

  5. Assessing Worker Exposures during Composite Material and Fiberglass Repair: A Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    OEEL, without regard to the use of respirators, shall have shower facilities or other suitable decontamination available [32]. 6.4.2 Dust Removal...use mechanically fastened aluminum or stainless steel patches to repair composite material damage, or repair the composite material damage using...world CBRN environment. If the vacuum mechanism of ventilated tools becomes contaminated with radioactive particulates or chemical/biological agents

  6. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  7. Profiling the triacylglyceride contents in bat integumentary lipids by preparative thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Risch, Thomas S; Savary, Brett J

    2013-09-05

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals.

  8. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Rosana Petinatti da

    2002-01-01

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  9. REFERENCE MATERIALS SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC METHODICAL CENTRE OF STATE SERVICE OF REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS URAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR METROLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Osinseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960s UNIIM performs research in the field of needs in reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials (RM as well as develops it. During the research UNIIM has developed 757 types of RMs for metrological measurement assurance of factors of composition and properties of substance and materials for test laboratories of chemical, pharmaceutical, fuel, food industry, agriculture, metallurgy and ecological monitoring laboratories. List ofRMs enlarges thanks to development of UNIIM standards and transmission measurement facility from State standards of units. Taking into account the actual requirements in the field of measurements, the UNIIM's key destination is to assure the accuracy and the metrological traceability of measurements. The present-day system of RMs to be developed in UNIIM includes RMs of composition of inorganic and organic compounds and their solutions, fuels, stable isotopic materials, water, grounds, food products, biomaterials, nanomaterials, metals, alloys and other materials offerrous and non-ferrous industry, RMs of properties (thermodynamic, magnetic, physical-chemical, technical of substances and materials. The present article considers history of RMs list development which were created by UNIIM and the strategy of this direction.

  10. Structural, chemical and electrical characterisation of conductive graphene-polymer composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Barry; Spencer, Steve J.; Belsey, Natalie A. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Faris, Tsegie [DZP Technologies Ltd., Future Business Centre, Cambridge, CB4 2HY (United Kingdom); Cronin, Harry [DZP Technologies Ltd., Future Business Centre, Cambridge, CB4 2HY (United Kingdom); Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Silva, S. Ravi P. [Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sainsbury, Toby; Gilmore, Ian S. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Stoeva, Zlatka [DZP Technologies Ltd., Future Business Centre, Cambridge, CB4 2HY (United Kingdom); Pollard, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.pollard@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) imaging of the dispersion of graphene within graphene-polymer composites using the Na{sup +} signal. - Highlights: • Relation of properties of graphene flakes with electrical properties of composite. • Standardised characterisation method for structural properties of graphene flakes. • Structural and chemical characterisation of commercial graphene flakes. • ToF-SIMS used to determine dispersion of graphene in polymer. - Abstract: Graphene poly-acrylic and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite films were produced using two alternative commercial graphene powders to explore how the graphene flake dimensions and chemical composition affected the electrical performance of the film. A range of analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), were employed to systematically analyse the initial graphene materials as well as the nanocomposite films. Electrical measurements indicated that the sheet resistance of the films was affected by the properties of the graphene flakes used. To further explore the composition of the films, ToF-SIMS mapping was employed and provided a direct means to elucidate the nature of the graphene dispersion in the films and to correlate this with the electrical analysis. These results reveal important implications for how the dispersion of the graphene material in films produced from printable inks can be affected by the type of graphene powder used and the corresponding effect on electrical performance of the nanocomposites. This work provides direct evidence for how accurate and comparable characterisation of the graphene material is required for real-world graphene materials to develop graphene enabled films and proposes a measurement protocol for comparing graphene materials that can be used for international

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE STEMS DEPENDING ON THE CUTTING HEIGHT OF PLANTS AT HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneus KOWALIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in the two years in Trzcianka near Nowy Tomyśl, on brown soil, IIIa – IVa with pH 7.1 – 7.2. Plants of five maize cultivars were cut at the height of 15 cm and 55 cm. The lower parts of stems with leaves which remain on the field in case of high cutting, were characterized by a smaller content of protein and by a greater content of fibre, in comparison with the higher parts of plants. The energetic value of 1 kg of dry matter of the lower 40 cm part with leaves expressed in MJ NEL, in spite of significant differences in the chemical composition, was only insignificantly lower than the upper part. The content of dry matter, the chemical composition and the energetic value of both parts differed, depending on the cultivar.

  12. Thermosetting materials of the radiation-modified polymer compositions. 3. Development of thermoplastic thermosetting materials from polymeric blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkis, V.; Zicans, J.; Bocoka, T.; Ivanova, T.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies of blends consisting of chemically and radiation modified polyethylene and ethylene-propylene-diene copolymers have been carried out. Measurements of crystallinity, toughness, viscoelastic, adhesion and thermorelaxation properties as well as scanning electron-microscopic studies have shown that the blends chemically vulcanized by elastomer phase crosslinking system possess a typical double-phase structure within the whole composition range and characteristics specific for rubber, whereas, in radiation-vulcanized blends where crosslinking of both disperse phases takes part, formation of chemical bonds between these phases was observed. Consequently, the radiation treatment improves the properties of the blends, and materials formed by such a system can be successfully used, e.g., as elastic and adhesion active thermosetting materials if the polymer is previously oriented. (author)

  13. Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudár, András; López, María J; Keledi, Gergely; Vargas-García, M Carmen; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín; Burgstaller, Christoph; Pukánszky, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Recycled polypropylene (rPP) was recovered from an industrial shredder and composites were prepared with a relatively wide range of wood content and with two coupling agents, a maleated PP (MAPP) and a maleated ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (MAEPDM). The mechanical properties of the composites showed that the coupling agents change structure only slightly, but interfacial adhesion quite drastically. The durability of the materials was determined by exposing them to a range of fungi and, ecotoxicity was studied on the aquatic organism Vibrio fischeri. The composites generally exhibit low acute toxicity, with values below the levels considered to have direct ecotoxic effect on aquatic ecosystems (deterioration proved that wood facilitates fungal colonization. Fungi caused slight mass loss (below 3%) but it was not correlated with substantial deterioration in material properties. MAPP seems to be beneficial in the retention of mechanical properties during fungal attack. rPP/wood composites can be considered non-ecotoxic and quite durable, but the influence of wood content on resistance to fungal attack must be taken into account for materials intended for applications requiring long-term outdoor exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidation and creep behaviour of dense silicon nitride materials with different compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernstberger, U.

    1985-09-01

    The study was intended to yield information on the oxidation and creep behaviour of Si 3 N 4 materials of different composition and microstructure, and produced by different processes. The experiments carried out in a vast temperature and load range showed that the chemical grain boundary composition is the key parameter affecting the materials' high-temperature properties. Significant correlations could be established between oxidation and creep behaviour on the one hand, and between microstructure and the behaviour on the other. (orig./IHOE) [de

  15. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  16. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  17. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  18. TRUPACT-II Content Codes (TRUCON), Revision 8 and list of chemicals and materials in TRUCON (chemical list), Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT-II) Content Codes document (TRUCON) represents the development of a new content code system for shipping contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in TRUPACT-II. It will be used to convert existing waste forms, content codes, and any other identification codes into a system that is uniform throughout for all the Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These various codes can be grouped under the newly formed shipping content codes without any loss of waste characterization information. The TRUCON document provides a parametric description for each content code for waste generated and compiles this information for all ten DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in the TRUCON document for each content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code essentially gives a description of the CH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, and the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the TRUPACT-II package can be performed

  19. Chemical Weathering on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Chemical and phase compositions of Venus's surface could reflect history of gas- and fluid-rock interactions, recent and past climate changes, and a loss of water from the Earth's sister planet. The concept of chemical weathering on Venus through gas-solid type reactions has been established in 1960s after the discovery of hot and dense CO2-rich atmosphere inferred from Earth-based and Mariner 2 radio emission data. Initial works suggested carbonation, hydration, and oxidation of exposed igneous rocks and a control (buffering) of atmospheric gases by solid-gas type chemical equilibria in the near-surface lithosphere. Calcite, quartz, wollastonite, amphiboles, and Fe oxides were considered likely secondary minerals. Since the late 1970s, measurements of trace gases in the sub-cloud atmosphere by Pioneer Venus and Venera entry probes and Earth-based infrared spectroscopy doubted the likelihood of hydration and carbonation. The H2O gas content appeared to be low to allow a stable existence of hydrated and a majority of OH-bearing minerals. The concentration of SO2 was too high to allow the stability of calcite and Ca-rich silicates with respect to sulfatization to CaSO4. In 1980s, the supposed ongoing consumption of atmospheric SO2 to sulfates gained support by the detection of an elevated bulk S content at Venera and Vega landing sites. The induced composition of the near-surface atmosphere implied oxidation of ferrous minerals to magnetite and hematite, consistent with the infrared reflectance of surface materials. The likelihood of sulfatization and oxidation has been illustrated in modeling experiments at simulated Venus conditions. Venus's surface morphology suggests that hot surface rocks and fines of mainly mafic composition contacted atmospheric gases during several hundreds of millions years since a global volcanic resurfacing. Some exposed materials could have reacted at higher and lower temperatures in a presence of diverse gases at different altitudinal

  20. Composition of LHB Comets and Their Influence on the Early Earth Atmosphere Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, C.; Kupper, S.; Ilgner, M.; Kuehrt, E.; Motschmann, U.

    2011-01-01

    Two main processes were responsible for the composition of this atmosphere: chemical evolution of the volatile fraction of the accretion material forming the planet and the delivery of gasses to the planetary surface by impactors during the late heavy bombardment (LHB). The amount and composition of the volatile fraction influences the outgassing of the Earth mantle during the last planetary formation period. A very weakened form of outgassing activity can still be observed today by examining the composition of volcanic gasses. An enlightenment of the second process is based on the sparse records of the LHB impactors resulting from the composition of meteorites, observed cometary comas, and the impact material found on the Moon. However, for an assessment of the influence of the outgassing on the one hand and the LHB event on the other, one has to supplement the observations with numerical simulations of the formation of volatiles and their incorporation into the accretion material which is the precursors of planetary matter, comets and asteroids. These simulations are performed with a combined hydrodynamic-chemical model of the solar nebula (SN). We calculate the chemical composition of the gas and dust phase of the SN. From these data, we draw conclusions on the upper limits of the water content and the amount of carbon and nitrogen rich volatiles incorporated later into the accretion material. Knowing these limits we determine the portion of major gas compounds delivered during the LHB and compare it with the related quantities of the outgassed species.

  1. Ensiling on chemical composition and in vitro fermentation in rabbits of different forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Angeles Hernandez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The effect of chemical composition of silages on in vitro gas fermentation profiles in rabbits was examined. The study was performed using 7 silages: beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, faba bean (FB, Vicia faba, common vetch (CV, Vicia sativa, ryegrass (Lolium perenne, barley (B, Hordeum vulgare, barley with common vetch (BCV and barley with faba bean (BFB. We used 3 New Zealand White (NZW rabbits as donors of caecal content in each incubation run (n=3. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized experimental design. The CV silage showed higher values of crude protein (CP, followed by FB and bean silages (P<0.001. Barley silage had the lowest CP content (96g kg-1 DM (P=0.001. The NDF and ADF content were lower (P<0.001 for beans and CV compared with the rest of the forage silages. Ryegrass silage had higher values of dry matter degradation, organic matter degradation, relative GP and SCFA (P<0.001. The highest values of digestible energy were for CV and bean silages (P<0.001. Ryegrass and CV silages showed higher levels in GP parameters, which could be associated with their better chemical composition characteristics, mainly protein and fiber content.

  2. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Failure Modes of a Basalt Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the fiber orientation angle is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all increase with increasing fiber volume fraction. A certain degree of fiber clustering appears in the epoxy resin when the basalt fiber volume fraction is >1.2%. The fiber equidistribution coefficient and clustering fiber content were used to characterize the basalt fiber clustering effect. With the increase of fiber volume fraction, the clustering fiber content gradually increased, but the fiber equidistribution coefficient decreased. Meanwhile, based on Tsai theory, a geometric model and a tensile mechanical model of the clustering fiber are established. By considering the fiber clustering effect, the BF/EP composite material tensile strength is calculated, and the calculated values are close to the experimental results.

  3. [Comparison of chemical composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum by UPLC-TQ-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-yue; Wang, Hong-lan; Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Gong, Yan; Yan, Wen-li; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-10-01

    Toad venom is the Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus after the ears of the gland secretion, used in the treatment of various cancers in recent years. Research shows that the main anti-tumor components in bufadienolide. Bufadienolide have free type structure and conjunct type structure. To identify and clarify the difference between bufogenin and bufotoxin contained in Bufonis Venenum, which was from B. bufo gargarizans, an UPLC-TQ-MS method has been established. UPLC-TQ-MS method was used to identify and quantify the major bufadienolides in Bufonis Venenum. UPLC-TQ-MS assay with positive ion mode was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C, (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0. 1% aqueous formic and acidacetonitrile in gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL · min⁻¹ and the column temperature was set at 35 °C. By comparing their retention time and high resolution mass data of Bufonis Venenum extracts, 37 effective components were primarily identified by MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Twenty-six of them were free-type bufadienolides (bufogenin), 11 of them were conjugated bufadienolides. There were significant differences in the main composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum. The study found that the chemical composition of toad venom through great changes after processing, conjunct type content is much less, free type content as well change.

  4. Preparation of the Jaws Damaged Parts from Composite Biopolymers Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyam A. Al-husseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials composing of fusing two materials or more are disaccorded in mechanical and physical characteristics, The studied the effect of changing in the reinforcement percentage by Hydroxyapatite Prepared nano world via the size of the nanoscale powder manufacturing manner chemical precipitation and microwave powders were two types their preparations have been from natural sources: the first type of eggshells and the other from the bones of fish in mechanical Properties which include the tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation, hardness and tear for composite material consisting of Silicone rubber (SIR reinforced by (µ-n-HA, after strengthening silicone rubber Protect proportions (5,10,15,20 wt% of Article achieved results that increase the additive lead to increased hardness while tougher and modulus of elasticity decreases with added as shown in the diagrams.

  5. Electrodeposition of Copper/Carbonous Nanomaterial Composite Coatings for Heat-Dissipation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuki Goto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonous nanomaterials are promising additives for composite coatings for heat-dissipation materials because of their excellent thermal conductivity. Here, copper/carbonous nanomaterial composite coatings were prepared using nanodiamond (ND as the carbonous nanomaterial. The copper/ND composite coatings were electrically deposited onto copper substrates from a continuously stirred copper sulfate coating bath containing NDs. NDs were dispersed by ultrasonic treatment, and the initial bath pH was adjusted by adding sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid solution before electrodeposition. The effects of various coating conditions—the initial ND concentration, initial bath pH, stirring speed, electrical current density, and the amount of electricity—on the ND content of the coatings were investigated. Furthermore, the surface of the NDs was modified by hydrothermal treatment to improve ND incorporation. A higher initial ND concentration and a higher stirring speed increased the ND content of the coatings, whereas a higher initial bath pH and a greater amount of electricity decreased it. The electrical current density showed a minimum ND content at approximately 5 A/dm2. Hydrothermal treatment, which introduced carboxyl groups onto the ND surface, improved the ND content of the coatings. A copper/ND composite coating with a maximum of 3.85 wt % ND was obtained.

  6. Chemically bonded ceramic matrix composites: Densification and conversion to diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.R.; Guelguen, M.A.; Kriven, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Chemically bonded ceramics appear to be a promising alternative route for near-net shape fabrication of multi-phase ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). The hydraulic (and refractory) properties of fine mono-calcium aluminate (CaAl 2 O 4 ) powders were used as the chemically bonding matrix phase, while calcia stabilized zirconia powders were the second phase material. Samples containing up to 70 wt% (55 vol%) zirconia have been successfully compacted and sintered. Various processing techniques were evaluated. Processing was optimized based on material properties, dilatometry and simultaneous thermal analysis (DTA/TGA). The physical characteristics of this novel CMC were characterized by hardness, density, and fracture toughness testing. Microstructures were evaluated by SEM and phase identification was verified using XRD

  7. Comparative study of essential oil content and composition of Ducrosia anethifolia at two phenologocal stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karimi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ducrosia anethifolia is one species which belongs to Apiaceae family that is used to improve the odor of foods and drinks. It is used also to treat catarrh, headache and backache in folk medicine. The herb is also reported to relax the mind and body and induce a peaceful sleep. The growing stage has an important role in quantity and quality of medicinal plants metabolite. In this study, the oil content and composition of D. anethifolia at two growth stages (full flowering and seed formation were studied. Methods: Oil content of this plant was isolated by hydrodistillation method by Clevenger type apparatus. Chemical composition was detected by GC and GC/MS analysis. Results: The results showed that the phenological stage had significant effect on the oil content and composition. Oil content at seed formation was more than the flowering stage (0.24 and 0.96% v/w, respectively. At the flowering stage, n-dodecanal (14.43%, dodecanal (13.30% and n-decanoic acid (11.61% were the major constituents while in the seed formation stage, they were detected slightly. Besides, at seed formation stage cis-chrysanthenyl acetae (39.06%, cubenol (7.97% and p-cymene-7-ol (4.30% were identified as the main composition. Conclusion: The results showed depending on our goal for each plant usage, the harvest time could be different; during seed formation the oil content increased significantly.

  8. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  9. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  10. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachman, S

    1988-09-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased.

  11. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.; Zegota, A.; Bachmann, S.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased. (orig.) [de

  12. Thermal performance study of form-stable composite phase change material with polyacrylic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Shin Yiing; Munusamy, Yamuna; Ong, Kok Seng; Chee, Swee Yong; Sanmuggam, Shimalaa

    2017-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used as thermal energy storage material because it is able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. In this work, the form-stable composite PCM was prepared by blending of PMMA and myristic acid in different weight percentage. PMMA was used as a supporting material while myristic acid was used as PCM. Theoretically, PCM can be encapsulated in the support material after blending. However, a small amount of liquid PCMs can leak out from supporting material due to the volume change in phase change process. Therefore, a form-stable composite PCM with polyacrylic coating was studied. Leakage test was carried out to determine the leakage percentage of the form-stable composite PCM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the chemical compatibility of the form-stable PCM composite while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the melting, freezing point and the latent heat of melting and freezing for the form-stable composite PCM.

  13. Properties of carbon composite paper derived from coconut coir as a function of polytetrafluoroethylene content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destyorini, Fredina; Indriyati; Indayaningsih, Nanik; Prihandoko, Bambang; Zulfia Syahrial, Anne

    2018-03-01

    The carbon composite papers were produced by utilizing carbon materials from coconut coir. In the present work, carbon composite papers (CCP) were prepared by mixing carbon materials in the form of powder and fibre with polymer (ethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene glycol) in xylene at 100°C. Then, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with different content was used to treat the surface of CCP. The properties of PTFE-coated CCP were analysed by means of contact angle measurement, tensile testing, porosity, density, and electrical conductivity measurements. As expected, all CCP’s surfaces treated with PTFE were found to be hydrophobic with contact angle >120° and relatively constant during 60 minutes measurement. Furthermore, water contact angle, density, and mechanical properties of CCP generally increase with increasing PTFE content. However, the porosity and electrical conductivity of CCP decrease slightly as the PTFE content increased from 0 wt% to 30 wt%. Based on the observation and analysis, the optimum PTFE content on CCP was 20 %, in which the mechanical properties and hydrophobicity behaviour were improved significantly, but it was only caused a very small drop in porosity and electrical conductivity

  14. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboril, Radek, E-mail: zboril@prfnw.upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek [Military Institute VOP-026 Sternberk, Division in Brno, Rybkova 8, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Sharma, Virender K., E-mail: vsharma@fit.edu [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Center of Ferrate Excellence, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3 Prime -imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants ({approx}10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} s{sup -1}). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  15. PIXE and GC–MS investigation for the determination of the chemical composition of Syrian Cuminum cyminum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihawy, M.S.; Bakraji, E.H.; Odeh, A.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were investigated. The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique was used to analyze a wide range of elements from Mg to Sr. The advantages and disadvantages of the PIXE technique in plant material elemental analysis are discussed. A high level of iron was detected in the cumin samples, clarifying the possible contribution of cumin to maintaining the immune system. The contribution of the elements in cumin seeds to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) of elements was evaluated. Additionally, GC–MS measurements were performed to determine the chemical composition of cumin essential oil. Twenty-one components were identified, and cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, o-cymene, limonene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents. A correlation between the chemical composition of cumin seeds and their use as a traditional remedy is proposed. - Highlights: • To our knowledge, there is no published studies focus on the Syrian cumin composition (neither elemental nor essential oil components) in spite of its valuable medicinal importance in the country. • This work is basically dedicated to investigate both elemental content and essential oil component of the Syrian cumin seeds. • The elemental analysis was performed using PIXE, a very powerful elemental analysis technique and the essential oil components were determined using GC–MS

  16. Composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrook, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor composite is described comprising at least one longitudinally extending superconductor filament or bundle of sub-filaments, each filament or bundle of sub-filaments being surrounded by and in good electrical contact with a matrix material, the matrix material comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending cells of a metal of high electrical conductivity surrounded by a material of lower electrical conductivity. The high electrical conductivity material surrounding the superconducting filament or bundle of sub-filaments is interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of the lower electrical conductivity, the arrangement being such that at least two superconductor filaments or sub-filaments are circumferentially circumscribed by a single annulus of the material of high electrical conductivity. The annulus is electrically interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of low electrical conductivity

  17. Method of quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-conducting composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, V.N.; Zhuravlev, V.V.; Petranovskij, V.P.; Pimenov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Technique for quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-containing composite materials, SnO 2 -InSn, WO 3 -InW, Zn)-InZn in particular, has been developed. The method of determining metal content in a composite is based on the dependence of superconducting transition temperature on alloy composition. Sensitivity of temperature determination - 0.02K, error of analysis for InSn system - 0.5%

  18. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  19. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  20. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Charwat-Pessler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT, through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.

  1. New Design Concept for an Excavator Arms by Using Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzi, L.; Assi, A.; Ceresoli, F.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to lightweight design an excavator arms, by using a different materials and in particular composite material. Specifically, the research is based on the study of a commercial excavator, by determining its geometry and analyzing the load conditions to which it is exposed. These are determined in relation to either the load diagram of the machine or the possible utilities of the excavator, such as the rotation of the machine. The materials used and implemented in the different analytical and numerical elaborations are classic construction steel S 355 (UNI EN 10025-3), high-resistance steel S 890 (UNI EN 10025-6), aluminum Al 6063 T6 (UNI EN 573-3) and the composite material made by carbon fiber and epoxy resin. The adopted constraints for the design of new arms with different materials, non-conventional for these applications, are numerous. The new solutions must present a safety factor either with respect to the yield tensile strength or to the critical load of buckling greater than or equal to the one determined for the excavator in its original geometrical conformation. Another criterion, which has heavily conditioned the geometry of the arms, was given by the fact that the developed solutions must present a very similar value of the maximum displacement in the different load conditions analyzed. A new geometry for arms made by composite material was developed. It was an elliptical conic section, instead of the classic rectangular section, in order to use the filament winding technological process. As for the adoption of the composite material, we focused on the study and the design of this material as long as the interaction with the extremities (made of aluminum) which are interfaced either with the link between the arms or with the elements of the hydraulic plant which serves for the arms movement. From the results developed, it emerges that the solution developed by adopting composite materials is the one that permits the

  2. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  3. Chemical composition of a yellowish rainfall by the application of PIXE and micro-PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Information of the chemical properties of rain fallen during the Asian dust (AD) event will help us to better understand the wet scavenging processes of dust particles. In this study, the chemical characteristics of rainwater and individual raindrops fallen during the AD storm have been investigated. The yellowish rainwater and individual raindrops were collected simultaneously in Kyoto, Japan on 7 April 2001. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was employed in the determination of chemical properties of soluble and insoluble fractions of rainwater. In addition, micro-PIXE was applied to the chemical analysis of residual materials retained in the initial individual raindrops. The pH level of yellowish rainwater was measured around 6.7. In compliance with the general expectation, major components in rainwater were of soil-origin such as Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. These soil-related components contributed to as much as 92% of total elemental composition in both soluble and insoluble fractions. By scanning a micro-beam, the residual particle cluster in individual raindrops was reconstructed in terms of an elemental map. This visualized elemental map in fact enabled us not only to estimate the chemical mixing state of raindrop residual particles but also to presume the wet scavenging of dust particles by rainfall

  4. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  5. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of waste generated in the petroleum industry and its correlation with 226Ra and 228Ra contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.H.; Godoy, J.M.O.

    2004-01-01

    Scales and sludge are commonly formed during oil and gas extracting and processing operations. They usually appear when injection and formation water with different chemical characteristics come into contact. When the produced water is brought to the surface alongside with the oil, the precipitate can be deposited on the walls of tubing and equipment, forming the so-called scales. Otherwise they can also accumulate in the form of sludge on the bottom of storage tanks, separators, and other equipment. Radium is the main radionuclide brought to the surface with oil and produced water and it co-precipitates with barium forming complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates and silicates. These compounds are the main constituents of scale and sludge. The objective of this work was to relate the radium content of scales and sludge to their chemical and mineralogical composition. Samples were taken from a PETROBRAS unit in the State of Sergipe, in Northeast Brazil. They were collected either from the inner surface of water pipes or from containers stored in the waste storage area of the unit. Oil was separated from the solid material in a Soxhlet extractor equipment by using aguarras as solvent. The concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by gamma spectrometry. The mineralogical and the chemical composition of the samples were determined by x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence, respectively, and used to characterize the samples as scales or sludge. The results have shown that scales are mainly formed by BaSO 4 and CaCO 3 while sludge has a higher content of SiO 2 and FeO 3 than that observed on the scale samples. The measured activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra are strongly correlated for both kinds of samples. Based on the 228 Th/ 228 Ra ratio, ages between one and five years were estimated for the material stored in the waste area. (author)

  6. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Vicente; Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis; Romero, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N 2 /77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H 2 and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  7. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Vicente, E-mail: vicente.jimenez@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Romero, Amaya [Escuela Tecnica Agricola, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N{sub 2}/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H{sub 2} and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  8. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  9. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  10. Composição química de amêndoas fermentadas de cacau Chemical, composition of fermented cacao beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process 10-12% in weight of cacao beans, which consist of seed coat and embryo, are discarded. The above mentioned material has a potential for utilization as animal food and purine base source. Therefore the chemical composition was determined in each part of the beans (seed coat, embryo and cotyledons after fermentation and drying. The principal compounds of the cotyledons are lipids (48% of which 57% are saturated fatty acids. Total nitrogen, total sugar, and starch content in the seed coat and embryo varied between 3-5%, 5-6%, 11-24%, whereas crude fiber content was 20%. The theobromine and caffeine content varied between 0.6-0.9% and in the cotyledons around 0.5%.

  11. Municipal Sewage Sludge Drying Treatment by an Composite Modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Na Wei

    2012-01-01

    A sludge composite modifier (SCM) which comprises a mixture of three cementitious components was proposed for sludge drying and stabilization. Effect of SCM components on sludge moisture content was analyzed using uniform design and the optimum composition of SCM was determined by computer-aided modeling and optimization. To compare the drying effect of SCM, quicklime, and Portland cement, the effects of material content and curing time on moisture content of sludge were also studied. The res...

  12. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass) by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim; Halizah Awang; Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf, corn (Zea mays) stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier ...

  13. Functionalization of Graphene Oxide and its Composite with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minchao; Jamal, Ruxangul; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Abdiryim, Tursun

    2015-09-01

    In this study, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/thiophene-grafted graphene oxide (PEDOT/Th-GO) composites from covalently linking of Th-GO with PEDOT chains were prepared via in situ chemical polymerization with different weight percentage of Th-GO ranging between 40 and 70 % in reaction medium. The resulting composite materials were characterized using a various analytical techniques. The structural analysis showed that the composites displayed a higher degree of conjugation and thermal stability than pure PEDOT, and the weight percentage of Th-GO could affect the doping level, amount of undesired conjugated segments, and porous structure of composites. Electrochemical analysis suggested that the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 with good cycling stability (capacitance retention of 80 % at 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles) was achieved for the composite prepared from 50 wt% Th-GO content in reaction medium.

  14. The usefulness of intermediate products of plum processing for alcoholic fermentation and chemical composition of the obtained distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Characterization of composite materials based on cement-ceramic powder blended binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovaná, Tereza; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of newly developed composite mortars with incorporated ceramic powder coming from precise brick cutting as partial Portland cement replacement up to 40 mass% is presented in the paper. Fine ceramic powder belongs to the pozzolanic materials. Utilization of pozzolanic materials is accompanied by lower request on energy needed for Portland clinker production which generally results in lower production costs of blended binder and lower CO2 emission. In this paper, the ceramic powder is used in cement based mortar composition in amount of 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 mass% of cement. Chemical composition of ceramic powder is analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction. The particle size distribution of ceramics is accessed on laser diffraction principle. For 28 days cured mortar samples, basic physical and mechanical properties are experimentally determined. The obtained results demonstrate that ceramic powder has potential to replace a part of Portland cement in composition of cement based composites and to reduce negative environmental impact of their production.

  16. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  17. Morpho-Productive and Chemical Composition of Local and Foreign Sweet Corn Hybrids Grown in the Conditions of Transylvania Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana PĂCURAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the Gramineae family, var. rugosa (Bonof convar. Saccharate (Sturt. and can be distinguished from normal corn by presence of one or more mutant genes that affect carbohydrate metabolism in endosperm. Purpose of this research is to compare behavior of sweet corn hybrids created at SCDA Turda, but also foreign hybrids, in terms of quality elements and chemical composition, in conditions of Transylvania plateau, in two localities: Turda and Viişoara. As biological material following domestic sweet corn hybrids were chosen: ‘Prima’, ‘Estival’, ‘Deliciul verii’, ‘Dulcin’, ‘Delicios’, ‘Estival M’ and foreign hybrid ‘Jubilee’. These hybrids were also analyzed in terms of chemical composition. Weight of ‘Estival’ hybrid has the best behavior in both localities; as regards to cobs length, ‘Delicios’ hybrid has registered increases very significant positive, differences between plant height in the two localities confirm significant influence of environment on formation of this important typical qualitative characteristics, highest performances in terms of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin content, are recorded by ‘Jubilee’ in both localities, ‘Deliciul Verii’ hybrid records significant value for lutein content, also recording an important addition of carbohydrates in Turda, ‘Prima’ and ‘Estival’ hybrids recorded highest values of sucrose in both localities.

  18. Nanostructured polyaniline rice husk composite as adsorption materials synthesized by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Thi Tot; Mai, Thi Thanh Thuy; Mai, Thi Xuan; Tran, Hai Yen; Phan, Thi Binh; Bui, Minh Quy

    2014-01-01

    Composites based on polyaniline (PANi) and rice husk (RH) were prepared by two methods: the first one was chemical method by combining RH contained in acid medium and aniline using ammonium persulfate as an oxidation agent and the second one was that of soaking RH into PANi solution. The presence of PANi combined with RH to form nanocomposite was clearly demonstrated by infrared (IR) spectra as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Lead(II) and cadmium(II) ion concentrations in solution before and after adsorption process on those composites were analysed by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Of the above preparation methods, the soaking one provided a composite onto which the maximum adsorption capacity was higher for lead(II) ion (200 mg g −1 ), but lower for cadmium(II) ion (106.383 mg g −1 ) in comparison with the chemical one. However, their adsorption process occurring on both composites also fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm model. (paper)

  19. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    involves several steps to prepare the samples mechanically and/or chemically for final analysis. Not all sample preparation methods are equally well suited for specific waste characterization purposes. The correctness of results and practical feasibility of sample preparation was strongly affected...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions....... The results for parameters associated with organic matter confirmed the idea of cross-contaminated recyclables in residual waste, whereas the results for heavy metals and trace elements were more complex. For many fractions rather high metal contents were found to be intrinsic properties of the recyclables...

  20. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  1. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Björn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  3. Chemical Composition and Hypotensive Effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Santariano Sant’Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa on the blood pressure of normotensive rats, analyzing the possible action mechanism using experimental and in silico procedures. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration. The leaves of C. xanthocarpa presented the relevant content of phenolics and flavonoids, and we suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and theobromine. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa has a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in normotensive rats, suggesting that the action mechanism may be mediated through the renin-angiotensin system by AT1 receptor blockade and sympathetic autonomic response. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor (AT1R active site. The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. xanthocarpa constituents for use as preventive agents for blood pressure.

  4. Chemical synthesis of Cd-free wide band gap materials for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankapal, B.R.; Sartale, S.D.; Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin (Germany). Department of Solar Energy Research; Lokhande, C.D. [Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India). Department of Physics

    2004-07-01

    Chemical methods are nowadays very attractive, since they are relatively simple, low cost and convenient for larger area deposition of thin films. In this paper, we outline our work related to the synthesis and characterization of some wide band gap semiconducting material thin films prepared by using solution methods, namely, chemical bath deposition and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The optimum preparative parameters are given and respective structural, surface morphological, compositional, optical, and electrical properties are described. Some materials we used in solar cells as buffer layers and achieved remarkable results, which are summarized. (author)

  5. Room-Temperature, Ambient-Pressure Chemical Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Hierarchical Carbon-Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changju; Kim, Jinmin; Kim, Ju Young; Ji, Seulgi; Lee, Sun Sook; Kang, Yongku; Choi, Youngmin; Suk, Jungdon; Jeong, Sunho

    2018-02-07

    Recently, the achievement of newly designed carbon-sulfur composite materials has attracted a tremendous amount of attention as high-performance cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. To date, sulfur materials have been generally synthesized by a sublimation technique in sealed containers. This is a well-developed technique for the synthesizing of well-ordered sulfur materials, but it is limited when used to scale up synthetic procedures for practical applications. In this study, we suggest an easily scalable, room-temperature/ambient-pressure chemical pathway for the synthesis of highly functioning cathode materials using electrostatically assembled, amine-terminated carbon materials. It is demonstrated that stable cycling performance outcomes are achievable with a capacity of 730 mAhg -1 at a current density of 1 C with good cycling stability by a virtue of the characteristic chemical/physical properties (a high conductivity for efficient charge conduction and the presence of a number of amine groups that can interact with sulfur atoms during electrochemical reactions) of composite materials. The critical roles of conductive carbon moieties and amine functional groups inside composite materials are clarified with combinatorial analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  6. Chemical composition of phytoplankton and Particulate Organic Matter in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Ríos

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Elemental (C, H, O, N, Si, P and biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll and opal in particulate organic matter, diatoms, other autotrophs, heterotrophs and detritus from natural plankton were established simultaneously by measuring relatively few components. Using standard techniques in marine chemistry on board ship, it is possible to infer a great deal about the composition and condition of the plankton. In addition, the organic matter content in terms of cell volume was determined for each group of plankton. Variation of chemical composition with depth was also considered. The ratio carbohydrates/lipids (Cbh/Lip was used as an indicator of the chemical quality of the plankton.

  7. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykter, Minna; Kymaelaeinen, Hanna-Riitta; Sjoeberg, Anna-Maija [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders [Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lilholt, Hans [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Koponen, Hilkka [Department of Applied Biology, Section of Plant Pathology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pectinase enzyme treatment followed by thermal treatments (steam explosion and dry heating) on the microbial quality and chemical composition of hemp fibres. Before these treatments, the fibres were separated manually from the stems harvested after stand retting in the field before frost, after early frost or in the following spring. The enzymatic treatment of hemp promoted growth of moulds on the fibres (500-fold increase in colony-forming units (cfu)), whereas steam explosion reduced the amount of moulds to a relatively constant level of 10{sup 2} cfu/g dw. The amount of bacteria was not markedly affected by enzymatic treatment but was reduced tenfold after steam explosion. Steam explosion is thereby a potentially good process for the production of hemp fibres with low fungal contamination, which can be of importance in insulation materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (author)

  8. Attenuation of Neutron and Gamma Radiation by a Composite Material Based on Modified Titanium Hydride with a Varied Boron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastrebinskii, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The investigations on estimating the attenuation of capture gamma radiation by a composite neutron-shielding material based on modified titanium hydride and Portland cement with a varied amount of boron carbide are performed. The results of calculations demonstrate that an introduction of boron into this material enables significantly decreasing the thermal neutron flux density and hence the levels of capture gamma radiation. In particular, after introducing 1- 5 wt.% boron carbide into the material, the thermal neutron flux density on a 10 cm-thick layer is reduced by 11 to 176 factors, and the capture gamma dose rate - from 4 to 9 times, respectively. The difference in the degree of reduction in these functionals is attributed to the presence of capture gamma radiation in the epithermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  9. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  10. Sea spray aerosol chemical composition: elemental and molecular mimics for laboratory studies of heterogeneous and multiphase reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Timothy H; Cochran, Richard E; Grassian, Vicki H; Stone, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-03

    Sea spray aerosol particles (SSA), formed through wave breaking at the ocean surface, contribute to natural aerosol particle concentrations in remote regions of Earth's atmosphere, and alter the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on Earth's radiation budget. In addition, sea spray aerosol serves as suspended surface area that can catalyze trace gas reactions. It has been shown repeatedly that sea spray aerosol is heavily enriched in organic material compared to the surface ocean. The selective enrichment of organic material complicates the selection of representative molecular mimics of SSA for laboratory or computational studies. In this review, we first provide a short introduction to SSA formation processes and discuss chemical transformations of SSA that occur in polluted coastal regions and remote pristine air. We then focus on existing literature of the chemical composition of nascent SSA generated in controlled laboratory experiments and field investigations. We combine the evidence on the chemical properties of nascent SSA with literature measurements of SSA water uptake to assess SSA molecular composition and liquid water content. Efforts to speciate SSA organic material into molecular classes and specific molecules have led to the identification of saccharides, alkanes, free fatty acids, anionic surfactants, dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, proteinaceous matter, and other large macromolecules. However to date, less than 25% of the organic mass of nascent SSA has been quantified at a molecular level. As discussed here, quantitative measurements of size resolved elemental ratios, combined with determinations of water uptake properties, provides unique insight on the concentration of ions within SSA as a function of particle size, pointing to a controlling role for relative humidity and the hygroscopicity of SSA organic material at small particle diameters.

  11. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study on spectroscopic characterization and property of PES/ micro-nano cellulose composite membrane material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huan-Wei; Zhang, Li-Ping; Li, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Jie; Qin, Zhu; Sun, Su-Qin

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, the functional groups of PES/micro-nano cellulose composite membrane materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also, changes in crystallinity in composite membrane materials were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of micro-nano cellulose content on hydrophilic property of composite membrane material were studied by measuring hydrophilic angle. The images of support layer structure of pure PES membrane material and composite membrane material were showed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). These results indicated that in the infrared spectrogram, the composite membrane material had characteristic peaks of both PES and micro-nano cellulose without appearance of other new characteristics peaks. It revealed that there were no new functional groups in the composite membrane material, and the level of molecular compatibility was achieved, which was based on the existence of inter-molecular hydrogen bond association between PES and micro-nano cellulose. Due to the existence of micro-nano cellulose, the crystallinity of composite membrane material was increased from 37.7% to 47.9%. The more the increase in micro-nano cellulose mass fraction, the better the van de Waal force and hydrogen bond force between composite membrane material and water were enhanced. The hydrophilic angle of composite membrane material was decreased from 55.8 degrees to 45.8 degrees and the surface energy was raised from 113.7 to 123.5 mN x m(-2). Consequently, the hydrophilic property of composite membrane material was improved. The number of pores in the support layer of composite membrane material was lager than that of pure PES membrane. Apparently, pores were more uniformly distributed.

  14. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xuejuan; Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Tang, Jun; Cai, Yimin

    2017-12-01

    The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stylo. The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP) content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  15. 3.4. Chemical additives and granulometric composition influence on soils armed by cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this work was to evaluate an influence of various chemical additives on soils armed by portland cement. Experimental research of kinetics of soil cements structure formation after adding the chemicals was carried out. According to the investigations it was determined that structure formation process of soil cements depended on granulometric composition of armed soil, cement quantity, type and quantity of chemical additives.

  16. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  17. A comparison of chemical compositions of reported altered oceanic crusts and global MORB data set: implication for isotopic heterogeneity of recycled materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition of altered oceanic crust is one of important constraints to delineate chemical heterogeneity of the mantle. Accordingly, many researchers have been studied to determine bulk chemical composition of altered oceanic crust mainly based on chemical compositions of old oceanic crusts at Site 801 and Site 417/418, and young crust at Site 504 (e.g., Staudigel et al., 1996; Bach et al. 2003; Kuo et al., 2016). Their careful estimation provided reliable bulk chemical compositions of these Sites and revealed common geochemical feature of alteration. To assess effect of recycling of altered oceanic crust on chemical evolution of the mantle, it might be meaningful to discuss whether the reported chemical compositions of altered oceanic crusts can represent chemical composition of globally subducted oceanic crusts. Reported chemical compositions of fresh glass or less altered samples from Site 801, 417/418 and 504 were highly depleted compared to that of global MORB reported by Gale et al. (2013), suggesting that there might be sampling bias. Hence, it could be important to consider chemical difference between oceanic crusts of these three Sites and global MORB to discuss effect of recycling of oceanic crust on isotopic heterogeneity of the mantle. It has been suggested that one of controlling factors of chemical variation of oceanic crust is crustal spreading rate because different degree of partial melting affects chemical composition of magmas produced at a mid-ocean ridge. Crustal spreading rate could also affect intensity of alteration. Namely, oceanic crusts produced at slow-spreading ridges may prone to be altered due to existence of larger displacement faults compared to fast spreading ridges which have relatively smooth topography. Thus, it might be significant to evaluate isotopic evolution of oceanic crusts those were produced at different spreading rates. In this presentation, we will provide a possible chemical variation of altered oceanic

  18. Pressure vessel steels: influence of chemical composition on irradiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, M.M.; Hammad, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of the steels used in the construction of the nuclear reactor pressure vessels can lead to the embrittlement of these materials, increasing the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and decreasing the fracture energy, which can limit the plant life. The knowledge of irradiation embrittlement and the means for minimizing such degradation is therefore important in the field of assuring the safety of the nuclear power plants. Irradiation embrittlement is quite a complex process. It involves many variables. The most important of these are irradiation temperature, neutron fluence (neutron dose), neutron flux (neutron dose rate), and chemical composition of the irradiated material. This paper is concerned with the effect of chemical composition, the role of residual and alloying elements in the irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels in light water reactors. It presents a critical review for the published work in this field through the last 25 years

  19. A long-term variation of chemical composition in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Okimura, Takashi; Okumura, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation samples are collected at the six localities in the southwestern Japan weekly or monthly over a long period of time (1978-1989) in order to estimate chemical weathering rates and amount of weathered materials through chemical composition in natural waters. Major chemical composition is determined for the precipitation samples. Together with the data available in the literature, the following characteristics are recognized : 1) Most pH values fall in the narrow range of 4.4 to 5.4, 2) Systematic variations in pH values are observed among the precipitation samples of different geologic environments, 3) pH values become almost constant from 1984 to 1989, 4) NO 3 - concentrations gradually decrease to an almost constant value with time, and 5) ΔSO 4 2- concentrations gradually have a tendency to decrease from 1978 to 1985. The mechanism of phenomena described above is also presented. (author)

  20. Mechanical characterization of composite materials by optical techniques: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    The present review provides an overview of work published in recent years dealing with the mechanical characterization of composite materials performed by optical techniques. The paper emphasizes the strengths derived from the employment of full-field methods when the strain field of an anisotropic material must be evaluated. This is framed in contrast to the use of conventional measurement techniques, which provide single values of the measured quantities unable to offer thorough descriptions of deformation distribution. The review outlines the intensity and articulation of work in this research field to date and its ongoing importance not only in the academy, but also in industrial sectors where composite materials represent a strategic resource for development.

  1. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes,

  3. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/calcined diatomite composites as form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Yuzhong; Zheng, Shuilin; Park, Yuri; Frost, Ray L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite. ► The optimum mixed proportion was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry. ► Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC. ► Thermal cycling test showed that the prepared PCMs are thermally reliable and chemically stable. - Abstract: A composite paraffin-based phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite through the fusion adsorption method. In this study, raw diatomite was purified by thermal treatment in order to improve the adsorption capacity of diatomite, which acted as a carrier material to prepare shape-stabilized PCMs. Two forms of paraffin (paraffin waxes and liquid paraffin) with different melting points were blended together by the fusion method, and the optimum mixed proportion with a suitable phase-transition temperature was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then the prepared composite paraffin was adsorbed in calcined diatomite. The prepared paraffin/calcined diatomite composites were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC method. DSC results showed that there was an optimum adsorption ratio between composite paraffin and calcined diatomite and the phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCMs were 33.04 °C and 89.54 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test of composite PCMs showed that the prepared material is thermally reliable and chemically stable. The obtained paraffin/calcined diatomite composites have proper latent heat and melting temperatures, and show practical significance and good potential application value

  4. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/calcined diatomite composites as form-stable phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zhang, Yuzhong [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilinzh@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Park, Yuri [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Frost, Ray L., E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► Composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite. ► The optimum mixed proportion was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry. ► Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC. ► Thermal cycling test showed that the prepared PCMs are thermally reliable and chemically stable. - Abstract: A composite paraffin-based phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite through the fusion adsorption method. In this study, raw diatomite was purified by thermal treatment in order to improve the adsorption capacity of diatomite, which acted as a carrier material to prepare shape-stabilized PCMs. Two forms of paraffin (paraffin waxes and liquid paraffin) with different melting points were blended together by the fusion method, and the optimum mixed proportion with a suitable phase-transition temperature was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then the prepared composite paraffin was adsorbed in calcined diatomite. The prepared paraffin/calcined diatomite composites were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC method. DSC results showed that there was an optimum adsorption ratio between composite paraffin and calcined diatomite and the phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCMs were 33.04 °C and 89.54 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test of composite PCMs showed that the prepared material is thermally reliable and chemically stable. The obtained paraffin/calcined diatomite composites have proper latent heat and melting temperatures, and show practical significance and good potential application value.

  5. Compositional change of some first wall materials by considering multiple step nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako; Fujita, Mitsutane [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(SUS), 9Cr-2WLi{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}/He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V-SiC-RAF-SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  6. The chemical composition and mineralogy of meteorites measured with very high spatial resolution by a laser mass spectrometer for in situ planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Frey, Samira; Riedo, Andreas; Wurz, Peter; Wiesendanger, Reto

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. High resolution in situ studies on planetary surfaces can yield important information on surface heterogeneity, basic grain mineralogy and chemical composition of surface and subsurface. In turn, these data are the basis for our understanding of the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation and alteration of planetary material [1]. We investigated samples of Allende and Sayh al Uhaymir with a highly miniaturised laser mass spectrometer (LMS), which has been designed and built for in situ space research [2,3]. Both meteorite samples were investigated with a spatial resolution of about 10μm in lateral direction. The high sensitivity and high dynamic range of the LMS allow for quantitative measurements of the abundances of the rock-forming and minor and trace elements with high accuracy [4]. From the data, the modal mineralogy of micrometre-sized chondrules can be inferred [5], conclusions about the condensation sequence of the material are possible and the sensitivity for radiogenic elements allows for dating analyses of the investigated material. We measured the composition of various chondrules in Allende, offering valuable clues about the condensation sequence of the different components of the meteorite. We explicitly investigated the chemical composition and heterogeneity of the Allende matrix with an accuracy that cannot be reached by the mechanical analysis methods that were and are widely used in meteoritic research. We demonstrate the capabilities for dating analyses with the LMS. By applying the U-Th-dating method, the age of the SaU169 sample could be determined. Our analyses show that the LMS would be a suitable instrument for high-quality quantitative chemical composition measurements on the surface of a celestial body like a planet, moon or

  7. Structure and characteristics of functional powder composite materials obtained by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglezneva, S. A.; Kachenyuk, M. N.; Kulmeteva, V. B.; Ogleznev, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    The article describes the results of spark plasma sintering of ceramic materials based on titanium carbide, titanium carbosilicide, ceramic composite materials based on zirconium oxide, strengthened by carbon nanostructures and composite materials of electrotechnical purpose based on copper with addition of carbon structures and titanium carbosilicide. The research shows that the spark plasma sintering can achieve relative density of the material up to 98%. The effect of sintering temperature on the phase composition, density and porosity of the final product has been studied. It was found that with addition of carbon nanostructures the relative density and hardness decrease, but the fracture strength of ZrO2 increases up to times 2. The relative erosion resistance of the electrodes made of composite copper-based powder materials, obtained by spark plasma sintering during electroerosion treatment of tool steel exceeds that parameter of pure copper up to times 15.

  8. Preparation, chemical composition and storage studies of quamachil (Pithecellobium dulce L.) aril powder

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Galla Narsing; Nagender, Allani; Satyanarayana, Akula; Rao, Dubasi Govardhana

    2010-01-01

    Quamachil aril powder samples were prepared and evaluated for chemical composition and sensory quality by packing in two packaging systems during storage for six months. The protein contents were 12.4 and 15.0% in white and pink aril powders respectively. The titrable acidity of white and pink aril powders were 2.4 and 4.8% respectively. Ca and Fe contents in white aril powder samples were 60 and 12 mg/100 g where as in pink aril powder 62 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanin conten...

  9. Study on influence of vibration behavior of composite material damage by holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Linfeng; Zhao, Zhimin; Gao, Mingjuan; Zhuang, Xianzhong

    2006-01-01

    Composite material has been applied widely in aeronautics, astronautics and some other fields due to their high strength, light weight and antifatigue and etc. But in the application, composite material may be destroyed or damaged, which may have impact on its further applications. Therefore, study on the influence of behavior of composite material damage becomes a hot research. In this paper, the common composite material for aircraft is used as the test object, and a study is conducted to investigate the influence of vibration behavior of composite material damage. The authors adopt the method of light-carrier wave and time-average holography. Compared the interference fringes of composite materials before and after damage, the width of the interference fringes of hologram of the damaged composite material is narrower than that of the fringes before. It means that the off-plane displacement of each point on the test object is larger than before. Based on the elastic mechanics theory, the off-plane displacement is inverse to the bending stiffness, and the bending stiffness of the test object will decrease after it is damaged. In other words, the vibration property of the composite material changes after damages occur. The research results of the paper show that the results accord with the analysis of theory.

  10. Chemical composition and ruminal nutrient degradability of fresh and ensiled amaranth forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Philippe; Mustafa, Arif F; Donnelly, Danielle J; Gélinas, Bruce

    2013-12-01

    Amaranth is a crop with potential as a source of forage for ruminants that has not been well characterized. A study was conducted to determine the impact of ensiling on the nutritional quality and ruminal degradability of forage from two amaranth cultivars adapted to North America (i.e. Plainsman and D136). In particular, quantification and some microscopic characterization of oxalate found in amaranth were performed as it is an antiquality compound of concern. There were limited interactions between cultivars and ensiling for most variables. Differences in chemical composition between amaranth cultivars were also limited. Ensiling reduced non-structural carbohydrate and true protein contents. The proportion of acid detergent protein was high in fresh and ensiled forages of both cultivars (average of 177 g kg(-1) crude protein). Total oxalate content averaged 30 and 25 g kg(-1) in fresh and ensiled forages respectively. Ensiling reduced soluble oxalate content. Crystals observed in amaranth were calcium oxalate druses found mostly in idioblast cells in leaf mesophyll and parenchyma of primary and secondary veins. In situ ruminal degradability data indicated that both fresh and ensiled amaranth are highly degradable in the rumen. This study confirms that amaranth is a suitable forage for ruminant animals. Its chemical composition is comparable, for most variables, to that of other commonly used forage species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyotiprabha; Abraham, Robinson J J; Rao, V Appa; Rajini, R Asha; Mishra, B P; Sarangi, N R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.

  12. Chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and oncological disease mortality in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Fajčíková, K; Dietzová, Z; Stehlíková, B

    2017-02-01

    This study deals with the analysis of relationship between chemical composition of the groundwater/drinking water and the data on mortality from oncological diseases (MOD) in the Slovak Republic. Primary data consist of the Slovak national database of groundwater analyses (20,339 chemical analyses, 34 chemical elements/compounds) and data on MOD (17 health indicators) collected for the 10-year period (1994-2003). The chemical and health data were unified in the same form and expressed as the mean values for each of 2883 municipalities within the Slovak Republic. Pearson and Spearman correlation as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used for analysis of the relationship between chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and MOD. The most significant chemical elements having influence on MOD were identified together with their limit values (limit and optimal contents). Based on the results of calculations, made through the neural networks, the following eight chemical elements/parameters in the groundwater were defined as the most significant for MOD: Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca, Mg, TDS, Cl, HCO 3 , SO 4 and NO 3 . The results document the highest relationship between MOD and groundwater contents of Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca and Mg. We observe increased MOD with low (deficit) contents of these three parameters of groundwater/drinking water. The following limit values were set for the most significant groundwater chemicals/parameters: Ca + Mg 1.73-5.85 mmol l -1 , Ca 60.5-196.8 mg l -1 and Mg 25.6-35.8 mg l -1 . At these concentration ranges, the mortality for oncological diseases in the Slovak Republic is at the lowest levels. These limit values are about twice higher in comparison with the current Slovak valid guideline values for the drinking water.

  13. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (Δ T) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. Δ T increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of Δ T was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in Δ T and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  14. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  15. Composite Material Suitable for Use as Electrode Material in a SOC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to composite material suitable for use as an electrode material in a solid oxide cell, said composite material consist of at least two non-miscible mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Further provided is a composite material suitable for use as an electrode material...... in a solid oxide cell, said composite material being based on (Gd1-xSrx)1-sFe1-yCoyO3-[delta] or (Ln1-xSrx)1-sFe1-yCioyO3-[delta](s equal to 0.05 or larger) wherein Ln is a lanthanide element, Sc or Y, said composite material comprising at least two phases which are non-miscible, said composite material...... being obtainable by the glycine nitrate combustion method. Said composite material may be used for proving an electrode material in the form of at least a two-phase system showing a very low area specific resistance of around 0.1 [Omega]cm2 at around 600 DEG C....

  16. Mineralogy and chemical composition and distribution of rare earth elements of clay-rich sediments, Central Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyakairu, G.W.A.

    2001-02-01

    In Uganda, Precambrian rocks are extensively weathered to sediments, which are locally altered to form considerable clay deposits. Clay-rich sediment samples were collected from the Kajjansi, Kitiko, Kitetika, and Ntawo valleys (central Uganda), all of which are currently used for traditional brick, tile, and pottery manufacture. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics, and source rocks of these clay-rich sediments is not well understood. A study using modern analytical techniques, such as XRD, to obtain the bulk mineralogical composition, and XRF and INAA analyses for whole rock major and trace element abundances was performed. The results show that the sediments are dominated by kaolinite and quartz, and minor phases include smectite, chlorite, and illite/muscovite. Whole rock chemistry shows that sediment samples rich in SiO2 have low Al, Fe, Sc and Cr contents. The high chemical index of alteration (CIA) values (87 to 96), chemical index of weathering (CIW) values around 98 and low contents of the alkali and alkali earth elements of the clay-rich sediments suggest a relatively more intense weathering source area. The clay-rich sediments as raw materials for industry were classified as silty clays from grain size analysis. The chemical and mineralogical composition results show that, taken as a whole, the clay-rich sediments possess characteristics satisfactory for brick production. The chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns of the clay-rich sediments show LREE enrichments and a negative Eu anomaly. The high chondrite-normalized La/Yb ratios, and Gd/Yb ratios lower than 2.0, confirm that the sediments are enriched in the LREEs. The mineralogical composition, REE contents, and elemental ratios in these sediments suggest a provenance from mainly felsic rocks, with only minor contributions from basic sources. The basic sediments were most likely derived from metasedimentary rocks, such as muscovite-biotite schists, which are characteristic

  17. Micromechanics of Composite Materials Governed by Vector Constitutive Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    The high-fidelity generalized method of cells micromechanics theory has been extended for the prediction of the effective property tensor and the corresponding local field distributions for composites whose constituents are governed by vector constitutive laws. As shown, the shear analogy, which can predict effective transverse properties, is not valid in the general three-dimensional case. Consequently, a general derivation is presented that is applicable to both continuously and discontinuously reinforced composites with arbitrary vector constitutive laws and periodic microstructures. Results are given for thermal and electric problems, effective properties and local field distributions, ordered and random microstructures, as well as complex geometries including woven composites. Comparisons of the theory's predictions are made to test data, numerical analysis, and classical expressions from the literature. Further, classical methods cannot provide the local field distributions in the composite, and it is demonstrated that, as the percolation threshold is approached, their predictions are increasingly unreliable. XXXX It has been observed that the bonding between the fibers and matrix in composite materials can be imperfect. In the context of thermal conductivity, such imperfect interfaces have been investigated in micromechanical models by Dunn and Taya (1993), Duan and Karihaloo (2007), Nan et al. (1997) and Hashin (2001). The present HFGMC micromechanical method, derived for perfectly bonded composite materials governed by vector constitutive laws, can be easily generalized to include the effects of weak bonding between the constituents. Such generalizations, in the context of the mechanical micromechanics problem, involve introduction of a traction-separation law at the fiber/matrix interface and have been presented by Aboudi (1987), Bednarcyk and Arnold (2002), Bednarcyk et al. (2004) and Aboudi et al. (2013) and will be addressed in the future.

  18. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledjane Lima Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexibles, steel catenary risers (SCRs and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. This paper contains a study of the toughening mechanism of an epoxy resin under rubber addition by means of fractographic analysis and its relation with the fracture process and increase of strength of a composite riser employing this polymeric matrix. Initially, an epoxy resin system was toughened by rubber CTBN addition (10 wt. (% as a way of improving the flexibility of future risers. Mechanical and thermal analyses were carried out for characterizing the polymeric systems. Later, composite tubes were prepared and mechanically characterized. The influence of matrix toughening on the mechanical behavior of the tubes was also studied. Split-disk tests were used to determine the hoop tensile strength of these specimens. The results indicate that the matrix plays an important role in composite fracture processes. The adding rubber to the polymeric matrix promoted a simultaneous increase of stress and elongation at fracture of the tubes manufactured herein, which is not often reported. These results, probably, is function of better adhesion between fibers and polymeric matrix observed in the CTBN-modified composite rings, which was evidenced in the fractografic analysis by SEM after the split-disk tests.

  19. Composites materials: the technology of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.N.; Memon, I.R.; Ahmad, F.; Zafar, N.

    2001-01-01

    Composite materials have a long history of usage. Their precise beginnings are not known; however all recorded history contains references to some form of composite material. e.g. straw was used by man to strengthen mud bricks thousands of years ago. This article presents the use of advanced composites materials in aircraft and space industry. Its brief history, use in military and civil aviation, use in space program, future usage, advantages in terms of cost, weight and strength. Use of composites in unmanned aerial vehicles and problems associated with usage of composites materials are also discussed. (author)

  20. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  1. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  2. Polymer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles: optical, structural, micro-analytical and hydrogenation studies of a composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzullo, Stefania; Mondal, Kartick; Deshmukh, Amit; Scurrell, Mike; Mallick, Kaushik; Witcomb, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A single-step synthesis route is described for the preparation of a metal-polymer composite in which palladium acetate and meta-amino benzoic acid were used as the precursors for palladium nanoparticles and poly(meta-amino benzoic acid) (PABA). The palladium nanoparticles were found to be uniformly dispersed and highly stabilized throughout the macromolecule matrix. The resultant composite material was characterized by means of different techniques, such as IR and Raman spectroscopy, which provided information regarding the chemical structure of the polymer, whereas electron microscopy images yielded information regarding the morphology of the composite material and the distribution of the metal particles in the composite material. The composite material was used as a catalyst for the ethylene hydrogenation reaction and showed catalytic activity at higher temperatures. TEM studies confirmed the changed environment of the nanoparticles at these temperatures

  3. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  4. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  5. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  6. Selected mechanical properties of aluminum composite materials reinforced with SiC particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurzawa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of research concerning influence of ceramic particles’ content of silicon carbide on selected mechanical properties of type AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn - SiC composite materials. Composites produced of SiC particles with pressure infiltration method of porous preform and subject to hot plastic forming in the form of open die forging were investigated. The experimental samples contained from 5% up to 45% of reinforcing SiC particles of 8÷10μm diameter. Studies of strength properties demonstrated that the best results, in case of tensile strength as well as offset yield strength, might be obtained while applying reinforcement in the amount of 20-25% vol. of SiC. Application of higher than 25% vol. contents of reinforcing particles leads to gradual strength loss. The investigated composites were characterized by very high functional properties, such as hardness and abrasive wear resistance, whose values increase strongly with the increase of reinforcement amount. The presented results of the experiments shall allow for a more precise component selection of composite materials at the stage of planning and design of their properties.

  7. In vitro CT evaluation of intrahepatic stones: correlation with chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jun; Han, Joon Koo; Jeong, Jun Yong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Young Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Youn-Chan; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe in vitro CT features of intrahepatic stones and to correlate CT attenuation with chemical composition. Materials and methods: Of the patients who underwent choledochoscopic intrahepatic stone removal between 1998 and 2001, 54 patients with stones larger than 3 mm were enrolled in this study. In each case, a chemical compositional analysis was performed to determine calcium, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and inorganic phosphorus compositions. The three largest stones obtained from each patient were imaged by CT. CT attenuation numbers were measured in the center images of each stone by drawing free-hand region of interest (ROI). The measured CT attenuation numbers were correlated with their chemical composition. Also, CT attenuation numbers of stones were compared with that of the liver on non-contrast CT (50-70 HU). Results: Stone size ranged from 3.1 to 10.5 mm (mean ± S.D.: 6.0 ± 1.4). The CT attenuation numbers (HU) of stones ranged from 36.4 to 410.19 (mean ± S.D.: 94.6 ± 49.9). CT numbers of stones were below 70 HU in 11 patients (20.4%), and below 90 HU in 33 patients (59.3%). The chemical analysis data of the stones were as follows: calcium (0.5-6.5 wt.%; mean ± S.D., 2.6 ± 1.4), total bilirubin (0.45-24.4 wt.%; 13.1 ± 6.2), cholesterol (5.4-73.9 wt.%; 29.3 ± 17.4), phosphorus (0.1-1.2 wt.%; 0.6 ± 0.3), and non-soluble residue (17.6-85.4 wt.%; 57.0 ± 22.6). There was a weak but significant correlation between calcium composition and CT attenuation (r = 0.38, P 0.01; total bilirubin, r = 0.05, P > 0.01; phosphorus, r = 0.01, P > 0.01). Conclusion: On non-contrast CT, intrahepatic stones would not be hyperattenuating with respect to liver parenchyma in about one fifth of patients. The CT attenuation of stones correlates with calcium and does not correlate with any other chemical composition

  8. Mineral composition and ash content of six major energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Andrea; Venturi, Gianpietro [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technologies (DiSTA), University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Di Virgilio, Nicola [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The chemical composition of biofuels has not received adequate attention given that it is an important aspect in the introduction of energy crops. In this study, the ash content and mineral composition (C, N, Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Si) of stems, leaves and reproductive organs of some promising energy crops were determined and compared with the respective recommended thresholds reported in literature. Overall, cynara exhibited the highest ash and mineral contents, which indicate high slagging, fouling and corrosion tendencies. However, cynara also showed the lowest Si content, both in leaves (4.3 g kg{sup -1}) and in stems (0.9 g kg{sup -1}). Sweet sorghum and giant reed exhibited the highest N content (up to 16 g kg{sup -1}), which greatly exceeded the recommended limits in leaves. Importantly, Cl always exceeded the recommended limits (up to 18 mg kg{sup -1} in cynara), both in stems and in leaves, thus resulting in a major stumbling block for all crops. Several significant correlations among elements were found at a single plant part; conversely these correlations were generally very weak considering different plant components, with the exception of K (r=0.91**), P (r=0.94**) and ashes (r=0.64**). Generally, leaves resulted in a significant deterioration of biofuel quality when compared with stems and flower heads. Therefore, agricultural strategies aimed at reducing the leaf component (e.g. by delaying the harvest) may considerably improve the suitability of biofuels for current combustion plants. (author)

  9. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  10. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  11. The effect of natural weathering on the chemical and isotopic composition of biotites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.; Bonnot-Courtois, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of progressive natural weathering on the isotopic (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, deltaD, delta 18 O) and chemical (REE, H 2 O + ) compositions of biotite has been studied on a suite of migmatitic biotites from the Chad Republic. During the early stages of weathering the Rb-Sr system is strongly affected, the hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions change markedly, the minerals are depleted in light REE, the water content increases by a factor of two, and the K-Ar system is relatively little disturbed. During intensive weathering the K-Ar system is more strongly disturbed than the Rb-Sr system. Most of the isotopic and chemical modifications take place under nonequilibrium conditions and occur before newly formed kaolinite and/or smectite can be detected. These observations suggest that (a) 'protominerals' may form within the biotite structure during the initial period of weathering, and (b) only when chemical equilibrium is approached in the weathering profile are new minerals able to form. (author)

  12. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  13. The Chemical Composition of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Nittler, Larry R.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Grove, Timothy L.; Peplowski, Patrick N.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planetary body reflects its starting conditions modified by numerous processes during its formation and geological evolution. Measurements by X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectrometers on the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed Mercury's surface to have surprisingly high abundances of the moderately volatile elements sodium, sulfur, potassium, chlorine, and thorium, and a low abundance of iron. This composition rules out some formation models for which high temperatur...

  14. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  15. Novel Repair Concept for Composite Materials by Repetitive Geometrical Interlock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zaremba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Material adapted repair technologies for fiber-reinforced polymers with thermosetting matrix systems are currently characterized by requiring major efforts for repair preparation and accomplishment in all industrial areas of application. In order to allow for a uniform distribution of material and geometrical parameters over the repair zone, a novel composite interlock repair concept is introduced, which is based on a repair zone with undercuts prepared by water-jet technology. The presented numerical and experimental sensitivity analyses make a contribution to the systematic development of the interlock repair technology with respect to material and geometrical factors of influence. The results show the ability of the novel concept for a reproducible and automatable composite repair.

  16. An experimental study on prediction of gallstone composition by ultrasonography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Chung, Sae Yul; Kim, Kun Sang; Lee, Yong Chul; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Jin Kyu

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of chemical composition of gallstones is a prerequisite in contemplating the chemical dissolution or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones. The author retrospectively analysed the correlation between quantitative chemical composition of gallstones and their ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings. The ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) of 100 consecutive stones obtained from 100 patients were performed under the in vitro condition. Their US and CT findings were grouped with certain pattern and each group was compared with the chemical composition of the stones. Stones with entirely discernible circumference and homogeneous internal echo on US had high bilirubin and low cholesterol content. Acoustic shadows were frequently absent with those stones. Stones with variable internal echo on US had relatively high cholesterol content but their distribution range were wide. There was no correlationship between the cholesterol content and the CT No. of the gallstones. There was positive correlationship between the calcium content and the CT No. of gallstones. The near totally calcified gallstones had very low cholesterol and high residue content. There was no relationship between the calcification type and the ultrasonographic pattern. In conclusion, those stones with entirely discernible circumference and homogeneous internal echo on US were pigment stones. On the contrary, stones with variable internal echo had relatively high cholesterol content. CT could predict the calcium content with CT No., but could not predict the cholesterol content

  17. Chemical and physical analysis of core materials for advanced high temperature reactors with process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1985-08-01

    Various chemical and physical methods for the analysis of structural materials have been developed in the research programmes for advanced high temperature reactors. These methods are discussed using as examples the structural materials of the reactor core - the fuel elements consisting of coated particles in a graphite matrix and the structural graphite. Emphasis is given to the methods of chemical analysis. The composition of fuel kernels is investigated using chemical analysis methods to determine the heavy metals content (uranium, plutonium, thorium and metallic impurity elements) and the amount of non-metallic constituents. The properties of the pyrocarbon and silicon carbide coatings of fuel elements are investigated using specially developed physiochemical methods. Regarding the irradiation behaviour of coated particles and fuel elements, methods have been developed for examining specimens in hot cells following exposures under reactor operating conditions, to supplement the measurements of in-reactor performance. For the structural graphite, the determination of impurities is important because certain impurities may cause pitting corrosion during irradiation. The localized analysis of very low impurity concentrations is carried out using spectrochemical d.c. arc excitation, local laser and inductively coupled plasma methods. (orig.)

  18. Seasonal changes in chemical and mineralogical composition of sewage sludge incineration residues and their potential for metallic elements and valuable components recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Increasing energy needs, the implementation of the circular economy principles and rising environmental awareness caused that waste management is becoming a major social and economic issue. The EU Member States have committed to a significant reduction in the amount of waste produced and landfilled and to use their inherent energy and raw materials potential. One of the most reasonable option to fulfil these commitments is waste incineration. The aim of the waste incineration is to reduce their volume and toxicity by disinfection and detoxification at high temperatures. Thermal process and reduction of volume allows the recovery of minerals and metallic elements from residues as well as the energy production (waste-to-energy strategy) during incineration. As a result of waste incineration a variety of solid residues (bottom ash, fly ash, air pollution control residues) and technological waste (gas waste, wastewater) are produced. The goal of this study is to characterize fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues formed as a result of municipal sewage sludge incineration in terms of their chemical and mineral composition and their extractive potential. Residues were sampled quarterly to study their seasonal changes in composition. The fly ash was a Si-P-C-Fe-Al dominated material, whereas the APC residues composition was dominated by Na-rich soluble phases. The removal of soluble phase ( 98% of the material) from the APC residues by dissolution in deionised water caused significant mass reduction and concentration of non-soluble elements. The main mineral phases in fly ash were quartz, hematite, Fe-PO4, whitlockite and feldspar, while in APC thenardite, and in lower amount calcite, apatite and quartz were present. The chemical composition of fly ash was practically invariable in different seasons, but significant differences were observed in APC residues. The lowest concentrations of all elements and the highest TOC content were measured in the samples

  19. Influence of the precursor chemical composition on heavy metal adsorption properties of hemp (Cannabis Sativa fibers based biocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste hemp (Cannabis sativa fibers were used as sustainable and renewable raw materials for production of low-cost biocarbon sorbent for heavy metals removal. Carbon precursors of different chemical composition were obtained by oxidative and alkaline treatments of hemp fibers. Influence of lignocellulosic precursor chemical composition on hemp fibers-based biocarbon (HFB characteristics was examined by BET surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and mass titration. It was found that lignin content and polymorphic transformation of cellulose increase the SBET of microporous HFBs, while hemicelluloses induce more homogeneous distribution of adsorption active sites. Heavy metal ions adsorption onto HFBs is primarily influenced by the amount of surface oxygen groups, while specific surface area plays a secondary role. Equilibrium data obtained for lead ions adsorption were analyzed by different nonlinear adsorption isotherms, and the best fitting model was chosen using standard deviation and Akaike information criterion (AICC. The maximum adsorption capacities of HFBs ranged from 103.1 to 116.3 mg Pb/g. Thermodynamic parameters showed that Pb2+ adsorption onto HFBs is a spontaneous and complex endothermic process, suggesting the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172007 and Grant no. 172029

  20. Effect of chemical composition on irradiation embrittlement and annealing in Ni-Cr-Mo-V reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novosad, P [Czech Nuclear Society, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31

    Results concerning copper and phosphorus influence on radiation-induced changes in the Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel mechanical properties, are presented. Correlations between different mechanical properties for steels with different chemical composition, are presented. A comparison of transition temperature shifts obtained for static and dynamic fracture toughness tests and Charpy impact tests, is discussed. Recovery of radiation hardening, measured by hardness test after isochronal annealing of steels with different compositions, is also shown. Copper content strongly affects irradiation-induced changes of mechanical properties, but phosphorus content in connection with variable copper content has only a small effect. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of the essential oil of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Camphene, borneol ...

  2. Dual stimuli responsive self-reporting material for chemical reservoir coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Song, Young Kyu; Park, Sun Hee; Park, Young Il; Noh, Seung Man; Kim, Jin Chul

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we introduce a novel dual stimuli responsive self-reporting thiol-epoxy thermoset (DSRTET) coatings which can detect both crack occurrence and pH variation. For crack detection, microcapsule containing tetraphenylethylene (TPE) which exhibits aggregation induced emission (AIE) effect was prepared via multi-step emulsion polymerization and dispersed in DSRTET coatings. For pH variation detection, commercial thymol blue as a pH indicator was added into the polymer matrix. The effect of microcapsule contents in DSRTET on their curing behavior, material properties, and crack sensitivity was characterized using an oscillatory rheology, rigid body pendulum test (RPT), nano-indentation test (NST), universal test machine (UTM) and scratch tester. It was revealed that crack sensitivity of DSRTET coatings was greatly influenced by material properties as well as microcapsule content. The color transition of DSRTET coatings in response to acid or base solution were quantitatively investigated using a multi-angle spectrophotometer after simple acid and base solution drop tests. The color of DSRTET coatings changed from a pale green to red for acidic solution and to blue for basic solution. Finally, The DSRTET used in this study was applied to laboratory scale chemical reservoirs in order to verify the potential as a dual stimuli response self-reporting coating which can detect both crack in coating material and chemical spill caused by the leakage or breakage of the reservoir part.

  3. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2015-01-01

    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  4. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  5. Surge-Resistant Nanocomposite Enameled Wire Using Silica Nanoparticles with Binary Chemical Compositions on the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeseung Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed polyesterimide (PEI nanocomposite enameled wires using surface-modified silica nanoparticles with binary chemical compositions on the surface. The modification was done using silanes assisted by ultrasound, which facilitated high density modification. Two different trimethoxysilanes were chosen for the modification on the basis of resemblance of chemical compositions on the silica surface to PEI varnish. The surface-modified silica was well dispersed in PEI varnish, which was confirmed by optical observation and viscosity measurement. The glass transition temperature of the silica-PEI nanocomposite increased with the silica content. The silica-dispersed PEI varnish was then used for enameled wire fabrication. The silica-PEI nanocomposite enameled wire exhibited a much longer lifetime compared to that of neat PEI enameled wire in partial discharge conditions.

  6. Fabrication And Properties Of Silver Based Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Prepared By Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations of the obtained nanocomposite materials based on silver with addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The powder of carbon nanotubes content from 0.1 to 3 wt. % was produced by application of powder metallurgy methods, through mixing and high-energetic milling, and also chemical methods. Modification of carbon nanotubes included electroless deposition of silver particles on the carbon nanotube active surfaces and chemical reduction with strong reducing agent – sodium borohydride (NaBH4. The obtained powder mixtures were consolidated by SPS – Spark Plasma Sintering method. The formed composites were subjected to tests of relative density, electrical conductivity and electro-erosion properties. Detailed examinations of the structure with application of X-ray microanalysis, with consideration of carbon nanotubes distribution, were also carried out. The effect of manufacturing methods on properties of the obtained composites was observed.

  7. Composite Scaffolds Based on Silver Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Marian Patrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro testing of homogenous and heterogeneous materials containing silver nanoparticles (nanoAg. Three types of antiseptic materials based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HA, and collagen/hydroxyapatite (COLL/HA composite materials were obtained. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was realized by chemical reaction as well as plasma sputtering deposition. The use of chemical reduction allows the synthesis of homogenous materials while the plasma sputtering deposition can be easily used for the synthesis of homogeneous and heterogeneous support. Based on the in vitro assays clear antiseptic activity against Escherichia coli was relieved even at low content of nanoAg (10 ppm.

  8. Characteristics of biomass ashes from different materials and their ameliorative effects on acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renyong; Li, Jiuyu; Jiang, Jun; Mehmood, Khalid; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Renkou; Qian, Wei

    2017-05-01

    The chemical characteristics, element contents, mineral compositions, and the ameliorative effects on acid soils of five biomass ashes from different materials were analyzed. The chemical properties of the ashes varied depending on the source biomass material. An increase in the concrete shuttering contents in the biomass materials led to higher alkalinity, and higher Ca and Mg levels in biomass ashes, which made them particularly good at ameliorating effects on soil acidity. However, heavy metal contents, such as Cr, Cu, and Zn in the ashes, were relatively high. The incorporation of all ashes increased soil pH, exchangeable base cations, and available phosphorus, but decreased soil exchangeable acidity. The application of the ashes from biomass materials with a high concrete shuttering content increased the soil available heavy metal contents. Therefore, the biomass ashes from wood and crop residues with low concrete contents were the better acid soil amendments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The use of composite ferrocyanide materials for treatment of high salinity liquid radioactive wastes rich in cesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, Andrey S. [National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Shakarim Semey State Univ. (Kazakhstan); Satayeva, Aliya R. [Shakarim Semey State Univ. (Kazakhstan); Mikhalovsky, Sergey [Nazarbayev Univ. (Kazakhstan); Brighton Univ. (United Kingdom); Cundy, Andrew B. [Brighton Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The use of composite materials based on metal ferrocyanides combined with natural mineral sorbents for treatment of high salinity Cs-containing liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was investigated. The study indicated that among the investigated composites, the best sorption characteristics for Cs were shown by materials based on copper ferrocyanide. Several factors affecting the removal of cesium from LRW, namely total salt content, pH and organic matter content, were also investigated. High concentrations of complexing organic matter significantly reduced the sorption capacity of ferrocyanide sorbents.

  10. Preparation and characterization of stearic acid/expanded graphite composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Stearic acid/expanded graphite composites with different mass ratios were prepared by absorbing liquid stearic acid into the expanded graphite. In the composite materials, the stearic acid was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and the expanded graphite acted as the supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermal diffusivity measurement were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalline phase, microstructure and thermal diffusivity of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal analysis results indicated that the materials exhibited the same phase transition characteristics as the stearic acid and their latent heats were approximately the same as the values calculated based on the weight fraction of the stearic acid in the composites. The microstructural analysis results showed that the stearic acid was well absorbed in the porous network of the expanded graphite, and there was no leakage of the stearic acid from the composites even when it was in the molten state.

  11. Preparation and characterization of bio-composite PEEK/nHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. S.; Bian, C. C.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhao, Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-01-01

    PEEK/nHA composite material, with excellent mechanical property as polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and biological activity as hydroxyapatite (HA), has attracted wide attention of medical experts and materials science experts. The addition of hydroxyapatite was the decisive factor for biological activity in PEEK/nHA composite. In this paper, acicular nanohydroxyapatite was prepared by chemical precipitation method with Ca(NO3)2, (NH4)2HPO4 as raw material; PEEK/nHA composite was prepared by solution blending and vacuum sintering method. The composite was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, DSC, TG and mechanical property test. Results showed that the composite has good thermal stability and compressive property when the mass ratio of PEEK to nHA is 10:3; and high nHA content can improve the biological activity of the composite, which can meet the basic requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  12. Komposisi Kimiawi dan Fraksinasi Protein Susu Kuda Sumba (THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROTEIN FRACTIONATION OF SUMBA MARE’S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine both chemical composition and fraction of the proteincompounds of sumba mare’s milk. Determination of the chemical compositions of sumba mare’s milk havedone by analyzing protein content using the Kjeldahl method, fat content using Gerber method, lactosecontent and the total solids content. Identification of antimicrobial compounds of whey proteins in milkusing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The results showed that the average ofsumba mare’s milk contained protein, fat, lactose and total solids were; 1.82%, 1.67%, 6.48% and 11.37%respectively. The average value of protein and fat in sumba mare’s milk was decrease significantly at fifthmonth of lactation period. Based on identification of antimicrobial compounds using HPLC method, thereare six main peaks with different polarities and retention times. In conclusion, sumba mare’s milk havea balance composition that can be used as a source of nutritious food and the milk likely also has six mainantimicrobial compounds in its whey protein.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of some indigenous spices consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta; Onuoha, NneOla; Aburime, Lilian; Mbah, Obioma

    2018-01-01

    The chemical compositions and antioxidant capacities of seven spices consumed in Southern Nigeria were determined. They were purchased from majors markets in the study area. Edible portions of the spices were ground into fine powder and their nutrient and phytochemical compositions determined using standard methods. Antioxidant activity were determined on aqueous extract using standard assays, namely, 1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical ability and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). The spices were rich in macro-and micro-nutrients. Ricinodendron heudelotii had the highest protein (30.6%) and fat (24.6%) contents. Tetrapleura tetraptera had the least fat content. The total phenol, flavonoid and vitamin C contents differed significantly (pspices have good nutrient profile and antioxidant potentials. Their increased consumption is recommended and use as functional foods needs to be exploited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical composition dispersion in bi-metallic nanoparticles: semi-automated analysis using HAADF-STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epicier, T.; Sato, K.; Tournus, F.; Konno, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) to determine the chemical composition of bi-metallic nanoparticles. This method, which can be applied in a semi-automated way, allows large scale analysis with a statistical number of particles (several hundreds) in a short time. Once a calibration curve has been obtained, e.g., using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements on a few particles, the HAADF integrated intensity of each particle can indeed be directly related to its chemical composition. After a theoretical description, this approach is applied to the case of iron–palladium nanoparticles (expected to be nearly stoichiometric) with a mean size of 8.3 nm. It will be shown that an accurate chemical composition histogram is obtained, i.e., the Fe content has been determined to be 49.0 at.% with a dispersion of 10.4 %. HAADF-STEM analysis represents a powerful alternative to fastidious single particle EDX measurements, for the compositional dispersion in alloy nanoparticles.

  15. Chemical characterization and extractives composition of heartwood and sapwood from Quercus faginea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available Heartwood and sapwood of Quercus faginea were evaluated in relation to summative chemical composition and non-polar and polar extracts composition, including an assessment of antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP. Twenty trees from two sites in Portugal were analysed. Heartwood had approximately two times more solvent extractible compounds than sapwood (on average 19.0% and 9.5%. The lipophilic extractible compounds were below 1%, and most of them were polar e.g. ethanol-soluble compounds corresponded to 65% of total extractives in heartwood and 43% in sapwood. Lignin content was similar in sapwood and heartwood (28.1% and 28.6% of extractive-free wood respectively as well as the sugar composition. Site did not influence the chemical composition. The lipophilic extractible compounds from both sapwood and heartwood included mainly saturated fatty acids (23.0% and 36.9% respectively and aromatic compounds were also abundant in sapwood (22.9%. The ethanol-water extractibles had a high content of phenolic substances (558.0 and 319.4 mg GAE/g extract, respectively of heartwood and sapwood. The polyphenolic composition was similar in heartwood and sapwood with higher content of ellagitannins (168.9 and 153.5 mg tannic acid/g of extract in sapwood and heartwood respectively and very low content of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was very high with IC50 of 2.6 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml for sapwood and heartwood respectively, as compared to standard antioxidants (IC50 of 3.8 μg/ml for Trolox. The ferric reducing ability was 2.8 and 2.0 mMol Trolox equivalents/g extract of heartwood and sapwood respectively. The variability between trees was low and no differences between the two sites were found. Q. faginea showed a very good potential for cooperage and other applications for which a source of compounds with antioxidant properties is desirable.

  16. Wood chemical composition as related to properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    Burst and tear strengths of handsheets made from 48 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying chemical composition decreased with incressing extractive content after the independent effects of fiber morphology were specified. This result was attributed to lessened bond strength caused by reduced surface tension forces and blocking of reactive sites on the fiber surfaces...

  17. Fabrication and mechanical evaluation of hydroxyapatite/oxide nano-composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled R; Beherei, Hanan H; El Bassyouni, Gehan T; El Mahallawy, Nahed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study, the semiconducting metal oxides such as nano-ZnO and SiO2 powders were prepared via sol-gel technique and conducted on nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) which was synthesized by chemical precipitation. The properties of fabricated nano-structured composites containing different ratios of HA, ZnO and SiO2 were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. The effect of the variation of ratios between the three components on mechanical, microstructure and in-vitro properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing these properties. The results proved that the mechanical properties exhibited an increment with increasing the ZnO content at the extent of HA. In-vitro study proved the formation and nucleation of apatite onto the surface of the fabricated composites after one week of immersion. It is concluded that HA composites containing SiO2 or SiO2/ZnO content had a suitable mechanical properties and ability to form apatite particles onto the composite surface. Based on bioactivity behavior, Si-HA is more bioactive than pure hydroxyapatite and nano-arrangements will provide an interface for better bone formation. Therefore, these nano-composites will be promising as bone substitutes especially in load bearing sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  19. [Comparative study of chemical composition of pomegranate peel pomegranates inside and pomegranate seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Dai, Yan-Peng; Wang, Liang; Su, Ben-Zheng

    2013-07-01

    An HPLC fingerprint of pomegranate peel was established. Using chromatographic conditions, we compared the chemical composition of pomegranate peel, inside and seeds, and simultaneously determined the contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid. By comparison, we found that there were no significant differences between pomegranate peel and inside, but there was a big difference between pomegranate seeds and another two. The contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid of pomegranate peel respectively were 0.33%, 0.59%, while in pomegranate inside the result respectively were 0.52%, 0.38%. Content of ellagic acid from pomegranate seeds was only 0.01%. By study, we thought that when pomegranate peel was processed, pomegranate seeds should be removed, while pomegranate inside could be retained on the premise of full drying.

  20. Investigations on electrostatic dissipative materials derived from Poly(vinyl alcohol/ferrofluid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winatthakan Phuchaduek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymer composites based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and ferrofluid (FF were prepared by solutioncasting method. Such composites were characterized by various methods in order to evaluate their potential for use as elec-trostatic dissipative (ESD materials. Effects of ferrofluid content on mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of thecomposites were investigated. The morphology of the composites was examined by SEM and the water contact angle on thecomposite surface was also measured. Experimental results showed that surface resistivity of the composites can be reducedby the addition of FF. The abrupt transition of such resistivity occurred in the concentration range 20-30 wt.% FF. Theconductive mechanism of the proposed composites is a complex manner, including contact conduction and tunnelingconduction.

  1. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  2. A study on chemical composition of spices irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Lianzhong; Ding Shiyue; Zhu Yan; Li Yixu; Zhu Songmei

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative changes in common organic acids and inorganic acids from spices irradiated by electron beam were studied by Dionex-4000i ion chromatograph. The results showed that the acids content of either chilli or the five-spice powder irradiated with a dose of 9.94 kGy did not undergo significant changes in comparison with the control samples. The flavour composition in the five-spice powder irradiated by electron beam was also determined by Finnigan MAT-8230B gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and compared to the results by heating treatment (120 deg. C, 30min). The comparison indicated that the effect of electron beam treatment on flavour composition was less than that of heating

  3. A study on chemical composition of spices irradiated by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lianzhong, Ding [Inst. of Applied Technical Physics of Zhejiang Province (China); Shiyue, Ding; Yan, Zhu; Yixu, Li [Testing Technology Inst. of Zhejiang Province (China)

    1992-02-01

    Quantitative changes in common organic acids and inorganic acids from spices irradiated by electron beam were studied by Dionex-4000 ion Chromatograph. The results showed that the acids content of either achilli or the five-spice powder irradiated with a dose of 9.94 kGy did not undergo significant changes in comparison with the control samples. The flavour composition in the five-spice powder irradiated by electron beam was also determined by Finnigan MAT-8230B gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and compared to the results by heating treatment (120 C, 30 min). The comparison indicated that the effect of electron beam treatment on flavour composition was less than that of heating.

  4. Identification of differences in chemical composition among whole stick and sliced Nitran salamis trough principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Fekete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work was to examine differences in chemical composition of sliced and whole stick Nitran salamis, purchased from various manufacturers. Nitran salamis are traditional dry fermented meat products of Slovak origin. Taking into account variations in raw materials, production process and potential adulteration, differences in chemical composition within one brand of salami from different manufacturers might be expected. Ten salamis were determined for basic chemical composition attributes and Principal Component Analysis was applied on data matrix to identify anomalous ones. It has been shown that six attributes, namely: protein without collagen of total protein, total protein, total meat, total fat, collagen of total protein and NaCl, were the most important for salamis as first two Principal Components together explained 70.16% of variance among them. Nitran D was found to be the most anomalous salami, as had the lowest value of protein without collagen of total protein (14.14% ±0.26%, total protein (17.42% ±0.44%, total meat (120.29% ±0.98% and the highest one of total fat (50.85% ±0.95%, collagen of total protein (18.83% ±0.50% and NaCl (9.55% ±1.93%, when compared to its whole stick variant Nitran C and other samples. In addition to collagen of total protein content, Nitran D together with Nitran A, F and H did not satisfied the legislatively determined criterion, which is ≤16%. This suggested that extra connective tissues were added to intermediate products, which resulted in high variability and inferior quality of final products. It is a common practice in the meat industry to increase the protein content or water binding properties of meat products.

  5. Bonding Effectiveness of Luting Composites to Different CAD/CAM Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Marleen; Valjakova, Emilija Bajraktarova; De Munck, Jan; Mishevska, Cece Bajraktarova; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments of six novel CAD/CAM materials on the bonding effectiveness of two luting composites. Six different CAD/CAM materials were tested: four ceramics - Vita Mark II; IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; Celtra Duo - one hybrid ceramic, Vita Enamic, and one composite CAD/CAM block, Lava Ultimate. A total of 60 blocks (10 per material) received various mechanical surface treatments: 1. 600-grit SiC paper; 2. sandblasting with 30-μm Al2O3; 3. tribochemical silica coating (CoJet). Subsequent chemical surface treatments involved either no further treatment (control), HF acid etching (HF), silanization (S, or HF acid etching followed by silanization (HF+S). Two specimens with the same surface treatment were bonded together using two dual-curing luting composites: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (self-etching) or Panavia SA Cement (self-adhesive). After 1 week of water storage, the microtensile bond strength of the sectioned microspecimens was measured and the failure mode was evaluated. The bonding performance of the six CAD/CAM materials was significantly influenced by surface treatment (linear mixed models, p CAD (p = 0.0115), and Lava Ultimate (p CAD/CAM materials: Vita Mark II and IPS Empress CAD: S, HF+S; Celtra Duo: HF, HF+S; IPS e.max CAD: HF+S; Vita Enamic: HF+S, S. For Lava Ultimate, the highest bond strengths were obtained with HF, S, HF+S. Failure analysis showed a relation between bond strength and failure type: more mixed failures were observed with higher bond strengths. Mainly adhesive failures were noticed if no further surface treatment was done. The percentage of adhesive failures was higher for CAD/CAM materials with higher flexural strength (Celtra Duo, IPS e.max CAD, and Lava Ultimate). The bond strength of luting composites to novel CAD/CAM materials is influenced by surface treatment. For each luting composite, an adhesive cementation protocol can be specified in order to obtain the highest bond to the

  6. Chemical composition of the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja spa as an origin indicator, balneological valorization and geothermal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenić Dejan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the groundwater is directly dependent on the geological structure, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics and as such it represents an output result of all the factors and processes which take place in the environment within which they were formed. The chemical composition of thermomineral waters often represents a crucial factor in determining the origin, balneological valorization and geothermal potential of the resources. This work presents the analysis of origin, belneological valorization and geothermal potential of Josanicka Banja spa, on the basis of the results gained through making the analyisis of chemical contents of the thermomineral waters which occur in the area. The ratio of concentrations of specific chemical components in the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja has served as the basic tool for ascertaining the origin of these waters. On the basis of the analysis of the main anion-cation and gas compositions as well as the contents of specific micro-components, a balneological valorization of these resources has been carried out. Apart from that this work also presents the calculation of the expected temperatures in the primary geothermal reservoir, which was carried out on the basis of the results of chemical analysis of thermomineral waters that occur in the area. Geothermal potential of about 4 MWt and significant contents of balneologically active components of the chemical composition of these waters, open up a possibility for their multi-purpose use, which is also presented in the work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33053

  7. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  8. New composite materials prepared by calcium phosphate precipitation in chitosan/collagen/hyaluronic acid sponge cross-linked by EDC/NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, B; Sionkowska, A; Kozlowska, J; Osyczka, A M

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, fabrication of composite materials based on biopolymers is a rising field due to potential for bone repair and tissue engineering application. Blending of different biopolymers and incorporation of inorganic particles in the blend can lead to new materials with improved physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this work 3D porous structures called scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid were obtained through the lyophilization process. Scaffolds were cross-linked by EDC/NHS. Infrared spectra for the materials were made, the percentage of swelling, scaffolds porosity and density, mechanical parameters, thermal stability were studied. Moreover, the scaffolds were used as matrixes for the calcium phosphate in situ precipitation. SEM images were taken and EDX analysis was carried out for calcium and phosphorous content determination in the scaffold. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells was examined on obtained scaffolds. The results showed that the properties of 3D composites cross-linked by EDC/NHS were altered after the addition of 1, 2 and 5% hyaluronic acid. Mechanical parameters, thermal stability and porosity of scaffolds were improved. Moreover, calcium and phosphorous were found in each kind of scaffold. SEM images showed that the precipitation was homogeneously carried in the whole volume of samples. Attachment of SaOS-2 cells to all modified materials was better compared to unmodified control and proliferation of these cells was markedly increased on scaffolds with precipitated calcium phosphate. Obtained materials can provide the support useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanics in Composite Materials and Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Gil

    1993-03-01

    This book includes introduction of composite materials, stress, in-plane stiffness of laminates strain rate, ply stress, failure criterion and bending, composite materials micromechanics, composite plates and micromechanics of composite materials. It also deals with process of composite materials such as autoclave vacuum bag degassing process, connection of composite materials, filament winding process, resin transfer molding, sheet molding compound and compression molding.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of nanofiber-nanoparticle-composites with phase change materials by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babapoor, Aziz; Karimi, Gholamreza; Khorram, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Form-stable nanofibers with phase change material are produced by electrospinning. • PA6 and PEG are used as the supporting matrix and phase change material. • Various nanoparticles are used to enhance thermal properties of the fibers. • The nanofiber-nanoparticle composites exhibited desirable thermal stability. • Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles improved thermal conductivity of the composites considerably. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Thermal energy storage has been recognized as one of the most important technologies for the utilization of renewable energy sources and conserving energy. In this investigation, through combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a phase change material (PCM), polyamid6 (PA6) and various nanoparticles (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and ZnO) as supporting materials, novel form-stable PCMs-based composites were fabricated by single nozzle electrospinning. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of the prepared nanofiber-nanocomposite-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCMs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively. Based on the results, nanocomposites-nanofibers were successfully fabricated with high thermal stability and reliability. It is observed that in all composites, the fiber diameter is decreased by increasing the nanoparticles loading. The lowest average diameter obtained was for Fe 2 O 3 composite. Al 2 O 3 composite showed the maximum thermal conductivity enhancement. This study suggests that the fabricated nanocomposite-PCMs offer proper phase transition temperature range and high heat enthalpy values and hence, have potential for thermal energy storage applications.

  11. Enamels in stained glass windows: Preparation, chemical composition, microstructure and causes of deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, O.; Van der Linden, V.; Frederickx, P.; Luyten, S.; Van der Snickt, G.; Caen, J.; Schryvers, D.; Janssens, K.; Cornelis, E.; Van Dyck, D.; Schreiner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Stained glass windows incorporating dark blue and purple enamel paint layers are in some cases subject to severe degradation while others from the same period survived the ravages of time. A series of dark blue, green-blue and purple enamel glass paints from the same region (Northwestern Europe) and from the same period (16-early 20th centuries) has been studied by means of a combination of microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis, electron probe micro analysis and transmission electron microscopy with the aim of better understanding the causes of the degradation. The chemical composition of the enamels diverges from the average chemical composition of window glass. Some of the compositions appear to be unstable, for example those with a high concentration of K 2 O and a low content of CaO and PbO. In other cases, the deterioration of the paint layers was caused by the less than optimal vitrification of the enamel during the firing process. Recipes and chemical compositions indicate that glassmakers of the 16-17th century had full control over the color of the enamel glass paints they made. They mainly used three types of coloring agents, based on Co (dark blue), Mn (purple) and Cu (light-blue or green-blue) as coloring elements. Blue-purple enamel paints were obtained by mixing two different coloring agents. The coloring agent for red-purple enamel, introduced during the 19th century, was colloidal gold embedded in grains of lead glass.

  12. Neutron activation determination of gold in technogenic raw materials with different mineral composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudakov Aleksandr A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods used to determine the gold content in the technogenic objects of gold mining were analyzed regarding their non-homogeneity and complexity of chemical and mineral compositions. A possible application of the neutron activation analysis with the use of the californium source of neutrons for determining the content of fine-grained and extra-fine-grained gold in the technogenic objects, including the bottom-ash waste of energy providers, is considered. It was demonstrated that the chemical composition of the sample affects the neuron flux distribution in the sample, which can essentially distort the results of the neutron activation analysis. In order to eliminate possible systematic errors investigations of the effect of the sample mineral composition on the results of the gold determination using the neutron activation analysis were carried out. Namely, a large mass of rock (3-5 kg was loaded into an activation zone using four matrix types such as silicate, carbon-containing, iron-containing, and titanium magnetite. It was shown that there wereno significant difference between the dispersal of the fluxes of thermal and resonance neutrons emitted from 252Cf during activation of the gold-containing technogenic samples with different mineral compositions.

  13. Excellent Tribological Properties of Lower Reduced Graphene Oxide Content Copper Composite by Using a One-Step Reduction Molecular-Level Mixing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Nie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (RGO composite copper matrix powders were fabricated successfully by using a modified molecular-level mixing (MLM method. Divalent copper ions (Cu2+ were adsorbed in oxygen functional groups of graphene oxide (GO as a precursor, then were reduced simultaneously by one step chemical reduction. RGO showed a distribution converting from a random to a three-dimensional network in the copper matrix when its content increased to above 1.0 wt.% The tribological tests indicated that the friction coefficient of the composite with 1.0 wt.% RGO decreased markedly from 0.6 to 0.07 at an applied load of 10 N, and the wear rate was about one-third of pure copper. The excellent tribological properties were attributed to a three-dimensional and uniform distribution, which contributes to improving toughness and adhesion strength.

  14. Composite materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Daniel; Tsai, Stephen W

    2002-01-01

    PART ONE. PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTIONCOMPOSITE MATERIALS, INTEREST AND PROPERTIESWhat is Composite Material Fibers and MatrixWhat can be Made Using Composite Materials?Typical Examples of Interest on the Use of Composite MaterialsExamples on Replacing Conventional Solutions with CompositesPrincipal Physical PropertiesFABRICATION PROCESSESMolding ProcessesOther Forming ProcessesPractical Hints in the Manufacturing ProcessesPLY PROPERTIESIsotropy and AnisotropyCharacteristics of the Reinforcement-Matrix MixtureUnidirectional PlyWoven FabricsMats and Reinforced MatricesMultidimensional FabricsMetal Matrix CompositesTestsSANDWICH STRUCTURES:What is a Sandwich Structure?Simplified FlexureA Few Special AspectsFabrication and Design ProblemsNondestructive Quality ControlCONCEPTION AND DESIGNDesign of a Composite PieceThe LaminateFailure of LaminatesSizing of LaminatesJOINING AND ASSEMBLYRiveting and BoltingBondingInsertsCOMPOSITE MATERIALS AND AEROSPACE CONSTRUCTIONAircraftHelicoptersPropeller Blades for AirplanesTur...

  15. Grouping of Petroleum Substances as Example UVCBs by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry to Enable Chemical Composition-Based Read-Across.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Russell, William K; Luo, Yu-Syuan; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rusyn, Ivan

    2017-06-20

    Substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs), including many refined petroleum products, present a major challenge in regulatory submissions under the EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and US High Production Volume regulatory regimes. The inherent complexity of these substances, as well as variability in composition obfuscates detailed chemical characterization of each individual substance and their grouping for human and environmental health evaluation through read-across. In this study, we applied ion mobility mass spectrometry in conjunction with cheminformatics-based data integration and visualization to derive substance-specific signatures based on the distribution and abundance of various heteroatom classes. We used petroleum substances from four petroleum substance manufacturing streams and evaluated their chemical composition similarity based on high-dimensional substance-specific quantitative parameters including m/z distribution, drift time, carbon number range, and associated double bond equivalents and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. Data integration and visualization revealed group-specific similarities for petroleum substances. Observed differences within a product group were indicative of batch- or manufacturer-dependent variation. We demonstrate how high-resolution analytical chemistry approaches can be used effectively to support categorization of UVCBs based on their heteroatom composition and how such data can be used in regulatory decision-making.

  16. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sung Ha; Choi, Bok Lok

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses

  17. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  18. Identification of chemical composition and measurement of V, As, Cr and Fe in Yogyakarta ambient air particulate by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede-Sutresna W; Sutjipto

    1996-01-01

    Activation neutron analysis can be used to identify chemical composition and measure V, As, Cr and Fe contents in Yogyakarta ambient particulate. The air sampling has been done around Yogyakarta city such as: Gg. Narada Gandok around North Ring road (A1 post), Mentri Supeno cross road (A2 post), Purbanegaran GK II (A3 post), Wirobrajan cross road (A4 post), Adisutjipto (A5 post), and in front of Sentul market on JI. Sultan Agung with low volume sampler equipped with AP millipore fiber glass filter. Other places used for air sampling were around PPNY, JI. Babarsari (B1) and Jl. Gejayan (B2) by using high volume sampler equipped with TF A 21133 series filter. The filter was irradiated at Kartini reactor at the average of 1.04 x 10 1 1 n.cm -2 .s -1 on January 10, 1995. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air around Yogyakarta respectively was: 81.5 - 264.9 ng/m 3 air; 56.7 - 596.4 ng/m 3 air; 30.5 - 153.8 ng/m 3 air and 22.4 - 108μg/m 3 air. The accuracy of the analysis method was checked by comparing the analysis result to the certificate label of the reference material SRM 1633a. The accuracy was: 21.1%; 13.9%; 7.7% and 13.3% for V, As, Cr and Fe. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air particulate around Yogyakarta is still the below permissible level of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987

  19. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w....../w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, whileFutura and Fasamo contained least cellulose. Hemp yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers...... but was more cellulose rich. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. These pretreatmentsremoved lignin and hemicellulose resulting in loss of dry matter of 15-73% w/w and in loss of cellulose of 0-69% w/w. Steam explosion treatment generally...

  20. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuc Thi Hue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter, K98-7 (medium bitter and a local (sweet, were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05. Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE AFTER POLLEN APPLICATION IN NUTRITION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Principle purpose of this study was to monitor the chemical composition of breast and thigh muscular part of chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and to verify the differences due to use of pollen extract in feed mixture at a dose of 400 and 800 mg.kg-1 during the feeding of 42 days. We did not find significant differences (P≥0.05 in followed chemical compounds of thigh muscle with the skin and subcutaneous fat between the groups with and without application of pollen extract: in contents of water (68.49-70.12 g.100g-1, protein (18.82-18.98 g.100g-1, fat (9.96-11.53 g.100g-1 and in energy value (692.20-752.36 kJ.100g-1. Significant differences (P≤0.05 were found only in protein content of breast muscle between the control group (23.96 g.100g-1 and experimental group I (23.28 g.100g-1. Values of water content (73.97-74.32 g.100g-1, fat content (1.07-1.40 g.100g-1 and energy (441.65-446.64 kJ.100g-1 in breast muscle between the evaluated groups were balanced (P≥0.05. The results show that pollen extract at the concentration used in feed mixture did not effect basic chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the chicken Ross 308 carcass and we can apply it in their nutrition. Application at a dose of 800 mg.kg-1 seems to be more positive.doi:10.5219/190

  2. FORAGE YIELD, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION OF YELLOW HYBRID MAIZE GROWN IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Esmeralda Roblez Jimenez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the most important forage in feed cattle, due to its higher energy content, however, it is characterized by its wide range of varieties and the possibility of generating a large quantity of final products. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the forage yield, chemical composition and in vitro gas production as fresh and hay of a local yellow criollo maize and six varieties of yellow hybrid maize (HIT13, CML460, PIONER, COPPER, CDMO80001 and CLO80902. Fresh and dry yield did not show differences between treatments (P>0.05, their chemical composition (g / kg DM showed differences (P ˂ 0.05 for the protein content by various storage methods ranging from 59.87 to 59.61 g kg-1 DM per conservation method, NDF ranged from 591 to 686 g kg-1 DM by variety and by the method ranged from 619 to 639 g kg -1 DM, ADF ranged from 298 to 345 g kg-1 DM by variety and 317 to 340 g kg-1 DM by conservation method; ADL ranged from 58 to 41 g kg-1 DM by variety and 41 to 57 g kg-1 DM by conservation method, in vitro gas production  there were no differences (P>0.05 between varieties and conservation method. It is concluded that according to the results obtained, the varieties studied show the same forage yields in both hay and fresh, chemical composition, and in vitro gas production.

  3. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  4. Status and prospects for SiC-SiC composite materials development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, A.; Fenici, P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are very attractive for fusion applications because of their low afterheat and low activation characteristics coupled with excellent high temperature properties. These composites are relatively new materials that will require material development as well as evaluation of hermiticity, thermal conductivity, radiation stability, high temperature strength, fatigue, thermal shock, and joining techniques. The radiation stability of SiC-SiC composites is a critical aspect of their application as fusion components and recent results will be reported. Many of the non-fusion specific issues are under evaluation by other ceramic composite development programs, such as the US national continuous fiber ceramic composites.The current development status of various SiC-SiC composites research and development efforts is given. Effect of neutron irradiation on the properties of SiC-SiC composite between 500 and 1200 C are reported. Novel high temperature properties specific to ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials are discussed. The chemical stability of SiC is reviewed briefly. Ongoing research and development efforts for joining CMC materials including SiC-SiC composites are described. In conclusion, ongoing research and development efforts show extremely promising properties and behavior for SiC-SiC composites for fusion applications. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis and Antibacterial Testing of Silver/Poly (Ether Amide Composite Nanofibers with Ultralow Silver Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial materials have attracted much attention all over the world. Herein, a new kind of antimicrobial material, poly (ether amide (PebaxⓇ nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles, was prepared by electrospinning method. The Ag/PebaxⓇ composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA measurements. The antimicrobial properties of Ag/PebaxⓇ composites against Escherichia coli (E. coli; ATCC25922 and avirulent and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; ATCC6538 and avirulent were evaluated by membrane adhering method. It was found that the Ag content played an important part in the antimicrobial ability of Ag/PebaxⓇ composites. When the mass ratio of AgNO3 to PebaxⓇ in the precursor was 0.15‰, the inhibition rate can reach >99.9% and antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus was 5.8 and 5.6, respectively, exceeding the antimicrobial testing standards JIS Z 2801. The above results indicated that the Ag/PebaxⓇ composite was a promising antimicrobial material that can be used in many applications.

  6. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF THE FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ GRAPE POMACE AND ITS FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM WINE INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariu Mariana Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby study was to analyze and to compare the chemical content of the grape pomace and its fractions: skins and seeds from the red grape variety Fetească neagră (from Iași area, obtained in different years 2013 and 2014 respectively, from the winemaking process. Measurements targeted the dry matter content (DM%, organic matter (OM%, crude ash (CA%, crude protein (CP%, crude fat (EE%, crude fiber (CF%, neazotate extractive substances (SEN%, total polyphenols (TP% and tannins (Ta%. The results obtained showed significant differences in the chemical composition in favour of the grape pomace obtained in the 2014 climatic conditions: in the case of the seed for the content of DM%, SEN%, TP% and Ta%, in the case of the skins for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, TP%, Ta% and in the case of the grape pomace for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, SEN%, TP%, and Ta%. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition showed an annual variation of the chemical components, which may be due to climatic conditions and winemaking process. Therefore, an annual chemical quality assessment of the grape pomace is necessary, for the efficient use in the animal feed.

  7. Measurement of moisture depth distribution in composite materials using positron lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.; Mall, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced resin matrix composites reportedly suffer significant degradation in their mechanical properties when exposed to hot, moist, environments for extended periods. Moisture weakens the fiber matrix bond as well as the matrix shear strength. An important factor in determining the extent of degradation is the depth distribution of moisture in the resin matrix. Despite the importance of measuring moisture distribution and its effects on composite material properties, not enough data are available on suitable nondestructive techniques for detecting and measuring moisture diffusion in organic composite materials. This paper addresses itself to the problem of measuring the moisture content of such materials, with special emphasis on its depth distribution, using positron lifetime technique

  8. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Leo; Nelson, Alan E.; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W.

    2008-08-01

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found ( p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength.

  9. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Leo [Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada); Nelson, Alan E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)], E-mail: aenelson@dow.com; Heo, Giseon [Department of Statistics, Department of Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada); Major, Paul W. [Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2008-08-30

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found (p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength.

  10. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Leo; Nelson, Alan E.; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found (p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength

  11. Survey of advanced composite material technology; Senshin fukugo zairyo gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Results of functions and examples are investigated and described for more than 190 fiber reinforced composite materials. There should be a new viewpoint for even the same material when changing the point to observe it, and new industries will be expected if the viewpoint is adequate. This report has proposed a new concept of `composite functions.` The development works based on non-strength functions which will differentiate the other materials have been stressed. After describing the brief history of the advanced composite materials and significance of composite functions, the present situations and future possibilities of such functions as heat resistance, electricity-electromagnetism, chemicals-proof, adsorption, vibration-proof and resistance, tribology, erosion, sound, adaptability to living bodies and etc. have been examined based on the practical examples. As the future important subjects, adapting possibility of materials having composite functions to marine structures, and possibility of water cleaning system are described. 59 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. A simple method for determining the lattice parameter and chemical composition in ternary bcc-Fe rich nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, Javier A.; Gamarra Caramella, Soledad; Marta, Leonardo J.; Berejnoi, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for determining composition in ternary nanocrystals is presented. • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data were employed. • We perform theoretical charts for lattice parameter of Fe-rich ternary alloys. • A linear relationship in lattice parameter for binary alloys is evaluated. • A parabolic relationship is proposed for the Fe–Co–Si alloy. - Abstract: Charts containing lattice parameters of Fe 1−x (M,N) x ternary systems with M and N = Si, Al, Ge or Co, and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ ∼0.3, were developed by implementing a linear relationship between the respective binary alloys with the same solute content of the ternary one. Charts were validated with experimental data obtained from literature. For the Fe–Co–Si system, the linear relationship does not fit the experimental data. For the other systems (except the Fe–Co–Ge one where no experimental data was found), the lineal relationship constitute a very good approximation. Using these charts and the lattice parameter data obtained from X-ray diffraction technique combining with the solute content data obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy technique it is possible to determine the chemical composition of nanograins in soft magnetic nanocomposite materials and some examples are provided

  13. A simple method for determining the lattice parameter and chemical composition in ternary bcc-Fe rich nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Javier A., E-mail: jmoya.fi.uba@gmail.com [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Gamarra Caramella, Soledad; Marta, Leonardo J. [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Berejnoi, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Facultad de Ingeniería, Salta (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A method for determining composition in ternary nanocrystals is presented. • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data were employed. • We perform theoretical charts for lattice parameter of Fe-rich ternary alloys. • A linear relationship in lattice parameter for binary alloys is evaluated. • A parabolic relationship is proposed for the Fe–Co–Si alloy. - Abstract: Charts containing lattice parameters of Fe{sub 1−x}(M,N){sub x} ternary systems with M and N = Si, Al, Ge or Co, and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ ∼0.3, were developed by implementing a linear relationship between the respective binary alloys with the same solute content of the ternary one. Charts were validated with experimental data obtained from literature. For the Fe–Co–Si system, the linear relationship does not fit the experimental data. For the other systems (except the Fe–Co–Ge one where no experimental data was found), the lineal relationship constitute a very good approximation. Using these charts and the lattice parameter data obtained from X-ray diffraction technique combining with the solute content data obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy technique it is possible to determine the chemical composition of nanograins in soft magnetic nanocomposite materials and some examples are provided.

  14. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Sun, G.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  15. The study of mineral content in Thalictrum foetidum L. herb and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savelieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The physiological role of mineral substances is extremely important for human’s organism. It is necessary to maintain constantly the required level of irreplaceable macro- and microelements in organism, which are part of food products, mineral or mineral-vitamin complexes, medical plants and drugs on their basis. Methods and results. With the purpose to expand information about chemical composition of raw material, the qualitative composition and quantitative content of macro- and microelements in Thalictrum foetidum L. herb and roots has been determined. The atomic emission spectroscopy method has been used for research. The content of 15 macro- and microelements has been determined in Thalictrum foetidum L. herb and roots. Conclusions. Analyzing the general content of elements in raw material of Thalictrum foetidum L., sufficiently high content of neurogenic macro- and microelements (in particular, manganese, magnesium, potassium, and molybdenum has been noted. This fact makes herbal material promising for subsequent phytochemical and pharmacological research, and it can be used for new neurogenic drugs creation.

  16. Photocatalytic water splitting: Materials design and high-throughput screening of molecular compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khnayzer, Rony S.

    Due to the expected increases on energy demand in the near future, the development of new catalytic molecular compositions and materials capable of directly converting water, with the aid of solar photons, into hydrogen becomes obviated. Hydrogen is a combustible fuel and precious high-energy feedstock chemical. However, for the water-splitting reaction to proceed efficiently and economically enough for large-scale application, efficient light-absorbing sensitizers and water splitting catalysts are required. To study the kinetics of the water reduction reaction, we have used titania (TiO2) nanoparticles as a robust scaffold to photochemically grow platinum (Pt) nanoparticles from a unique surface-anchored molecular precursor Pt(dcbpy)Cl2 [dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine]. The hybrid Pt/TiO 2 nanomaterials obtained were shown to be a superior water reduction catalyst (WRC) in aqueous suspensions when compared with the benchmark platinized TiO2. In addition, cobalt phosphate (CoPi) water oxidation catalyst (WOC) was photochemically assembled on the surface of TiO2, and its structure and mechanism of activity showed resemblance to the established electrochemically grown CoPi material. Both WRC and WOC described above possessed near unity Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen and oxygen production respectively, and were fully characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and photochemistry. While there are established materials and molecules that are able to drive water splitting catalysis, some of these efficient semiconductors, including titanium dioxide (TiO2) and tungsten trioxide (WO3), are only able to absorb high-energy (ultraviolet or blue) photons. This high-energy light represents merely a fraction of the solar spectrum that strikes the earth and the energy content of those remaining photons is simply wasted. A strategy to mitigate this problem has been developed over the years in our laboratory. Briefly

  17. Single particle measurements of the chemical composition of cirrus ice residue during CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.

    2004-02-01

    The first real-time, in situ, investigation of the chemical composition of the residue of cirrus ice crystals was performed during July 2002. This study was undertaken on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft as part of CRYSTAL-FACE, a field campaign which sought to further our understanding of the relation of clouds, water vapor, and climate by characterizing, among other parameters, anvil cirrus formed about the Florida peninsula. A counter flow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to separate cirrus ice from the unactivated interstitial aerosol particles and evaporate condensed-phase water. Residual material, on a crystal-by-crystal basis, was subsequently analyzed using the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory's Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Sampling was performed from 5 to 15 km altitude and from 12° to 28° north latitude within cirrus originating over land and ocean. Chemical composition measurements provided several important results. Sea salt was often incorporated into cirrus, consistent with homogeneous ice formation by aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Size measurements showed that large particles preferentially froze over smaller ones. Meteoritic material was found within ice crystals, indicative of a relation between stratospheric aerosol particles and tropospheric clouds. Mineral dust was the dominant residue observed in clouds formed during a dust transport event from the Sahara, consistent with a heterogeneous freezing mechanism. These results show that chemical composition and size are important determinants of which aerosol particles form cirrus ice crystals.

  18. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarki, J., E-mail: sarksj@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Hassan, S.B., E-mail: hassbolaji@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S., E-mail: aigbodionv@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Oghenevweta, J.E. [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  19. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarki, J.; Hassan, S.B.; Aigbodion, V.S.; Oghenevweta, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  20. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  1. Chemical Composition and Amounts of Mineral Elements in Honeybee-Collected Pollen in Relation to Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha El-Kazafy Abdou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the apiary of the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The purpose was to study the relationship between the botanical origin and chemical composition of bee-collected pollen. The amount of mineral elements present in bee-collected pollen was also studied. The composition of pollen loads showed the maximum contents of dry matter, ash, glucose, fructose, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, and manganese (Mn for the date palm; the maximum contents of protein, calcium (Ca, and zinc (Zn for alfalfa; the maximum contents of fiber, and copper (Cu for the sunflower; the maximum contents of the lipids and iron (Fe for summer squash; and the maximum contents of sodium (Na, and potassium (K for rape. Calcium was found to be correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 positive way with K, Na, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. Copper, though, was correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 negative way with Ca, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. The high levels of protein, ash, glucose, and fructose, and low lipid content found in bee-pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa, mean that pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa make an excellent food supplement. It was concluded, that the chemical composition of beecollected pollen can be correlated with the plant species from which pollen was collected.

  2. Chemical properties of gutta-percha endodontic filling material: investigation of five commercial brands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Paula, Regina C.M.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Gurgel Filho, Eduardo; Teixeira, Fabricio B

    2001-01-01

    Chemical composition e thermal stability of five brands of gutta-percha endodontic filling material were investigated. Samples with higher amount of organic materials possess higher thermal stability. Investigation of gutta-percha polymer extracted from the endodontic filling by IR and NMR shows that the polymer is predominantly trans-polyisoprene. The thermal stability and molar mass were similar for four brands, however the 'Tanari' brand has got lower molar mass value than the other ones. (author)

  3. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  4. ANDRA - Referential Materials. Volume 1: Context and scope; Volume 2: Argillaceous materials; Volume 3: Cementitious materials; Volume 4: The corrosion of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This huge document gathers four volumes. The first volume presents some generalities about materials used in the storage of radioactive materials (definition, design principle, current choices and corresponding storage components, general properties of materials and functions of the corresponding storage components, physical and chemical solicitations experienced by materials in a storage), and the structure and content of the other documents. The second volume addresses argillaceous materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their design. It presents and comments the crystalline and chemical, and physical and chemical characteristics of swelling argillaceous materials and minerals, describes how these swelling argillaceous materials are shaped and set up, presents and comments physical properties (hydraulic, mechanical and thermal properties) of these materials, comments and discusses the modelling of the geo-chemical behaviour, and their behaviour in terms of containment and transport of radionuclides. The third volume addresses cementitious materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their definition and specifications. It presents some more detailed generalities (cement definition and composition, hydration, microstructure of hydrated cements, adjuvants), presents and comments their physical properties (fresh concrete structure and influence of composition, main aimed properties in the hardened status, transfer, mechanical, and thermal properties, shaping and setting up of these materials, technical solutions for hydraulic works). The fourth volume addresses the corrosion of metallic materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage of radioactive materials. It presents metallic materials and discusses their corrosion behaviour. It describes the peculiarities

  5. HONEYDEW HONEY: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTILIA BOBIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected physico-chemical parameters, total polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of honeydew honey samples from Romanian were determined. Regarding the chemical composition, analysed honey samples framed in this type of honey, phenolic content, determined as gallic acid equivalents, presented a mean value of 116.45mg GAE/100 g honey. Total flavonoid content expressed as quercetin equivalents, was 1.53 mg in honeydew honey. Antioxidant activity expressed as % inhibition of a solution of DPPH, ranged between 47.84 and 62.99%. The concentration of honey that inhibit with 50% the DPPH solution was established to be 16.16%. 10 strains of Staphylococcus aureus presented different inhibition percentages when were treatred with a solution of honey. In conclusion, Honeydew honey could be recommended to complement other polyphenol source in human diet and also used in medical treatment.

  6. Relationships between botanical and chemical composition of forages: a multivariate approach to grasslands in the Western Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetto Enri, Simone; Renna, Manuela; Probo, Massimiliano; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca M; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero

    2017-03-01

    Plant composition of species-rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituents and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi-natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps. Mesophilic and dry grasslands were comparable in terms of phenology, biodiversity indices and proportion of botanical families. The content of total fatty acids and that of the most abundant fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids) were mainly associated to nutrient-rich plant species, belonging to the mesophilic grassland ecological group. Mesophilic grasslands showed also higher values of crude protein, lower values of fibre content and they were related to higher pastoral values of vegetation compared to dry grasslands. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile appeared mainly single species dependent rather than botanical family dependent. These findings highlight that forage from mesophilic grasslands can provide higher nutritive value for ruminants and may be associated to ruminant-derived food products with a healthier fatty acid profile. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. [The fat content and fatty acids composition in selected products of the convenience food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicka, Maria; Grajeta, Halina; Kleczkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    An increasing pace of life and a lack of time for meals preparation at home, observed in many countries worldwide, have led to an increased consumption of convenient food products. This term refers to highly processed food products that are either ready-to-eat or may be consumed after short culinary processing. Convenience foods include: dinner courses, salads, cereals, creams, broths, pizzas, roasts, as well as frozen products ready-to-eat after short heat treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the fat content and fatty acids composition of frozen products belonging to convenience food. Material for analysis comprised of 30 following food products: fish and seafood products, pizza, casseroles and meat products. The fat content was determined using Folch method and the fatty acids composition using gas chromatography technique. The analyzed products contained from 1.2% to 26.9% of fat. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) content ranged from 8.7% to 53.2%, while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)--from 24.0% to 68.7% of total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage accounted for 8,1% to 48,8% and trans isomers--for 0.2% to 6.1% of total fatty acids. The fat and fatty acid contents showed large differences in products depending on their composition and preparation techniques declared by the producer. Most of the analyzed fish and seafood products were characterized by the fat content ranged from 11% to 14% with the high percentage of fatty acids favorable from nutritional point of view, MUFA and PUFA. The composition of fatty acids from pizza and casseroles was less favorable, due to high proportion of SFA and also trans isomers.

  8. Coastal Antarctic aerosol: the seasonal pattern of its chemical composition and radionuclide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenbach, D.; Goerlach, U.; Moser, K.; Muennich, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    At the German Antarctic research station (70 degrees S, 8 degrees W), long-term observations of the chemical and radio-chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter were started in spring 1983. Based on the analysis of high-volume aerosol filters sampled continuously for nearly 5 years, concentration records of the following aerosol components are presented here: (a) major ions (sea-salt, sulfate, nitrate); (b) cosmogenic 7 Be and terrigeneous 210 Pb; (c) trace elements (crustal Mn, heavy metal Pb). All species mentioned, with the exception of stable and radioactive Pb, show annual cycles. The maximum occurs in austral summer for 7 Be, sulfate, and crustal Mn. For sea-salt, however, the maximum is found in local autumn, and for nitrate in local spring. In local summer, the enhanced 7 Be to 210 Pb ratio is attributed to intenser large scale vertical mixing. The pattern of total sulfate seems to be controlled by the nss-sulfate production from marine organo-sulfur species during local summer, whereas in polar night, nss-sulfate shows very low or even negative concentration. Crustal aerosol (indicated by Mn) shows a mean summer contribution of 16 ng/SCM which exceeds the mean winter level by more than a factor of two. Based on a mean wash-out ratio of 0.27x10 6 observed for 210 Pb bearing aerosol particles, a Pb snow concentration of 3.0 pg/g is deduced from the mean air concentration of 11 pg/SCM. (authors)

  9. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-03-01

    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  10. Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acid profile of two marine fishes from Cameroonian coast: Pseudotolithus typus (Bleeker, 1863 and Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Njinkoue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of chemical composition of fish from Cameroon is poor. The genera Pseudotolithus are nutritionally and economically important in Cameroon. Thus the knowledge on their chemical composition could help in functional food elaboration. Purpose: In this study, Proximate composition, fatty acid profiles and mineral composition were determined in two fish species, Pseudotolithus typus and Pseudotolithus elongatus from Cameroonian coasts. Basic procedure: AOAC standard method was used. Fatty acids were identified by GC/MS as N-acylpyrolidides. Mineral compositions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Ca, Na, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and by UV spectrophotometry for phosphorus (P. Main finding: Results indicated that chemical composition was not similar in the two fish species. Results also showed that water is the main constituent in the edible parts and in the bones with 76.17% to 78.24% and 51.21% to 55.28% respectively. Pseudotolithus typus and Pseudotolithus elongatus were good sources of proteins with 16.17% and 13.4% respectively. All the fish analyzed for fat were lean with fat contents less than 0.5%. These species of fish were poor in ω6PUFA and were rich in ω3PUFA with about one third of total fatty acids. The main ω3 fatty acids were eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The most abundant main elements were the potassium in the edible parts (1.39% and calcium in the bones (18.26%. The most abundant trace elements were Zn and Fe in the edible parts and in the bones. Principal conclusion: The Na/K ratio values and ω3 fatty acids contents suggest that consumption of these two fish species could be recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Proximal composition, Mineral content, Fatty acid profiles, Pseudotolithus typus, Pseudotolithus elongates

  11. Medium Resolution Spectroscopy and Chemical Composition of Galactic Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamidullina D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We used integrated-light medium-resolution spectra of six Galactic globular clusters and model stellar atmospheres to carry out population synthesis and to derive chemical composition and age of the clusters. We used medium-resolution spectra of globular clusters published by Schiavon et al. (2005, as well as our long-slit observations with the 1.93 m telescope of the Haute Provence Observatory. The observed spectra were fitted to the theoretical ones interactively. As an initial approach, we used masses, radii and log g of stars in the clusters corresponding to the best fitting isochrones in the observed color-magnitude diagrams. The computed synthetic blanketed spectra of stars were summed according to the Chabrier mass function. To improve the determination of age and helium content, the shape and depth of the Balmer absorption lines was analysed. The abundances of Mg, Ca, C and several other elements were derived. A reasonable agreement with the literature data both in chemical composition and in age of the clusters is found. Our method might be useful for the development of stellar population models and for a better understanding of extragalactic star clusters.

  12. Medium resolution spectroscopy and chemical composition of Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullina, D. A.; Sharina, M. E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Davoust, E.

    We used integrated-light medium-resolution spectra of six Galactic globular clusters and model stellar atmospheres to carry out population synthesis and to derive chemical composition and age of the clusters. We used medium-resolution spectra of globular clusters published by Schiavon et al. (2005), as well as our long-slit observations with the 1.93 m telescope of the Haute Provence Observatory. The observed spectra were fitted to the theoretical ones interactively. As an initial approach, we used masses, radii and log g of stars in the clusters corresponding to the best fitting isochrones in the observed color-magnitude diagrams. The computed synthetic blanketed spectra of stars were summed according to the Chabrier mass function. To improve the determination of age and helium content, the shape and depth of the Balmer absorption lines was analysed. The abundances of Mg, Ca, C and several other elements were derived. A reasonable agreement with the literature data both in chemical composition and in age of the clusters is found. Our method might be useful for the development of stellar population models and for a better understanding of extragalactic star clusters.

  13. Laser scabbling for nuclear decommissioning: Effect of concrete composition on volume removal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach, B.; Petkovski, M.; Blackburn, J.; Engelberg, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of concrete composition and moisture content on volume removal with the overarching goal to identify mechanism(s) responsible for laser scabbling. Tests under application of fixed laser parameters showed that concrete composition had a significant effect on material removal but the investigation into moisture content was inconclusive. The mechanical properties and size of coarse aggregates seemed to affect scabbling efficiency, rather than their chemical properties. The presence of pulverized fuel ash as a cement replacement material indicated to be a major factor that determines material removal volumes. (authors)

  14. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Alejo C., E-mail: acarreras@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba—CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Cangiano, María de los A.; Ojeda, Manuel W.; Ruiz, María del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Qumica (INTEQUI), Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys.

  15. Two-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon composites derived from corn stalks for electrode materials with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Huijuan; Ouyang, Ya; Liu, Li; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel 2D porous carbon sheets from cornstalks are obtained for the first time. • The hierarchical porous carbon nansheets are gained by chemical activation. • The porous structure facilitates ion transfer and Li-ion absorption. • The strategy are applied to both cathode and anode electrode materials. • The porous nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Herein, we propose a novel and green strategy to convert crop stalks waste into hierarchical porous carbon composites for electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries. In the method, the sustainable crop stalks, an abundant agricultural byproduct, is recycled and treated by a simple and clean chemical activation process. Afterwards, the obtained porous template is adopted for large-scale production of high-performance anode and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Due to the large surface area, hierarchical porous structures and subsize of the functional particles, the electrode materials manifest excellent electrochemical performance. In particular, the prepared TiO 2 /C composite presents a reversible specific capacity of 203 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles. Our results demonstrate that the sheetlike composites show remarkable cycling stability, high specific capacity and excellent rate ability, and thus hold promise for commercializing the high-performance electrode materials as the advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Chemically activated graphene/porous Si@SiO{sub x} composite as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Hua-Chao [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang, Hubei 443002 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy, Hubei Province (China); Yang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xlyang@ctgu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang, Hubei 443002 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Lu-Lu; Ni, Shi-Bing [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang, Hubei 443002 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy, Hubei Province (China)

    2014-10-15

    Chemically activated graphene/porous Si@SiO{sub x} (CAG/Si@SiO{sub x}) composite has been synthesized via magnesiothemic reduction of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} (MCM-48) to porous Si@SiO{sub x} and dispersing in the suspension of chemically activated graphene oxide (CAGO) followed by thermal reduction. The porous Si@SiO{sub x} particles are well encapsulated in chemically activated graphene (CAG) matrix. The resulting CAG/Si@SiO{sub x} composite exhibits a high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability up to 763 mAh g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. The porous structure of CAG layer and Si@SiO{sub x} is beneficial to accommodate volume expansion of Si during discharge and charge process and the interconnected CAG improves the electronic conductivity of composite. - Highlights: • Chemically activated graphene encapsulated porous Si composite was prepared. • The graphene offers a continuous electrically conductive network. • The porous structure can accommodate volume expansion of Si-based materials. • The composite exhibits excellent lithium storage performance.

  17. The chemical composition and band gap of amorphous Si:C:N:H layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swatowska, Barbara, E-mail: swatow@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kluska, Stanislawa; Jurzecka-Szymacha, Maria [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Stapinski, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Tkacz-Smiech, Katarzyna [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Six type of amorphous hydrogenated films were obtained and analysed. • Investigated chemical bondings strongly influenced energy gap values. • Analysed layers could be applied as semiconductors and also as dielectrics. - Abstract: In this work we presented the correlation between the chemical composition of amorphous Si:C:N:H layers of various content of silicon, carbon and nitrogen, and their band gap. The series of amorphous Si:C:N:H layers were obtained by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method in which plasma was generated by RF (13.56 MHz, 300 W) and MW (2.45 GHz, 2 kW) onto monocrystalline silicon Si(001) and borosilicate glass. Structural studies were based on FTIR transmission spectrum registered within wavenumbers 400–4000 cm{sup −1}. The presence of Si−C, Si−N, C−N, C=N, C=C, C≡N, Si−H and C−H bonds was shown. The values band gap of the layers have been determined from spectrophotometric and ellipsometric measurements. The respective values are contained in the range between 1.64 eV – characteristic for typical semiconductor and 4.21 eV – for good dielectric, depending on the chemical composition and atomic structure of the layers.

  18. Municipal Sewage Sludge Drying Treatment by an Composite Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sludge composite modifier (SCM which comprises a mixture of three cementitious components was proposed for sludge drying and stabilization. Effect of SCM components on sludge moisture content was analyzed using uniform design and the optimum composition of SCM was determined by computer-aided modeling and optimization. To compare the drying effect of SCM, quicklime, and Portland cement, the effects of material content and curing time on moisture content of sludge were also studied. The results showed that the optimum ratio of modifier component was slag/cement clinker/dihydrate gypsum = 0.64/0.292/0.068 and the moisture content of SCM-stabilized sludge decreased with the increasing material content and extending curing time. Besides, the experimental results showed that optimized SCM behaved better than quicklime and Portland cement in sludge semi-drying and XRD analysis revealed that the main hydrated product of stabilization was ettringite, which played an important role in the effective drying process. Sewage sludge stabilized using SCM could be used as an effective landfill cover.

  19. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  20. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  1. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  2. Copper-carbon and aluminum-carbon composites fabricated by powder metallurgy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvain, Jean-François; Veillère, Amélie; Lu, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    The increase in both power and packing densities in power electronic devices has led to an increase in the market demand for effective heat-dissipating materials, with high thermal conductivity and thermal- expansion coefficient compatible with chip materials still ensuring the reliability of the power modules. In this context, metal matrix composites: carbon fibers and diamond-reinforced copper and aluminum matrix composites among them are considered very promising as a next generation of thermal-management materials in power electronic packages. These composites exhibit enhanced thermal properties compared to pure copper combined with lower density. This article presents the fabrication techniques of copper/carbon fibers and copper/diamond and aluminum/carbon fibers composite films by powder metallurgy and hot pressing. The thermal analyses clearly indicate that interfacial treatments are required in these composites to achieve high thermomechanical properties. Interfaces (through novel chemical and processing methods), when selected carefully and processed properly will form the right chemical/mechanical link between metal and carbon, enhancing all the desired thermal properties while minimizing the deleterious effect.

  3. Fe-based composite materials with improved mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werniewicz, Katarzyna [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Kuehn, Uta; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kulik, Tadeusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    Following a previous study by the authors two new compositions (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 91}C{sub 9} and (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 83}C{sub 17} have been developed with the aim of improving the ductility of Fe{sub 65.5}Cr{sub 4}Mo{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}P{sub 12}C{sub 5}B{sub 5.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG). In contrast to the alloys in that study, the recently prepared Fe-based materials are Ga-free. It was expected that the variations in the composition will lead to the changes in the phase formation and, hence, in the mechanical response of the investigated alloys. It was recognized that in-situ formed Fe-based composites show superior plasticity ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}37%) for the alloy with lower C content and ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}4%) for the alloy with higher C content compared to monolithic glass ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}0.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of present as well as previous investigations it has been shown that the Ga addition is beneficial for the plasticity of these Fe-based alloys. It was observed that the (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 83}C{sub 17} alloy exhibits a significantly smaller fracture strain ({epsilon}{sub f}{approx}5%) compared to its Ga-containing counterpart ({epsilon}{sub f}{approx}16%). Therefore, it can be concluded that appropriate alloying additions are crucial in enhancing the mechanical properties of the complex Fe-based materials developed here.

  4. Polyamide–thallium selenide composite materials via temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanauskas, Remigijus; Samardokas, Linas; Mikolajunas, Marius; Virzonis, Darius; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Single phase polyamide–thallium selenide hybrid functional materials were synthesized for solar energy conversion. - Highlights: • Thallium selenide–polyamide composite materials surfaces synthesized. • Mixed phase composition confirmed by XRD. • Increased temperature resulted in a denser surface packing. • Urbach energies correlated with AFM showing decreased structural disorder. • Annealing in N 2 at 100 °C yielded a single TlSe phase. - Abstract: Composite materials based on III–VI elements are promising in designing efficient photoelectronic devices, such as thin film organic–inorganic solar cells. In this work, TlSe composite materials were synthesized on a model polymer polyamide using temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method via (a) selenization followed by (b) the exposure to the group III metal (Tl) salt solution and their surface morphological, chemical and crystalline phase information was determined with particular focus on their corresponding structure–optical property relationship. XRD analysis yielded a complex crystalline phase distribution which correlated well with the optical and surface morphological properties measured. pH 11.3 and 80 °C yielded well defined, low structural disorder composite material surface. After annealing in N 2 at 100 °C, polycrystalline PA-Tl x Se y composite materials yielded a single TlSe phase due to the enhanced diffusion and reaction of thallium ions into the polymer. The method described here can be used to synthesize variety of binary III–VI compounds diffused into the polymer at relatively low temperatures and low overall cost, thus providing for a flexible synthesis route for novel composite solar energy harvesting materials

  5. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Changes in Some Soybean Mutants Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elkalik, K.; Mekkawy, S.H.; El-Demerdash, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Egyptian soybean cultivar Giza-22 was used to induce genetic variability by using gamma rays at dose levels of 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Sixteen mutants (including parental cultivar) were evaluated in M3 generation for their agronomic traits and chemical analysis was done in seeds of M3 generation. Four mutants A21 (150 Gy), A22, A23 and A24 (200 Gy) showed superiority in their agronomic traits compared with parental cultivar. The results of chemical analysis of seeds of M3 generation showed that, oil and energy contents were unaffected by irradiation treatments while protein contents were significantly increased at doses 150 and 200 Gy. Phenolic and tannin contents in seeds of M3 generation showed no significant changes in their percentages due to irradiation treatments. Gamma irradiation significantly increased in linoleic acid content in most of the mutants compared with the control (Giza-22), whereas, there were decreases in linolenic acid content. Investigation of amino acid composition of mutants of M3 generation revealed significant increases in the essential amino acids in most mutants induced by gamma irradiation at 150 and 200 Gy. It could be suggested that the use of gamma irradiation can induce an improvement of the oil and protein composition in soybean

  7. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium eerie nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic system's, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. A molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 12 O 27 . 13H 2 O and Ce 2 Ti 3 O 10 . 7.46H 2 O, respectively, was proposed. Thermal stabilities of both ion exchangers were investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared with the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were also investigated

  8. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M. M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium ceric nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic systems, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. We can proposed molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 1 2O27. 13H 2 O and Ce 2 ThO10. 7.46 H 2 O, respectively. Thermal stability of both ion exchangers was investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared to the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were investigated

  9. Correlation between thermal behavior of clays and their chemical and mineralogical composition: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Yanti, Evi; Pratiwi, I.

    2018-02-01

    Clay's abundance has been widely used as industrial raw materials, especially ceramic and tile industries. Utilization of these minerals needs a thermal process for producing ceramic products. Two studies conducted by Septawander et al. and Chin C et al., showed the relationship between thermal behavior of clays and their chemical and mineralogical composition. Clays are characterized by XRD analysis and thermal analysis, ranging from 1100°C to 1200°C room temperature. Specimen of raw materials of clay which is used for the thermal treatment is taken from different geological conditions and formation. In raw material, Quartz is almost present in all samples. Halloysite, montmorillonite, and feldspar are present in Tanjung Morawa raw clay. KC and MC similar kaolinite and illite are present in the samples. The research illustrates the interrelationships of clay minerals and chemical composition with their heat behavior. As the temperature of combustion increases, the sample reduces a significant weight. The minerals which have undergone a transformation phase became mullite, cristobalite or illite and quartz. Under SEM analysis, the microstructures of the samples showed irregularity in shape; changes occurred due the increase of heat.

  10. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  11. Summary of the Effects of Two Years of Hygro-Thermal Cycling on a Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Miller, Sandi G.; Pereira, J. Michael; Bail, Justin L.

    2011-01-01

    Composite materials are beginning to be used for structures in the fan section of commercial gas turbine engines. This paper explores the type of damage that could occur within one type of composite material after exposure to hygrothermal cycles (temperature/humidity cycles) that are representative of the environment in the fan section of an engine. The effect of this damage on composite material properties is measured. Chemical changes in the matrix material were limited to the exposed surface. Microcrack formation was identified in the composite material. This damage did not cause a significant reduction in tensile strength or impact penetration resistance of the composite material. Additional data is needed to assess the effect of damage on compressive strength.

  12. Amino Acid and Vitamin Content of Propolis Collected by Native Caucasican Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroglu Nazife

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenol content of propolis has received a lot of attention due to the benign biological properties noted in the chemical composition studies. However, there are very limited studies about other chemical components found in trace amounts in nature which contribute to the therapeutic properties of propolis. The present study, therefore, investigated the amino acid and vitamin composition of propolis. Propolis harvested by 60 colonies of Apis mellifera caucasica belonged to local non-migratory beekeepers. The A. m. caucasica is known for its distinctive propolis collecting capability which native to the secluded Ardahan Province of Turkey. Vitamin (Thiamine, Riboflavin combinations of propolis were determined using the HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography fluorescent detector. An amino acid analysis was also performed with the UFLC (Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography system consisting of binary pump and UV/VIS. Our findings record that the vitamin and amino acid content of propolis samples collected from three areas of different altitudes in the same region differed from each other. Vitamin B1 content and Vitamin B2 content ranged between 0.025-0.16 mg/100g, and 0.304-0.777mg/100g, respectively. A maximum amount of amino acid was reported as leucine, while a minimum amount of amino acid was seen as tryptophan in Ardahan propolis. Consequently, the vitamin and amino acid content of propolis, which derived from secondary plant metabolites of resin, varied depending on their geographical altitudes. Those vitamin and amino acids found in the propolis composition are believed to have beneficial therapeutic properties.

  13. FIRE-RESISTANCE PROPERTIES RESEARCH OF “WATER GLASS - GRAPHITE MICROPARTICLES” COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pitukhin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Research results of the fire-resistance for “water glass - graphite microparticles” composite material (CM are given. The method for fire-resistance test of the micro composition is suggested in order to determine the limit state of the experimental samples under hightemperature action. Method. Test-benchequipment being used for research includes metering devices of temperature and time, as well as laboratory electric furnace PL20 with a maximum temperature in the chamber up to 1250ºC. Fire-resistance limit for the test samples of composite material is determined by the loss of insulating ability (I. For that purpose, the time is obtained from the test beginning with the standard temperature mode up to a limiting condition. Main Results. In accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents fire-resistance limit I15 has been obtained equal to 15 minutes. The qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the CM structure has been done. By the study of samples by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy we have determined that the material retains the same chemical structure with a monotonic heating above 700° C. Practical Relevance. The composite material with obtained characteristics can be used as a protective coating for building constructions with the aim of fire-resistance enhancement and fuel hazard reduction.

  14. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  15. Microstructural and chemical characterization of cladding material zirconia scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadalbert, R.; Boulanger, L.; Lansiart, S.; Silvestre, G.; Juliet, P.

    1991-01-01

    Uniform corrosion of Zircaloy-4 in PWR conditions depends both on the microstructure of the material and on its precise chemical composition. For a good understanding of the influence of the different parameters which are involved in the oxidation mechanisms, a detailed characterization of the oxide scale and the underlying metal is needed. The results on the alloying elements distribution in the oxide and the metal obtained by electron probe Microanalysis and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry as well as the TEM observations on the oxide crystal structure and the metal oxide interface are reported

  16. The Influence of Aging Period, Freezing Temperature and Packaging Material on Frozen Beef Chemical Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the influences of aging period, freezing temperature and packaging material on the frozen beef chemical quality. The material of the study was 2-3 years old Ongole grade beef of the Longissimus dorsi part,  and was then classified into 3 treat­ments, namely A (aging periode; 0, 12 and 24 hours, B (freezing temperature; -10°C and -20°C and C (packaging material; aluminum foil (Al, polyprophylene (PP, poly­ethylene (PE and without packaging material. The ob­served variables were water content, crude protein, fat, ash content. The data were analyzed by the Completely Randomized Design (CRD in the Factorial (3x2x4 pattern. The results indicated that the aging periode de­creased the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, and decreased the crude protein but increased the fat content insignificantly. The lower freezing temperature prevented the decreases of the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, but prevented the decrease of crude protein, fat content insignificantly. The packaging material could prevent the decreases of water content, ash content sig­nificantly (P<0.05, but prevent the decreases of protein, and fat content insignificantly. A significant interaction (P<0.05 occured between the freezing temperature and packaging material factors on ash content of the frozen beef. The conclusion was the frozen beef without aging has a high of water content, protein, and ash, but has a low fat content.Temperature at -200C and using aluminium foil packaging can prevent decreasing quality of frozen beef. Keywords : Aging period, freezing temperature,  packaging material

  17. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Lina; Qin, Xue; Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B_2O_3 plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B_2O_3–SnO_2/graphene (B_2O_3–SnO_2/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B_2O_3 dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO_2/G composite. The B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g"−"1 at 500 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO_2-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B_2O_3 played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Monitoring chemical degradation of thermally cycled glass-fibre composites using hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadakis, V.; Muller, B.; Hagenbeek, M.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R.M.; Yu, T.; Gyekenyesi, A.L.; Shull, P.J.; Wu, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the application of glass-fibre composites in light-weight structures is growing. Although mechanical characterizations of those structures are commonly performed in testing, chemical changes of materials under stresses have not yet been well documented. In the present work coupon tests and

  19. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, C; Fernandes, E A.N.; Franca, E J; Bacchi, M A; Tagliaferro, F S [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching