WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical composition by material content

  1. Chemical composition of material fractions in Danish household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of Danish household waste was determined by two approaches: a direct method where the chemical composition (61 substances) of 48 material fractions was determined after hand sorting of about 20 tonnes of waste collected from 2200 households; and an indirect method where...... batches of 80-1200 tonnes of unsorted household waste was incinerated and the content of the waste determined from the content of the outputs from the incinerator. The indirect method is believed to better represent the small but highly contaminated material fractions (e,g., batteries) than the direct...... method, because of the larger quantities included and the more homogenous material to sample from. Differences between the direct and the direct methods led to corrections in the of heavy metal concentration of a few fractions. The majority of the energy content of the waste originates from organic waste...

  2. Study on raw material origin of celadon porcelain bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure seven major chemical composition of celadon porcelain body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou. The contents of major chemical composition in each sample were selected to make scattering analysis. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The conclusion is that the raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng is different from that from Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou, but they are closely related. Both the Ruguan porcelain bodies and MinRu porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln during the Song Dynasty are basically from the same provenance. (authors)

  3. Temperature response of litter and soil organic matter decomposition is determined by chemical composition of organic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Sparrman, Tobias; Haei, Mahsa; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Hedenström, Mattias; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats B

    2013-12-01

    The global soil carbon pool is approximately three times larger than the contemporary atmospheric pool, therefore even minor changes to its integrity may have major implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While theory predicts that the chemical composition of organic matter should constitute a master control on the temperature response of its decomposition, this relationship has not yet been fully demonstrated. We used laboratory incubations of forest soil organic matter (SOM) and fresh litter material together with NMR spectroscopy to make this connection between organic chemical composition and temperature sensitivity of decomposition. Temperature response of decomposition in both fresh litter and SOM was directly related to the chemical composition of the constituent organic matter, explaining 90% and 70% of the variance in Q10 in litter and SOM, respectively. The Q10 of litter decreased with increasing proportions of aromatic and O-aromatic compounds, and increased with increased contents of alkyl- and O-alkyl carbons. In contrast, in SOM, decomposition was affected only by carbonyl compounds. To reveal why a certain group of organic chemical compounds affected the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition in litter and SOM, a more detailed characterization of the (13) C aromatic region using Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) was conducted. The results revealed considerable differences in the aromatic region between litter and SOM. This suggests that the correlation between chemical composition of organic matter and the temperature response of decomposition differed between litter and SOM. The temperature response of soil decomposition processes can thus be described by the chemical composition of its constituent organic matter, this paves the way for improved ecosystem modeling of biosphere feedbacks under a changing climate. PMID:23907960

  4. IMPROVEMENTS IN WOOD THERMOPLASTIC MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROPERTIES BY PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zivkovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a short overview of the developments made in the field of wood thermoplastic composites in terms of surface treatment, flammability, matrix/reinforcement model, properties and application of recycled polymer matrices. The usage of lignocellulosic fibers as reinforcement in composite materials demands well formed interface between the fiber and the matrix. Because of the different nature of reinforcement and matrix components some physical and chemical treatment methods which improve the fiber matrix adhesion were introduced, as well as the improvements of lignocellulosic fibers and thermoplastic polymer matrix based composites flammability characteristics. These physical and chemical treatments influence the hydrophilic character of the lignocellulosic fibers, and therefore change their physical and mechanical properties.

  5. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  6. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB/Jute, i.e. 4:1, the fibre loading was optimized and different layering pattern were investigated. It is found from the chemical resistance test that all the composites are resistant to various chemicals. It was observed that marked reduction in void content of hybrid composites in different layering pattern. From the different layering pattern, the tensile properties were slightly higher for the composite having jute as skin and oil palm EFB as core material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study tensile fracture surfaces of different composites.

  7. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  8. Prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of cereal grains and by-products for poultry from its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Losada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the metabolisable energy content of ninety batches of cereal grains and cereal by-products for poultry, regression models derived from different sample aggregations and using chemical components as independent variables were compared. Several statistics have been calculated to estimate the error of prediction. The results indicate that the highest levels of significance and coefficients of determination were obtained for equations derived from the larger data sets. However, the lowest prediction errors were associated to equations calculated for data or groups of data closer to the ingredient ­studied.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND RESISTANT STARCH CONTENT IN STARCHY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant Starch (RS is one of nature’s most interesting bioactive compounds. There is a wide variety of starchy food plants in Thailand that are good sources of RS, but they have not been well studied. As such, this study was carried out to investigate the potential food source of RS. Twenty-two promising food plants were selected. The samples included (1 cereals comprised of five long grain rice of O. sativa L. and sweet corn, (2 six species of root and tuber crops, (3 green banana fruits (Musa sapientum L. composed of ABB group, AAB group and AAA group at the first stage of ripening and (4 legume seeds included cowpea seeds (3 different cultivars, red bean, red kidney bean and mung bean. All food plants were determined for chemical compositions, resistant starch, non-resistant starch, total starch and amylose content. The study found that the starchy foods varied in their chemical compositions. The major composition of all foods was carbohydrate ranging between 58.19 (in black speck cow pea and 87.21% (in cassava root, whilst the fat, ash and fiber were observed only in small quantities. The protein content was highest in legume seeds (20.78 to 27.22%. For the study on starch compositions, green bananas contained highest amount of resistant starch ranging between 35.14 and 45.87%, indicating that more than a half of total starch in banana RS content varying from 35.14 to 45.87%, whereas the RS content of legumes ranging from 2.33 to 10.63% and 1.16 to 4.85% in cereal grains. Most of the starchy food plants contained moderate to high level of amylose (11.45-34.85%, except the waxy rice (2.72%.

  10. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  11. Compression Molding of Chemical/Thermal Resistant Composite Materials Using Wastes of Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE and Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Teruo||木村, 照夫||キムラ, テルオ

    2013-01-01

    This report proposed the compression molding method of chemical/thermal resistant composite materials reinforced by the carbon fiber extracted from CFRP waste and the waste of glass fiber coated by PTFE. The FEP resin was used for the matrix material. The contents of carbon fiber and FEP resin were varied in the experiments, and the machanical properties of composite materials were discussed in detail. As a result, the bending strength and modulus increased with increasing the content of carb...

  12. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP content was calculated as nitrogen (N × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD, true organic matter digestibility (TOMD, ME, and partitioning factor (PF values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT. Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum to 9.51% (maize, but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources.

  13. Fast, Contactless Monitoring of the Chemical Composition of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, O.; Stoyanov, Zh.; Stoyanov, B.; Nadoliisky, M.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    A technique to monitor chemical composition of materials during manufacturing of ceramic products, in particular - of bricks, is investigated. The technique of monitoring is likely to offset environmental pollution and save energy. For this purpose, we use the Surface photo charge effect, which is generated for each solid body interacting with electromagnetic field. The measurement is express and can be performed in-situ in production conditions. The experimental work has shown that different samples of the investigated materials with different compositions produce different signals specific to each sample. For the same material, the signal varies with the change in chemical composition. More specifically, it is shown that for the material from which the bricks are fired, the signal is a function of the percentage of coal sludge. The results indicate that the characterization technique as a viable technique for control of incoming raw materials.

  14. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masarin Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during

  15. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  16. Post-treatment of thermally sprayed composite materials by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post-treatment of surface protective layers by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) always contains heat treatment of the whole composite material. In this way not only the quality of the coating but also the basic material can be affected. The HIP process technique depends mainly on the initial product, its type of manufacture, its gas content, its porosity and its chemical composition. Compact composite materials can be post-compressed for not too large an open pore volume and a low gas content. One must not only observe optimisation of the HIP parameters here, but also the atmosphere of the plant. (orig.)

  17. Histochemistry, content and chemical composition of essential oil in different organs of Alpinia zerumbet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia zerumbet is a medicinal plant from Asian origin used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, which effect is attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the major component of the essential oil. The objective of this work was to identify the essential oil secretory structures in the leaf, flower, root and rhizome of this plant, and analyze the content and the chemical composition of the oil in the different organs of the plant. Sections were subjected to histochemical test with Nadi reagent for in situ localization of secretion. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified in CG-EM/FID. The histochemical test was positive for terpenoids, confirming the presence of essential oil stored in secretory structures named oils cells present in all analyzed organs. The higher essential oil content was found on the leaf (0.30%, while the petal and the rhizome presented content of 0.10% and 0.06%, respectively. It was not possible to determine essential oil content of the root due to the low amount of biomass produced. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil in the different plant organs, but the major constituent in all of them was the terpinen-4-ol, followed by 1,8 cineol in the leaf and by the α-terpineol in the flower and rhizome.

  18. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  19. Chemical composition, digestibility and antinutritional factors content of two wild legumes: Styphonolobium burseroides and Acacia bilimekii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, A; Migliaro, P; Toledo, A; Contreras, J

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility and toxin contents of two wild legumes: Styphnolobium burseroides and Acacia bilimekii, collected in a semi-arid zone of Mexico, were determined. Both legumes had a high fiber content. The seeds of Styphnolobium burseroides had a low protein content (14%), and the pod a high content of reducing sugars. However the seeds of Acacia bilimekii had a high protein concentration (35%). The seed proteins were low in sulphur amino acids and tryptophan in both legumes but were rich in lysine. Trypsin inhibitors and lectins were present in low concentrations; alkaloids and cyanogenic glucosides were not detected. The in vitro digestibility for monogastric animals was low but the same test with ruminal juice showed a high digestibility for both legumes. Based on their chemical composition and digestibility, these legumes could be a good alternative source in the feeding of ruminants. PMID:10646630

  20. Salinity effect on nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of Cichorium spinosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Levizou, Efi; Ntatsi, Georgia; Fernandes, Ângela; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Akoumianakis, Konstantinos; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization is an increasing problem for many areas throughout the world that renders prohibitive vegetables and crop production in general. In the present study, Cichorium spinosum L. plants were grown under saline conditions in order to evaluate chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of their leaves. Salinity increase resulted in significant changes of macro and micro-nutrients content (nutritional value, sugars, fatty acids, minerals, ascorbic acid and tocopherols), whereas the concentration of phenolic compounds was not significantly affected. Chicoric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids. In contrast, antioxidant activity and mineral composition were beneficially affected by mid-to-high and high salinity levels. In conclusion, C. spinosum can be cultivated under saline conditions without compromising the quality of the final product, especially in semi-arid areas where irrigation water is scarce and/or of low quality due to high content of NaCl (coastal areas or areas where underground water is saline). PMID:27507457

  1. PbO2 based composite materials deposited from suspension electrolytes: electrosynthesis, physico-chemical and electrochemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Velichenko, Alexander; Knysh, Valentina; Luk’yanenko, Tatiana; Dmitrikova, Larisa; Velichenko, Yulia; Devilliers, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials based on PbO2 containing TiO2 or ZrO2 were prepared from electrolytes containing a suspension of TiO2 or ZrO2. The contents of foreign oxides in the composite depend on the electrolyte composition and conditions of deposition. When a dispersed phase is incorporated into the composite coating, the dimensions of lead dioxide crystals decrease to submicro- and nano-size. Physico-chemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of composite materials are mainly determin...

  2. Nanostructured Tungsten Materials by Chemical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Sverker

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten based-materials are used in many different technical fields, particularly in applications requiring good temperature and/or erosion resistance. Nanostructuring of tungsten alloys and composites has the potential to dramatically improve the materials’ properties, enhancing the performance in present applications or enabling totally new possibilities. Nanostructured WC-Co composites have been the focus of researchers and industries for over two decades. New methods for powder fabricati...

  3. Toxicological characterization of chemicals produced from laser irradiation of graphite composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major potential hazards associated with laser machining of graphite composite materials is the toxic fumes and gases that are generated. When exposed to the intense energy of the laser beam, the organic polymer matrix of the composite material may decompose into various toxic by-products. To advance the understanding of the laser machining process from a health and safety viewpoint, this particular study consisted of the following steps: collect and analyze gaseous by-products generated during laser machining; collect particulates generated during laser machining and chemically extract them to determine the chemical species that may have absorbed or recondensed onto these particles; and review and evaluate the toxicity of the identified chemical species

  4. Nanograined WC-Co Composite Powders by Chemical Vapor Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taegong; Sohn, H. Y.; Han, Gilsoo; Kim, Young-Ugk; Hwang, Kyu Sup; Mena, M.; Fang, Zhigang Z.

    2008-02-01

    Nanograined tungsten carbide (WC) Co composite powders were prepared by a chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) process that has previously been used for preparing the aluminides of titanium and nickel and other metallic and intermetallic powders at the University of Utah. To determine the optimum condition for producing nanograined WC-Co composite powders, the effects of carburization temperature, CH4 to WCl6 ratio, CH4 to H2 ratio, CoCl2 contents, and residence time of WC on the powder composition and particle size were investigated. The reduction and carburization of the vaporized chlorides by CH4-H2 mixtures produced nanograined WC and Co composite powder, which sometimes contained small levels of W2C, W, or the η (Co3W3C) phase. The presence of these incompletely carburized phases can be tolerated because they can be fully carburized during the subsequent sintering process. These phases can also be fully carburized by a separate post-treatment. The products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). As a result, nanograined WC-Co composite with the particle size less than 30 nm was obtained.

  5. Predicting corn digestible and metabolizable energy content from its chemical composition in growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanfeng Li; Jianjun Zang; Dewen Liu; Xiangshu Piao; Changhua Lai; Defa Li

    2014-01-01

    Background:The nutrient composition of corn is variable. To prevent unforeseen reductions in growth performance, grading and analytical methods are used to minimize nutrient variability between calculated and analyzed values. This experiment was carried out to define the sources of variation in the energy content of corn and to develop a practical method to accurately estimate the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content of individual corn samples for growing pigs. Twenty samples were taken from each of five provinces in China (Jilin, Hebei, Shandong, Liaoning, and Henan) to obtain a range of quality. Results:The DE and ME contents of the 100 corn samples were measured in 35.3 ± 1.92 kg growing pigs (six pigs per corn sample). Sixty corn samples were used to build the prediction model;the remaining forty samples were used to test the suitability of these models. The chemical composition of each corn sample was determined, and the results were used to establish prediction equations for DE or ME content from chemical characteristics. The mean DE and ME content of the 100 samples were 4,053 and 3,923 kcal/kg (dry matter basis), respectively. The physical characteristics were determined, as well, and the results indicated that the bulk weight and 1,000-kernel weight were not associated with energy content. The DE and ME values could be accurately predicted from chemical characteristics. The best fit equations were as follows:DE, kcal/kg of DM=1062.68+(49.72 × EE)+(0.54 × GE)+(9.11 × starch), with R2=0.62, residual standard deviation (RSD)=48 kcal/kg, and P<0.01;ME, kcal/kg of dry matter basis (DM)=671.54+(0.89 × DE)-(5.57 × NDF)-(191.39 × ash), with R2=0.87, RSD=18 kcal/kg, and P<0.01. Conclusion:This experiment confirms the large variation in the energy content of corn, describes the factors that influence this variation, and presents equations based on chemical measurements that may be used to predict the DE and ME content of individual

  6. Neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of metallic materials, such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and others are determined by their chemical composition, which influences the various steps of the production process and the economic value attained by the materials. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used in this work to evaluate the chemical composition of iron, steel, silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials. The concentration of the elements As, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V and W were analyzed in the iron and steel samples whereas As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, U, Th, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, V, W and Yb were determined in silicon and ferrosilicon samples. Accuracy was assessed comparing obtained results to reference materials certified values. Results of about 10 % were achieved for most of the elements. Precision was assessed by replicate measurements, and the results of about 10 % were also achieved. Accuracy and precision results showed that the technique is suitable for the metallic materials composition analysis. Interferences of Cr and Mn in V, Fe and Co in Mn; Co in Fe and Cr in Ti were quantified and only the last one was critical to the analysis of the materials employed in this work. (author)

  7. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene. Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC 50 . Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium.

  8. Chemical composition and content of essential oil from the bud of cultivated Turkish clove

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmannsberger, H.; Nitz, S.; Ertaş, M.; Alma, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, clove bud oil, which was cultivated in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, was provided from a private essential oil company in Turkey. Essential oil from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) was obtained from steam-distillation method, and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The results showed that the essential oils mainly contained about 87.00% eugenol, 8.01% eugenyl acetate and 3.56% β-Caryophyllene. The chemical composition of the Turkish clove bud oil was com...

  9. Chemical composition and content of essential oil from the bud of cultivated Turkish clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmannsberger, H.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, clove bud oil, which was cultivated in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, was provided from a private essential oil company in Turkey. Essential oil from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L. was obtained from steam-distillation method, and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The results showed that the essential oils mainly contained about 87.00% eugenol, 8.01% eugenyl acetate and 3.56% β-Caryophyllene. The chemical composition of the Turkish clove bud oil was comparable to those of trees naturally grown in their native regions.

  10. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  11. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE MATERIALS FROM HARD COAL BURNING IN VIEW OF THEIR AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Czech

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of electric power in Poland bases on burning brown and hard coal. Currently over 90 % of electricity originates from this source. Generating electric power, like many other human activities, inevitably involves production of wastes. Considering the previous trends of these waste materials utilisation, one should analyse also potential use of biogenic components which they contain as fertilizers. The main objective of conducted investigations was an assessment of potential application of selected waste materials, i.e. fly ashes from production, fly ashes from the landfill site and slag sand from “KRAKÓW S.A.” heat and power plant for agricultural and environmental purposes. The assessment was made on the basis of analyses of the following physical and chemical properties of studied materials: pH, granulometric composition determined by Bouyoucose-Casagrande method in Prószyński’s modification, total alkalinity, total nitrogen content assessed by means of Kjeldahl’s method, organic carbon by Tiurin’s method, total contents of trace elements and the content of available forms of trace elements soluble in 1 mol · dm-3 HCl solution. On the basis of conducted laboratory analyses it should be stated that the amounts of heavy metals determined in the studied materials did not exceed the content allowable for waste materials designed for soil liming. The analysed materials reveal physical and chemical properties which do not exclude their potential application for soil liming. In this respect, fly ash from production seems the best. However, it contains about twice lower amounts of CaO in comparison with other calcium fertilizers available on the market.

  13. Glass Frit Dissolution Influenced by Material Composition and the Water Content in Iodide/Triiodide Electrolyte of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Flarup Jensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs and modules, a hermetic sealing is required. This research investigates the chemical stability of I-/I3- redox electrolyte and four different glass frits (GFs. Sintered GF layers were openly exposed to nonaqueous redox electrolyte and redox electrolyte with 1, 5, and 10 wt% H2O in thin, encapsulated cells. The change in I3− absorbance was assigned to a reaction between the GF and I-/I3- electrolyte and was used to evaluate the chemical stability of the different GFs. The I3− absorbance change was monitored over 100 days. Two out of the four GFs were unstable when H2O was added to the redox electrolyte. The H2O caused metal ion leaching which was determined from EDX analysis of the inorganic remains of electrolyte samples. A GF based on Bi2O3–SiO2–B2O3 with low bond strength leached bismuth into electrolyte and formed the BiI3- complex. A ZnO–SiO2–Al2O3-based GF also became unstable when H2O was added to the redox electrolyte. Leaching of zinc ions due to exchange with H+ resulted in the formation of a zinc-iodine compound which caused I3− depletion. By applying the test design to different types of GFs, the material suitability in the DSC working environment was investigated.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  15. Dependence of demagnetizing fields in Fe-based composite materials on magnetic particle size and the resin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Peter; Birčáková, Zuzana; Vojtek, Vladimír; Füzer, Ján; Bureš, Radovan; Fáberová, Mária

    2015-08-01

    Demagnetizing fields are in general produced by the volume and surface magnetic poles. The structure of soft magnetic composite materials, where the ferromagnetic particles are insulated from each other, causes the formation of demagnetizing fields produced by the particle surfaces. These fields depend on the amount of insulation and on the shapes, clustering and distribution of ferromagnetic particles. In this work the demagnetizing fields in iron-phenolphormaldehyde resin composite samples were investigated experimentally using the method for determining the demagnetization factor from the anhysteretic magnetization curve measurement. The initial magnetization curves were calculated for an ideal composite with 100% filler content using the values of the demagnetization factor. The results on the "ideal" permeability show differences between the samples with different resin content for each granulometric class, which tells about the internal stresses introduced into ferromagnetic material during the compaction process.

  16. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer

  17. Effect of chemical composition and alumina content on structure and properties of ceramic insulators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arman Sedghi; Nastaran Riahi-Noori; Naser Hamidnezhad; Mohammad Reza Salmani

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, six electrical porcelain compositions with different amount of alumina and silica have been prepared and fired in an industrial furnace at 1300°C. Density, porosity, bending strength and electrical strength were measured in the samples. In order to find a relationship between properties and sample microstructures, samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results showed that, with chemical composition of 53.5 wt.% SiO2 and 37.5 wt.% alumina, highest electrical strength of 21.97 kV/mm was achieved in fabricated electrical porcelains. Increasing amount of alumina up to 30 wt.% decreases quartz and cristobalite phases, but increases corundum phase 3 to 5 times. SEM observation revealed that dense particles and uniform distribution of long and thin needle shaped mullite are predominant in sample microstructures with highest electrical strength.

  18. Dependence of demagnetizing fields in Fe-based composite materials on magnetic particle size and the resin content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollár, Peter, E-mail: peter.kollar@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Birčáková, Zuzana; Vojtek, Vladimír; Füzer, Ján [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Bureš, Radovan; Fáberová, Mária [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-15

    Demagnetizing fields are in general produced by the volume and surface magnetic poles. The structure of soft magnetic composite materials, where the ferromagnetic particles are insulated from each other, causes the formation of demagnetizing fields produced by the particle surfaces. These fields depend on the amount of insulation and on the shapes, clustering and distribution of ferromagnetic particles. In this work the demagnetizing fields in iron–phenolphormaldehyde resin composite samples were investigated experimentally using the method for determining the demagnetization factor from the anhysteretic magnetization curve measurement. The initial magnetization curves were calculated for an ideal composite with 100% filler content using the values of the demagnetization factor. The results on the “ideal” permeability show differences between the samples with different resin content for each granulometric class, which tells about the internal stresses introduced into ferromagnetic material during the compaction process. - Highlights: • Demagnetization factor decreases as magnetic content and particle size increases. • Different “ideal” initial curves for each resin content due to stresses in particles. • “Ideal” permeability rises and H{sub C} decreases as resin content and particle size rises. • Demagnetizing fields in SMC studied by means of anhysteretic curve for the first time.

  19. Measurement of the high-temperature strain of UHTC materials using chemical composition gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, F.; Huo, Shiyu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a simple bonding and measuring technique to realise silica-based chemical composition gratings’ (CCGs) high temperature applications on hot structures. We describe a series of experiments on CCGs to measure the thermal and mechanical response characteristics of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials when the maximum temperature is above 1000 °C. Response characteristics are obtained at the heating and cooling stages. Results show that the wavelength response of the CCGs bonded on the UHTC plate increases non-linearly with increasing temperatures, but decreases almost linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature-dependent strain transfer coefficients are calculated theoretically and experimentally; results show that the values of strain transfer coefficients below 1000 °C are significantly affected by the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate material and the interface. The strain transfer coefficient value tends to vary slowly between 0.616 and 0.626 above 700 °C.

  20. The influence of carbon fibre content on the tribological properties of polyarylate based composites materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burya; A.I.; Chigvintseva; O.P

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of scientific-technical literature has shown the prospectiveness of applyinghigh-temperature thermoplastic polymers - among which there are complex aromatic polyesters -as constructive materials. Mixed polyarylates of DV mark based on diphenilolpropane and themixture of iso- and terephtale acid are mentioned to make the most valuable practical interest. Forimproving technological and exploitation properties the authors of the article have suggested toreinforce the polymer linking element with uglen-9 mark. Combination of the composition compo-nents was realized within the rotating electromagnetic field with the help of non-equiaxial ferro-magnetic elements. The study of tribotechnical characteristics (coefficient of friction, intensity oflinear wear, temperature in the contact zone "polymer specimen - counterbody" of elaborated car-bon plastics) has been made at the disc machine of friction. Investigation of exploitation regimes’(specific pressure and slip velocity) influence on the mentioned properties of the initial polymer hasshown that polyarylate can be recommended for work at values of PV criterion not greater than 1.2MPa · m/s. Hardening the exploitation regimes is accompanied by the catastrophic wear of plastic.Reinforcement of polyarylate with carbon fibre is noted to enable significant improvement (to de-crease the coefficient of friction, to increase resistance to wear) of tribotechnical characteristics ofcarbon plastics. The most optimal is the content of carbon fibre in polyarylate in amount of 25mass.%.

  1. Influence of composition on friction-wear behavior of composite materials reinforced by brass fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xian; LING Xiaomei

    2003-01-01

    In the study, for the composite materials reinforced by brass fibers, the influence of dominant ingredients, such as organic adhesion agent, cast iron debris, brass fiber, and graphite powder, on the friction-wear characteristics was investigated. The friction-wear experiment was carried out on the block-on-ring tribometer MM200. The worn surfaces of the friction pair consisting of the composite materials and grey cast iron HT200 under dry sliding friction were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX) and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TAG). The experimental results showed that the friction coefficient and the wear loss of the composite material increase obviously with the increase of cast iron debris content, but decrease obviously with the increase of graphite powder content, and increase a little when the mass fraction of brass fiber was over 19%, and the orientation of brass fiber has obvious influence on friction-wear property. When the mass fraction of organic adhesion agent was about 10-11%, the composite materials have an excellent friction-wear performance. The friction heat can pyrolyze organic ingredient in worn surface layer.

  2. Glass Frit Dissolution Influenced by Material Composition and the Water Content in Iodide/Triiodide Electrolyte of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katrine Flarup Jensen; Md. Mahbubur Rahman; Welmoed Veurman; Henning Brandt; Chan Im; Jürgen Wilde; Andreas Hinsch; Jae-Joon Lee

    2013-01-01

    To ensure long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and modules, a hermetic sealing is required. This research investigates the chemical stability of I-/I3- redox electrolyte and four different glass frits (GFs). Sintered GF layers were openly exposed to nonaqueous redox electrolyte and redox electrolyte with 1, 5, and 10 wt% H2O in thin, encapsulated cells. The change in I3− absorbance was assigned to a reaction between the GF and I-/I3- electrolyte and was used to evaluate the chem...

  3. Comparison of chemical composition of materials used in dental restorations 08 years after the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on the materials commonly used in dental restorations (amalgam, composite resin and Compomer), to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, observed when the teeth are restored within the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to the beam of radiation from a source of cobalt-therapy, and analyzed by a X-ray fluorescence technique, by comparing the chemical composition of samples before and after irradiation. Gamma spectrometry was performed with detector of NaI and HPGe in the same samples. Then, the samples were kept in an appropriate place and after 08 years is repeated the same analysis. With these tests, it was possible to verify small changes in the composition of bodies of evidence due to the interaction 08 years after exposure to gamma radiation beams, simulating a patient who develops deleterious effects of radiation after the end radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  4. Comparison of chemical composition of materials used in dental restorations 08 years after the irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio; Santos, Adimir dos, E-mail: mfmaio@ipen.b, E-mail: asantos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marcosrf@salesiano-ata.b [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on the materials commonly used in dental restorations (amalgam, composite resin and Compomer), to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, observed when the teeth are restored within the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to the beam of radiation from a source of cobalt-therapy, and analyzed by a X-ray fluorescence technique, by comparing the chemical composition of samples before and after irradiation. Gamma spectrometry was performed with detector of NaI and HPGe in the same samples. Then, the samples were kept in an appropriate place and after 08 years is repeated the same analysis. With these tests, it was possible to verify small changes in the composition of bodies of evidence due to the interaction 08 years after exposure to gamma radiation beams, simulating a patient who develops deleterious effects of radiation after the end radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  5. Effects of intra- and inter-laminar resin content on the mechanical properties of toughened composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Dodd H.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1991-01-01

    Composite materials having multiphase toughened matrix systems and laminate architectures characterized by resin-rich interlaminar layers (RIL) have been the subject of much recent attention. Such materials are likely to find applications in thick compressively loaded structures such as the keel area of commercial aircraft fuselages. The effects of resin content and its interlaminar and intralaminar distribution on mechanical properties were investigated with test and analysis of two carbon-epoxy systems. The RIL was found to reduce the in situ strengthening effect for matrix cracking in laminates. Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to increase with increasing RIL thickness over the range investigated, and Mode 1 interlaminar toughness was negligibly affected. Compressive failure strains were found to increase with increasing resin content for specimens having no damage, holes, and impact damage. Analytical tools for predicting matrix cracking of off-axis plies and damage tolerance in compression after impact (CAI) were successfully applied to materials with RIL.

  6. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    . The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  7. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  8. The New Technology of Composite Materials Repairing by Light Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-min; CHEN Yu-ming; YU Xiao-lei; WANG Le-xin

    2004-01-01

    The repairing of damaged composite materials becomes a hot research subject in the late 1990s.In this paper a new technology of repairing composite materials is given on the basis of our previous research.The light wave of 675nm transmitted by optical fiber is used as repairing light source,special repairable adhesive which can be stimulated by the light is adopted.By comparing the stiffness of the composite material before and after being damaged,it can be concluded that the mechanical property will not be changed with the feasible repairing technology.

  9. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  10. Multi-functional composite materials for catalysis and chemical mechanical planarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.

    2009-12-01

    Composite materials formed from two or more functionally different materials offer a versatile avenue to create a tailored material with well defined traits. Within this dissertation research, multi-functional composites were synthesized based on organic and inorganic materials. The functionally of these composites was experimentally tested and a semi-empirical model describing the sedimentation behavior of these particles was developed. This first objective involved the fabrication of microcomposites consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles confined within porous, microgels of a thermo-responsive polymer for use in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater. TiO2 has been shown to be an excellent photocatalyst with potential applications in advanced oxidative processes such as wastewater remediation. Upon UV irradiation, short-lived electron-hole pairs are generated, which produce oxidative species that degrade simple organic contaminants. The rapid sedimentation of these microcomposites provided an easy gravimetric separation after remediation. Methyl orange was used as a model organic contaminant to investigate the kinetics of photodegradation under a range of concentrations and pH conditions. Although after prolonged periods of UV irradiation (˜8-13 hrs), the titania-microgels also degrade, regeneration of the microcomposites was straightforward via the addition of polymer microgels with no loss in photocatalytic activity of the reformed microcomposites. The second objective within this dissertation involved the systematic development of abrasive microcomposite particles containing well dispersed nanoparticles of ceria in an organic/inorganic hybrid polymeric particle for use in chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP). A challenge in IC fabrication involves the defect-free planarization of silicon oxide films for successful multi-layer deposition. Planarization studies conducted with the microcomposites prepared in this research, yield

  11. Hydrogen Storage in Iron/Carbon Nano powder Composite Materials: Effect of Varying Spiked Iron Content on Hydrogen Adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the effects of varying the spiked iron content of iron/carbon nano powder (Fe/CNP) composite materials on hydrogen storage capacity. Among four such samples, a maximum hydrogen uptake of approximately 0.48 wt % was obtained with 14 wt % of spiked iron under 37 atm and 300 K. This higher hydrogen uptake capacity was believed to be closely related to the physisorption mechanism rather than chemisorption. In this case, the formation of maghemite catalyzed the attraction of hydrogen molecules and the CNP skeleton was the principal absorbent material for hydrogen storage. However, as the iron content exceeded 14 wt %, the formation of larger and poorly dispersed maghemite grains reduced the available surface areas of CNP for the storage of hydrogen molecules, leading to decreased uptake. Our study shows that hydrogen uptake capacities can be improved by appropriately adjusting the surface polarities of the CNP with well dispersed iron oxides crystals.

  12. Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casavola C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI. Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

  13. Quantification of glacial till chemical composition by reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemometric modelling of soil element concentrations from diffuse visible and near-infrared (VSWIR, 350–2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopic measurements holds potential for soil element analyses. Research has demonstrated it particularly for organic agricultural soils, yet little is known about the VSWIR response of glacial tills. Soils with low organic matter content developed on unstratified glacial materials were studied at two geologically similar sites on the mafic metavolcanic rocks of the Lapland Greenstone belt in northern Finland. The till samples (n = 217) were composed primarily of quartz, plagioclase and amphibole having less than 3% of clinochlore, talc and illite. VSWIR spectra of mineral powder (2 = 0.80–0.89) of several soil chemical elements such as Al (validation RMSE 1802 mg kg−1), Ba (5.85 mg kg−1), Co (0.86 mg kg−1), Cr (6.94 mg kg−1), Cu (2.54 mg kg−1), Fe (2088 mg kg−1), Mg (449.6 mg kg−1), Mn (0.82 mg kg−1), Ni (3.24 mg kg−1), V (4.88 mg kg−1), and Zn (0.80 mg kg−1). The electronic and vibrational molecular processes causing absorption might be responsible for accurate predictions of major elements such as Al, Fe and Mg. However, the concentrations of other major and trace elements could be predicted by the PLSR because they were cross-correlated to spectrally active soil elements or extraneous soil properties. Therefore, the applicability of the results is highly sample set specific. Further, the results show that in local scale studies at geologically fairly homogenous areas the limited spread of the data may restrict the use of the spectroscopic–chemometric approach. This paper demonstrates the capability of laboratory VSWIR spectroscopy for determining element concentrations of glacial tills. Further work should focus on overcoming the issues of sampling scale and understanding the causality for cross-correlation in quantification of the elements.

  14. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  15. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  16. TRUPACT-II Content Codes (TRUCON), Revision 8 and list of chemicals and materials in TRUCON (chemical list), Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT-II) Content Codes document (TRUCON) represents the development of a new content code system for shipping contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in TRUPACT-II. It will be used to convert existing waste forms, content codes, and any other identification codes into a system that is uniform throughout for all the Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These various codes can be grouped under the newly formed shipping content codes without any loss of waste characterization information. The TRUCON document provides a parametric description for each content code for waste generated and compiles this information for all ten DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in the TRUCON document for each content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code essentially gives a description of the CH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, and the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the TRUPACT-II package can be performed

  17. Gaining improved chemical composition by exploitation of Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio in XRF analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Rackwitz, Vanessa

    2014-07-15

    The high specificity of the coherent (Rayleigh), as well as incoherent (Compton) X-ray scattering to the mean atomic number of a specimen to be analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is exploited to gain more information on the chemical composition. Concretely, the evaluation of the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio from XRF spectra and its relation to the average atomic number of reference materials via a calibration curve can reveal valuable information on the elemental composition complementary to that obtained from the reference-free XRF analysis. Particularly for matrices of lower mean atomic numbers, the sensitivity of the approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished between specimens of mean atomic numbers differing from each other by 0.1. Hence, the content of light elements which are "invisible" for XRF, particularly hydrogen, or of heavier impurities/additives in light materials can be calculated "by difference" from the scattering calibration curve. The excellent agreement between such an experimental, empirical calibration curve and a synthetically generated one, on the basis of a reliable physical model for the X-ray scattering, is also demonstrated. Thus, the feasibility of the approach for given experimental conditions and particular analytical questions can be tested prior to experiments with reference materials. For the present work a microfocus X-ray source attached on an SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) system was used so that the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio could be acquired with EDX spectral data for improved analysis of the elemental composition. PMID:24950635

  18. Changes in formation gas composition and isotope content as indicators of unsaturated-zone chemical reactions related to recharge events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constituent composition and carbon and oxygen isotopes for CO2 in unsaturated-zone gases have been utilized to provide an independent means of determining what chemical reactions occurred during an extended artificial recharge experiment on the High Plains of Texas. Gas samples were collected from a sample point at a depth of 16 metres beneath a waterspreading basin to see what effect recharging water had on the unsaturated-zone atmosphere. Two different systems, one open and one closed, were sampled during this study. The 13C, 18O, Psub(CO2), and N/Ar data for gas collected during a 1975 experiment show the influence of unsaturated-zone gases being displaced by recharging waters, the trend towards equilibration with dissolved atmospheric gases as the sampling point is submerged by rising waters, the onset of a reducing environment and, following the termination of recharge, the slow recovery of the gas composition to pre-recharge conditions. The 13C content of the CO2 in the gases varied from -18.06% for the pre-recharge formation gas, to -10.01% for gases approaching equilibrium with dissolved atmospheric gases, to -38.01% for a CO2 produced from methane generated in a reducing evironment. The log Psub(CO2) for the above samples varied from -2.10 to -3.02 to -4.18 atmospheres, respectively. Recovery to pre-recharge unsaturated-zone atmospheric conditions took many months following the termination of recharge. (author)

  19. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry. PMID:26741561

  20. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Methods Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P < 0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P < 0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME = 6.57111 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME = 7.92283 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). Conclusions This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content. PMID

  1. Ni(II) immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija; Milenković Aleksandra; Jović Mihajlo; Dimović Slavko; Mraković Ana; Smičiklas Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP), which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B) and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH), by heating at 400 oC (B400) and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400),...

  2. Damage-tolerant composite materials produced by stitching carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA-Langley has undertaken the investigation of composite damage-tolerance enhancement and fabrication economies-maximization via reinforcement-stitching, in combination with resin transfer molding. Attention is given to results obtained by an experimental evaluation of composites tailored for damage tolerance by stitching layers of dry carbon-fiber fabric with closely-spaced threads, in order to furnish through-the-thickness reinforcement. Various stitching patterns and thread materials have been evaluated, using flat-plate specimens; blade-stiffened structural elements have been fabricated and tested. The results presented indicate that stitched laminates furnish damage tolerance performance comparable to that of more expensive, toughened-matrix composites.

  3. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Z Jie; Jian-Y Zhang; Li-H Zhao; Qiu-G Maand Cheng Ji

    2014-01-01

    Background:This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical Methods:Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results:Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P<0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P<0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME=6.57111+0.51475 GE-0.10003 NDF+0.13380 ADF+0.07057 fat-0.57029 ash-0.02437 L (R2=0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME=7.92283+0.51475 GE-0.10003 NDF+0.13380 ADF+0.07057 fat-0.57029 ash-0.02437 L (R2=0.70). Conclusions:This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  4. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  5. Integration of calcium and chemical looping combustion using composite CaO/CuO-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J

    2011-12-15

    Calcium looping cycles (CaL) and chemical looping combustion (CLC) are two new, developing technologies for reduction of CO(2) emissions from plants using fossil fuels for energy production, which are being intensively examined. Calcium looping is a two-stage process, which includes oxy-fuel combustion for sorbent regeneration, i.e., generation of a concentrated CO(2) stream. This paper discuss the development of composite materials which can use copper(II)-oxide (CuO) as an oxygen carrier to provide oxygen for the sorbent regeneration stage of calcium looping. In other words, the work presented here involves integration of calcium looping and chemical looping into a new class of postcombustion CO(2) capture processes designated as integrated CaL and CLC (CaL-CLC or Ca-Cu looping cycles) using composite pellets containing lime (CaO) and CuO together with the addition of calcium aluminate cement as a binder. Their activity was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) during calcination/reduction/oxidation/carbonation cycles. The calcination/reduction typically was performed in methane (CH(4)), and the oxidation/carbonation stage was carried out using a gas mixture containing both CO(2) and O(2). It was confirmed that the material synthesized is suitable for the proposed cycles; with the very favorable finding that reduction/oxidation of the oxygen carrier is complete. Various schemes for the Ca-Cu looping process have been explored here that would be compatible with these new composite materials, along with some different possibilities for flow directions among carbonator, calciner, and air reactor.

  6. Preparation of Nano/Micron Composite Materials by Process Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ai-feng; WEI Qi; JI; Yuan; HU Chuan-xin; YAO Jun-min

    2004-01-01

    This thesis put forward a method that controls the process of synthesizing nanomaterial to realize the composite of nanomaterial and micronmaterial. This thesis realizes the composite of nanomaterial and micronmaterial by adding micronmaterial during production of nanomaterial through sol-gel method, also introduces the technique and experiment's process preparation of nanocomposite material, and successfully prepared nanocomposite materials with nano-PbTiO3 covered on the surface of micron-Ni. According to the sample's SEM-pictures, the core-shell can be observed plate microstructure, and it is uniform, tight, full and good.

  7. Total phenolic content,in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of plant extracts from semiarid Mexican region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge E Wong-Paz; Juan C Contreras-Esquivel; Ral Rodrguez-Herrera; Mara L Carrillo-Inungaray; Lluvia I Lpez; Guadalupe V Nevrez-Moorilln; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extraction suitable conditions of total phenolic content(TPC) by heat-reflux system, antioxidant activities andHPLC characterization of the aqueous-ethanolic extracts ofJatropha dioica (J. dioica)(Dragon’s blood),Flourensia cernua (F. cernua)(Tar bush), Eucalyptus camaldulensis(E. camaldulensis)(Eucalyptus) and Turnera diffusa (T. diffusa) (Damiana).Methods:TPC was evaluated by the well-known colorimetric assay usingFolin-Ciocalteu reagent.The antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods based on scavenging ofDPPH,ABTS and by lipid oxidation inhibition.The chemical composition of the extracts obtained was subject toHPLC analysis.Results:TPC in the plant extracts ranged from2.3 to 14.12 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for J. dioica and E. camaldulensis, respectively.The plant extracts ofF. cernua,E. camaldulensis andT. diffusa showed similar strong antioxidant activities on scavenging ofDPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition.In contrast,J. dioica extracts had lowest potential antioxidant in three assays used.HPLC assay showed the presence of several phenolic compounds in the extracts used.Conclusions:The results obtained suggest thatF. cernua, E. camaldulensis andT. diffusa are potential sources to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds with high antioxidant properties which can be used in the factories as antioxidant agents or for treatments in diseases.

  8. Total phenolic content,in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of plant extracts from semiarid Mexican region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; E.Wong-Paz; Juan; C.Contreras-Esquivel; Raúl; Rodríguez-Herrera; María; L.Carrillo-Inungaray; Lluvia; I.López; Guadalupe; V.Nevárez-Moorillón; Cristóbal; N.Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extraction suitable conditions of total phenolic content(TPC) by heat-reflux system,antioxidant activities and HPLC characterization of the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Jatropha dioica(J.dioica)(Dragon’s blood).Flourensia cernua(F.cernua)(Tar bush).Eucalyptus camaldulensis(E.camaldulensis)(Eucalyptus) and Turnera diffusa(T.diffusa)(Damiana).Methods:TPC was evaluated by the well-known colorimetric assay using FolinCiocalteu reagent.The antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods based on scavenging of DPPH,ABTS and by lipid oxidation inhibition.The chemical composition of the extracts obtained was subject to HPLC analysis.Results:TPC in the plant extracts ranged from 2.3 to14.12 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for J.dioica and E.camaldulensis,respectively.The plant extracts of F.cernua,E.camaldulensis and T.diffusa showed similar strong antioxidant activities on scavenging of DPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition.In contrast,J.dioica extracts had lowest potential antioxidant in three assays used.HPLC assay showed the presence of several phenolic compounds in the extracts used.Conclusions:The results obtained suggest that F.cernua,E.camaldulensis and T.diffusa are potential sources to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds with high antioxidant properties which can be used in the factories as antioxidant agents or for treatments in diseases.

  9. Chemical characterization of materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was procured for trace elemental determination in diverse samples. Since its installation a number of analytical measurements have been carried out on different sample matrices. These include chemical quality control measurements of nuclear fuel and other materials such as uranium metal. Uranium peroxide, ADU, ThO2, UO2; isotopic composition of B, Li; chemical characterization of simulated ThO2 + 2%UO2 fuel; sodium zirconium phosphate and trace metallic elements in zirconium; Antarctica rock samples and wet phosphoric acid. Necessary separation methodologies required for effective removal of matrix were indigenously developed. In addition, a rigorous analytical protocol, which includes various calibration methodologies such as mass calibration, response calibration, detector cross calibration and linearity check over the entire dynamic range of 109 required for quantitative determination of elements at trace and ultra trace level,, has been standardized. This report summarizes efforts of RACD that have been put in this direction for the application of ICP-MS for analytical measurements. (author)

  10. Modern composite materials manufactured by pressure infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the technique of manufacturing the composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy and examination of the structure and corrosion resistance of those materials.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was manufactured by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while as reinforcement were used ceramic preforms manufactured by sintering of Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder with addition of pore forming agents as carbon fibres Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS manufactured by SGL Carbon Group Company. To determine the corrosion resistance, corrosion test by potentiodynamic method were made consisting in registering the anode polarization curves using the measurements system consisting of the potentiostat PGP-201 working with the Radiometer Copenhagen VoltaMaster 4 software.Findings: The received results show the possibility of obtaining the new composite materials with required structure and corrosion resistance depends of the volume fraction of the reinforcing phase.Practical implications: The composite materials manufactured by the developed method can find application among the others in automotive, aircraft or marine industry as the alternative material for elements fabricated from unreinforced aluminium alloys.Originality/value: The obtained results show the possibility of manufacturing the composite materials by the method of porous sintered framework pressure infiltration based on the ceramic particles, characterized with the better corrosion resistance than aluminium alloy used as the matrix.

  11. Effect of chemical degradation followed by toothbrushing on the surface roughness of restorative composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Regina Voltarelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the exposure to food-simulating liquids prior to brushing simulation on the surface roughness of five composite materials (Quixfil, Filtek Supreme, Esthet-X, Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram. Material and METHODS: Twenty cylinders (5 mm diameter and 4 mm height of each composite were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=5, according to the food-simulating liquid in which they were immersed for 7 days at 37°C: artificial saliva, heptane, citric acid, and ethanol. After this period, the top surface of composite cylinders was submitted to 7,500 brushing cycles (200 g load. Measurements of the surface roughness (Ra, ¼m were carried out before and after the exposure to the chemicals/brushing simulation. Changes on the morphology of composite surfaces were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. RESULTS: The statistical analysis (ANOVA with cofactor / Tukey's test, α=5% detected a significant interaction between solutions and composite resins. Esthet-X, Filtek Z250 and Tetric Ceram were not affected by the food-simulating liquids/toothbrushing. Citric acid and ethanol increased the surface roughness of Quixfil and Filtek Supreme, respectively. SEM images corroborate the surface roughness findings, demonstrating the negative effect from chemical solutions and mechanical abrasion. CONCLUSIONS: The surface roughness of composite resin materials are differently affected by the food-simulating solutions, depending on the immersion media.

  12. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  13. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. PMID:25882791

  14. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, L.L.; Bastian, F.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering], e-mail: ledjane@metalmat.ufrj.br; Calado, V.M.A. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexible, steel catenary risers (SCRs) and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. Besides, composite materials present some attractive attributes for the offshore service, such as: high specific strength and stiffness. This paper focuses on the development and characterization of a polymer matrix (epoxy) and of material composite (epoxy/fiber glass), which will be used in a development for composites risers by the filament winding process (wet winding). (author)

  15. Chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of meat from capons as affected by breed and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, O.; Rodriguez, L.; Torres, A.; Cobos, A.

    2010-07-01

    The influence of the breed [Mos (Spanish indigenous breed), Sasso T-44 and X-44 (commercial strains)] and the age (5, 6, 7 and 8 months) of capons (castrated male cockerels) on some qualitative traits of breast and drumstick meat were studied. The chemical composition (dry matter, protein, lipid and ash contents), pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss, colour and texture (compression test and shear force) were measured. In breast meat, the Mos capon showed lower water holding capacity, higher drip loss and was lighter than the other breeds. In drumstick meat, the Mos capon showed lower lipid content, lower water holding capacity and was lighter and less red than the other breeds. Chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, colour and texture of the meat were significantly influenced by the age of the capons. The meat of the youngest animals showed higher ash content, higher pH, lower water holding capacity, higher drip loss, higher lightness and lower shear test values, than that of the older ones. In conclusion, the capon meat quality is influenced by breed and age of the capons. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Hydrogen Storage in Iron/Carbon Nanopowder Composite Materials: Effect of Varying Spiked Iron Content on Hydrogen Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lin Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of varying the spiked iron content of iron/carbon nanopowder (Fe/CNP composite materials on hydrogen storage capacity. Among four such samples, a maximum hydrogen uptake of approximately 0.48 wt% was obtained with 14 wt% of spiked iron under 37 atm and 300 K. This higher hydrogen uptake capacity was believed to be closely related to the physisorption mechanism rather than chemisorption. In this case, the formation of maghemite catalyzed the attraction of hydrogen molecules and the CNP skeleton was the principal absorbent material for hydrogen storage. However, as the iron content exceeded 14 wt%, the formation of larger and poorly dispersed maghemite grains reduced the available surface areas of CNP for the storage of hydrogen molecules, leading to decreased uptake. Our study shows that hydrogen uptake capacities can be improved by appropriately adjusting the surface polarities of the CNP with well dispersed iron oxides crystals.

  17. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%, black pepper (5.34% and fenugreek (4.51% seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91% and clove (6.9%. Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g, followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g, Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g. However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43% and erucic acid (29.81%, respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.

  18. The Effect of Ag Content of the Chitosan-Silver Nanoparticle Composite Material on the Structure and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Akmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial properties and characterization of chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite materials. Chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite material was synthesized by adding AgNO3 and NaOH solutions to chitosan solution at 95°C. Different concentrations (0,02 M, 0,04 M, and 0,06 M of AgNO3 were used for synthesis. Chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite materials were characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet (UV spectrophotometer, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer techniques. Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were used to test the bactericidal efficiency of synthesized chitosan-Ag nanoparticle composite materials. The biological activity was determined by the minimum bacterial concentration (MBC of the materials. Antibacterial effect of chitosan-silver nanoparticle materials was increased by increasing Ag amount of the composite materials. The presence of small amount of metal nanoparticles in the composite was enough to significantly enhance antibacterial activity as compared with pure chitosan.

  19. Variation in Content Coverage by Classroom Composition: An Analysis of Advanced Math Course Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covay, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that there is racial inequality in achievement returns from advanced math; however, they do not know why black students and white students taking the same level of math courses are not leaving with the same or comparable skill levels. To find out, the author examines variation in course coverage by the racial composition of the…

  20. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    OANA HAUTĂ; MARIUS SECULA; IOAN SOLOMON; IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively). The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chlo...

  1. /Al-4Cu Composite Material Produced by Squeeze Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Ferit

    2014-05-01

    The wear behavior of a weight fraction of particles with up to 30 wt.% in situ AlB2 flakes reinforced in Al-4Cu matrix alloy composites and fabricated by a squeeze casting method was investigated in a pin-on-disk abrasion test instrument against different SiC abrasives at room conditions. Wear tests were performed under the load of 10 N against SiC abrasive papers of 80, 100, and 120 mesh grits. The effects of sliding speed, AlB2 flake content, and abrasive grit sizes on the abrasive wear properties of the matrix alloy and composites have been evaluated. The main wear mechanisms were identified using an optical microscope. The results showed that in situ AlB2 flake reinforcement improved the abrasion resistance against all the abrasives used, and the abrasive wear resistance decreased with an increase in the sliding speed and the abrasive grit size. The wear resistances of the composites were considerably bigger than those of the matrix alloy and increased with increases in in situ AlB2 flake contents.

  2. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass; Mohammed Saud Al-Jasser

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, resp...

  3. The Contents and Mineral and Chemical Compositions of Suspended Particulate Materials in the Yangtze River,and Their Geological and Environmental Implications%长江水中悬浮物含量与矿物和化学组成及其地质环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁悌平; 高建飞; 石国钰; 陈峰; 王成玉; 韩丹; 罗续荣

    2013-01-01

    The contents and mineral and chemical compositions of the SPM in the Yangtze River were determined using the samples from hydrological stations in the mainstream and the major tributaries during 2003 ~2007 in order to investigate systematically the spatial and temporal variations of mineral and chemical compositions in the Yangtze River SPM and their geological and environmental implications.An average SPM content of 256.5mg/L obtained in this study is moderate compared with that in world large rivers.Large spatial and temporal variations of SPM contents were observed in the Yangtze River,corresponding to the changes of flow speed,flowthrough and SPM supply,which are affected by the factors,such as the slope of the river bed,local precipitation,weathering intensity,erosion conditions and anthropogenic activities.The SPM of the Yangtze River consists of clay minerals,clastic silicate and carbonate minerals,some heavy minerals,with minor iron hydroxide and organic compounds.A comparison study of the mineral composition of SPM in the Yangtze River and that in the Yellow River indicates that the chemical weathering activity in the Yangtze River area is much more intensive than that in the Yellow River area,and the physical weathering activity in the Yangtze River area is less intensive than that in the Yellow River area.From upper reaches to lower leaches,the contents of clay and clastic silicate in the Yangtze River SPM increase gradually,but the content of carbonate minerals decrease gradually,corresponding to the wetter and hotter climate and more intensive chemical weathering in the middle and lower reaches.In comparison with the upper crust rocks,the SPM in the Yangtze River has lower contents of SiO2,CaO,K2O and Na2 O and higher contents of TFe2O3,reflecting preferential loss of Si,Ca,K and Na and enrichment of Fe in chemical weathering processes of silicates.In comparison with the average of world rivers and the Yellow River,the SPM of the Yangtze River shows

  4. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  5. Influence of Chemical Composition Variations on Densification During the Sintering of MOX Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudez, S.; Marlot, C.; Lechelle, J.

    2016-06-01

    The mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fabrication process is based on the preparation of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The mixture is pelletized before being sintered at 1973 K (1700 °C) in a reducing atmosphere of Ar/4pctH2/H2O. This paper shows how the densification of MOX fuel is affected during sintering by the moisture content of the gas, the plutonium content of the fuel, and the carbon impurity content in the raw materials. MOX densification can be monitored through dilatometric measurements and gas releases can be continuously analyzed during sintering in terms of their quantity and quality. Variations in the oxygen content in the fuel can be continuously recorded by coupling the dilatometer furnace with an oxygen measurement at the gas outlet. Any carbon-bearing species released, such as CO, can be also linked to densification phenomena when a gas chromatograph is installed at the outlet of the dilatometer. Recommendations on the choice of sintering atmosphere that best optimizes the fuel characteristics have been given on the basis of the results reported in this paper.

  6. Study of postharvest changes in the chemical composition of persimmon by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    BALTACIOĞLU, Hande; Nevzat ARTIK

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, sugars, and L-ascorbic acid content of persimmon fruits of 6 different persimmon cultivars obtained from Ordu, Turkey, were evaluated in this study. Four astringent persimmon cultivars (Türkay, Hachiya, 07 TH 13, and Moralı) and 2 nonastringent persimmon cultivars (Tozlayıcı and Fuyu) were used for analysis. In order to determine total phenolic content in persimmon fruits, the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method was used. High-...

  7. Fatigue Crack Measurement in Composite Materials by Ultrasonic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.; Russell, Samuel S.; Suits, Michael W.; Workman, Gary L.; Watson, Jason M.; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nondestructive detection of intra-ply microcracking in unlined pressure vessels fabricated from composite materials is critical to ensuring mission success. Microcracking in composite structures due to combined fatigue and cryogenic thermal loading can be very troublesome to detect in-service and when it begins to link through the thickness can cause leakage and failure of the structure. These leaks may lead to loss of pressure/propellant, increased risk of explosion and possible cryo-pumping. The work presented herein develops a method and an instrument to locate and measure intraply fatigue cracking through the thickness of laminated composite material by means of correlation with ultrasonic resonance. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy provides measurements which are, sensitive to both the microscopic and macroscopic properties of an object. Elastic moduli, acoustic attenuation, and geometry can all be probed. The approach is based on the premise of half-wavelength resonance. The method injects a broadband ultrasonic wave into the test structure using a swept frequency technique. This method provides dramatically increased energy input into the test article, as compared to conventional spike pulsed ultrasonics. This relative energy increase improves the ability to measure finer details in the materials character, such as micro-cracking and porosity. As the micro-crack density increases, more interactions occur with the higher frequency (small wavelength) components of the signal train causing the spectrum to shift toward lower frequencies. Preliminary experiments have verified a measurable effect on the resonance spectrum of the ultrasonic data to detect microcracking. Methods involving self organizing neural networks and other clustering algorithms show that the resonance ultrasound signatures from composites vary with the degree of microcracking and can be separated and identified.

  8. Synthesis of steel slag ceramics:chemical composition and crystalline phases of raw materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua Zhao; Wei Wei; Hao Bai; Xu Zhang; Da-qiang Cang

    2015-01-01

    Two types of porcelain tiles with steel slag as the main raw material (steel slag ceramics) were synthesized based on the CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 and CaO–MgO–SiO2 systems, and their bending strengths up to 53.47 MPa and 99.84 MPa, respectively, were obtained. The presence of anorthite,α-quartz, magnetite, and pyroxene crystals (augite and diopside) in the steel slag ceramics were very different from the composition of traditional ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) results illustrated that the addition of steel slag reduced the temperature of extensive liquid generation and further decreased the firing temperature. The considerable contents of glass-modifying oxide liquids with rather low viscosities at high temperature in the steel slag ceramic adobes promoted element diffusion and crystallization. The results of this study demonstrated a new approach for extensive and effective recycling of steel slag.

  9. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  10. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  11. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.C.G. [Federal University of Sergipe, Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program P" 2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Pedrosa, A.M.Garrido [Federal University of Sergipe, Departament of Chemistry (DQI), São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Souza, M.J.B., E-mail: mjbsufs@gmail.com [Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ), Av. Marechal Rondon S/N, 49100-000, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Cecilia, J.A.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E. [University of Málaga, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Faculty of Sciences, 29071, Málaga (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO{sub 2} capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO{sub 2} and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity.

  12. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

    1980-09-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

  13. Al/ B4C Composites with 5 and 10 wt% Reinforcement Content Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation, physical and mechanical properties of Al/ B4C composites with 5 and 10 wt.% reinforcement content were investigated. In order to obtain the feedstock with a low powder loading, B4C mixtures containing fine powders were investigated to obtain the optimal particle packing. The experimental results indicated that the fine containing 5 and 10 wt.% particles are able to prepare the feedstock with a good flowability. The composites fabricated by powder metallurgy have low densities and homogeneous microstructures. Additionally there is no interface reaction observed between the reinforcement and matrix by XRD analysis. The hardness of Al/ B4C composites prepared by powder metallurgy was high. (Author)

  14. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, W.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  15. Chemical Composition of Salmon Ovary Outer Membrane and Its Protein Increases Fecal Mucins Content in C57BL/6J and Type 2 Diabetic/Obese KK-Ay Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Maeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmon ovary outer membrane (SOM is a byproduct of the salmon industry; however, the effective utilization of SOM for food materials and supplements is anticipated as the demand for fish and seafood increases worldwide. The purposes of the present study were to assess the chemical composition of SOM, the characteristics of SOM protein (SOMP, and its effects on serum and fecal biochemical parameters in mice. SOM contained high levels of crude protein (61.9 g/100 g and crude lipid (18.9 g/100 g. The protein pattern of SOMP was different from those of fish muscle protein and roe; it was abundant in collagen, as calculated from the hydroxyproline content. In addition, SOMP exhibited lower protein digestibility during in vitro digestion analyses compared with casein. Male C57BL/6J and KK-Ay mice were fed a casein-based semi-purified diet or a diet with replacement of part of the dietary protein (50% by SOMP for four weeks. Mice fed the diet containing SOMP showed elevated fecal nitrogen and mucins contents and reduced levels of serum liver injury markers and fecal ammonia. These results show for the first time that chemical composition of SOM, and SOMP, contain a resistant protein fraction and a large amount of collagen. Therefore, SOM is a potential source of marine collagen and functional food material for promoting the health of the liver and colon.

  16. Dough and hearth bread characteristics influenced by protein composition, protein content, DATEM, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Hollung, K.; Uhlen, A.K.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein composition, protein content, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), and their interaction on dough and bread characteristics were studied by small- and pilot-scale hearth bread baking, dough rheological testing using the Kieffer extensibility rig, and size di

  17. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Glodok Fish by High Thermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purwaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glodok is an economically underrated fish with a high nutrient content. The research aims to study the changes on chemical composition, fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3 ratio in glodok muscle after processing with different methods of boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt (3%. The results showed that the treatment (boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt gives a significant effect (α=0.05 in water content, ash, lipid content, nervonat acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA. The best processing method was steaming. The ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 in fresh glodok fish was 2,1:1, which is higher than WHO recommendation of 0,6:1,7.Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acid, glodok fish, processing

  18. Silica-titania composite aerogel photocatalysts by chemical liquid deposition of titania onto nanoporous silica scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Guoqing; Shen, Jun; Wang, Wenqin; Zou, Liping; Lian, Ya; Zhang, Zhihua

    2015-03-11

    Silica-titania composite aerogels were synthesized by chemical liquid deposition of titania onto nanoporous silica scaffolds. This novel deposition process was based on chemisorption of partially hydrolyzed titanium alkoxides from solution onto silica nanoparticle surfaces and subsequent hydrolysis and condensation to afford titania nanoparticles on the silica surface. The titania is homogeneously distributed in the silica-titania composite aerogels, and the titania content can be effectively controlled by regulating the deposition cycles. The resultant composite aerogel with 15 deposition cycles possessed a high specific surface area (SSA) of 425 m(2)/g, a small particle size of 5-14 nm, and a large pore volume and pore size of 2.41 cm(3)/g and 18.1 nm, respectively, after heat treatment at 600 °C and showed high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV-light irradiation. Its photocatalytic activity highly depends on the deposition cycles and heat treatment. The combination of small particle size, high SSA, and enhanced crystallinity after heat treatment at 600 °C contributes to the excellent photocatalytic property of the silica-titania composite aerogel. The higher SSAs compared to those of the reported titania aerogels (aerogels promising candidates as photocatalysts.

  19. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA HAUTĂ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  20. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  1. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.; Nielsen, K.V.; Thygesen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w/w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, w...

  2. Development of ammonia sensors by using conductive polymer/hydroxyapatite composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia, Li; Yong, Liu; Lanlan, Luo; Yanni, Tan; Qing, Zhang; Kun, Li

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the gas sensing properties, hydroxyapatite (HAp)-based composites were prepared by mixing with different contents of conductive polymers: polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAni). The compositions, microstructures and phase constitutions of polymer/HAp composites were characterized, and the sensing properties were studied using a chemical gas sensing (CGS-8) system. The results showed that, compared to pure HAp, the sensitivities of the composites to ammonia were improved significantly. 5%PPy/HAp and 20%PAni/HAp composites exhibited the best sensitivities to ammonia, and the sensitivities at 500ppm were 86.72% and 86.18%, respectively. Besides, the sensitivity of 5%PPy/HAp at 1000ppm was up to 90.7%. Compared to pure PPy and PAni, the response and the recovery time of 5%PPy/HAp and 20%PAni/HAp at 200ppm were shortened several times, and they were 24s/245s and 15s/54s, respectively. In addition, the composites showed a very high selectivity to ammonia. The mechanism for the enhancement of the sensitivity to ammonia was also discussed. The polymer/HAp composites are very promising in applications of ammonia sensors.

  3. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledjane Lima Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexibles, steel catenary risers (SCRs and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. This paper contains a study of the toughening mechanism of an epoxy resin under rubber addition by means of fractographic analysis and its relation with the fracture process and increase of strength of a composite riser employing this polymeric matrix. Initially, an epoxy resin system was toughened by rubber CTBN addition (10 wt. (% as a way of improving the flexibility of future risers. Mechanical and thermal analyses were carried out for characterizing the polymeric systems. Later, composite tubes were prepared and mechanically characterized. The influence of matrix toughening on the mechanical behavior of the tubes was also studied. Split-disk tests were used to determine the hoop tensile strength of these specimens. The results indicate that the matrix plays an important role in composite fracture processes. The adding rubber to the polymeric matrix promoted a simultaneous increase of stress and elongation at fracture of the tubes manufactured herein, which is not often reported. These results, probably, is function of better adhesion between fibers and polymeric matrix observed in the CTBN-modified composite rings, which was evidenced in the fractografic analysis by SEM after the split-disk tests.

  4. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2013-10-15

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge–charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of − 38 to − 56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal cellular responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Charge density of membranes was increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc decreased viability and proliferation

  5. Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy

    2013-01-01

    in order to determine the frost susceptibility of the material when it is contaminated by a deicing agent. Two series of three freezing tests with isothermal cooling has been conducted using identical saline gradient added through brine. Two types of cooling ramp, an automatic cooling and a manual cooling...

  6. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements.

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements. PMID:27570283

  9. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  10. Defects, strain relaxation, and compositional grading in high indium content InGaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazioti, C.; Kehagias, Th.; Pavlidou, E.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P., E-mail: gdim@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadomanolaki, E.; Iliopoulos, E. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion Crete, Greece and Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Walther, T. [Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Smalc-Koziorowska, J. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the structural properties of a series of high alloy content InGaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, employing the deposition temperature as variable under invariant element fluxes. Using transmission electron microscopy methods, distinct strain relaxation modes were observed, depending on the indium content attained through temperature adjustment. At lower indium contents, strain relaxation by V-pit formation dominated, with concurrent formation of an indium-rich interfacial zone. With increasing indium content, this mechanism was gradually substituted by the introduction of a self-formed strained interfacial InGaN layer of lower indium content, as well as multiple intrinsic basal stacking faults and threading dislocations in the rest of the film. We show that this interfacial layer is not chemically abrupt and that major plastic strain relaxation through defect introduction commences upon reaching a critical indium concentration as a result of compositional pulling. Upon further increase of the indium content, this relaxation mode was again gradually succeeded by the increase in the density of misfit dislocations at the InGaN/GaN interface, leading eventually to the suppression of the strained InGaN layer and basal stacking faults.

  11. Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by short hemp fibers: Effect of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Biljana; Vukcevic, Marija; Kostic, Mirjana; Skundric, Petar

    2009-05-15

    Sorption potential of waste short hemp fibers for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from aqueous media was explored. In order to assess the influence of hemp fiber chemical composition on their heavy metals sorption potential, lignin and hemicelluloses were removed selectively by chemical modification. The degree of fiber swelling and water retention value were determined in order to evaluate the change in accessibility of the cell wall components to aqueous solutions due to the fiber modification. The effects of initial ion concentration, contact time and cosorption were studied in batch sorption experiments. The obtained results show that when the content of either lignin or hemicelluloses is progressively reduced by chemical treatment, the sorption properties of hemp fibers are improved. Short hemp fibers are capable of sorbing metal ions (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+)) from single as well as from ternary metal ion solutions. The maximum total uptake capacities for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from single solutions are the same, i.e. 0.078mmol/g, and from ternary mixture 0.074, 0.035 and 0.035mmol/g, respectively.

  12. Effect of chemical composition on corneal tissue response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and hydrogel material compatibility towards ocular anterior segment tissues, particularly the corneal endothelium. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Then, the 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from photopolymerized materials were placed into the ocular anterior chamber for 4 days and assessed by biomicroscopic examinations, corneal thickness measurements, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The poly(HEMA-co-AAc) implants prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good biocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the enhanced inflammatory response, decreased endothelial cell density, and increased ocular score and corneal thickness were observed, probably due to the influence of surface charge of copolymer membranes. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelium exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of the implants having higher amount of AAc incorporated in the copolymers (i.e., 15.1 to 24.7 μmol) and zeta potential (i.e., -38.6 to − 56.5 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal tissue responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal tissue responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Carboxyl groups in copolymers increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc raised ocular score and caused corneal endothelial loss and edema. • High anionic charge density stimulated inflammation

  13. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order Bby BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  14. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  15. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  16. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  17. Chemical Composition of Polymer Surfaces Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy and Complementary Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, G. Julius; Hillborg, Henrik; Schönherr, Holger

    2005-01-01

    In this article we review the recent developments in the field of high resolution lateral mapping of the surface chemical composition of polymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other complementary imaging techniques. The different AFM approaches toward nanometer scale mapping with chemical sen

  18. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  19. Enantiomeric Selective Adsorption of Amino Acid by Polysaccharide Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Duri, Simon; Tran, Chieu D.

    2014-01-01

    A composite containing cellulose (CEL) and chitosan (CS) synthesized by a simple and recyclable method by using butylmethylimmidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid, was found to exhibit remarkable enantiomeric selectivity toward adsorption of amino acids. 100%CS shows the highest adsorption capacity and enantiomeric selectivity. A racemic amino acid can be enantiomerically resolved by 100%CS in about 96–120 hrs. Interestingly, adsorption by 50:50 CEL:CS is more similar to that by 100%CS than to...

  20. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  1. Study on the chemical composition features of Longquan celadon excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province by EDXRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; FENG Song-Lin; FENG Xiang-Qian; XU Qing; YAN Ling-Tong; MA Bo; HUO Hua

    2011-01-01

    A mass of Longquan celadon shards were excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province, China. These celadon shards were fired during the period of the Late Yuan Dynasty to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty, as identified by archaeologists at Nanjing Museum. In order to research the chemical composition features of this ancient celadon porcelain, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)for non-destructive analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the porcelain body and glaze in these shards. The results indicate that Ti and Fe in the body of Longquan celadon are characteristic elements which can distinguish porcelain produced during the Late Yuan Dynasty from those produced in the Ming Dynasties. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) show that different body and glaze raw materials were used for the production of porcelain in different periods and the raw materials of the body and glaze are also different for various vessel shapes. The chemical compositions in the porcelain body of civilian ware are slightly different. The imperial and civilian Longquan celadon porcelains produced during the Hongwu era to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty are distinguishable by the MnO, Fe2Os, Rb2O and SrO content in their porcelain glaze.

  2. Study on the chemical composition features of Longquan celadon excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province by EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Song-Lin; Feng, Xiang-Qian; Xu, Qing; Yan, Ling-Tong; Ma, Bo; Huo, Hua

    2011-07-01

    A mass of Longquan celadon shards were excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province, China. These celadon shards were fired during the period of the Late Yuan Dynasty to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty, as identified by archaeologists at Nanjing Museum. In order to research the chemical composition features of this ancient celadon porcelain, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for non-destructive analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the porcelain body and glaze in these shards. The results indicate that Ti and Fe in the body of Longquan celadon are characteristic elements which can distinguish porcelain produced during the Late Yuan Dynasty from those produced in the Ming Dynasties. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) show that different body and glaze raw materials were used for the production of porcelain in different periods and the raw materials of the body and glaze are also different for various vessel shapes. The chemical compositions in the porcelain body of civilian ware are slightly different. The imperial and civilian Longquan celadon porcelains produced during the Hongwu era to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty are distinguishable by the MnO, Fe2O3, Rb2O and SrO content in their porcelain glaze.

  3. Study on the chemical composition features of Longquan celadon excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass of Longquan celadon shards were excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province, China. These celadon shards were fired during the period of the Late Yuan Dynasty to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty, as identified by archaeologists at Nanjing Museum. In order to research the chemical composition features of this ancient celadon porcelain, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for non-destructive analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the porcelain body and glaze in these shards. The results indicate that Ti and Fe in the body of Longquan celadon are characteristic elements which can distinguish porcelain produced during the Late Yuan Dynasty from those produced in the Ming Dynasties. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) show that different body and glaze raw materials were used for the production of porcelain in different periods and the raw materials of the body and glaze are also different for various vessel shapes. The chemical compositions in the porcelain body of civilian ware are slightly different. The imperial and civilian Longquan celadon porcelains produced during the Hongwu era to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty are distinguishable by the MnO, Fe2O3 , Rb2O and SrO content in their porcelain glaze. (authors)

  4. Water defluoridation by aluminium oxide-manganese oxide composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Sheta; Mulugeta, Eyobel; Zewge, Feleke; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2014-08-01

    In this study, aluminium oxide-manganese oxide (AOMO) composite material was synthesized, characterized, and tested for fluoride removal in batch experiments. AOMO was prepared from manganese(II) chloride and aluminium hydroxide. The surface area of AOMO was found to be 30.7m2/g and its specific density was determined as 2.78 g/cm3. Detailed investigation of the adsorbent by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography (for sulphate only) showed that it is composed of Al, Mn, SO4, and Na as major components and Fe, Si, Ca, and Mg as minor components. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the thermal behaviour of AOMO. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the adsorbent is poorly crystalline. The point of zero charge was determined as 9.54. Batch experiments (by varying the proportion of MnO, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial F concentration, and raw water pH) showed that fluoride removal efficiency ofAOMO varied significantly with percentage of MnO with an optimum value of about I11% of manganese oxide in the adsorbent. The optimum dose of the adsorbent was 4 g/L which corresponds to the equilibrium adsorption capacity of 4.8 mg F-/g. Both the removal efficiency and adsorption capacity showed an increasing trend with an increase in initial fluoride concentration of the water. The pH for optimum fluoride removal was found to be in the range between 5 and 7. The adsorption data were analysed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinirn-Radushkevich models. The minimum adsorption capacity obtained from the non-linear Freundlich isotherm model was 4.94 mg F-/g and the maximum capacity from the Langmuir isotherm method was 19.2mg F-/g. The experimental data of fluoride adsorption on AOMO fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption is well described by a non-linear pseudo-second-order reaction model with an average rate constant of 3

  5. Studies on acid oils and fatty acids for chickens III. Effect of chemical composition on metabolisable energy of by-products of vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    1996-03-01

    1. Fourteen by-products of oil refining, selected for their variability in free fatty acid and unsaponifiable contents, were analysed chemically with the objective of relating the determined ME values of the products to chemical composition by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Refined sunflower oil was included as a reference fat. 2. Twenty-one 2-week-old chicks were used to determine fat digestibilities and AMEn values of diets, using the total collection method. Fats were included in a wheat-soyabean meal diet at 100 g/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to express the ME values of fats as functions of the parameters measured (moisture, gross energy, impurities, unsaponifiables, non eluted material, free fatty acid content, unsaturated: saturated ratio, peroxide value, TBA test). 3. The ME of the fat products lay in the range l2.62 to 24.35 MJ/kg, and 29.26 MJ/kg for refined sunflower oil. Free fatty acid content of the fats was shown to be a poor predictor of their ME values, whereas non eluted material (NEM) of the fat products showed a good correlation with their ME. A regression equation could be derived (R2 0.6548; SEE 2.0064) with the unsaturated: saturated ratio (U:S) and NEM. An ME prediction equation based on the U:S, NEM and unsaponifiable content is also proposed (R2= 0.7l68; SEE= 1.9058). PMID:8833534

  6. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly decreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  7. Effect of glow discharge sintering in the properties of a composite material fabricated by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, A.; Pineda, Y.; Sarmiento Santos, A.; Vera, E.

    2016-02-01

    Composite samples of 316 stainless steel and SiC were produced by powder metallurgy. Starting materials were mixed in different proportions and compacted to 700MPa. Sintering stage was performed by abnormal glow discharge plasma with direct current in an inert atmosphere of argon. The process was conducted at a temperature of 1200°C±5°C with a heating rate of 100°C/min. This work shows, the effectiveness of plasma sintering process to generate the first contacts between particles and to reduce vacancies. This fact is confirmed by comparing green and sintered density of the material. The results of porosity show a decrease after plasma sintering. Wear tests showed the wear mechanisms, noting that at higher SiC contents, the wear resistance decreases due to poor matrix-reinforcement interaction and by the porosity presence which causes matrix-reinforcement sliding.

  8. The radiometric analysis of non-radioactive materials by chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes to measure the composition of different materials via chemical exchange within an instrument is described. The product of the reaction is a radioactive gas which is counted and serves as the indicator of measurement. This method has been applied to a number of different liquids and gases for their specific and sensitive determination. The chief limiting condition on sensitivity is imposed by the specific activity of the radiochemical component. Where high specific activities are available, sensitivity in terms of chemical quantity will be very great. The recent development of quinol- Kr85 clathrate compounds has provided a basic radiochemical source which not only provides high specific activities at low cost but also excellent half-life and energy characteristics. These clathrate compounds can be oxidized only by very strong oxidizing agents, such as ozone to release Kr85. When coupled with a salt, such as sodium chlorite, the sensing of reducing materials such as SO2 may be accomplished. Two applications of the radiometric technique employing clathrates are described. The first is the development of a balloon-borne sonde for the meteorological analysis of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The other is its use in air pollution and process control work in the form of a portable analyser. Different gases may be analysed by this device by merely changing the radiochemical reaction cell. (author)

  9. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm-1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m-1 K-2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  10. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm−1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m−1 K−2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat. PMID:26728992

  11. Influence of Sb content on electromagnetic properties of ATO/ferrite composites synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhangjing_20062007@126.com; Wang, Lixi, E-mail: wanglixi_njut@163.com; Zhang, Qitu, E-mail: njzqt@126.com

    2015-09-15

    Composite microwave absorbers based on ATO (antimony-doped tin oxide) and W-type ferrite were prepared by a co-precipitation method, and the effects of Sb content on electromagnetic properties and reflection loss characteristics were studied in 2–18 GHz. The prepared composite particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results showed that the nano-particles ATO were coated with the surface of hexagonal flake ferrite, and with the increase of Sb content, the grain size of ATO nano-particles decreases resulting in agglomeration. The complex permittivity and permeability of the ferrite/ATO composites were analyzed by a vector network analyzer (Agilent E5071C), and the reflection loss was simulated by software YRComputer. The dielectric loss mainly comes from ATO, with the increase of Sb content, the real and imaginary parts of permittivity of the composites increase first, then decrease; The interface effects and surface effects lead to the increase of imaginary part μ″ of the absorbing materials in the macro; When the mole ratio of Sb/Sn is 2:10, the reflection loss reaches the maximum value −43.07 dB at 10.64 GHz for a layer 2.8 mm, and the bandwidth over an absorptivity of 90% (−10 dB reflection loss) is 8.32 GHz (ranging from 7.12 GHz to 15.44 GHz). - Highlights: • Composite microwave absorbers based on ATO (antimony-doped tin oxide) and W-type ferrite were prepared by the co-precipitation method. • The effects of Sb content on electromagnetic properties and reflection loss characteristics were studied in 2–18 GHz. • The reflection loss of the BZF/ATO composites reaches the minimum −43.07 dB at 10.64 GHz for a layer 2.8 mm, when the mole ratio of Sb/Sn is 2:10. • The bandwidth over an absorptivity of 90% (−10 dB reflection loss) is 8.32 GHz (ranging from 7.12 GHz to 15.44 GHz)

  12. Prediction of chemical contaminants and food compositions by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of Food Adulteration by Infrared Spectroscopy H. Zhuang Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 Food adulteration, including both chemical contamination and composition alternation, has been one of major quality and/or safety c...

  13. Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, George

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad exposition of analytical and numerical methods for modeling composite materials, laminates, polycrystals and other heterogeneous solids, with emphasis on connections between material properties and responses on several length scales, ranging from the nano and microscales to the macroscale. Many new results and methods developed by the author are incorporated into a rich fabric of the subject, which has been explored by several researchers over the last 40 years.   The first  part of the book reviews anisotropic elasticity theory, and then it describes the frequently used procedures and theorems for bounding and estimating overall properties, local fields and energy changes in elastic inhomogeneities, heterogeneous media, fiber composites and functionally graded materials.  Those are caused by mechanical loads and by phase eigenstrains, such as thermal, transformation and inelastic strains, and also by cavities and cracks.    Worked examples show that the eigendeformations may...

  14. [EDXRF study on the chemical composition and raw material recipe of Jindezhen porcelains in the five dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhang, Mao-lin; Zhou, Jian; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Jun-ming; Gan, Ke

    2012-05-01

    Early crafts of porcelain making in Jindezhen were an important issue in ceramic history of China. The chemical composition of white porcelain and celadon samples excavated from Xianghu Kiln in the five dynasties was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Raw material recipes of the samples were discussed. The results showed that white porcelain bodies of Xianghu Kiln in the Five Dynasties were made from porcelain stone, while celadon bodies were made from porcelain stone and Zijin clay. Glaze ash and glaze stone were both used in the formula of white porcelain and celadon glaze, and the amount of glaze ash in the celadon was higher than that in the white porcelain samples. PMID:22827103

  15. Thermo-chemical characterization of a Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composite modified by Cu powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First study on the copper modified powder-type Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites. • Experimental findings were unique in identifying the AlNi formation and comparing with the Al/CuO thermite. • Potential applications in material joining and bonding. - Abstract: Thermo-chemical properties of the Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites modified by the micro-sized copper additive were investigated experimentally. Their onset temperatures of ignition and energy release data per mass were characterized using differential thermal analysis measurements. These microstructures and chemical compositions of reaction products were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel-rich Al/NiO/Cu composites produced two types of metallic spheres. Copper spheres were formed from melting and solidification of the copper additive, while AlNi composite spheres were identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that the amount of the copper additive did not significantly influence the onset temperature of thermite peaks, but caused a dramatic change in energy release. The aforementioned ignition and energetic properties were compared with these from the Al nanoparticle and CuO nanowire composites

  16. Thermo-chemical characterization of a Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composite modified by Cu powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlouli-Zanjani, Golnaz [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wen, John Z., E-mail: john.wen@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Hu, Anming [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Persic, John [Microbonds Inc., 151 Amber St., Unit 12, Markham, ON L3R 3B3 (Canada); Ringuette, Sophie [Defence Research and Development Canada – Valcartier, 2459 Pie-XI Blvd North, Quebec, QC G3K1Y1 (Canada); Zhou, Y. Norman [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • First study on the copper modified powder-type Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites. • Experimental findings were unique in identifying the AlNi formation and comparing with the Al/CuO thermite. • Potential applications in material joining and bonding. - Abstract: Thermo-chemical properties of the Al nanoparticle and NiO nanowire composites modified by the micro-sized copper additive were investigated experimentally. Their onset temperatures of ignition and energy release data per mass were characterized using differential thermal analysis measurements. These microstructures and chemical compositions of reaction products were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel-rich Al/NiO/Cu composites produced two types of metallic spheres. Copper spheres were formed from melting and solidification of the copper additive, while AlNi composite spheres were identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that the amount of the copper additive did not significantly influence the onset temperature of thermite peaks, but caused a dramatic change in energy release. The aforementioned ignition and energetic properties were compared with these from the Al nanoparticle and CuO nanowire composites.

  17. Monitoring of water quality around tailing pond at PPGN by chemical and radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research purpose is to monitor the water quality of soil around the waste pond through measurement of chemical constituents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and U) and water radioactivity. The water quality around tailing pond can be identified by analyzed the water sample from 4 control wells as deep as 20 m located on the fourth side of the pool and 2 comparison wells with a distance of 50 m and 100 m from the tailing pond. The measurement of chemical constituents of control well water and comparison well water was done by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The measurement of Uranium content was done by using UV - VIS Spectrophotometer, whereas measurement of radioactivity was measured by Eberline SPA-1 α detector associated with a counter scalers Ludlum model 1000. Determination of the quality of well water was used Storet method. Measurement result obtained in 2010 : the chemical content water in the control wells; Ca (2.31 - 2.91) mg/l, Mg (0.22 - 0.34) mg/l, Fe (0.024 - 0.033) mg/l, Ni (0.0028 - 0.030) mg/l, Zn (0.0019 - 0.025) mg/l, Cu (0.038 - 0.060) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.041) mg/l, Mn (0.004 - 0.005) mg/l, U (0.051 - 0.298) mg/l, Ni (0.003 - 0.004) mg/l, Zn (0.03 - 0.04) mg/l, Cu (0.004 - 0.004) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.003), Mn (0.005 - 0.021) mg/l, and radioactivity of Uranium was (0.025. 10-3 - 0.028.10-3) Bq/l. The radioactivity of control wells in the first quarter (2.321 - 2.635).10-2 Bq/l, second quarter (2.162 - 2.823).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.424 - 2.931 ).10-2 Bq/l, fourth quarter (2.283 - 2.643).10-2 Bq/l. The radioactivity of comparison well water in the firs quarter was (2.931 - 2.931).10-2 Bq/l., second quarter (2.162 - 2.550).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.931- 2.931 ).10-2, fourth quarter (2.450 - 2.632).10-2 Bq/l. This result showed that there are no pollutant release into the environment. Based on the evaluation result using Storet and US-EP A (Environmental Protection Agency) method, the water quality around tailing pond of

  18. Effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products (AFPBPs) using the biogas potential test. The AFPBPs were classified based on their chemical compositions (i.e., carbohydrate, protein and fat contents). The biogas and methane potentials of AFPBPs were calculated to range from 450 to 777 mL/g volatile solids (VS) and 260-543 mL/g VS, respectively. AFPBPs with high fat and protein contents produced significantly higher amounts of biogas than AFPBPs with high carbohydrate and low fat contents. The degradation rate was faster for AFPBPs with high carbohydrate contents compared to AFPBPs with high protein and fat contents. The lag phase and biogas production duration were lower when using ensiled AFPBPs than when using nonsilage AFPBPs. Among the four different silages tested, two silages significantly improved biogas production compared to the nonsilage AFPBPs.

  19. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  20. Energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some polymers and tissue substitute materials: photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Oezdemir, Yueksel, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-03-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factors have been calculated by using the five parameter geometric progression (GP) fitting formula for some polymers and tissue substitute materials in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mean free paths. From the results, it is worth noting that significant variations occur in gamma ray buildup factors for the given polymers and tissue substitute materials depending on photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition of the materials. Also, it was observed that there are significant variations between energy absorption (EABF) and exposure (EBF) buildup factors which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the materials used. Finally, it is expected that the presented buildup factor data may be helpful in (a) estimating the effective dose to be given to patients in radiation therapy and diagnostics, hence allowing corrections to be made to the intensity of radiation, as it is somewhat problematic to evaluate the real absorbed dose in critical organs due to the probability of photon buildup somewhere inside the medium; (b) estimating the health hazards arising from the exposure of the human body to radiation, thus it will be helpful in controlling the exposure of the human body to radiation.

  1. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  2. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition on oils and fats stored in different packaging materials

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shattory, Y.; Saadia, M. A.; Saeid, F.

    1996-01-01

    Bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine were stored in metal (tin) cans and white plastic (polyethylene) bottles with air in head space and served at room temperature during the whole period of investigation. The analytical techniques used to analyse these materials has been done at zero time storing (control), after four and seven months of storage. This study showed that storing oils in metal cans have better results than plastic packages specially for bleache...

  3. Quantification of the chemical composition of lunar soil in terms of its reflectance spectra by PCA and SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; LI Chunlai; LU Chang

    2009-01-01

    In the second phase of the Chang'E Program an unmanned lunar rover will be launched onto the Moon. When ground scientists get a full understanding of the chemical composition of lunar soil around the rover, they can make more detailed survey plans for the rover and various payloads onboard so as to satisfy their scientific objectives. There is an obvious relationship between the reflectance of lunar soil and its chemical characteristics. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) models were applied to establishing the relationship between the reflectance spectra and chemical compositions of lunar highland and mare soil samples sent back by Apollo missions 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 and measured by Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC). PCA was used to reduce and select the features of the reflectance spectra of lunar soil samples. Then, these features were put into SVM to estimate the abundances of various chemical components in lunar soil. We also compared the results of our measurement with those obtained by the SVM model [partial least squares (PLS)] and the principal component regression (PCR) model reported in literature. Our studies showed that with the exception of TiO2, the results of prediction of the abundances of chemical compounds in lunar soil by our model are much more reliable than those reported in literature. The reflectance spectra of lunar soil are closely related to the materials from which it was derived.

  4. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  5. Effect of Sericin on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Material Reinforced by Silk Woven Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Teruo; Ino, Haruhiro; Hanada, Koji; Katori, Sigetaka

    Recent, attention has been given to shift from glass fibers and carbon fibers to natural fibers for FRP composites for the goal of protecting the environment. This paper concerned with the application of silk fabric for composite materials. Polypropylene (PP) was used for the matrix material and the silk fabric composites were molded using a compression molding method. Especially, the effect of sericin on mechanical behaviors of composite materials was discussed. Good adhesion between silk and PP was obtained by removing the sericin existing around the fibroin. The tensile modulus of composite decreased with decreasing the sericin because of the flexibility of silk fibers without sericin. In particular, the higher Izod impact value was obtained for the composites containing the silk fibers without sericin.

  6. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.;

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w....../w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, whileFutura and Fasamo contained least cellulose. Hemp yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers...... but was more cellulose rich. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. These pretreatmentsremoved lignin and hemicellulose resulting in loss of dry matter of 15-73% w/w and in loss of cellulose of 0-69% w/w. Steam explosion treatment generally...

  7. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  8. Multifunctional Composite Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymeric composite materials that are currently utilized in aircraft structures are susceptible to significant damage from lightning strikes. Enhanced electrical...

  9. A multicontinuum progressive damage model for composite materials motivated by the kinetic theory of fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Shane Christian

    2002-01-01

    A conventional composite material for structural applications is composed of stiff reinforcing fibers embedded in a relatively soft polymer matrix, e.g. glass fibers in an epoxy matrix. Although composites have numerous advantages over traditional materials, the presence of two vastly different constituent materials has confounded analysts trying to predict failure. The inability to accurately predict the inelastic response of polymer based composites along with their ultimate failure is a significant barrier to their introduction to new applications. Polymer based composite materials also tend to exhibit rate and time dependent failure characteristics. Lack of knowledge about the rate dependent response and progressive failure of composite structures has led to the current practice of designing these structures with static properties. However, high strain rate mechanical properties can vary greatly from the static properties. The objective of this research is to develop a finite element based failure analysis tool for composite materials that incorporates strain rate hardening effects in the material failure model. The analysis method, referred to as multicontinuum theory (MCT) retains the identity of individual constituents by treating them as separate but linked continua. Retaining the constituent identities allows one to extract continuum phase averaged stress/strain fields for the constituents in a routine structural analysis. Time dependent failure is incorporated in MCT by introducing a continuum damage model into MCT. In addition to modeling time and rate dependent failure, the damage model is capable of capturing the nonlinear stress-strain response observed in composite materials.

  10. Peculiarities of chemical composition of sainfoin seeds powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Tarasenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying chemical composition of the powder of the seeds of non-traditional legume, sainfoin. The experimental studies showed that crushed seeds of sainfoin make a flowing fine powder of light brown color with a pleasant unpronounced specific smell with floral notes. The taste is grassy with the after-taste typical for legumes. The chemical composition of sainfoin seeds is dominated by proteins and fiber, and fat content does not exceed 8%. The total content of amino-acids is 26.94/100 g of the product, with the share of indispensable ones being 37.85%. The limiting amino acid is tryptophan (48.0 %. By the composition of essential amino acids, proteins of sainfoin seeds are slightly inferior to the proteins of soybean seeds, but are better than the proteins of peanut seeds. The composition of fatty acid of the lipid complex of sainfoin seeds is dominated by (over 40% of the total linolenic ω-3 acid with sufficiently low (less than 20% of the total content of linoleic ω-6 acid. The lipid composition of sainfoin seeds, along with triacylglycerols, contains about 40% of related lipids, which are dominated by sterols, aliphatic alcohols, phospholipids and tocopherols. All this makes the lipid complex of sainfoin seed a promising means of adjusting fatty acids composition in food products of functional and specialized purpose, dietary supplements, and a valuable raw material for creating pharmaceutical substances and preparations. Adding sainfoin seeds powder into the nutritive medium has no inhibitory effect on development of the tested organism. At the same time, 58% of the organism's physiological need for protein is satifsied, as compared to caseine.

  11. Numerical simulation of isothermal chemical vapor infiltration process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克智; 李贺军; 姜开宇

    2000-01-01

    The chemical vapor infiltration process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites is highly inefficient and requires long processing time. These limitations add considerably to the cost of fabrication and restrict the application of this material. Efforts have been made to study the CVI process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites by computer simulation and predict the process parameters, density, porosity, etc. According to the characteristics of CVI process, the basic principle of FEM and mass transport, the finite element model has been established. Incremental finite element equations and the elemental stiffness matrices have been derived for the first time. The finite element program developed by the authors has been used to simulate the ICVI process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. Computer color display of simulated results can express the densification and distributions of density and porosity in preform clearly. The influence of process parameters on the densification of prefo

  12. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material...... and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling....

  13. Compositional change of some first wall materials by considering multiple step nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako; Fujita, Mitsutane [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(SUS), 9Cr-2WLi{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}/He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V-SiC-RAF-SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  14. Novel Nanostructured Electrodes Obtained by Pyrolysis of Composite Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Schulte, Lars; Heiskanen, Arto;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we compare pyrolyzed carbon derived from the photoresist SU‐8 alone or in combination with polystyrene and poly(styrene)‐block‐poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymer (PS‐b‐PDMS), to be used as novel materials for micro‐ and nanoelectrodes. The pyrolyzed carbon films are evaluated with sca...

  15. ASR mitigation by the use of supplementary cementing materials : evaluation of the available alkali content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, J. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Cement companies in Canada are involved in the global initiative to voluntarily implement strategies to address global warming, enhance occupational health and safety, reduce emissions, and use fuels and raw materials in a sustainable manner. This paper reported on a study in which the behaviour of common supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) were compared with an industrial by-product from the aluminium industry (ABP). The alkali content in SCMs is particularly critical in terms of its ability to prevent excessive expansion due to alkali-silica reactivity (ASR). The 6 common SCMs with various total alkali contents were: 2 condensed silica fumes, 3 pulverized fly ashes and 1 ground granulated blast furnace slag. The ABP was also investigated as a suitable candidate to replace Portland cement. The testing program involved measuring the expansion and alkali content. The methods used to evaluate the amount of available alkalies were ASTM C114; ASTM C311; modified ASTM C311; pore fluid expression; and, the accelerated mortar bar method. The main objectives of this study were to determine the best procedure for evaluating the amount of available alkalies from SCMs and to discuss the relationship between concrete expansion and alkali content. The recommended methods to evaluate the performance of non usual SCM as suitable candidates to replace Portland cement in the presence of potentially reactive aggregates were accelerated mortar bar method CSA A23.2-25A as well as the available alkalies from cement-SCM paste samples measured by the pore solution expression method. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition on oils and fats stored in different packaging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine were stored in metal (tin cans and white plastic (polyethylene bottles with air in head space and served at room temperature during the whole period of investigation. The analytical techniques used to analyse these materials has been done at zero time storing (control, after four and seven months of storage. This study showed that storing oils in metal cans have better results than plastic packages specially for bleached cottonseed and hydrogenated oils.

    Aceite de semilla de algodón decolorado, aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado y margarina fueron almacenados en latas metálicas (estaño y en botellas de plástico blanco (polietileno con aire en el espacio de cabeza y a temperatura ambiente durante todo el período de investigación. Las técnicas analíticas usadas para analizar estos materiales fueron ensayados a tiempo cero de almacenamiento (control, y después de cuatro y siete meses de almacenamiento. Este estudio mostró que los aceites almacenados en latas metálicas tienen mejores resultados que los envases de plástico, especialmente para los aceites hidrogenados y de semilla de algodón decolorado.

  17. Sol-gel composite material characteristics caused by different dielectric constant sol-gel phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Makoto; Kaneko, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic transducers prepared by a sol-gel composite method have been investigated in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT). Sol-gel composite materials could be ideal piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic transducer applications in the NDT field, and a new sol-gel composite with desirable characteristics has been developed. Three kinds of sol-gel composite materials composed of different dielectric constant sol-gel phases, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT), and BaTiO3 (BT), and the same piezoelectric powder phase, PbTiO3 (PT), were fabricated and their properties were compared quantitatively. As a result, the PT/BT, sol-gel composite with the highest dielectric constant sol-gel phase showed the highest d 33 and signal strength. In addition, only PT/BT was successfully poled by room-temperature corona poling with reasonable signal strength.

  18. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method; Analise quimica de material superconductor atraves do metodo de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T., E-mail: georges@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Eng. Metalurgica e Materiais; Bispo, E.R.; Polasek, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, H.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  19. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  20. Study on the Compatibility of SMA and Composite Materials by Holographic Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhimin

    2000-01-01

    With the help of holographic interferometry a study is conducted on the compatibility of SMA (shape memory alloy) and epoxy resin composite material. The paper gives experiment results and analysis which show that after coupling SMA with the composite material, the flexural rigidity of composite material is somewhat reinforced. Under certain conditions, SMA and the epoxy resin composite material are compatible.

  1. The Chemical Composition of Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

  2. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  3. Strength tests of sandwich composite materials connected by means of screw joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Żółkiewski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this thesis is to present the exemplary results of strength tests of sandwich composite materials consisted of the laminate plate and the metal sheet plate.Design/methodology/approach: The strength tests were carried out in the laboratory stand by means of the electric resistance wire strain gauge. The laboratory stand was specially designed for the purpose of testing composite materials.Findings: The results are presented in the form of graphs. In graphs the maximal and minimal strains in the time function are presented.Research limitations/implications: The tests were carried out for different configurations of the samples. The specimens were prepared as the samples with the external steel plate or with the steel plate arranged among the laminate layers.Practical implications: The experimental tests are still necessary in analysis of the composite materials. The real parameters of the samples should be determined in an experimental way. However, the numerical computer simulation of the composite materials is possible e.g. in Unigraphics software, but modelled in the computer environment composites have very often some errors and results of simulation is not proper.Originality/value: The sandwich composite materials were tested in the laboratory stand by means of extensometers. The results could be used in designing of mechanical parts and mechanisms made of the laminate connection in the steel plate by means of screws. The fundamental mechanical properties of such a type materials were derived.

  4. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  5. Sintered composite gradient tool materials

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mikuła; G. Matula; K. Gołombek; L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Development of a new generation of the composite gradient tool materials with the core sintered withthe matrix obtained using the powder metallurgy of the chemical composition corresponding to the HS6-5-2 highspeedsteel reinforced with the WC and TiC type hard carbide phases with the growing portions of these phases inthe outward direction from the core to the surface.Design/methodology/approach: Powder Metallurgy, SEM, X-Ray Microanalysis.Findings: Powder metallurgy processes were u...

  6. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  7. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  8. Investigation of Welding Processes of Multilayers Structures Composed from Different Chemical Composition Crystallites by Vacuum Hot Rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promising method of laminated composite materials production is the method of metal pack rolling in vacuum. The proposed method is based on the welding of heterogeneous materials in solid phase, that contain easily oxidized metals and alloys. Processes occurring during multi layer structures of different chemical composition welding are examined. On the example of multi layer structure Ti-Nb-Cu steel forces operating on the materials in the pack are studied. The welding of strata of laminas is studied on a metallographic microscope and with help of an electronic raster microscopy is learnt mass transfer of one material in other

  9. Changes in content and composition of sugar in molasses caused by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugar contents in undiluted molasses were found to be stable on γ-irradiation. The contents of total sugar and direct reducing sugar in cane molasses were completely unaffected by irradiation with doses of less than 3 Mrad. The reduction of total sugar content in beet molasses was 2% at 3 Mrad. On the other hand, in the molasses diluted with water, sugar contents decreased with the dose. Sucrose in molasses was degraded by irradiation, and subsequently glucose and fructose were formed. Raffinose in beet molasses was also degraded by irradiation, but galactose could not be detected. The irradiation temperature ranging from room temperature to 610C, was hardly responsible for the change of sugar contents, but the changes in sugar caused by irradiation were enhanced at pHs of less than 4 and with an excess of oxygen. (author)

  10. Modification of Composite Material Fillers by Atmospheric Plasma Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tichy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the observation of the influence of cold atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a modification of textile samples. The main objective of the experiment is to research wettability change of textiles modified by different exposure times and also the observation of the influence of a modification ageing effect. An ambient air was used as a working gas for DBD plasma. The wettability evaluation was carried out by a drop method, in which an imprint of the dropwas observed on the textile surface during various time intervals. An ageing effect of the modification was monitored within an interval of 28 days. Considerable increase of wettability of all modified samples has been proved. A fibre surface analysis was carried out by means of SEM.

  11. Composite Materials: An Educational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

  12. Terahertz scattering by granular composite materials: An effective medium theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mayank; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Fischer, Bernd M.; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging have emerged as important tools for identification and classification of various substances, which exhibit absorption characteristics at distinct frequencies in the THz range. The spectral fingerprints can potentially be distorted or obscured by electromagnetic scattering caused by the granular nature of some substances. In this paper, we present THz time domain transmission measurements of granular polyethylene powders in order to investigate an effective medium theory that yields a parameterized model, which can be used to estimate the empirical measurements to good accuracy.

  13. DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE LIPID CONTENT IN STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES BY TIME-DOMAIN NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch-lipid composites, prepared by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous mixtures of starch and lipid, are used in various applications for which their performance can depend upon accurate quantitation of lipid contained within these composites. A rapid and non-destructive method based on time-domain ...

  14. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 μmol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  15. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  16. The material performance of HSS (high speed steel) tools and its relation with chemical composition and carbide distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, B.; Kusman, M.; Hamdani, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to compare the performance of two types of material HSS (High Speed Steel) are widely used. It also will be the chemical composition and distribution of carbide particles therein. Two types of HSS are available in the market: HSS from Germany (Bohler) and HSS from China. This research employed the pure experimental design. It consists of two stages. The first, aims to test/operate lathe machines to determine the lifetime and performance of tools based on specified wear criteria. The second, characterization of microstructure using SEM-EDS was conducted. Firstly, grinding of toolss was done so that the toolss could be used for cutting metal in the turning process. Grinding processes of the two types of toolss were done at the same geometry, that is side rake angle (12°-18°), angle of keenness (60°-68°), and side relief angle (10°-12°). Likewise, machining parameters were set in the same machining conditions. Based on the results of the tests, it is found that to reach 0.2 mm wear point, toolss made of HSS from Germany needed 24 minutes, while toolss made of HSS from China needed 8 minutes. Next, microstructure tests using SEM/EDS were done. The results of the SEM tests indicate that the carbide particles of HSS from Germany were more evenly distributed than the carbide particles of HSS from China. Carbide compounds identified in HSS from China were Cr23C6 and Fe4Mo2C. Oxide impurity of Al2O3 was also found in the material. On the other hand, in HSS from Germany, no impurity and other carbide compounds were identified, except Cr23C6 and Fe4Mo2C, also Fe4W2C, and VC or V4C3.

  17. Effect of fruit ripening on content and chemical composition of oil from three oil palm cultivars (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Fausto; Ayala-Diaz, Iván M; Delgado, Wilman; Ruiz-Romero, Rodrigo; Romero, Hernán M

    2011-09-28

    A series of physical and chemical changes occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch. We evaluated changes in lipid content in the mesocarp and fruits, and the chemical composition of fatty acids (FA), triacylglycerol (TAG), tocols, and carotenes of the lipids extracted from fruits of three commercial tenera cultivars, namely, Deli×La Mé, Deli×Ekona, and Deli×Avros, planted in two different geographical regions in Colombia, during the ripening process 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis (WAA). It was found that 12 WAA the mesocarp contained less than 6% of total lipids. Oil content increased rapidly after 16 WAA, reaching the maximum oil content of 55% in fresh mesocarp and 47% in fresh fruits at 22 WAA, which was found the optimal time for harvesting. Changes in FA and TAG showed that total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and triunsaturated triacylglycerols (TUTAG) decreased, while total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and disaturated triacylglycerols (DSTAG) increased, over the ripening period. Changes in FA were mainly observed in palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and in POP, POO, POL, and OLL for the TAGs evaluated. Levels of tocols changed depending on whether they were tocopherols or tocotrienols. In the earliest stages tocopherols were predominant but decreased rapidly from 6600 mg kg(-1) of oil at 14 WAA to 93 mg kg(-1) of oil at 22 WAA. Tocotrienols appeared at the same time as oil synthesis started, and became the main source of total tocols, equivalent to 87% in total lipids extracted. PMID:21894914

  18. Modification of chemical additives to elastomeric compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhutdinov, A. A.; Grishin, B. S.

    1994-08-01

    The physicochemical principles of the modification of crystalline chemical additives to elastomeric compositions are examined. A classification of various types of modifications based on scientific principles is given. The modifications are subdivided into physical and physicochemical depending on the configuration of the molecules in the crystals, the defectiveness and dispersity of the crystalline particles, the melting points of the crystals, and the presence of necleophilic and electrophylic centres in the molecules of the components of binary and complex eutectic mixtures. The effectiveness of the modification of the chemical additives is determined by the manifestation in binary systems of these components in elastomeric compositions of physical and chemical synergism due to the occurrence of the relevant processes in such systems. A relation has been discovered between the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the modification of the chemical additives in binary and complex eutectic mixtures, their influence on the properties of the elastomeric composition is examined, the ecological problems associated with the processing of such materials are discussed, and the relation between the structure and properties of the molecules of the additives is analysed using quantum-chemical calculations. The bibliography includes 92 references.

  19. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Zhiwei; YE, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are inv...

  20. Influence of the chemical composition on gamma ray attenuation by fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandal, G S; Singh, K

    1992-04-01

    The dependence of gamma ray attenuation on the chemical composition of fatty acids is investigated in the energy range from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients (muF) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff) have been calculated for 27 different fatty acids. They show appreciable variation with the chemical composition of fatty acids in the region of gamma ray energies from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. PMID:1314792

  1. Characterization of organic materials in civil engineering by chemical and physicochemical methods, chapter 25 In : Yves Mouton (Eds), Organic Materials for Sustainable Construction

    OpenAIRE

    FARCAS, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    From the domain of roads to the domain of construction, the organic materials used are very diverse (bitumens, paints, cements, etc), but studying their chemical structure and their composition generally uses the same analysis techniques. Without claiming to be exhaustive, this chapter completes and brings up to date the presentation of chemical, physicochemical, physicomechanical and thermomechanical properties previously offered through research studying the chemical structure of basic orga...

  2. Predicion of Chemical Element Contents in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHAN-ZHE; QIANJUN-LONG; 等

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that the regularity for the dynamic changes of the chrono-sequences of chemical element contents in tree rings follows a k-order constant coefficient differential equation and substituting the differential with the difference,we could obtain the inferred value ym+k+1 by the formula:ym+k+1=c1ym+1+c2Ym+2+…ckym+kEach coefficient ci in the formula may be ascertained by use of the measured data in the chrono-sequences,Extending the chrono-sequences on the assumption that the regularity of dynamic changes wouldn't change in the near future,the contents of chemical elements in the soils may be predicted in terms of a logarithmic linear correlation model.Also,this extension method could be used for the reproduction of the contents of chemical elemets in soils during different periods of time in the past.

  3. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2010-12-01

    Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds. PMID:23572692

  4. Chemical composition and metabolizable energy values of corn germ meal obtained by wet milling for layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Albuquerque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the chemical composition, metabolizable energy values, and coefficients of nutrient digestibility of corn germ meal for layers. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was determined, and then a metabolism assay was performed to determine its apparent metabolizable energy (AME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn values and its dry matter and gross energy apparent metabolizability coefficients (CAMDM and CAMGE, respectively. In the 8-day assay (four days of adaptation and four days of total excreta collection, 60 29-week-old white Lohman LSL layers were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments with five replicates of four birds each, was applied. Treatments consisted of a reference diet and two test diets, containing 20 or 30% corn germ meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey tests at 5% probability level. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was: 96.39% dry matter, 49.48% ether extract, 1.87% ashes, 7243 kcal gross energy/kg, 11.48% protein, 0.19% methionine, 0.21% cystine, 0.48% lysine, 0.40% threonine, 0.72% arginine, 0.35% isoleucine, 0.83% leucine, 0.57% valine, and 0.37% histidine, on as-fed basis. There were no statistical differences in AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values with the inclusion of 20 and 30% corn germ meal in the diets. On dry matter basis, AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values of corn germ meal were: 4,578 and 4,548 kcal/kg, 4,723 and 4,372 kcal/kg, 64.95 and 61.86%, respectively.

  5. Effect of chemical composition of sheep’s milk on the chemical composition of Livno and Travnik cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hrković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina has a centuries-old tradition in the family dairy products, among which 2-3 types of cheeses dominate. Well known dairy products in BiH are indigenous Livno and Travnik cheese, a group of cheeses produced from thermally untreated raw sheep milk. The aim of this study was assessing the effects of certain parameters on the chemical composition of the milk composition of indigenous cheeses - Livno and Travnik. Two manufacturers within two different locations (Livno and Travnik during summer grazing of sheep, were selected for this research. The study included 117sheep (Livno 57 sheep, Travnik 60 sheep. The cheese milk was used for determination of fat, protein and lactose content. Six samples were taken from obtained cheeses: 3 samples of Livno and 3samples of Travnik cheese, which means one for each sampling period. In cheese dry matter content, water, fat, fat in dry matter and acidity (pH were determined, and then correlation between the constituents of milk and cheese ingredients content was set. The most common causes of such phenomenon is non-standard production, storage and ripening. On Travnik area, the content of fat and milk protein varied according to sampling period, which can be attributed to the already mentioned diet and stage of lactation. At the same time the protein content decreased mainly by the end of lactating period. Lactose content has proven to be the most stable parameter of milk. In both investigated cheese samples slightly higher water content was found compared to normal values for these two local cheese, while the proportion of fat and dry matter varied within the sampling period. Variation of certain parameters of the chemical composition of investigated samples of Livno and Travnik cheese, as well as their correlation with parameters of milk is primarily a consequence of changing the chemical composition of milk as the basic raw materials and/or significant variations in technology that could

  6. Setting the volatile composition of (exo)planet-building material. Does chemical evolution in disk midplanes matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Eistrup, Christian; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Chemical evolution in the protoplanetary disk midplane can modify the composition of ices and gases. We have investigated if and how chemical evolution affects the abundances and distributions of key volatile species in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk in the 0.2-30 AU range. A full chemical network including gas-phase, gas-grain interactions and grain-surface chemistry is used to evolve chemistry in time, for 1 Myr. Great diversity is observed in the relative abundance ratios of the main considered species: H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, O2, NH3 and N2. The choice of ionisation level, the choice of initial abundances, as well as the extent of chemical reaction types included are all factors that affect the chemical evolution. The only exception is the inheritance scenario with a low ionisation level, which results in negligible changes compared with the initial abundances, regardless of whether grain-surface chemistry is included. The chemical processing changes the C/O ratios for gas and ice significant...

  7. DAMAGE AND FRACTURE EVALUATION OF GRANULAR COMPOSITE MATERIALS BY DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jue; XIONG Chunyang; LI Hongju; LI Ming; WANG Jianxiang; FANG Jing

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the applications of digital image correlation technique to the mesoscopic damage and fracture study of some granular based composite materials including steelfiber reinforced concrete, sandstone and crystal-polymer composite. The deformation fields of the composite materials resulted from stress localization were obtained by the correlation computation of the surface images with loading steps and thus the related damage prediction and fracture parameters were evaluated. The correlation searching could be performed either directly based on the gray levels of the digital images or from the wavelet transform (WT) coefficients of the transform spectrum. The latter was developed by the authors and showed higher resolution and sensitivity to the singularity detection.Because the displacement components came from the rough surfaces of the composite materials without any coats of gratings or fringes of optical interferometry, both surface profiles and the deformation fields of the composites were visualized which was helpful to compare each other to analyze the damage of those heterogeneous materials.

  8. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  9. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  10. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  11. Preparation and properties of nano-composite ceramic coating by thermo chemical reaction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhuang; SUN Fang-hong; LI Zhi-chao

    2007-01-01

    Nano-composite ceramic coating was fabricated on Q235 steel through thermo chemical reaction method. Structure of the coating was analyzed and the properties were tested. The results show that a few of new ceramic phases, such as MgAl2O4, ZnAl2O4,Al2SiO5, Ni3Fe and Fe3Al, are formed on the coating during the process of solidifying at 600 ℃. The ceramic coating is dense and the high bonding strength is obtained. The average bonding strength between the coating and matrix could be 14.22 MPa. The acid resistance of the coating increase by 8.8 times, the alkali resistance by 4.1 times, the salt resistance by 10.3 times, and the wear resistance by 2.39 times.

  12. Preparation of Quartzite Reference Materials for Chemical Composition Analysis%石英岩化学成分分析标准物质研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘調; 马玲; 时晓露; 查立新

    2014-01-01

    At present,quartzitic reference materials are prepared by Brazil,England,Japan,and South Africa but are not in series. The SiO2 contents in these reference materials are generally above 96% and accurate concentration values are determined for only small number of elements.To date,no quartzitic reference material has been prepared in China,which cannot meet the demand of quartzite exploration and practical applications.In this study,three quartzitic reference materials were developed with samples from representative quartz mining areas,namely Damiao Town, Fengyang County, Anhui Province;Jingyang Town, Datong County, Qinghai Province;and Lingqiu mountain,Qichun County,Hubei Province.The samples were finely crushed to -45 μm with a fluidized bed-type airflow crusher to prevent sample contamination.Homogeneity and stability testing was conducted chiefly by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry rather than X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry with tablet sample preparation,which results in the quartzite material being difficult to mould.F values for the variance test were less than the threshold,which indicated a good homogeneity.No significant statistical changes were observed in eight two-year stability tests.The short-term stability analysis in the condition of extreme temperatures and vibration were also consistent.Determined values were certified by 1 0 laboratories in China with multiple methods.For components without homogeneity and stability tests,values and relative uncertainty of 36 components were obtained by comparing similar elements.The three quartzitic reference materials have been approved as national standard reference materials (GBW 07835 , GBW07836 and GBW 07837),with 92.93%,95.97% and 99.18% of SiO2,respectively,as a gradient distributed series.The series of reference materials has the characteristics of uniform grading,narrow diameter distribution (D25 -D75 ranged between 4 -1 6

  13. "Equivalent" material properties for designing ionic polymer metal composite actuators by equivalent bimorph beam theory

    OpenAIRE

    Çilingir, Halime Didem; Cilingir, Halime Didem

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators and two “equivalent” materials parameters for their design and performance assessments: electromechanical coupling coefficient and elastic modulus. The “equivalent” parameters not being material constants are derived from equivalent bimorph beam model. The Nafion membrane based IPMC actuator strips of several thicknesses are manufactured by electrochemical platinization method. The effect of the thickness and operating ...

  14. Chemical studies of H chondrites-10 : contents of thermally labile trace elements are unaffected by late heating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.-S.; Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Chemical Engineering; Purdue Univ.

    1999-09-01

    We have used radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) to determine 15 trace elements, including 10 moderately and highly volatile ones - Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In (in increasing volatility order) - in 6 H chondrite falls with low 3He contents. These plus prior RNAA data provide a compositional database of 92 H4-6 chondrite falls. Three suites of samples can be identified from their noble gas contents: 44 with 'normal' contents, and, therefore, 'normal' orbits and cosmic ray exposure histories; 8 that lost radiogenic gases, presumably by shock late in their histories; and 17 that lost cosmogenic gases by heating during close solar approach. We used the standard multivariate statistical techniques of linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression to compare contents of the 10 moderately and highly volatile trace elements, listed above, in these 3 suites. We found no significant differences. This contrasts sharply with similar comparisons involving random falls and H4-6 chondrites that landed on Earth at specific time intervals. Apparently, contents of volatile trace elements in H4-6 chondrites were established early in their histories and they are so retentively sited that loss during later heating episodes did not occur.

  15. Effects of microbial inoculants and amino acid production by-product on fermentation and chemical composition of sugarcane silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation patterns and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages with addition of amino acid production (monosodium glutamate by-product (APB and microbial inoculants. Mature sugarcane was chopped and ensiled in laboratory silos (n = 4/treatment without additives (control and with APB (10 g/kg, Pioneer 1174® (PIO, 1.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus plantarum + Streptoccoccus faecium, Pioneer, Lalsil Cana (2.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus buchineri, Lallemand or Mercosil Maís 11C33® (1.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus buchineri + Lactobacillus plantarum + Streptoccoccus faecium, Timac Agro. Fresh silage and silage liquor samples were obtained to assess pH, chemical composition and organic acid concentrations. Silage temperature was recorded throughout seven days to evaluate aerobic stability. The addition of APB decreased lactic acid levels, increased pH and N-NH3 and did not alter ethanol, acetic and butyric acids concentrations or dry matter (DM losses. Microbial inoculants enhanced acetic acid levels, although only Pioneer 1174® and Mercosil Maís 11C33® lowered ethanol, butyric acid and DM losses. The addition of APB increased CP content and did not modify DM, soluble carbohydrates contents or in vitro dry matter digestibility. Additives did not alter silage maximum temperature or temperature increasing rate; however, Pioneer 1174® and Mercosil Maís 11C33® increased the time elapsed to reach maximum temperature. Monosodium glutamate production by-product does not alter fermentation patterns or aerobic stability of sugarcane silages, whereas homofermentative bacteria can provide silages of good quality.

  16. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pramoda; S Suresh; H S S Ramakrishna Matte; A Govindaraj

    2013-08-01

    Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and other techniques. Magnetite particles chemically bonded to graphene dispersible in various solvents have been prepared and they exhibit fairly high magnetization.

  17. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10−2 s−1) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10−8–10−6 s−1). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  18. NEW TECHNOLOGY OF ROADSIDE ENTRY SUPPORT IN ADVANCING-MINING BY PUMPING HIGHWATER-CONTENT FAST SETTING-SOLIDIFYING MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉诚; 孙恒虎

    1995-01-01

    Roadside entry supporting technology by pumping high water-content fast setting-solidifying materials in advancing-mining was industrially tested in Yangzhuang Coal Mine, Huaibei Coal Mining Administration. Roadside packing parameters were determined according to the properties of high water-content fast setting-solidifying materials, as well as geological and mining conditions. A new roadside packing technological system was designed to use pumping-delivery method to transport the materials. With respect to the special conditions in the advahcing mining system, effective temporary support systema were designed and tried. The technical and economic benefits from this new industrial experiment were carefully analyzed and evaluated.

  19. Microwave Measurements of Ferrite Polymer Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the microwave measurements performed on the nickel-zinc sintered ferrite with the chemical formula Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 produced by the ceramic technique and composite materials based on this ferrite and a non-magnetic polymer (polyvinyl chloride matrix. The prepared composite samples had the same particle size distribution 0-250um but different ferrite particle concentrations between 23 vol% and 80 vol%. The apparatus for measurement of the signal proportional to the absolute value of scattering parameter S11 (reflexion coefficient is described and the dependence of measured reflected signal on a bias magnetic field has been studied. By means of experiments, the resonances to be connected with the geometry of microwave experimental set-up were distinguished from ferromagnetic resonance arising in ferrite particles of composite structure. The role of local interaction fields of ferrite particles in composite material has been discussed.

  20. Chemical composition and morphology of oxidic ceramics at filtration of steel deoxidised by aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bažan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Composition and morphology of filter ceramics were investigated during filtration of steel deoxidised by aluminium. Filtration was realized with use of filters based on oxidic ceramics Cr2O3, TiO2, SiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, 3Al2O3•2SiO2 and MgO•Al2O3. It was established that change of interphase (coating occurs during filtration of steel on the surface of capillaries of ceramics, where content of basic oxidic component decreases. Loss of oxidic component in the coating is replaced by increase of oxides of manganese and iron and it is great extent inversely proportional to the value of Gibbs’ energy of oxide, which forms this initial basis of ceramics.

  1. Nanostructured polyaniline rice husk composite as adsorption materials synthesized by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites based on polyaniline (PANi) and rice husk (RH) were prepared by two methods: the first one was chemical method by combining RH contained in acid medium and aniline using ammonium persulfate as an oxidation agent and the second one was that of soaking RH into PANi solution. The presence of PANi combined with RH to form nanocomposite was clearly demonstrated by infrared (IR) spectra as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Lead(II) and cadmium(II) ion concentrations in solution before and after adsorption process on those composites were analysed by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Of the above preparation methods, the soaking one provided a composite onto which the maximum adsorption capacity was higher for lead(II) ion (200 mg g−1), but lower for cadmium(II) ion (106.383 mg g−1) in comparison with the chemical one. However, their adsorption process occurring on both composites also fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm model. (paper)

  2. Chemical Composition of lower Mount Sharp at Gale Crater, Mars, as measured by the APXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Campbell, J. L.; VanBommel, S.; Perrett, G. M.; Desouza, E.; Thompson, L. M.; Yen, A. S.; Berger, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    From sol 810 through to 950 the MSL Curiosity Rover carried out detailed investigations at Pahrump, which likely represents the lowest strata of Mount Sharp. The bulk chemistry is very different compared to previously encountered formations like Sheepbed at Yellowknifebay, which resembled an average Mars composition. The bedrock is significantly depleted in Mg and Ca, elevated in Al and Si and enriched in Zn (~2000 ppm), Se (~50 ppm) and Pb(~100 ppm). The composition varies only slightly over the ~10 meter elevation explored at Pahrump and is chemically homogenous on a 10 cm scale. However, some clear trends uphill are present. Zn and Se decrease with elevation, the Fe/Mn ratio, a possible indicator for the Fe3+ content, increases from 50 to 100. Elevated 2.5% P2O5 were encountered at higher elevations. SO3 ranges from 5 to 8% in the drill samples, higher abundances were found in Ca-sulfate veins and diagenetic features that contain ~15% (Mg,Ni)-sulfates. The Pahrump bedrock may be traced ~500m to the north and south. Bonanza King (sol 755, Hidden Valley) and Spokane (sol 989) share the same major chemistry, including similar trends in minor and trace elements. Most recently the rover approached a contact between Pahrump-like bedrock and an overlying, more resistant unit identified from orbit at Marias Pass. High SiO2, ranging from 63 to 72%, was found close to the contact, above which the sandstone composition changes abruptly to that of average Mars. Increased Si is correlated with elevated P and Ti, lower Al and Fe, and a dramatic decrease in Zn, Ni and Cr to very low values of a few 100 ppm and less. The elevated silica and associated elemental trends observed at Marias Pass share characteristics with the high silica bedrock examined at HomePlate in Gusev Crater, where acidic leaching or silica mobilization has been proposed. The stratigraphy together with data from 4 drill samples for SAM and Chemin might shed light on the formation history of this extensive

  3. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications. PMID:27033986

  4. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications.

  5. Method validation for chemical composition determination by electron microprobe with wavelength dispersive spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Basurto, R.; Mercader-Trejo, F.; Muñoz-Madrigal, N.; Juárez-García, J. M.; Rodriguez-López, A.; Manzano-Ramírez, A.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is suitable for its intended purpose. One of the advantages of analytical method validation is translated into a level of confidence about the measurement results reported to satisfy a specific objective. Elemental composition determination by wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) microanalysis has been used over extremely wide areas, mainly in the field of materials science, impurity determinations in geological, biological and food samples. However, little information is reported about the validation of the applied methods. Herein, results of the in-house method validation for elemental composition determination by WDS are shown. SRM 482, a binary alloy Cu-Au of different compositions, was used during the validation protocol following the recommendations for method validation proposed by Eurachem. This paper can be taken as a reference for the evaluation of the validation parameters more frequently requested to get the accreditation under the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard: selectivity, limit of detection, linear interval, sensitivity, precision, trueness and uncertainty. A model for uncertainty estimation was proposed including systematic and random errors. In addition, parameters evaluated during the validation process were also considered as part of the uncertainty model.

  6. Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker’s yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II ion as 500 μmol g−1. Sorption processes of lead(II by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0±3.0–5.0% by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents.

  7. Chemical contamination of material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling represents a backbone of sustainable society in the context of circular economy. Ideally, materials are converted into products, used by the consumers, and discarded, just to be recycled and converted into newly manufactured products. Furthermore, materials may also contain...... acceptance of recycledmaterial‐based products. Paper and plastics are conventional materials used to manufacture a variety of products within main sectors of economy (i.e. packaging, transportation, construction, services, and other). A number of chemicals can be either intentionally or unintentionally added...... to these materials in the process of product manufacturing or final product conversion. Extend of chemical use, as well as their presence in paper and plastic products remains largely uninvestigated. The aim of this project is to obtain reliable quantitative data on presence of selected (potentially hazardous...

  8. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inmaculada González-Martín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions. The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53, calcium (0.83, 94, iron (0.69, 134 potassium (0.95, 117, magnesium (0.70, 99, phosphorus (0.94, 24 zinc (0.87, 10 chromium (0.48, 0.6 nickel (0.52, 0.7 copper (0.64, 0.9 and lead (0.70, 2 in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  9. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, M. Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M.; Coello, M. Carmen; Palacios Riocerezo, Carlos; Wells Moncada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  10. PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ENERGY VALUE OF GRASS SILAGE BY NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMAŽ ŽNIDARŠIČ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighteen grass silage samples with known chemical composition and in vitro determined concentration of net energy for lactation (NEL were scanned over the wavelength range from 1100 to 2500 nm at 8 nm intervals. Calibration equations for the prediction of crude protein (CP, crude fi bre (CF, crude fat (F, crude ash (A, dry matter of air-dried samples (DM and NEL were developed by the use of principal component analysis (PCA and modifi ed partial least squares regression technique (mPLS. NIRS demonstrated high predictive ability for CP (R2 = 0.97, CF (R2 = 0.96 and A (R2 = 0.94. Moderate accuracy was characteristic for F and DM (R2 = 0.81 and 0.79. Crude protein, F and DM deviations from reference methods were comparable to those which are expected by the use of the same reference methods in different laboratories. The determination coeffi cient for in vitro assessed NEL concentration was 0.76. Seventy-seven percent of samples lied within acceptable limits of ± 0.3 MJ NEL kg-1DM. Suboptimal sample distribution, i.e. small number of samples in classes below 4.6 and above 6.0 MJ NEL kg-1DM was observed. It seems that deviations of NIRS predicted values from the reference values were related to the concentration of NEL. It was concluded that NIRS shows the potential for reliable determination of chemical composition and energy value of grass silage.

  11. Numerical simulation of isothermal chemical vapor infiltration process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The chemical vapor infiltration process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites is highly inefficient and requires long processing time. These limitations add considerably to the cost of fabrication and restrict the application of this material. Efforts have been made to study the CVI process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites by computer simulation and predict the process parameters, density, porosity, etc. According to the characteristics of CVI process, the basic principle of FEM and mass transport, the finite element model has been established. Incremental finite element equations and the elemental stiffness matrices have been derived for the first time. The finite element program developed by the authors has been used to simulate the ICVI process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. Computer color display of simulated results can express the densification and distributions of density and porosity in preform clearly. The influence of process parameters on the densification of preform has been analyzed. The numerically simulated and experimental results give a good agreement.

  12. Tough composite materials: Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A series of studies on tough composite materials is presented in this book. These composite materials are strong, but lightweight; and they are being used as metal replacements in applications where weight reduction is important. The material covered here provides an overview of NASA and other research aimed at improving composite material performance and increasing the understanding of composite material behavior. The book covers composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, matrix synthesis and characterization, and selected additional subjects.

  13. Manufacturing of aluminium matrix composite materials reinforced by Al2O3 particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Włodarczyk-Fligier; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; M. Adamiak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show and compare of modern method composite materials with aluminium alloy matrix reinforced by Al2O3 particles manufacturing.Design/methodology/approach: Material for investigation was manufactured by two methods: powder metallurgy (consolidation, pressing, hot extrusion of powder mixtures of aluminium EN AW-AlCu4Mg1(A) and ceramic particles Al2O3) and pressure infiltration of porous performs by liquid alloy EN AC AlSi12 (performs were prepared by sint...

  14. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  15. Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

    2010-03-01

    In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A. PMID:20420329

  16. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  17. Evaluation of prediction equations to estimate gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy content of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for swine based on chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to cross-validate prediction equations to estimate the concentration of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable chemical composition in growing pigs. Publ...

  18. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  19. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  20. Elucidating the individual effects of calcium and phosphate ions on hMSCs by using composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoux, Charlène B S S; Bassett, David C; Othman, Ziryan; Rodrigues, Ana I; Reis, Rui L; Barralet, Jake E; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    The biological performance of bone graft substitutes based on calcium phosphate bioceramics is dependent on a number of properties including chemical composition, porosity and surface micro- and nanoscale structure. However, in contemporary bioceramics these properties are interlinked, therefore making it difficult to investigate the individual effects of each property on cell behavior. In this study we have attempted to investigate the effects of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions independent from one another by preparing composite materials with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymeric matrix and calcium carbonate or sodium phosphate salts as fillers. Clinically relevant bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on these composites and proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization were investigated with time and were compared to plain PLA control particles. In parallel, cells were also cultured on conventional cell culture plates in media supplemented with calcium or inorganic phosphate to study the effect of these ions independent of the 3D environment created by the particles. Calcium was shown to increase proliferation of cells, whereas both calcium and phosphate positively affected alkaline phosphatase enzyme production. QPCR analysis revealed positive effects of calcium and of inorganic phosphate on the expression of osteogenic markers, in particular bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin. Higher levels of mineralization were also observed upon exposure to either ion. Effects were similar for cells cultured on composite materials and those cultured in supplemented media, although ion concentrations in the composite cultures were lower. The approach presented here may be a valuable tool for studying the individual effects of a variety of soluble compounds, including bioinorganics, without interference from other material properties. PMID:25676583

  1. A Review of Biomedical Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊珊

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the review of the biomedical composite materials.It introduces the operational definition,the classification of biomedical composite materials,and its constituents within itself.In this thesis,the last part presents the application of this kind of material.By writing this paper,I hope that people will get a comprehensive knowledge of the biomedical composite material and make further and deeper research in this material by which way to animate the material science industry.

  2. Mass attenuation coefficients of composite materials by Geant4, XCOM and experimental data: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, M. E.; Singh, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    The main goal of this present study is focused on testing the applicability of Geant4 electromagnetic models for studying mass attenuations coefficients for different types of composite materials at 59.5, 80, 356, 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The simulated results of mass attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental and theoretical XCOM data for the same samples and a good agreement has been observed. The results indicate that this process can be followed to determine the data on the attenuation of gamma rays with the several energies in different materials. The modeling for photon interaction parameters was standard for any type of composite samples. The Geant4 code can be utilized for gamma ray attenuation coefficients for the sample at different energies, which may sometimes be impractical by experiment investigation.

  3. Preparation and characterization of 5-sulphosalicylic acid doped tetraethoxysilane composite ion-exchange material by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Suhail-ul; Islam, Nasarul; Ahad, Sozia; Fatima, Syed Zeeshan; Pandith, Altaf Hussain, E-mail: altafpandit23@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Sulphosalicylic acid doped tetraethoxysilane composite is prepared by sol–gel method. •Its X-ray diffraction studies suggest that it is crystalline in nature. • This material shows selectivity for Mg(II) and Ni(II) ions in aqueous solutions. • Separation of Ni(II) from binary mixtures was successfully achieved on this material. -- Abstract: In this manuscript, we report the preparation and characterization of sulphosalicylic doped tetraethoxysilane (SATEOS), composite material by sol–gel method as a new ion exchanger for the removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The fine granular material was prepared by acid catalyzed condensation polymerization through sol–gel mechanism in the presence of cationic surfactant. The material has an ion exchange capacity of 0.64 mequiv./g(dry) for sodium ions, 0.60 mequiv./g(dry) for potassium ions, 1.84 mequiv./g(dry) for magnesium ions, 1.08 mequiv./g(dry) for calcium ions and 1.36 mequiv./g(dry) for strontium ions. Its X-ray diffraction studies suggest that it is crystalline in nature. The material has been characterized by SEM, IR, TGA and DTG so as to identify the various functional groups and ion exchange sites present in this material. Quantum chemical computations at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level on model systems were performed to substantiate the structural conclusions based ion instrumental techniques. Investigations into the elution behaviour, ion exchange reversibility and distribution capacities of this material towards certain environmentally hazardous metal ions are also performed. The material shows good chemical stability towards acidic conditions and exhibits fast elution of exchangeable H{sup +} ions under neutral conditions. This material shows remarkable selectivity for Ni(II) and on the basis of its K{sub d} value (4 × 10{sup 2} in 0.01 M HClO{sub 4}) some binary separations of Ni(II) from other metal ions are performed.

  4. Chemical composition of soils and biosolid by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition of biosolid and soil treated with biosolid using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti and Zn were quantified and the results had been compared with Brazilian legislation. The Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn amounts were below the maximum values allowed. (author)

  5. Chemical comparisons of liquid fuel produced by thermochemical liquefaction of various biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.A.; Molton, P.M.; Landsman, S.D.

    1980-12-01

    Liquefaction of biomass in aqueous alkali at temperatures up to 350/sup 0/C is an effective way to convert solid wastes into liquid fuels. The liqefaction oils of several forms of biomass differing in proportions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, protein, and minerals were studied and their chemical composition compared. It was that the proportions of chemical components varied considerably depending on the type of biomass liquefied. However, all the oils, even those produced from cellulose, had similar chemical characteristics due to the presence of significant quantities of phenols. These phenols are at least partially responsible for the corrosivity and viscosity commonly associated with biomass oils. The differences in chemical component distribution in the various biomass oils might successfully be exploited if the oil is to be used as a chemical feedstock. If the oil is to be used as a fuel, however, then reaction conditions will be a more important consideration than the source of biomass.

  6. Particle Morphology and Elemental Composition of Smoke Generated by Overheating Common Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2015-01-01

    Fire safety in the indoor spacecraft environment is concerned with a unique set of fuels which are designed to not combust. Unlike terrestrial flaming fires, which often can consume an abundance of wood, paper and cloth, spacecraft fires are expected to be generated from overheating electronics consisting of flame resistant materials. Therefore, NASA prioritizes fire characterization research for these fuels undergoing oxidative pyrolysis in order to improve spacecraft fire detector design. A thermal precipitator designed and built for spacecraft fire safety test campaigns at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) successfully collected an abundance of smoke particles from oxidative pyrolysis. A thorough microscopic characterization has been performed for ten types of smoke from common spacecraft materials or mixed materials heated at multiple temperatures using the following techniques: SEM, TEM, high resolution TEM, high resolution STEM and EDS. Resulting smoke particle morphologies and elemental compositions have been observed which are consistent with known thermal decomposition mechanisms in the literature and chemical make-up of the spacecraft fuels. Some conclusions about particle formation mechanisms are explored based on images of the microstructure of Teflon smoke particles and tar ball-like particles from Nomex fabric smoke.

  7. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  8. Identification of chemical composition and measurement of V, As, Cr and Fe in Yogyakarta ambient air particulate by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation neutron analysis can be used to identify chemical composition and measure V, As, Cr and Fe contents in Yogyakarta ambient particulate. The air sampling has been done around Yogyakarta city such as: Gg. Narada Gandok around North Ring road (A1 post), Mentri Supeno cross road (A2 post), Purbanegaran GK II (A3 post), Wirobrajan cross road (A4 post), Adisutjipto (A5 post), and in front of Sentul market on JI. Sultan Agung with low volume sampler equipped with AP millipore fiber glass filter. Other places used for air sampling were around PPNY, JI. Babarsari (B1) and Jl. Gejayan (B2) by using high volume sampler equipped with TF A 21133 series filter. The filter was irradiated at Kartini reactor at the average of 1.04 x 1011 n.cm-2.s-1 on January 10, 1995. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air around Yogyakarta respectively was: 81.5 - 264.9 ng/m3 air; 56.7 - 596.4 ng/m3 air; 30.5 - 153.8 ng/m3 air and 22.4 - 108μg/m3 air. The accuracy of the analysis method was checked by comparing the analysis result to the certificate label of the reference material SRM 1633a. The accuracy was: 21.1%; 13.9%; 7.7% and 13.3% for V, As, Cr and Fe. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air particulate around Yogyakarta is still the below permissible level of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987

  9. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  10. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxi Wei

    Full Text Available Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid (HCl hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  11. Biomedical composites materials, manufacturing and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials are engineered materials, made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Due to their special mechanical and physical properties they have the potential to replace conventional materials in various fields such as the biomedical industry.

  12. Influence of the chemical modification and content of the clay on the mechanical properties of polypropylene and national bentonite composites; Influencia da modificacao quimica e do teor de argila nas propriedades mecanicas de compositos de polipropileno e bentonita nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libano, Elaine V.D.G., E-mail: elainelibano@uezo.rj.gov.br [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste - UEZO - RJ (Brazil); Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The polypropylene/national clay composite was prepared by melt intercalation in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder, using bentonite as filler either in the natural (BENT) form or modified with the ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (BENT-org). The clay was used in 1, 3 and 5%w. The influence of the modification and content of clay on the mechanical properties of this system was analysed. The analyses of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that clay organophilization did occur. The tensile modulus and the tensile strength at the yield point were not affected by chemical modification (BENT and BENT-org) or clay content. On the other hand, it was evidenced that the elongation at the yield point decreased with the addition of BENT and BENT-org to polypropylene. According to the thermogravimetric results, it was evidenced that the incorporation of clay into polypropylene improved thermal stability of the polymer in the composites with 5%w of BENT and 3 and 5%w of BENT-org. (author)

  13. Calculation of the Composition Profile of a Functionally Graded Material Produced by Co-sedimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A sedimentation method is proposed to fabricate functionally graded materials (FGMs) with the continuous andsmooth variations of composition. The relations between the compositional distribution of deposited body and thepowder characteristics of raw materials as well as settling parameters are derived. Subsequently, the mathematicalmodel of forming FGM based on the co-sedimentation has been established. At last, numerical simulations areconducted to explore the effects of the particle sizes of raw materials and suspension height on the compositionaldistribution of final products.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandra sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the present work, composites prepared with epoxy (Araldite LY-556 as resin and „emu‟ bird feathers as fiber have been tested for chemical resistance. The composites were prepared by varying fiber loading (P of „emu‟ feathers ranging from 1 to 5 and length (L of feather fibers from 1 to 5 cm. The composites thus prepared were subjected to various chemicals (Acids, Alkalis, solvents etc.. Observations were plotted and studied. The results reveal that there will be weight gain for the composite samples after three days, when treated with Hydrochloric acid, Sodium carbonate, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide. Weight loss was observed for all the samples including pure epoxy when treated with Benzene, Carbon tetra chloride and Toluene.

  15. EPOXY-BASED ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID MATERIALS BY SOL-GEL METHOD: CHEMICAL TAILORING AND MULTI-SCALE CHARACTERIZATION.

    OpenAIRE

    Piscitelli, Filomena

    2010-01-01

    The epoxy resins are organic matrices with excellent heat, moisture, and chemical resistance and good adhesion to many substrates, therefore they are mostly applied in the field of coatings, adhesives, casting, composites, laminates and encapsulation of semiconductor devises. However, due to their low mechanical properties and high coefficient of thermal expansion value compared with inorganic materials, the epoxy resins cannot meet all the requirements, especially for the electrical and stru...

  16. Structure and mechanical properties of a multilayer carbide-hardened niobium composite material fabricated by diffusion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhov, V. P.; Ershov, A. E.; Stroganova, T. S.; Prokhorov, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    The structure, the bending strength, and the fracture mechanism of an artificial niobium-based composite material, which is fabricated by high-pressure diffusion welding of multilayer stacks assembled from niobium foils with a two-sided carbon coating, are studied. The microstructure of the composite material is found to consist of alternating relatively plastic layers of the solid solution of carbon in niobium and hardening niobium carbide layers. The room-temperature proportional limit of the developed composite material is threefold that of the composite material fabricated from coating-free niobium foils using the proposed technology. The proportional limit of the developed composite material and the stress corresponding to the maximum load at 1100°C are 500 and 560 MPa, respectively. The developed material is considered as an alternative to Ni-Al superalloys.

  17. Development and characterization of 430L matrix composites gradient materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maria Ruiz-Navas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new concept that is Functionally Gradient Materials (FGM. The materials developed in this work are constituted by a 430L matrix core and composite materials with this matrix and gradient concentration with NbC reinforcement, from the core to the surface, through different steps. Composite powders of different content in NbC were produced through high energy milling in order to obtain the gradient composition. The morphology and microhardness of these powders were characterised and subsequently were processed through conventional P/M techniques, pressing and sintering. The materials obtained show improved wear behaviour.

  18. Plasma methods of obtainment of multifunctional composite materials, dispersion-hardened by nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, O. N.; Grigoryev, E. G.; Zaichenko, A. D.; Pristash, N. S.; Torpakov, A. S.; Lipyan, Ye V.; Tregub, V. A.; Zholnin, A. G.; Yudin, A. V.; Kovalenko, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The new approach in developed plasma methods consists in that dispersionhardening additives (TiC, TiB2 in particular) are not mechanically added to powder mixture as additional component, as in conventional methods, but are instead synthesized during high voltage electric discharges (HVED) in disperse system “hydrocarbon liquid - powder” preservation of ultrafine structure is ensured due to use of spark plasma sintering (SPS) as a consolidation method. HVED in disperse system “hydrocarbon liquid - powder” due to impact of plasma discharge channel, electromagnetic fields, shock waves mechanical impact, hydro flows and volume microcavitation leads to synthesis of nanocarbon, metal powders dispersion and synthesis of micro- (from 10-6 to 10-7 m) and nanosized (from 10-7 to 10-9 m) composite powders of hardening phases. SPS is the passage of pulsed current (superposition of direct and alternating current) through powder with the simultaneous mechanical compressing. The formation of plasma is initiated in gaseous phase that fills gaps between particles. SPS allows targeted control of grain growth rate and thus allows obtainment of multifunctional composite materials dispersion hardened by nanoparticles. Processes of HVED synthesis of micro- and nanosized powders of new compositions from elemental metal powders and their mixtures with the subsequent application of high-speed SPS of obtained powders create conditions for increase of strength (by 10 - 20%), hardness and wear-resistance (by 30 - 60%) of obtained materials.

  19. Non-destructive testing of composite materials by means of active thermography-based tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizaranzu, Miguel; Lario, Alberto; Chiminelli, Agustín; Amenabar, Ibán

    2015-07-01

    Infrared analysis tools are nowadays widely used for the non-destructive testing of components made up in composite materials, belonging to many different industrial sectors. Being a non-contact method, its capability for the inspection of large areas in short periods of time justifies the great number of works and technical studies that can be found in this field. The growing interest in the technique is also supported by the development, during recent years, of increasingly powerful equipment and data analysis tools. In order to establish a base of knowledge to assist defect identification in real components inspections, the design and manufacturing of inspection samples including controlled defects, is a frequently used strategy. This paper deals with the analysis, by means of transient active thermography, of a set of inspection patterns made out of different composite materials and configurations that can be found in the wind turbine blade manufacturing industry. The design and manufacturing of these patterns are described, including different types of representative defects, stack configurations and composite manufacturing techniques. Reference samples are then inspected by means of active thermography analysis tools and the results obtained are discussed.

  20. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Alejo C., E-mail: acarreras@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba—CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Cangiano, María de los A.; Ojeda, Manuel W.; Ruiz, María del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Qumica (INTEQUI), Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys.

  1. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys

  2. Controlling dynamic mechanical properties and degradation of composites for bone regeneration by means of filler content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, Davide; de Bruijn, Joost D.; Luo, Xiaoman; Fare, Silvia; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Yuan, Huipin

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is a dynamic composite system that adapts itself, in response to the surrounding daily (cyclic) mechanical stimuli, through an equilibrium between growth and resorption processes. When there is need of synthetic bone grafts, the biggest issue is to support bone regeneration without causi

  3. Damage detection in laminar thermoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojović Aleksandar M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of applying optical fibers as sensors for investigating low energy impact damage in laminar thermoplastic composite materials, in real time. Impact toughness testing by a Charpy impact pendulum with different loads was conducted in order to determine the method for comparative measurement of the resulting damage in the material. For that purpose intensity-based optical fibers were built in to specimens of composite materials with Kevlar 129 (the DuPont registered trade-mark for poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide woven fabric as reinforcement and thermoplastic PVB (poly(vinyl butyral as the matrix. In some specimens part of the layers of Kevlar was replaced with metal mesh (50% or 33% of the layers. Experimental testing was conducted in order to observe and analyze the response of the material under multiple low-energy impacts. Light from the light-emitting diode (LED was launched to the embedded optical fiber and was propagated to the phototransistor-based photo detector. During each impact, the signal level, which is proportional to the light intensity in the optical fiber, drops and then slowly recovers. The obtained signals were analyzed to determine the appropriate method for real time damage monitoring. The major part of the damage occurs during impact. The damage reflects as a local, temporary release of strain in the optical fiber and an increase of the signal level. The obtained results show that intensity-based optical fibers could be used for measuring the damage in laminar thermoplastic composite materials. The acquired optical fiber signals depend on the type of material, but the same set of rules (relatively different, depending on the type of material could be specified. Using real time measurement of the signal during impact and appropriate analysis enables quantitative evaluation of the impact damage in the material. Existing methods in most cases use just the intensity of the signal before

  4. Fabrication techniques of metal liner used for pressure vessels made by composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different viable techniques for the manufacturing of metal liner used for pressure vessels are presented. The aim of these metal liner is to avoid the fluid leakage from the pressurized vessel and to serve as a mandreal to be wound by composite material. The studied techniques are described and the practical results are illustrated. Finally a comparative study of the manufacturing techniques is made in order to define the process that furnishes the metal liner with the best characteristics. The advantages offered by these type of pressure vessels when compared with the conventional metallic vessels, are also presented. (Author)

  5. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  6. Chemical composition analysis of ancient bricks and potteries by internal monostandard NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-based internal monostandard INAA (IM-INAA) method was used for the determination of major, minor and trace element concentrations in ancient bricks as well as potteries, collected from Buddhist (4th B.C. to 3rd A.D.) sites of in and around Vishakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Chemical composition analysis of these artifacts was carried out for the provenance study and also to find out possible correlations among the bricks and potteries. INAA is one of the best techniques used for the provenance study due to its advantageous properties like simultaneous multielement capability, negligible matrix effect, no spectral interference and inherent precision and accuracy

  7. Biomimetic apatite-based composite materials obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS): physicochemical and mechanical characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Fabien; Laurencin, Danielle; Grossin, David; Drouet, Christophe; Estournes, Claude; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Rey, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate apatites are biomimetic compounds analogous to bone mineral and are at the origin of the bioactivity of most biomaterials used as bone substitutes. Their unique surface reactivity originates from the presence of a hydrated layer containing labile ions (mostly divalent ones). So the setup of 3D biocompatible apatite-based bioceramics exhibiting a high reactivity requests the development of «low» temperature consolidation processes such as spark plasma sintering (SPS), in order to preserve the characteristics of the hydrated nanocrystals. However, mechanical performances may still need to be improved for such nanocrystalline apatite bioceramics, especially in view of load-bearing applications. The reinforcement by association with biopolymers represents an appealing approach, while preserving the advantageous biological properties of biomimetic apatites. Herein, we report the preparation of composites based on biomimetic apatite associated with various quantities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, 1-20 wt%), a natural fibrous polymer. The SPS-consolidated composites were analyzed from both physicochemical (X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, solid state NMR) and mechanical (Brazilian test) viewpoints. The preservation of the physicochemical characteristics of apatite and cellulose in the final material was observed. Mechanical properties of the composite materials were found to be directly related to the polymer/apatite ratios and a maximum crushing strength was reached for 10 wt% of MCC.

  8. Failure Study of Composite Materials by the Yeh-Stratton Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance

    1997-01-01

    The newly developed Yeh-Stratton (Y-S) Strength Criterion was used to study the failure of composite materials with central holes and normal cracks. To evaluate the interaction parameters for the Y-S failure theory, it is necessary to perform several biaxial loading tests. However, it is indisputable that the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of composite materials have made their own contribution to the complication of the biaxial testing problem. To avoid the difficulties of performing many biaxial tests and still consider the effects of the interaction term in the Y-S Criterion, a simple modification of the Y-S Criterion was developed. The preliminary predictions by the modified Y-S Criterion were relatively conservative compared to the testing data. Thus, the modified Y-S Criterion could be used as a design tool. To further understand the composite failure problem, an investigation of the damage zone in front of the crack tip coupled with the Y-S Criterion is imperative.

  9. Impacts of synthesis temperature and carbon content on the electrochemical performances of the Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite synthesized by a polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a cathode material for Li-ion battery, Li3V2(PO4)3 was synthesized by a polyol method using LiOH·H2O, V2O5, NH4H2PO4, sucrose, and ethylene glycol as starting materials. Under the polyol process, the impacts of synthesis parameters, including the sintering temperature, holding time, and carbon content, on the morphological evolution and electrochemical properties of Li3V2(PO4)3 were investigated. The XRD results show the formation of pure Li3V2(PO4)3 with monoclinic crystal structure. The images of SEM show the similar-spherical morphology with uniform and optimized particles size, which greatly improves the electrochemical performance. The carbon coated on the Li3V2(PO4)3 particles was clearly observed by electron microscopy. The particle size of Li3V2(PO4)3 powders gradually decreases with the increase of carbon content in composite. In the potential range of 3.0–4.3 V, the composite synthesized at 800 °C for 10 h with 10% carbon content shows the highest discharge capacity of 128 mAh g−1 at 0.1C, which is nearly close to the theoretical capacity, and it remains fairly stable (more than 126 mAh g−1) even after the 20th cycles. Based on the results from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the apparent diffusion coefficients of Li ions in the composite materials are between 1.82 × 10−10 and 3.79 × 10−9 cm2 s−1, which are much higher than those of olivine LiFePO4. - Highlights: • As a cathode material, Li3V2(PO4)3/C was successfully synthesized by polyol method. • Impacts of synthesis temperature, holding time and carbon content were studied. • Electrochemical performance of Li3V2(PO4)3 was affected by particle morphology and size. • Li3V2(PO4)3/10% C shows the highest discharge capacity of 128 mAh g−1 at 0.1C. • Apparent diffusion coefficient of Li ions of Li3V2(PO4)3 is higher than that of LiFePO4

  10. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  11. Technical note: Prediction of chemical rib section composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Zebu beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Amaral, P M; Mariz, L D S; Sathler, D F T; Filho, S C Valadares; Silva, F F; Silva, B C; Pacheco, M C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-06-01

    It is expensive and laborious to evaluate carcass composition in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate a method to predict the 9th to 11th rib section (rib) composition through empirical equations using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a validated method used to describe tissue composition in humans and other animals, but few studies have evaluated this technique in beef cattle, and especially in the Zebu genotype. A total of 116 rib were used to evaluate published prediction equations for rib composition and to develop new regression models using a cross-validation procedure. For the proposed models, 93 ribs were randomly selected to calculate the new regression equations, and 23 different ribs were randomly selected to validate the regressions. The rib from left carcasses were taken from Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls from 3 different studies and scanned using DXA equipment (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) in the Health Division at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, Brazil). The outputs of the DXA report were DXA lean (g), DXA fat free mass (g), DXA fat mass (g), and DXA bone mineral content (BMC; g). After being scanned, the rib were dissected, ground, and chemically analyzed for total ether extract (EE), CP, water, and ash content. The predictions of rib fat and protein from previous published equations were different ( 0.05), respectively, then the equation correctly estimated the rib composition. Comparing observed and predicted values using the new equations, Mayer's test was not significant for lean mass ( = 0.26), fat free mass ( = 0.67), EE mass ( = 0.054), and ash mass ( = 0.14). We concluded that the rib composition of Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls can be estimated from DXA using the proposed equations. PMID:27285924

  12. Study on the chemical compatibility of SiC/SiC composites as core materials for Sodium Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fibers combined with a SiC matrix constitute an advanced solution for Fast Neutron Reactors (SFR, GFR…) as core materials for their stability at high temperature and their neutron transparency. However, the compatibility with the reactor's fuel and coolant has to be studied within a wide range of temperatures: moderated in normal operation (close-circuit at 550°C) and elevated (open-middle) in accidental conditions. Concerning the compatibility of SiC/SiC with the fuel and, considering in a first step uranium oxide, the stoichiometry of uranium dioxide remains one of the important parameters to be studied. Experimental results on the chemical compatibility between UO2.15 and SiC were obtained using high temperature mass spectrometry. The reaction for 6 hours at 1773 K produces the release of mainly COg, CO2(g) and SiO(g) and Si(g) and leads to the formation of uranium silicide compounds. The uranium oxide was fully consumed. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to prepare and interpret the experiments. (author). (author)

  13. Novel PLA/Chitosan Composite Materials Prepared by SCF-CO2 Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LH; ZHANG R; ZHOU CR

    2005-01-01

    Because of the incomparable merits (nontoxicity, non-remainder,fast transfer mass) of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid technique(SC-CO2), it was used to developed a series of novel biodegradable tissue engineering scaffold materials in this research. The novel PLA/chitosan composite materials could be molded to different shapes, and the porosity of the materials were over 200 μm and connected. Chondrocyte cultivation, subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation were mainly discussed this paper. The results showed that the cells could well adhere,grow and multiplicate on the surface of the materials, which indicated good biocompatibility of the composite materials. The plantation test revealed that the PLA materials had already dismissed 2 month late in the body, while the composite materials could still keep certain strength and shape, and the most important things is the response of the tissue toward the implanted PLA/chitosan composite materials was mild and had far less inflammation than PLA materials. 8 to 16 weeks later, fiber membrane was stable; degradation of the materials was seen clear and tissue had already spread into it.

  14. Ostrich – yield and chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Naseva, Dijana; Pejkovski, Zlatko; Kuzelov, Aco

    2012-01-01

    Faced with the fact that the world’s population is increasing year over year and that it is faced with the lack of food, especially meat, the alimentary technology should necessarily consider each alimentary source. This thesis studies the quality and quantity of ostriches' meat. The results of the live weight, slaughter weight, dressing percentage and losses of weight under chilling, the content of meat and bones in the main parts (thighs, back, thorax) and the chemical composition of the ...

  15. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway

    OpenAIRE

    Meike Meilan Lisangan; Bimo Budi Santoso; Gino Nemesio Cepeda; Isak Silamba

    2011-01-01

    Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway. Akway (Drimys piperita Hook f.) is a woody, evergreen andaromatic plan that was a member of winteraceae. This plant is used by Sougb tribe lived in Sururey village, District ofManokwari, to heal malaria and to enhance the vitality of body. The objectives of this research were to know the yieldof essential oil using water distillation of leaves and its chemical composition using gas chromatography and massspectroscopy (GC-MS). The results indic...

  16. MANUFACTURING BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON POLYETHYLENE AND FUNCTIONALIZED BY ALCOHOLYSIS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Shabarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The continuous growth of production and consumption of plastic packaging creates a serious problem of disposal of package. This problem has ecological character, because the contents of the landfills decompose for decades, emit toxic com¬pounds and pollute the environment. The work is devoted to obtaining and investigation mechanical and rheological properties of biodegradable composite materials based on polyethylene and starch. Materials and Methods. In this work the author used polyethylene grade HDPE 273- 83 (GOST 16338-85, Sevilen brand 12206-007 (TU 6-05-1636-97 and potato starch (GOST 53876-2010 as a filler. Functionalization of sevilen was carried in the 30 % ethanol solution KOH at a temperature 80 °C during 3 hours. Compounding components was carried out at the laboratory of the two rotary mixer HAAKE PolyLab Rheomix 600 OS with rotors Banbury. Formation of plates for elastic strength and rheological studies were carried out on a hydraulic press Gibitre. Elastic and strength tests were carried out on the tensile machine the UAI-7000 M. Rheology tests were carried out on the rheometer Haake MARS III. The humidity filler (starch authors determined by the thermogravimetric method on the analyzer of moisture “Evlas-2M”. Results. It is shown, that the filler should not contain more than 7% moisture. Functionalization of ethylene with vinyl acetate copolymer (sevilen has performed by the method of alkaline alcoholysis. By the method of IC – spectroscopy the authors confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the polymer. Using as a compatibilizer functionalized by the method of alcoholises has greatly ( significantly improved physical, mechanical and rheological properties of composite materials. Optimal content of sevilen (F in the compound according to the results of experiments amount 10 %. Discussion and Conclusions. Using of functionalized by the method of alcoholysis ethy-lene-vinyl acetate copolymer as a

  17. Nanoscale multilayered and porous carbide interphases prepared by pressure-pulsed reactive chemical vapor deposition for ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S., E-mail: jacques@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr [LCTS, University of Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Herakles-Safran, CEA, 3 allee de la Boetie, F-33600 Pessac (France); Jouanny, I.; Ledain, O.; Maillé, L.; Weisbecker, P. [LCTS, University of Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Herakles-Safran, CEA, 3 allee de la Boetie, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2013-06-15

    In Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) reinforced by continuous fibers, a good toughness is achieved by adding a thin film called “interphase” between the fiber and the brittle matrix, which acts as a mechanical fuse by deflecting the matrix cracks. Pyrocarbon (PyC), with or without carbide sub-layers, is typically the material of choice to fulfill this role. The aim of this work was to study PyC-free nanoscale multilayered carbide coatings as interphases for CMCs. Nanoscale multilayered (SiC–TiC){sub n} interphases were deposited by pressure-Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition (P-CVD) on single filament Hi-Nicalon fibers and embedded in a SiC matrix sheath. The thicknesses of the carbide interphase sub-layers could be made as low as a few nanometers as evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. By using the P-ReactiveCVD method (P-RCVD), in which the TiC growth involves consumption of SiC, it was not only possible to obtain multilayered (SiC–TiC){sub n} films but also TiC films with a porous multilayered microstructure as a result of the Kirkendall effect. The porosity in the TiC sequences was found to be enhanced when some PyC was added to SiC prior to total RCVD consumption. Because the porosity volume fraction was still not high enough, the role of mechanical fuse of the interphases could not be evidenced from the tensile curves, which remained fully linear even when chemical attack of the fiber surface was avoided.

  18. Joining of polymer composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  19. Alteration of the chemical composition of mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa) leaf litter fall by freeze damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William L.; Bowles, Justin W.; Erickson, Amy A.; Stafford, Nate; Bell, Susan S.; Thomas, Melanie

    2006-06-01

    Resorption, the remobilization and subsequent transport of leaf constituents (e.g. N, C, and P) into the perennial structures of the plant prior to leaf abscission, may be interrupted or prevented by stressors that interfere with the normal course of leaf senescence. Mangroves that lie along the latitudinal extremes of their distribution are susceptible to freeze damage that may periodically disrupt the normal resorptive process. On January 24, 2003, the white mangroves ( Laguncularia racemosa) in a northern portion of Tampa Bay, Florida were exposed to freezing temperatures for 8 h. The leaves of these trees were noticeably withered by this freeze event. Over a four-month period following the freeze, we compared the subsequent rate of leaf litter production at this site to that of two, apparently undamaged, fringing mangrove forests in Tampa Bay. We also examined the carbon and nitrogen concentrations of the leaf litter from the litter traps at these three sites and compared it to that of green, yellow (nearly senescent), and freeze-damaged leaves hand-picked from the mangroves. A pronounced pulse of leaf litter fall (maximum: 7 g dw m -2 d -1) was found at the putatively freeze-damaged site but not at the two comparison sites. In addition, the leaf litter at the freeze-damaged site was richer in nitrogen and carbon, and had a lower C:N than litter collected at the comparison sites. Comparison of the elemental composition of this leaf litter with leaves hand-picked from the mangroves suggests that the freeze event killed the leaves of L. racemosa, interrupting the process of resorption. This perturbation to nutrient flow may have implications for mangrove forest structure and the entry of mangrove material into food webs.

  20. Extinction characterization of soot produced by laser ablating carbon fiber composite materials in air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Ma, Zhiliang; Zhang, Zhenrong; Zhou, Menglian; Wei, Chenghua

    2015-05-01

    In order to research the dynamic process of energy coupling between an incident laser and a carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite material, an extinction characterization analysis of soot, which is produced by laser ablating and located in an air flow that is tangential to the surface of the composite material, is carried out. By the theory analyses, a relationship of mass extinction coefficient and extinction cross section of the soot is derived. It is obtained that the mass extinction coefficients of soot aggregates are the same as those of the primary particles when they contain only a few primary particles. This conclusion is significant when the soot is located in an air flow field, where the generations of the big soot aggregates are suppressed. A verification experiment is designed. The experiment employs Laser Induced Incandescence technology and laser extinction method for the soot synchronization diagnosis. It can derive a temporal curve of the mass extinction coefficient from the soot concentration and laser transmittance. The experiment results show that the mass extinction coefficient becomes smaller when the air flow velocity is higher. The reason is due to the decrease of the scatter effects of the soot particles. The experiment results agree with the theory analysis conclusion.

  1. Technologies of bearings systems production from composite materials by polyester resin injection into the closed mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy M. Turenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern technologies for manufacturing components and bearing systems made of composite materials has been conducted. These technologies are based on the polyester resin injection method and do not require high financial costs in manufacturing. The proposed method, due to the low cost of tooling, is convenient to produce a wide range of items made of composite materials, both in large-scale and single-piece production. Composite materials are intensively used in automotive industry, especially for motor racing vehicles’ parts. These technologies allow to solve the problem of creating ultra-light assemblies for modern car bodies, energy-absorbing passive safety elements and other high-loaded parts. They provide better strength and weight characteristics and better specific energy-output ratio of passive safety elements, as compared to conventional materials (metals and plastics. Considering the above, the most appropriate technology for the automotive industry has been assessed with that choice substantiation.

  2. Fatigue Crack and Porosity Measurement in Composite Materials by Thermographic and Ultrasonic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.; Russell, Samuel S.; Suits, Michael W.; Workman, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Purpose. Detect thermo-mechanically induced intra-ply fatigue microcracking and manufactured porosity in unlined composite pressure vessels. 2. Defect descriptions. Porosity, microcracking. 3. Thermography. Overview of technique. Strengths and Weaknesses. Examples of its use for porosity detection. 4. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Overview of technique. Strengths and Weaknesses. Examples of its use for microcracking detection. Conclusions.

  3. Analytical quality control of chemical element contents in human hair determined by INAA, ICP-ES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human hair analysis is often used in studies of exposure of such elements as As, Hg, Pb, Cd and in estimation of nutritional status of many chemical elements too. Estimation of precision and accuracy of analytical determination or chemical element contents in human hair samples by combination of four methods: 1) instrumental neutron activation analysis with registration ol short-lived radionuclides radiations (INAA-SL), 2) instrumental neutron activation analysis with using long-lived radionuclides (INAA-LL), 3) atomic emission spectrometry and 4) mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES and ICP-MS respectively) was made using certified reference materials (CRM) NIES No 13 (human hair, Japan) and GBW09101 (human hair, China) as the subject. For estimation of repeatability of the results 10 samples weighting around 50 mg were Measured by one sample per one labor shift during 10 labor shifts. Two operators carried out the measurements alternately. It was shown that no less than 38 elements were available for analysis in human hair samples by INAA: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, Yb, Zn. For ICP-AES coupled with ICP-MS the maximum available elements were 40: Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, I, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, W, Zn, Zr. All together the complex of four methods allow detect in human hair 58 different elements: Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. However: 1) INAA-SL of single sample with relative uncertainty (determined as ±2 RSD) less than ±10% allows to estimate mass fractions of no one element; within range from ±10% to <±20% - only Cl; within range

  4. Chemical modifiers in arsenic determination in biological materials by tungsten coil electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Huerta, V.N.; Neira, J.Y. [Departamento de Analisis Instrumental, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 237, Concepcion (Chile)

    2004-01-01

    Palladium, iridium, and rhodium are evaluated as possible chemical modifiers in the determination of As in digest solutions of biological materials (human hair and clam) by tungsten coil electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (TCA-AAS). The modifier in solution was applied onto the coil and thermally pre-reduced; the pre-reduction conditions, the amount of modifier, and the thermal program were optimized. Palladium was not satisfactory, whereas Ir and Rh were effective modifiers and rendered better relative sensitivity for As by a factor of 1.4 and 1.9, respectively compared to the case without modifier. Upon optimization of thermal conditions for As in pre-reduced Ir (2.0 {mu}g) and Rh (2.0 {mu}g) modifiers and in the digest solutions of the study matrices, Rh (2.0 {mu}g) was more effective modifier and was selected as such. The mean within-day repeatability was 2.8% in consecutive measurements (25-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}) (3 cycles, each of n=6) and confirmed good short-term stability of the absorbance measurements. The mean reproducibility was 4.4% (n=20 in a 3-day period) and the detection limit (3{sigma}{sub blank}/slope) was 29 pg (n=15). The useful coil lifetime in Rh modifier was extended to 300-400 firings. Validation was by determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of ''Oyster tissue'' solution with a percentage relative error (E{sub rel}%) of 2% and percentage relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 3% (n=4), and by analytical recovery of As spiked in CRM of human hair [94{+-}8% (n=4)]. The methodology is simple, fast (sample readout frequency 21 h{sup -1}), reliable, of low cost, and was applied to the determination of As in hair samples of exposed and unexposed workers. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of the possibility of determining the internal structure of composite material by estimating its thermal diffusivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kucypera Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is analysis of the possibility of determining the internal structure of the fibrous composite material by estimating its thermal diffusivity. A thermal diffusivity of the composite material was determined by applying inverse heat conduction method and measurement data. The idea of the proposed method depends on measuring the timedependent temperature distribution at selected points of the sample and identification of the thermal diffusivity by solving a transient inverse...

  6. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  7. Chemical Reaction of In-situ Processing of NiAl/Al2O3 Composite by Using Thermite Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yin; FAN Xiaonan; ZHANG Mingxu; QIN Xiaoying

    2005-01-01

    NiAl / Al2O3 composite were synthesized by thermite reaction of nickel oxide and aluminum powder mixtures. The phase, the microstructure of the composite, as well as the thermite reaction mechanism, were investigated by X-ray diffractometry ( XRD ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC). The experimental results show that the thermite reaction leads to the interpenetrating network structure of NiAl/Al2O3 at 1223K for 60min and the chemical reaction apparent activation energy is Eap = 166.960± 13.496 kJ· mol-1 in the NiO/Al system.

  8. Material Modelling - Composite Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus......, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar...... and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations...

  9. Composite materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Daniel; Tsai, Stephen W

    2002-01-01

    PART ONE. PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTIONCOMPOSITE MATERIALS, INTEREST AND PROPERTIESWhat is Composite Material Fibers and MatrixWhat can be Made Using Composite Materials?Typical Examples of Interest on the Use of Composite MaterialsExamples on Replacing Conventional Solutions with CompositesPrincipal Physical PropertiesFABRICATION PROCESSESMolding ProcessesOther Forming ProcessesPractical Hints in the Manufacturing ProcessesPLY PROPERTIESIsotropy and AnisotropyCharacteristics of the Reinforcement-Matrix MixtureUnidirectional PlyWoven FabricsMats and Reinforced MatricesMultidimensional FabricsMetal Matrix CompositesTestsSANDWICH STRUCTURES:What is a Sandwich Structure?Simplified FlexureA Few Special AspectsFabrication and Design ProblemsNondestructive Quality ControlCONCEPTION AND DESIGNDesign of a Composite PieceThe LaminateFailure of LaminatesSizing of LaminatesJOINING AND ASSEMBLYRiveting and BoltingBondingInsertsCOMPOSITE MATERIALS AND AEROSPACE CONSTRUCTIONAircraftHelicoptersPropeller Blades for AirplanesTur...

  10. Spectral Analysis by XANES Reveals that GPNMB Influences the Chemical Composition of Intact Melanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Haraszti; C Trantow; A Hedberg-Buenz; M Grunze; M Anderson

    2011-12-31

    GPNMB is a unique melanosomal protein. Unlike many melanosomal proteins, GPNMB has not been associated with any forms of albinism, and it is unclear whether GPNMB has any direct influence on melanosomes. Here, melanosomes from congenic strains of C57BL/6J mice mutant for Gpnmb are compared to strain-matched controls using standard transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (XANES). Whereas electron microscopy did not detect any ultrastructural changes in melanosomes lacking functional GPNMB, XANES uncovered multiple spectral phenotypes. These results directly demonstrate that GPNMB influences the chemical composition of melanosomes and more broadly illustrate the potential for using genetic approaches in combination with nano-imaging technologies to study organelle biology.

  11. Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioud, Youcef A.; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Belarouci, Ali; Paradis, Etienne; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We have performed a detailed characterization study of electrochemically etched p-type GaAs in a hydrofluoric acid-based electrolyte. The samples were investigated and characterized through cathodoluminescence (CL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that after electrochemical etching, the porous layer showed a major decrease in the CL intensity and a change in chemical composition and in the crystalline phase. Contrary to previous reports on p-GaAs porosification, which stated that the formed layer is composed of porous GaAs, we report evidence that the porous layer is in fact mainly constituted of porous As2O3. Finally, a qualitative model is proposed to explain the porous As2O3 layer formation on p-GaAs substrate.

  12. Experimental study on long-term stability of bentonite. Influence of hyperalkaline pore water generated by the chemical reaction of cementitious material and saline groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineered barrier system (EBS) in the geological disposal of TRU waste is composed of bentonite and cementitious materials. The montmorillonite component of bentonite is, however, not chemically compatible with the high pH leachates derived from cementitious materials and may alter to a more stable secondary mineral assemblage. Previous research for TRU waste disposal has focused on the alteration behavior of bentonite in leachates from cementitious materials exposed to fresh groundwater. If the EBS is located in the coastal region, then the leachates will instead be derived from the interaction of cementitious materials and saline groundwater. This has important implications for the alteration of bentonite because the likely difference in the chemical composition of the leachate will influence the dissolution rate of montmorillonite and the composition of the secondary mineral assemblage. At present, these processes are not well understood. The focus of the present study was to examine the alteration of bentonite in high pH saline groundwaters. Two solutions were used in batch immersion experiments of bentonite. The first solution was prepared using a mixture of NaOH and NaCl (NN), and the second solution was prepared using synthetic Region 1 water (high K and Na content) and synthetic seawater (SR). Analysis showed that bentonite altered to analcime in the NN solution and to analcime and phillipsite-K in the SR solution. Moreover, the generation of calcium silicate hydrate and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate were extrapolated in the SR solution based on the concentrations of dissolved species. These alteration products were in accord with Oda et al.(2005), who summarized the possible relationships between the secondary mineral assemblage of bentonite under high pH conditions and the influence of solution composition. (author)

  13. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  14. Chemical composition, morphology and optical properties of zinc sulfide coatings deposited by low-energy electron beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research determines the features of formation, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the coatings deposited by the method, proposed for the first time, of the exposure of mechanical mixture of zinc and sulfur powders to low-energy electron beam evaporation. The findings show that the deposited coatings are characterized by high chemical and structural homogeneity in thickness. The study considers the influence of substrate temperature and thickness of the deposited layer on the morphology and the width of the formed ZnS thin layers band gap. Also was shown the possibility to form ZnS coatings with this method using the mixture of zinc and copper sulfide powders.

  15. Chemical composition, morphology and optical properties of zinc sulfide coatings deposited by low-energy electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragachev, A.V. [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Yarmolenko, M.A., E-mail: simmak79@mail.ru [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Rogachev, A.A. [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Gorbachev, D.L. [Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Zhou, Bing [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The research determines the features of formation, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the coatings deposited by the method, proposed for the first time, of the exposure of mechanical mixture of zinc and sulfur powders to low-energy electron beam evaporation. The findings show that the deposited coatings are characterized by high chemical and structural homogeneity in thickness. The study considers the influence of substrate temperature and thickness of the deposited layer on the morphology and the width of the formed ZnS thin layers band gap. Also was shown the possibility to form ZnS coatings with this method using the mixture of zinc and copper sulfide powders.

  16. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  17. Mineralogical, chemical and physical study of potential buffer and backfill materials from ABM. Test Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. (B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-07-15

    In the ABM experiment, three test packages with centre steel heaters surrounded by stacks of compacted bentonite rings of various clay materials were placed in boreholes in Aespoe tunnel. The first parcel was saturated with Aespoe groundwater and the heater was turned on simultaneously with the start of saturation. This parcel was excavated 30 months after its installation. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the MX-80, Dep-CaN, Asha and Friedland clay samples from the ABM parcel 1 were analysed and compared to reference samples. Chemical analyses (ICP-AES, C, CO{sub 3}, S, water soluble SO{sub 4}, Fe2+/Fe3+), exchangeable cation analyses, mineralogical analyses (XRD, FTIR) and selective extractions were used to determine changes in the chemistry and mineralogy of ABM materials. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed both for extracted samples and for ground and recompacted samples. Major changes in exchangeable cation composition were observed in all samples originating from equilibration with Aespoe groundwater and interactions with equilibrated waters from neighbouring block materials. Some minor changes in chemical composition were observed as well. Increases in soluble sulphate content in the vicinity of the heater were thought to result from precipitation of sulphate salts. Decreases in sodium content and increases in calcium content were ascribed to changes in exchangeable cations. Interaction with iron was observed to occur only in the close vicinity (first few mm) of the heater. No significantly measureable change in mineralogical composition was seen in any of the studied materials. Extracted Dep-CaN samples showed a slight decrease in swelling pressure. However, when the material was ground, compacted and measured again the swelling pressure was fully recovered. No related change in hydraulic conductivities was observed. (orig.)

  18. Mechanical and microstructure of reinforced hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate nano-composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nano sized of HA and CS powders were prepared. ► Mechanical of HACS composites enhanced with content of CS. ► The apatite formation onto the composites is proved. -- Abstract: In this study, the nano sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium silicate (CS) powders prepared by both chemical precipitation and sol–gel methods respectively. Biphasic nano-composites materials containing different ratios of HA and CS were fabricated and assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared reflectance (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of variation of ratios between HA and CS on mechanical properties, microstructure and in vitro study was studied. The results proved that the mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing the CS ratio in the composite. In vitro study proved the formation and nucleation of apatite onto composites surfaces which contain low content of CS after one week of immersion. Finally, it is concluded that the HACS composites containing high HA content at the expense of CS content will be promising for bone substitute’s applications, especially in load bearing sites.

  19. Chemical Compatibility of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solen, Kenneth A.; Kuchar, Marvin C.

    1990-01-01

    Presents some principles for specifying general classes of polymers for predicting relative chemical attack from acids, bases, oxidants, and certain common antagonists. Also discusses predicting relative solvent effects. Suggests uses of this information in two or three lectures in a chemical engineering materials course. (YP)

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton extracts obtained by pressurized CO2 extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaylise Vey Parodi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition of five different extracts of Aloysia triphylla and their activity against Aeromonas sp. The extracts were obtained from the dried leaves by pressurized CO2 extraction at 30, 50 and 70ºC, and 100, 150, and 200 bar, and analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS. The antibacterial activity was assayed by the microdilution method. The tested microorganisms comprised seven Aeromonas isolates obtained from the kidney of infected silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. The yield, chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the extracts were dependent on the extraction conditions. Mono and sesquiterpenoids were the major constituents of all the extracts and the highest extraction yield was obtained at 70ºC and 200 bar. A. triphylla presented moderate antibacterial activity against Aeromonas sp.

  1. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  2. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  3. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  4. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  5. Creation of composite materials by the method of hot rolling in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of dislocation hypothesis of welding of heterogeneous materials in solid phase mechanisms occurring on hot rolling in vacuum are described. It is shown that on welding of materials in solid phase redistribution of atoms from one material into another occurs on boundary of joining. On the base of calculated and experimental results it was concluded that the strength limit of joining boundary is higher than the strength limit of less strength material. Compositions zirconium-stainless steel and steel-20-stainless steel used in nuclear power are investigated

  6. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  7. Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased

  8. Nanocellulose reinforced chitosan composite films as affected by nanofiller loading and plasticizer content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin, produced from shellfish waste, which may be employed to elaborate edible films or coatings to enhance shelf life of food products. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nanofiller (cellulose nan...

  9. Chemical Composition by Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) of Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware from Iraq, Syria and Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Alice M W; Johannes H Sterba

    2013-01-01

    Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware is an 8th-7th century B.C.E. fine-ware which originated in Northern Mesopotamia and spread throughout the greater Levant. The mechanism by which Palace Ware moved across the Neo-Assyrian imperial landscape (trade or local imitation/emulation) is of great archaeological interest. This dataset provides chemical compositional data, generated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), for Palace Ware vessels from Nimrud and Nineveh, in the Assyrian imperial co...

  10. Measuring chemical composition and particle cross-section of ultra-high energy cosmic rays by a ground radio array

    CERN Document Server

    Belov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique to measure chemical composition and particle cross-section of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using radio data. We relate the geometry of the radio footprint on the ground to the depth of the extensive air shower maximum. We suggest to use the spectral information of the radio signal to improve the shower maximum reconstruction by minimum number of antennas on the ground.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effects of

    OpenAIRE

    SS Saei Dehkordi; H Tajik; Moradi, M; A Jafari Dehkordi; Ghasemi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis L. as a member of the Lamiaceae family and lysozyme as a natural antibacterial agent is important in food microbiology, because of its characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and anti-listerial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (REO) alone and in combination with lysozyme for enhancement of anti-listerial activity of both substances. Materials & Methods: Rosmarinus officinalis ...

  12. Compositional and physico-optical characterization of 0-5% Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R; Lopez-Ibanez, R; Ramos-Barrado, J R; Martin, F; Leinen, D [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I and Dpto. IngenierIa Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, E A, E-mail: dietmar@uma.e [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de IngenierIa, Universidad de la Republica, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-03-10

    Highly transparent polycrystalline Al-doped ZnO thin films were deposited in open atmosphere by chemical spray pyrolysis on fused silica and glass substrates at 623 K. The influence of Al doping, 0 to 5%, was studied. XPS results revealed a linear relationship between Al content in the precursor solutions and Al content in the films. XPS depth profiling showed that any carbon contamination is restricted to the uppermost surface of the films. Optical transmission measurements revealed an increasing number of dispersion centres as well as a band gap shift to higher values with increasing Al content in the films. At fixed Al concentration, the comparison of the absorption coefficient for increasing film thickness showed that the films are very homogeneous, not changing their materials properties such as absorption coefficient and band gap.

  13. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zheng, Shuilin [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L. [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Xi, Yunfei, E-mail: y.xi@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were deposited onto acid-leached diatomite through centrifugation or rotary evaporation. The synthesis schematic diagram and morphology of the prepared nZVI/diatomite composites are shown in the illustration. The removal efficiency for herbicide simazine by nZVI/diatomite composites was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and the commercial iron powder. -- Highlights: • Diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite was synthesised. • The obtained composites were characterised by XRD, SEM–EDS, TEM and XPS. • The removal efficiency for simazine in water were studied. • The prepared composite showed potential prospects in environmental remediation. -- Abstract: A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero

  14. Growth of AlGaN Epitaxial Film with High Al Content by Metalorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Lan; ZHAO De-Gang; YANG Hui; LIANG Jun-Wu

    2007-01-01

    A high-Al-content AlCaN epilayer is grown on a low-temperature-deposited AlN buffer on (0001) sapphire bylow pressure metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. The dependence of surface roughness, tilted mosaicity,and twisted mosaicity on the conditions of the AlCaN epilayer deposition is evaluated. An AlCaN epilayer withfavourable surface morphology and crystal quality is deposited on a 20nm low-temperature-deposited AlN buffer at a low Ⅴ/Ⅲ flow ratio of 783 and at a low reactor pressure of 100 Torr, and the adduct reaction between trimethylaluminium and NH3 is considered.

  15. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found (p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength

  16. Composite Materials in Overhead Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The use of composite materials, e.g. fibreglass materials, in overhead transmission line systems is nothing new. Composite based insulators have been applied to transmission lines for over 30 years, mainly as suspension and post insulators and often as an option for special applications. Also...... towers and recently conductors based on composite materials are available at transmission levels. In this paper it is investigated which composite based solutions are available in connection with complete overhead line systems including insulators, towers and conductors. The components are reviewed...... with respect to solved and persisting known failures/problems of both mechanical and electrical nature. Major challenges related to extensive use of composite materials in an overhead line system are identified, as are possible benefits - both when using standard as well as customised composite components, e...

  17. Improve the physical and chemical properties of biocompatible polymer material by MeV He ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a high interest in improving the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces due to their wide use for technological purposes. In this study Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) as a biocompatible material was bombarded with 1 MeV He ions to the fluences ranging from 1×1013 to 5×1014 cm−2. The pristine and ion beam modified samples were investigated by photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The changes of wettability and surface free energy were determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results showed that the ion bombardment induced decrease in integrated luminescence intensity and decrease in the transmittance with increase of ion fluence as well. This is might be attributed to degradation of polymer surface and/or creation of new electronic levels in the forbidden gap. The FTIR spectral studies indicate that the ion beam induces chemical modifications within the bombarded UHMWPE. Formation of carbonyl groups (C=O) on the polymer surface was studied. Direct relationship of the wettability and surface free energy of the bombarded polymer with the ion fluences was observed. - Highlights: ► Effect of 1 MeV He-ion bombardment on the surface properties of UHMWPE was studied. ► Change in the surface layer composition of UHMWPE due ion beam has been investigated. ► Ion beam bombardment improves the surface free energy of UHMWPE.

  18. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing. (paper)

  19. Research on toughening mechanisms of alumina matrix ceramic composite materials improved by rare earth additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xihua; LIU Changxia; LI Musen; ZHANG Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Mixed rare earth elements were incorporated into alumina ceramic materials. Hot-pressing was used to fabricate alumina matrix composites in nitrogen atmosphere protection. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the composites were tested. It was indicated that the bending strength and fracture toughness of alumina matrix ceramic composites sintered at 1550℃ and 28 Mpa for 30 min were improved evidently. Besides mixed rare earth elements acting as a toughening phase, AlTiC master alloys were also added in as sintering assistants, which could prompt the formation of transient liquid phase, and thus nitrides of rare earth elements were produced. All of the above were beneficial for improving the mechanical properties of alumina matrix ceramic composites.

  20. Cometary coma chemical composition (C4) mission. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.; Clark, B. C.; Niemann, H. B.; Alexander, M.; Knocke, P. C.; O'Hara, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary missions are of enormous fundamental importance for many different space science disciplines, including exobiology. Comets are presumed relics of the earliest, most primitive material in the solar nebula and are related to the planetesimals. They undoubtedly provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system (contributing to atmospheres and oceans) and may have been key to the origin of life. A Discovery class, comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, was selected for further study by NASA earlier this year. The C4 Mission is a highly focused and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission, concentrating exclusively on measurements which will lead to an understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. The scientific goals of the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission are to rendezvous with a short-period comet and (1) to determine the elemental, chemical, and isotopic composition of the nucleus and (2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. Further, it is a goal to obtain preliminary data on the development of the coma (dust and gas composition) as a function of time and orbital position.

  1. Effects of activated carbon characteristics on the electrosorption capacity of titanium dioxide/activated carbon composite electrode materials prepared by a microwave-assisted ionothermal synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-I; Chung, Li-Ching; Ho, Chia-Hua; Shao, Hsin; Liang, Teh-Ming; Horng, Ren-Yang; Chang, Min-Chao; Ma, Chen-Chi M

    2015-05-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2)/ activated carbon (AC) composite materials, as capacitive deionization electrodes, were prepared by a two-step microwave-assisted ionothermal synthesis method. The electrosorption capacity of the composite electrodes was studied and the effects of AC characteristics were explored. These effects were investigated by multiple analytical techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, etc. The experimental results indicated that the electrosorption capacity of the TiO2/AC composite electrode is dependent on the characteristics of AC including the pore structure and the surface property. An enhancement in electrosorption capacity was observed for the TiO2/AC composite electrode prepared from the AC with higher mesopore content and less hydrophilic surface. This enhancement is due to the deposition of anatase TiO2 with suitable amount of Ti-OH. On the other hand, a decline in electrosorption capacity was observed for the TiO2/AC composite electrode prepared from the AC with higher micropore content and highly hydrophilic surface. High content of hydrogen bond complex formed between the functional group on hydrophilic surface with H2O, which will slow down the TiO2 precursor-H2O reaction. In such situation, the effect of TiO2 becomes unfavorable as the loading amount of TiO2 is less and the micropore can also be blocked. PMID:25576198

  2. Measuring Stress Distributions of Orthotropic Composite Material in Plane Stress State by the Lock-in Infrared Thermography Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Dong; WANG Wei-Bo; LI Yong-Sheng; WU Dong-Liu

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of measuring stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state by the lock-in infrared thermography technique is analyzed and stress distributions of a lap joint structure made of a kind of glass reinforced plastic composite lamination plates under tensile loadings are obtained by the lock-in infrared thermography technique. Feasibility and credibility of using this technique to measure stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state are proved by comparing the results with the data given by the digital speckle correlation method.%@@ Feasibility of measuring stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state by the lock-in infrared thermography technique is analyzed and stress distributions of a lap joint structure made of a kind of glass reinforced plastic composite lamination plates under tensile loadings axe obtained by the lock-in infrared thermography technique.Feasibility and credibility of using this technique to measure stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state axe proved by comparing the results with the data given by the digital speckle correlation method.

  3. Simultaneous determination of seven bioactive components in Oolong tea Camellia sinensis: quality control by chemical composition and HPLC fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Qian; Li, Yujiao; Ling, Junhong; Liu, Lili; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-01-11

    A simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the quality control of oolong tea (the dry leaves of Camellia sinensis ): the quality control included the HPLC fingerprint and the quantitative determination of seven bioactive compounds chemicals, namely, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin gallate. The developed analyses of the chemicals excelled in quantifying the chemicals in oolong tea. The chemical fingerprint of oolong tea was established using the raw materials of three main production sites in China, that is, Fujian (southern and northern parts), Taiwan, and Guangdong. The fingerprints from different cultivated sources were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis, similarity analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and discriminant analysis. The results indicated that the combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantification analysEs could be used for the quality assessment of oolong tea and its derived products. PMID:22098505

  4. Elution of Monomers from Provisional Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Daniel Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of substances from different materials used for the manufacturing of temporary indirect restorations, after storage in saliva and ethanol 75%. 10 samples of three chemically cured materials (Protemp 3 Garant, Systemp.c&b, and Trim and one light-cured material (Clip F were stored in saliva and ethanol 75% for 24 h, 7, and days 28 days. From the storage media at each time period, samples were prepared and analysed by LC-MS/MS, in order to access the elution of monomers. The results differed among the materials (P ≤ 0.05. No monomers were detected in the samples of Protemp 3 Garant and Clip F. Substances were detected only in ethanol samples of Systemp.c&b and Trim. The amount of BisGMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA 2 released from Systemp.c&b was higher compared to Trim. Storage time affected the release of substances (P ≤ 0.05. The highest release was observed within the first 24 h. It can be concluded that provisional resin composite materials do not show high release of monomers and this release is material dependent. However, the detection of additional peaks during the analysis, suggesting the formation of by-products of the eluted substances, may not be in favour of these materials with respect to their toxicity.

  5. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  6. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    . For example, the Sb content in PET packaging was 250-270 mg/kgTS. In some cases metal contents in source-segregated fractions were higher than in the respective fractions from residual waste. Rare earth elements (RRE) were quantified in all analyzed material fractions and considerably high concentrations (e...... affect the element content resulting from chemical analysis. Although the suitability of standardized HF-containing methods can be generally confirmed, these methods led to considerable underestimations of the element content for some combinations of element and waste material. Appropriate selection...... of acid digestion methods thus needs to take the waste material and the elements to be analyzed into account. The dataset obtained during this PhD project provides information on the performance for six relevant acid mixtures for nine different waste material fractions and 64 elements and can support...

  7. Effect of CNTs content on mechanical properties of CNTs/Al5083 composite materials%CNTs含量对CNTs/Al5083复合材料力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铮; 蔡晓兰; 周蕾; 易峰; 余明俊

    2015-01-01

    利用高能球磨和冷压烧结工艺制备出碳纳米管( CNTs)增强Al5083复合材料,并对球磨过程中CNTs的演变及成型后复合材料的力学性能和形貌进行研究。结果表明,在球磨过程中,通过机械力的作用下带动钢球将CNTs切断,长径比变小,并均匀地分散在Al基体中;在CNTs含量为2%下,复合材料抗拉强度和屈服强度分别达到294和239 MPa,硬度达到95 HV5,复合材料的力学性能最好。通过观察复合材料的断口,随着碳纳米管含量的增加,复合材料的断口形貌从韧性断裂向脆性断裂转变。%The composite materials of carbon nanotubes ( CNTs )/Al5083 were fabricated by high-energy ball milling and cold press-sintering.The evolution of the CNTs and the mechanical properties of the composite materials were investigated.The results show that, during process of milling, CNTs are broken and length-diameter ratio reduces.It randomly and uniformly disperses in the aluminum matrix. The composite materials reach tensile strength of 294 MPa, yield strength of 239 MPa and Vickers hardness of 95 HV5 when the addition of CNTs is 2%.In this condition, the composite materials show the best mechanical properties.With the increase of the content of carbon nanotubes, the type of the fracture of the composite materials is from ductile fracture to brittle fracture.

  8. Schima superba outperforms other tree species by changing foliar chemical composition and shortening construction payback time when facilitated by shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo; Hai Ren; Zhongyu Sun

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year field experiment was conducted in a subtropical degraded shrubland to assess how a nurse plant, the native shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, affects the growth of the target trees Pinus elliottii, Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, and Michelia macclurei, and to probe the intrinsic mechanisms from leaf chemical composition, construction cost (CC), and payback time aspects. We compared tree seedlings grown nearby shrub canopy (canopy subplots, CS) and in open space (open subplots, OS). S...

  9. Influence of Al content on textural properties and catalytic activity of hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ling Xu; Limei Duan; Zongrui Liu; Jingqi Guan; Qiubin Kan

    2013-12-01

    A series of hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials were prepared using hydrothermal treatment of the composite formed by polystyrene colloidal spheres and aluminosilicate gel. Influence of Al content on the textural properties, acidic properties and catalytic activity of the hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials was studied. The results showed that textural and acidic properties of the hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials were strongly related to Al content. As Al content is increased (Si/Al = 25), the hierarchical porous catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and major product selectivity for alkylation of phenol with tert-butanol than the catalysts with a lower Al content (Si/Al = 50).

  10. Study of the moisture content gradient in a cementitious material by measuring its impedance and gamma-densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilbaud, J. P.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The local water content in cementitious material depends on the equilibrium between its atmospheric environment and its bulk properties. So, the moisture profile in material can vary with time. The object of this study is to follow the change of this profile by measuring the electrical impedance of the material with pairs of small wires embedded at different depths. This method was applied to young cement paste specimens. The results obtained show that this method is quite satisfactory. The best frequency to be applied, is about 50 or 100 Hz. These results were compared with those obtained with gamma-densitometry.

    El agua contenida en los materiales en base cemento depende del equilibrio entre la atmósfera que le rodea y las propiedades de la matriz sólida. Por lo tanto el perfil de humedad en los materiales puede variar con el tiempo. La finalidad de este estudio es seguir los cambios en dicho perfil, a través de la medición de la impedancia eléctrica del material con varios pares de pequeños conductores situados a diferentes profundidadades. Este sistema se aplicó a diversas muestras de pasta de cemento Jóvenes. Los resultados obtenidos nos hacen ver que el método es satisfactorio, debiendo aplicarse a una frecuencia de 50 a 100 Hz. Dichos resultados se compararon con los obtenidos a través de la gammadensitometría.

  11. Enhanced toughness and stable crack propagation in a novel tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite produced by chemical vapour infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.

    2014-04-01

    Tungsten is a promising candidate for the plasma-facing components of a future fusion reactor, but its use is strongly restricted by its inherent brittleness. An innovative concept to overcome this problem is tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite. In this paper we present the first mechanical test of such a composite material using a sample containing multiple fibres. The in situ fracture experiment was performed in a scanning electron microscope for close observation of the propagating crack. Stable crack propagation accompanied with rising load bearing capacity is observed. The fracture toughness is estimated using the test results and the surface observation.

  12. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  13. Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Gao; Fenghui Li; Jie Tan; Jingping Yan; Huiling Sun

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±...

  14. An overview of recent development in composite catalysts from porous materials for various reactions and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zaiku; Liu, Zhicheng; Wang, Yangdong; Yang, Qihua; Xu, Longya; Ding, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT), etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts. PMID:20559508

  15. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  16. Evaluation of residual stresses in composite materials by using neutron diffraction; study of elasto-plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the study of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) using neutrons diffraction method and the analysis of the elastoplastic behavior in such materials. First, we evaluated macro-stresses in aluminium MMC reinforced with 17%vol. of SiC particles. One of the analyzed sample has been 4 point bending deformed, measurements have been performed after relaxation. The difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion constrains the matrix to be in tensile state and the particles in compressive state in the sample which has not be deformed. In the sample deformed, the MMC response is predicted by the science of Resistance Materials applied to a bent bar. We assume that macro-stresses are the sum of stresses with different origins (elastic, plastic, thermal mismatch): elastic mismatch is evaluated by Eshelby model and we determined micro-stresses in the unbent bar: they are equivalent and constant along width direction. For the bent bar, we observe relaxation of thermal stresses in the surface region. Theses results are confirmed by measurements of tensile/compressive sample using neutrons diffraction method. We also observed the influence of mechanical and thermal treatment on such MMC: the shear stress (established by the auto-coherent model) depends only on the way of cooling. Finally, a study was performed on titanium MMC for SNECMA on rotor beings used in the gas turbine engine industry. Evolution of stresses between felloe and boring is confirmed by a finite elements modeling and they are the first experimental results in this application. (author)

  17. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y.; Dou, Y.; Zhao, D.; Fulvio, P. F.; Mayes, R. T.; Dai, S.

    2011-09-26

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  18. Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yunpu; Zhao, Dongyuan [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of the Chinese, Ministry of Education, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Dou, Yuqian [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China); Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-11-09

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-10-01

    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  20. High-Frequency EMI Noise Suppression by Polymer-Based Composite Magnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex permeability and EM-wave absorption properties of hybrid polymer-based composite magneticmaterials (with MnZn and LiZn ferrite fillers and PVC matrix prepared with constant total filler content (65 vol% andparticle size (0-250 mm have been investigated in the 1-1000 MHz frequency range. Within this filler concentrationthe permeability of composites changed continuously with the change of ferrite filler content ratio between two types offerrite fillers. The observed relaxation type of permeability dispersion was due to the domain wall and natural ferromagneticresonance phenomena and was also attributed to the high damping of spin motion. Measured values of permeability wereused to determine the EM-wave absorption properties (return loss RL, matching frequency fm, matching thickness dm andbandwidth Df for RL £ -20 dB. The calculation of these properties was based on a model of single-layered absorber backedby a perfect conductor using transmission-line and EM-field theory. The composite with the volume fraction ratio of hybridMnZn:LiZn ferrite filler set to 0.5:0.5 has shown a return loss of -57 dB (> 99 % power absorption at fm = 714 MHz with the-20 dB bandwidth of Df = 232 MHz for an absorber thickness of 7.79 mm.

  1. Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jong-Ah; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A family of aerogel-matrix composite materials having thermal-stability and mechanical- integrity properties better than those of neat aerogels has been developed. Aerogels are known to be excellent thermal- and acoustic-insulation materials because of their molecular-scale porosity, but heretofore, the use of aerogels has been inhibited by two factors: (1) Their brittleness makes processing and handling difficult. (2) They shrink during production and shrink more when heated to high temperatures during use. The shrinkage and the consequent cracking make it difficult to use them to encapsulate objects in thermal-insulation materials. The underlying concept of aerogel-matrix composites is not new; the novelty of the present family of materials lies in formulations and processes that result in superior properties, which include (1) much less shrinkage during a supercritical-drying process employed in producing a typical aerogel, (2) much less shrinkage during exposure to high temperatures, and (3) as a result of the reduction in shrinkage, much less or even no cracking.

  2. Nanoparticulate cerium dioxide and cerium dioxide-titanium dioxide composite thin films on glass by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of composite thin films were deposited on glass by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD)-nanoparticulate cerium dioxide and nanoparticulate cerium dioxide embedded in a titanium dioxide matrix. The films were analysed by a range of techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays. The AACVD prepared films showed the functional properties of photocatalysis and super-hydrophilicity. The CeO2 nanoparticle thin films displaying photocatalysis and photo-induced hydrophilicity almost comparable to that of anatase titania.

  3. Biocidal Silver and Silver/Titania Composite Films Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Sheel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the growth and testing of highly active biocidal films based on photocatalytically active films of TiO2, grown by thermal CVD, functionally and structurally modified by deposition of nanostructured silver via a novel flame assisted combination CVD process. The resulting composite films are shown to be highly durable, highly photocatalytically active and are also shown to possess strong antibacterial behaviour. The deposition control, arising from the described approach, offers the potential to control the film nanostructure, which is proposed to be crucial in determining the photo and bioactivity of the combined film structure, and the transparency of the composite films. Furthermore, we show that the resultant films are active to a range of organisms, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and viruses. The very high-biocidal activity is above that expected from the concentrations of silver present, and this is discussed in terms of nanostructure of the titania/silver surface. These properties are especially significant when combined with the well-known durability of CVD deposited thin films, offering new opportunities for enhanced application in areas where biocidal surface functionality is sought.

  4. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  5. Cell Attachment to Hydrogel-Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica O. Winter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, electrospun fiber mats (EFMs, and their composites have been extensively studied for tissue engineering because of their physical and chemical similarity to native biological systems. However, while chemically similar, hydrogels and electrospun fiber mats display very different topographical features. Here, we examine the influence of surface topography and composition of hydrogels, EFMs, and hydrogel-EFM composites on cell behavior. Materials studied were composed of synthetic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PEGPCL hydrogels and electrospun poly(caprolactone (PCL and core/shell PCL/PEGPCL constituent materials. The number of adherent cells and cell circularity were most strongly influenced by the fibrous nature of materials (e.g., topography, whereas cell spreading was more strongly influenced by material composition (e.g., chemistry. These results suggest that cell attachment and proliferation to hydrogel-EFM composites can be tuned by varying these properties to provide important insights for the future design of such composite materials.

  6. Fatigue in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The deformation and failure behavior of graphite/epoxy tubes under biaxial loading was investigated. The increase of basic understanding of and provide design information for the bi-axial response of graphite/epoxy composites to fatigue loads are considered.

  7. Contributions regarding chemical composition variation in ultrasonic field overlaying welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amza, Gh; Petrescu, V.; Niţoi, D. F.; Amza, C. Gh; Dimitrescu, A.; Apostolescu, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents a new reconditioning method based on ultrasonic field and analyses the modificated structure composition in three zone: filler material, thermal influenced zone, and base material. Also, chemical composition variation as a result of ultrasonic wave influence is studied besides the ultrasonic wave influence on dilution process.

  8. Biosorption of copper by marine algae Gelidium and algal composite material in a packed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Loureiro, José M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-09-01

    Marine algae Gelidium and algal composite material were investigated for the continuous removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution in a packed bed column. The biosorption behaviour was studied during one sorption-desorption cycle of Cu(II) in the flow through column fed with 50 and 25 mg l(-1) of Cu(II) in aqueous solution, at pH 5.3, leading to a maximum uptake capacity of approximately 13 and 3 mg g(-1), respectively, for algae Gelidium and composite material. The breakthrough time decreases as the inlet copper concentration increases, for the same flow rate. The pH of the effluent decreases over the breakthrough time of copper ions, which indicates that ion exchange is one of the mechanisms involved in the biosorption process. Temperature has little influence on the metal uptake capacity and the increase of the ionic strength reduces the sorption capacity, decreasing the breakthrough time. Desorption using 0.1M HNO(3) solution was 100% effective. After two consecutive sorption-desorption cycles no changes in the uptake capacity of the composite material were observed. A mass transfer model including film and intraparticle resistances, and the equilibrium relationship, for adsorption and desorption, was successfully applied for the simulation of the biosorption column performance. PMID:18053711

  9. Biosorption of copper by marine algae Gelidium and algal composite material in a packed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Loureiro, José M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-09-01

    Marine algae Gelidium and algal composite material were investigated for the continuous removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution in a packed bed column. The biosorption behaviour was studied during one sorption-desorption cycle of Cu(II) in the flow through column fed with 50 and 25 mg l(-1) of Cu(II) in aqueous solution, at pH 5.3, leading to a maximum uptake capacity of approximately 13 and 3 mg g(-1), respectively, for algae Gelidium and composite material. The breakthrough time decreases as the inlet copper concentration increases, for the same flow rate. The pH of the effluent decreases over the breakthrough time of copper ions, which indicates that ion exchange is one of the mechanisms involved in the biosorption process. Temperature has little influence on the metal uptake capacity and the increase of the ionic strength reduces the sorption capacity, decreasing the breakthrough time. Desorption using 0.1M HNO(3) solution was 100% effective. After two consecutive sorption-desorption cycles no changes in the uptake capacity of the composite material were observed. A mass transfer model including film and intraparticle resistances, and the equilibrium relationship, for adsorption and desorption, was successfully applied for the simulation of the biosorption column performance.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Walnut Pollen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina COSMULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of pollen is highly varied depending on the plant species from which it comes and has been the subject of numerous comparative studies. The aim of this study was to determine chemical composition and antioxidant activity of walnut pollen samples and compare them with those of bee pollen. Total phenols content, total flavonoids content, antioxidant activity and mineral composition were studied using walnut pollen samples from three walnut genotypes cultivated in Romania. Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount varied between 10.8 and 17.64 mgGAE/g per genotype. Determination of flavonoids was done by aluminium nitrate colorimetric method and total flavonoid contents in walnut pollen ranged from 7.32 to 7.95 mgQE/g. The antioxidant capacity of pollen extracts was assessed through the scavenging effects on DPPH and a concentration-dependent genotype, and it varied between 13.78 and 15.04 mg Trolox/g. In terms of mineral composition, walnut pollen appears to be a good source of potassium (859.14 mg/100 g, magnesium (263.77 mg/100 g, calcium (71.72 mg/100 g, iron (27.19 mg/100 g, sodium (10.52 mg/100 g, zinc (5.69 mg/100 g, manganese (3.98 mg/100 g, copper (1.28 mg/100 g, chromium (0.39 mg/100 g and selenium (0.036 mg/100 g. The results obtained indicate that walnut pollen is an important source of total phenols showing antioxidant properties and mineral composition that could be beneficial to human health.

  11. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bryan; Wilcox, R. C.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the chemical compatibility of titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) with GaAs and CdZnTe, and Inconel with HgCdTe and HgZnTe. At the present time, no other studies regarding the compatibility of these crystal components and their respective cartridge materials have been performed. This study was to identify any possible problems between these materials to insure proper containment of possibly hazardous fumes during crystal growth experiments. In this study, the reaction zone between the materials was studied and the amount of degradation to the system was measured. Detailed results are presented.

  12. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of a Novel Polymeric Composite Damping Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng ZHANG; Jiang Feng SHENG; Chun An MA

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical behavior of a novel polymeric composite damping material has been investigated in this article. The composite consists of chlorinated polyethylene (CPE),N,N-dicyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolylsufenamide (DZ), 4,4'-thio-bis(3-methyl-6-tert-buthylphenol)(BPSR) and vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF). It is found that either the position or the intensity of damping peak can be controlled by changing the composition of CPE/DZ/BPSR composite. Within a certain composition region, damping peak maximum depends on CPE/DZ ratio, whereas damping peak position is controlled by BPSR content. Moreover, the improvement of storage modulus can be achieved by incorporation of VGCF. These results may imply that a damping material possessing both good damping properties and high strength can be designed and obtained.

  13. Preparation of ZrC nano-particles reinforced amorphous carbon composite coating by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To eliminate cracks caused by thermal expansion mismatch between ZrC coating and carbon-carbon composites, a kind of ZrC/C composite coating was designed as an interlayer. The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a method to achieve co-deposition of ZrC and C from ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar source. Zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) powder carrier was especially made to control accurately the flow rate. The microstructure of ZrC/C composite coating was studied using analytical techniques. ZrC/C coating shows same morphology as pyrolytic carbon. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows ZrC grains with size of 10-50 nm embed in turbostratic carbon. The formation mechanism is that the growth of ZrC crystals was inhibited by surrounding pyrolytic carbon and kept as nano-particles. Fracture morphologies imply good combination between coating and substrate. The ZrC crystals have stoichiometric proportion near 1, with good crystalline but no clear preferred orientation while pyrolytic carbon is amorphous. The heating-up oxidation of ZrC/C coating shows 11.58 wt.% loss. It can be calculated that the coating consists of 74.04 wt.% ZrC and 25.96 wt.% pyrolytic carbon. The average density of the composite coating is 5.892 g/cm3 by Archimedes' principle.

  14. Boron Nitride Nanosheets (BNNSs) Chemically Modified by "Grafting-From" Polymerization of Poly(caprolactone) for Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinseong; Jung, Haejong; Yu, Seunggun; Man Cho, Suk; Tiwari, Vimal K; Babu Velusamy, Dhinesh; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-07-01

    To meet the growing demand for rapid heat dissipation in electronic devices to ensure their reliable performance with a high level of safety, many polymer composites with thermally conductive but electrically insulating 2D boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) are being developed. Here we present an efficient way to enhance the thermal conductivity (TC) of a polymer composite by means of "grafting-from" polymerization of a poly(caprolactone) (PCL) onto BNNSs. The BNNSs, which were exfoliated from bulk BN by means of ultra-sonication, were prepared by means of radical oxidation. These oxidized BNNSs (oxi-BNNSs) were employed as initiators for subsequent ring-opening polymerization of PCL, which successfully resulted in PCL chemically grafted onto BNNSs (PCL-g-BNNSs). The excellent dispersion of PCL-g-BNNSs in common solvents allowed us to readily fabricate a polymer composite that contained PCL-g-BNNSs embedded in a PCL matrix, and the composite showed TC values that were five and nine times greater in the out-of-plane and in-plane mode, respectively, than those of pristine PCL. PMID:27283727

  15. [Mechanism of pigment content on infrared emissivity of composite coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Gang; Xu, Guo-Yue; Xu, Fei-Feng; Ding, Ru-Ya; Tan, Shu-Juan

    2012-10-01

    Polyurethane (PU)/flaky metal composite coatings were prepared by using PU and flaky metal powders as adhesives and pigments, respectively. The infrared emissivity of coatings with different metal content was measured by infrared emissometer, and the microstructure of PU/flaky metal composite coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of infrared emissivity measurement indicate that the emissivity changes significantly with increasing metal content and presents a "U" type. The results of microstructure observation indicate that PU/flaky metal composite coatings have one-dimensional photonic structural characteristics. According to the microstructure characteristics, the optical reflection spectra of one-dimensional photonic structure in PU/flaky metal composite coatings with different metal content were simulated, and the results show that "U" type variation of emissivity with increasing metal content is derived from the blueshift of reflection peak wavelength with increasing metal content of one-dimensional photonic structure in coatings.

  16. [Mechanism of pigment content on infrared emissivity of composite coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Gang; Xu, Guo-Yue; Xu, Fei-Feng; Ding, Ru-Ya; Tan, Shu-Juan

    2012-10-01

    Polyurethane (PU)/flaky metal composite coatings were prepared by using PU and flaky metal powders as adhesives and pigments, respectively. The infrared emissivity of coatings with different metal content was measured by infrared emissometer, and the microstructure of PU/flaky metal composite coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of infrared emissivity measurement indicate that the emissivity changes significantly with increasing metal content and presents a "U" type. The results of microstructure observation indicate that PU/flaky metal composite coatings have one-dimensional photonic structural characteristics. According to the microstructure characteristics, the optical reflection spectra of one-dimensional photonic structure in PU/flaky metal composite coatings with different metal content were simulated, and the results show that "U" type variation of emissivity with increasing metal content is derived from the blueshift of reflection peak wavelength with increasing metal content of one-dimensional photonic structure in coatings. PMID:23285860

  17. Delicate refinement of surface nanotopography by adjusting TiO2 coating chemical composition for enhanced interfacial biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Wang, Guocheng; Zheng, Hai; Lu, Zufu; Zhong, Xia; Cheng, Xingbao; Zreiqat, Hala

    2013-08-28

    Surface topography and chemistry have significant influences on the biological performance of biomedical implants. Our aim is to produce an implant surface with favorable biological properties by dual modification of surface chemistry and topography in one single simple process. In this study, because of its chemical stability, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility, titanium oxide (TiO2) was chosen to coat the biomedical Ti alloy implants. Biocompatible elements (niobium (Nb) and silicon (Si)) were introduced into TiO2 matrix to change the surface chemical composition and tailor the thermophysical properties, which in turn leads to the generation of topographical features under specific thermal history of plasma spraying. Results demonstrated that introduction of Nb2O5 resulted in the formation of Ti0.95Nb0.95O4 solid solution and led to the generation of nanoplate network structures on the composite coating surface. By contrast, the addition of SiO2 resulted in a hairy nanostructure and coexistence of rutile and quartz phases in the coating. Additionally, the introduction of Nb2O5 enhanced the corrosion resistance of TiO2 coating, whereas SiO2 did not exert much effect on the corrosion behaviors. Compared to the TiO2 coating, TiO2 coating doped with Nb2O5 enhanced primary human osteoblast adhesion and promoted cell proliferation, whereas TiO2 coatings with SiO2 were inferior in their bioactivity, compared to TiO2 coatings. Our results suggest that the incorporation of Nb2O5 can enhance the biological performance of TiO2 coatings by changing the surface chemical composition and nanotopgraphy, suggesting its potential use in modification of biomedical TiO2 coatings in orthopedic applications. PMID:23957368

  18. Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine. PMID:22994958

  19. Aluminium EN AC-AlSi12 alloy matrix composite materials reinforced by Al2O3 porous preforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, A.; M. Kremzer; L.A. Dobrzański,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to elaborate the method of manufacturing of composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by eutectic aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was fabricated by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while as reinforcement were used ceramic preforms fabricated by sintering of Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder with addition of po...

  20. Chemical free device fabrication of two dimensional van der Waals materials based transistors by using one-off stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Tack; Choi, Won Kook; Hwang, Do Kyung

    2016-06-01

    We report on a chemical free one-off imprinting method to fabricate two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdWs) materials based transistors. Such one-off imprinting technique is the simplest and effective way to prevent unintentional chemical reaction or damage of 2D vdWs active channel during device fabrication process. 2D MoS2 nanosheets based transistors with a hexagonal-boron-nitride (h-BN) passivation layer, prepared by one-off imprinting, show negligible variations of transfer characteristics after chemical vapor deposition process. In addition, this method enables the fabrication of all 2D MoS2 transistors consisting of h-BN gate insulator, and graphene source/drain and gate electrodes without any chemical damage.

  1. Variations in the chemical composition of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves and roots as affected by genotypic and environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anna Elizabeth; Gleadow, Roslyn Margaret; Zacarias, Anabela M; Cuambe, Constantino Estevão; Miller, Rebecca Elizabeth; Cavagnaro, Timothy Richard

    2012-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of cassava cultivars, in terms of cyanogenic potential and composition of macro- and micronutrients, sampled from different locations in rural Mozambique. Total cyanide concentrations in fresh cassava tissues were measured using portable cyanide testing kits, and elemental nutrients were later analyzed from dried plant tissue. Variation in cyanogenic potential and nutrient composition occurred both among cultivars and across locations. The majority of cultivars contained >100 ppm total cyanide, fresh weight, and are therefore considered to be dangerously poisonous unless adequately processed before consumption. Leaf cyanogenic and nutrient content varied with plant water status, estimated using carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C). The colonization of roots of all cultivars by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also quantified and found to be high, indicating that mycorrhizas could play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition in these low-input farming systems.

  2. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  3. Materials Bound by Non-Chemical Forces: External Fields and the Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, John; Srivastava, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    We discuss materials which owe their stability to external fields. These include: 1) external electric or magnetic fields, and 2) quantum vacuum fluctuations in these fields induced by suitable boundary conditions (the Casimir effect). Instances of the first case include the floating water bridge and ferrofluids in magnetic fields. An example of the second case is taken from biology where the Casimir effect provides an explanation of the formation of stacked aggregations or "rouleaux" by negatively charged red blood cells. We show how the interplay between electrical and Casimir forces can be used to drive self-assembly of nano-structured materials, and could be generalized both as a probe of Casimir forces and as a means of manufacturing nanoscale structures. Interestingly, all the cases discussed involve the generation of the somewhat exotic negative pressures. We note that very little is known about the phase diagrams of most materials in the presence of external fields other than those represented by the ...

  4. Chemical Composition by Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA of Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware from Iraq, Syria and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M W Hunt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware is an 8th-7th century B.C.E. fine-ware which originated in Northern Mesopotamia and spread throughout the greater Levant. The mechanism by which Palace Ware moved across the Neo-Assyrian imperial landscape (trade or local imitation/emulation is of great archaeological interest. This dataset provides chemical compositional data, generated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA, for Palace Ware vessels from Nimrud and Nineveh, in the Assyrian imperial core (Iraq, Dūr-Katlimmu, in one of the annexed provinces (Syria, and Tell Jemmeh, located outside the Neo-Assyrian provincial system (Israel.

  5. Effect of Y2O3 Content on Microstructure of Gradient Bioceramic Composite Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qibin; Zou Jianglong; Zheng Min; Dong Chuang

    2005-01-01

    To eliminate thermal stress and cracks in the process of laser cladding, a kind of bioceramic coating with gradient compositional design was prepared on the surface of Ti alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And effect of Y2O3 content on gradient bioceramic composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicate that adding rare earth can refine grain. Different rare earth contents affect formation of HA and β-TCP in bioceramic coating. When the content of rare earth ranges from 0.4% to 0.6%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA and β-TCP is the best, which indicates that "monosodium glutamate" effect of rare earth plays a dominant role. However, when rare earth content is up to 0.8%, the amount of synthesizing HA and β-TCP in coating conversely goes down, which demonstrates that rare earth gradually losts its catalysis in manufacturing HA and β-TCP.

  6. Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Asteroidal Materials Returned from Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, H; Abe, M.; Ebihara, M.; Fujimura, A.; Hashizume, K.; Ireland, T. R.; Itoh, S.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kitajima, F.; Mukai, T.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Sakamoto, N.; Seto, Y.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, M.; Yada, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft made two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa on November 20th and 26th, 2005. The Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is classified as an S-type asteroid and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy by the Hayabusa spacecraft proposed that the surface of this body has an olivine-rich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering [2]. The spacecraft made the reentry into the Earth s atmosphere on June 12th, 2010 and the sample capsule was successfully recovered in Australia on June 13th, 2010. Although the sample collection processes on the Itokawa surface had not been made by the designed operations, more than 1,500 grains were identified as rocky particles in the sample curation facility of JAXA, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa on November 17th, 2010 [3]. Although their sizes are mostly less than 10 microns, some larger grains of about 100 microns or larger were also included. The mineral assembly is olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, iron sulfide and iron metal. The mean mineral compositions are consistent with the results of near-infrared spectroscopy from Hayabusa spacecraft [2], but the variations suggest that the petrologic type may be smaller than the spectroscopic results. Several tens of grains of relatively large sizes among the 1,500 grains will be selected by the Hayabusa sample curation team for preliminary examination [4]. Each grain will be subjected to one set of preliminary examinations, i.e., micro-tomography, XRD, XRF, TEM, SEM, EPMA and SIMS in this sequence. The preliminary examination will start from the last week of January 2011. Therefore, samples for isotope analyses in this study will start from the last week of February 2011. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have measured the oxygen and

  7. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  8. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Rysha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (fat content, fat content of dry matter, acidity, protein, dry matter, mineral and water content and sodium chloride content of 45-day brine cheese samples were also analyzed. Chemical and sensory assessment demonstrated large property differences. A recommendation stems from the results showing that the standardization of both artisanal and industrial production of Sharri cheese is required.

  9. Chemical Composition of Salmon Ovary Outer Membrane and Its Protein Increases Fecal Mucins Content in C57BL/6J and Type 2 Diabetic/Obese KK-Ay Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayato Maeda; Ryota Hosomi; Utako Chiba; Kenji Fukunaga

    2013-01-01

    Salmon ovary outer membrane (SOM) is a byproduct of the salmon industry; however, the effective utilization of SOM for food materials and supplements is anticipated as the demand for fish and seafood increases worldwide. The purposes of the present study were to assess the chemical composition of SOM, the characteristics of SOM protein (SOMP), and its effects on serum and fecal biochemical parameters in mice. SOM contained high levels of crude protein (61.9 g/100 g) and crude lipid (18.9 g/10...

  10. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    between granulometric composition of sediment and materials concentration can be shown by the example of Mn. Local conditions, leading to accumulation of clastic components, are: 1. Rise of content in sand owning to separation of heavy minerals 2. Rise of content in surface, mainly sandy clay sediments owning to presence of concretions 3. Rise of content in lower bunches roof owning to diagenetic contraction. Authors thank academic Lisitsyn for encourage, Andrey Apletalin for valuable help, and everybody, who helped in field and laboratory research of the White sea sediments. Work was being done under the auspices of Russian foundation of basic research (grants 09-05-10081, 09-05-00658 and 08-05-00860), RSA presidiums program of 17 fundamental researches (project 17.1). References: 1.Kuzmina T., Lein A., Lutchsheva L., Murdmaa I., Novigatsky A., Shevchenko V. Chemical composition of White Sea's sediments // Litology and mineral deposits . 2009. - № 2. - P 115-132. 2.Nevessky E., Medvedev V. , Kalin

  11. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  12. Preparation of carbon nanotube composite material with metal matrix by electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Bai-gang; LI Li-xiang; Li Hong-xi

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the nickel can be deposited directly on the surface of carbon nanotubes without pre-sensitization by Sn2+ and Pd2+ in a watt bath containing suspended nanotubes by electroplating. The nickel is deposited as spherical nanoparticle on the nanotubes. By increasing reaction time, the carbon nanotube is fully coated with nickel. A probable model, which represents the formation process of carbon nanotube-nickel composites by electroplating, is presented. The results show that this method is efficient and simple for preparing carbon nanotube-metal composite.

  13. Composite Aluminum-Copper Sheet Material by Friction Stir Welding and Cold Rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, S.; Osikowicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    An aluminum alloy and a pure copper material were butt-joined by friction stir welding and subsequently cold rolled. The cold-rolling operation proved to be very advantageous because small voids present after friction stir welding were closed, the interface area per material thickness was enlarged, a thin intermetallic layer was partitioned, and the joint was strengthened by strain hardening. Tensile test specimens fractured in the heat-affected zone in the aluminum material; tensile strength...

  14. THE EFFECT OF DRAINAGE ON CHEMICAL ELEMENTS CONTENT OF MARSH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper takes marsh in the Sanjiang Plain as an example in order to research the effect of draining on the chemical elements in marsh. The Sanjiang Ecological Test Station of Mire and Uetland serves as the resarch base. The authors selected soil samples in the Sanjiang Plain (the top and the end of the drain, marsh soil and degeneration marsh soil), mainly analyzed contents of main ions (HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3-), main heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Znand Cu), nutritive elements (N, P,K), organic matter and pH value. By testing these samples as above, the paper initially researches the effect on chemical elements content by draining by the means of the contrast of chemical elements contents between marsh soil and degenerative marsh soil and different characteristics of marsh soil elements. Results show that a lot of chemical elements had been lost because of draining.

  15. Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

  16. Chemical Composition Determination Of Francolite Apatites By Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, Robin M.; Thrasher, Raymond D.; Lehr, James R.

    1981-10-01

    Prior work by Lehr and McClellan and Lehr, based on chemical, crystallographic, and x-ray diffraction studies, showed the relationship between phosphate (P) and substituted carbonate (C) in francolite apatite to be P+C = 6.00 ± 0.04 and the generalized apatite formula to be (Ca,Na,Mg) 10(PO4)6-x(CO3)xFy(F,OH)2, in which y ranges from 0.33x to 0.5x. Using the FTIR, the ratio of the area of the absorption curve for C-0 (bands in the region 1375 to 1550 cm-1) versus the area of the absorption curve for P-0 (bands in the region 530 to 690 cm-1), the "CO2 index," was found to be proportional to the mole ratio of CO3:PO4 in francolites. Stripping methods allowed the subtraction of spectral contributions of silicate and carbonate minerals and water, which would ordinarily interfere with such a determination. The study was based on 65 mineral samples and the formula was found to be: CO2 index = 0.0678 + 4.184(mole ratio CO3:PO4) (1) The correlation factor, r2, was 0.938 and the standard error of the slope ±0.136. The probability of the null hypothesis for the model was less than 0.0001.

  17. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  18. MECHANO-CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON SYNTHESIS OF CERAMIC MATERIALS AND ITS COMPOSITIONS%陶瓷及其复合材料合成的机械力化学效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕民; 潘志东

    2005-01-01

    介绍了陶瓷及其复合材料(如:氧化物陶瓷、生物陶瓷、电子陶瓷、微波绝缘复合陶瓷、电池材料和sialon陶瓷复合材料)合成的机械力化学效应研究的进展.软机械力化学合成方法的生产成本低,将该方法用于工业化生产各种陶瓷材料具有相当大的应用前景.通过选择合适的原料和研磨条件,机械力化学合成的方法可用于制备很多高性能无机材料.用机械力化学合成的方法可加速并简化合成反应,减少能量和原材料的消耗,即经济又环保.同时,机械力化学合成的方法可以通过非常规的途径使纳米结构陶瓷材料晶化反应快速进行.针对此研究领域将来的发展方向提出了建议.%This paper reviews recent developments on mechano-chemical synthesis of various ceramic materials and compositions (such as oxide ceramics, biomaterial ceramics, electronic and electric intermetallics, microwave dielectric composite, battery compounds, and sialon ceramic compositions). The method of soft mechano-chemical synthesis has a considerable potential for low cost, large scale production of various ceramic materials. The technique can be extended to the synthesis of a very wide range of various powders of advanced inorganic materials by the suitable selection of starting materials and milling conditions. The method accelerates and simplifies the process of the synthesis, decreases the energy expenses and the cost of the materials,thus being more economically efficient and ecologically clean. The mechano-chemical procedure permits an unique preparativeflexibility allowing for rapid solid-phase crystallisation of nano-structured ceramic materials. Further studies in this aspect are also proposed.

  19. Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including

  20. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2015-01-01

    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    Full Text Available The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2 and ethanolic extraction (EtOH, in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown, collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS, Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH. However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  3. Derivation of Equivalent Material Models for Composite Laminated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an original approach of derivation of equivalent electrical models for multilayer composite materials is presented. The purpose of the modeling is to approximate a given composite material by an equivalent dielectric slab or by a medium consisting from several dielectric layers. For each layer, an equivalent complex permittivity is set up by an optimization procedure in order to achieve the same values of reflection and transmission coefficients as are the measured values of reflection and transmission coefficients of the original composite material.

  4. Effect of applied dc bias voltage on composition, chemical bonding and mechanical properties of carbon nitride films prepared by PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-xuan; XU Tao; HAO Jun-ying; CHEN Jian-min; ZHOU Hui-di; XUE Qun-ji; LIU Hui-wen

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nitride films were deposited on Si (100) substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique from CH4 and N2 at different applied dc bias voltage. The microstructure, composition and chemical bonding of the resulting films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties such as hardness and elastic modulus of the films were evaluated using nano-indentation. As the results, the Raman spectra, showing the G and D bands, indicate the amorphous structure of the films. XPS and FTIR measurements demonstrate the existence of various carbon-nitride bonds in the films and the hydrogenation of carbon nitride phase. The composition ratio of N to C, the nano-hardness and the elastic modulus of the carbon nitride films increase with increasing dc bias voltage and reach the maximums at a dc bias voltage of 300 V, then they decrease with further increase of the dc bias voltage. Moreover, the XRD analyses indicate that the carbon nitride film contains some polycrystalline C3N4 phase embedded in the amorphous matrix at optimized deposition condition of dc bias voltage of 300 V.

  5. Analysis of the possibility of determining the internal structure of composite material by estimating its thermal diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucypera Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analysis of the possibility of determining the internal structure of the fibrous composite material by estimating its thermal diffusivity. A thermal diffusivity of the composite material was determined by applying inverse heat conduction method and measurement data. The idea of the proposed method depends on measuring the timedependent temperature distribution at selected points of the sample and identification of the thermal diffusivity by solving a transient inverse heat conduction problem. The investigated system which was used for the identification of thermal parameters consists of two cylindrical samples, in which transient temperature field is forced by the electric heater located between them. The temperature response of the system is measured in the chosen point of sample. One dimensional discrete mathematical model of the transient heat conduction within the investigated sample has been formulated based on the control volume method. The optimal dynamic filtration method as solution of the inverse problem has been applied to identify unknown diffusivity of multi-layered fibrous composite material. Next using this thermal diffusivity of the composite material its internal structure was determined. The chosen results have been presented in the paper.

  6. Estudo da composição química de flocos de cereais com ênfase nos teores de fenilalanina Study on the chemical composition of breakfast cereals with emphasis on their phenylalanine contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maria LANFER MARQUEZ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a composição química e o teor de fenilalanina em 13 tipos de flocos de cereais produzidos no país e disponíveis no comércio de São Paulo. Todos os produtos contêm elevado teor de carboidratos totais, superior a 77%, fornecendo no mínimo 345 kcal/100g. Os seus teores protéicos (Nx5,7 são variáveis e se situam entre 3,8 e 7,3%. Os teores de fenilalanina variam entre 224 e 451 mg/100g de produto, sendo os valores mais baixos encontrados nos cereais com o menor teor protéico, que correspondem aos flocos de milho com maior concentração de açúcar. Através da análise de aminoácidos, foram encontrados em média 5,96g de fenilalanina/100g de aminoácidos recuperados. As diferenças em torno desta média não foram estatisticamente significativas e mostraram-se independentes do cereal que deu origem aos produtos. Houve correlação linear entre o teor de nitrogênio (micro-Kjeldahl e a concentração de fenilalanina nas amostras (coef. correl. 0,9887 o que permite estimar o teor de fenilalanina unicamente a partir da análise de nitrogênio, adotando o teor de 5,96g de fenilalanina/100g aminoácidos. Os cálculos resultaram nos teores de fenilalanina dos 13 produtos, que não diferiram estatisticamente dos obtidos pela análise de aminoácidos.The chemical composition and the amount of phenylalanine in 13 types of breakfast cereals produced in Brazil and marketed in São Paulo were studied. All products showed high amounts of carbohydrates, higher than 77%, supplying a minimum of 345 kcal/100g. The protein contents (Nx5.7 ranged from 3.8 to 7.3%. The phenylalanine levels varied between 224 and 451 mg/100g of the products and the lowest levels were detected in cereals with a reduced protein content, corresponding to cereal flakes with high sugar contents. The amino acid analysis revealed that phenylalanine accounted for 5.96±0.12 g/100g recovered amino acids, with no significant statistical differences among the 13

  7. Compositional and functional dynamics of dried papaya as affected by storage time and packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Nagle, Marcus; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Latif, Sajid; Müller, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Papaya has been identified as a valuable source of nutrients and antioxidants, which are beneficial for human health. To preserve the nutritional properties after drying, appropriate storage specifications should be considered. This study aimed to investigate the quality and stability of air-dried papaya in terms of quality dynamics and behavior of bio-active compounds during storage for up to 9 months in two packaging materials: aluminum laminated polyethylene and polyamide/polyethylene. Samples with moisture content (MC) of 0.1328 g g(-1) and water activity (aw) of 0.5 were stored at 30 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 40-50%. The MC, aw, degree of browning (DB) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were found to notably increase as storage progressed. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS), total phenolic (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents. Packaging in aluminum laminated polyethylene under ambient conditions was found to better preserve bio-active compounds and retard increases in MC, aw and DB, when compared to polyamide/polyethylene. PMID:26593545

  8. Polymer matrix composite materials reinforced by Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 magnetostrictive particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to describe manufacturing process of polymer matrix composite materials reinforced by Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 particles and to observe changes of physical properties (magnetic properties and magnetostriction of samples with randomly oriented magnetostrictive particles in epoxy matrix and with aligning these particles in the matrix during fabrication process.Design/methodology/approach: Polymer matrix composite materials reinforced by the Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 magnetostrictive particles fabricating method was developed during the investigations, making it possible to obtain materials with good physical properties. The influence of the concentration of the Td0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 particles on magnetic and magnetostrictive properties was estimated. Metallographic examination of powder’s morphology as well as EDS and XRD analysis and observations the structure of composite materials were made.Findings: The influence of magnetic particle alignment is observed in the magnetic and magnetostriction responses. The magnetostrictive response improves when the magnetic particles are oriented in magnetic fields and reaches approximately 184 ppm for oriented composite materials with 25% volume fraction of Td0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 particles.Practical implications: For potential applications in technological devices, such as sensors and actuators, it is desirable to form composite systems by combining magnetostrictive phases with matrix, in order to have giant magnetostrictive effect and, at the same time, to reduce disadvantages of monolithic material.Originality/value: The originality of this work is based on manufacturing process, especially of applying magnetic alignment for ordering Td0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 particles during polymerization of epoxy matrix.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effects of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Saei Dehkordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis L. as a member of the Lamiaceae family and lysozyme as a natural antibacterial agent is important in food microbiology, because of its characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and anti-listerial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (REO alone and in combination with lysozyme for enhancement of anti-listerial activity of both substances. Materials & Methods: Rosmarinus officinalis L. was purchased from a local grocery store at Shahrekord and was identified by the Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR. The air-dried aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil and yielded oil was analyzed by GC/MS. Antibacterial activity (on basis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of REO was studied separately and in combination with unheated lysozyme (L and heat-treated lysozyme (HTL on Listeria monocytogenes at different pH (5, 6 and 7 by a micro-broth dilution assay. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, 98.05% of constituents of the essential oil were identified. The major components were α-pinene (14.06%, 1,8-cineole (13.62%, verbenone (11.2%, camphor (10.51%, borneol (7.3%, 3-octanone (7.02%, camphene (5.46% and linalool (5.07%. The inhibitory action of REO was stronger at lower pH especially 5 (MIC=225 μg/mL. Inhibition by L at pH 5 was 640 μg/mL but no inhibition was seen at pH 7. HTL resulted in more effective inhibition than L, especially at pH 5 and heat-treatment 80˚C (MIC: 160 μg/mL. Conclusion: Combination of L + REO and particularly HTL + REO was led to enhancement of bacterial inhibition. It was concluded that REO by the identified chemical composition was effective alone or in combination with L or HTL on Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen.

  10. Improvement of Surface Finish by Vibration Control in Machine Tool Using Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarg M. Trivedi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In milling machine the main problem is vibration in machine tool which affects on quality of machined part. Hence these vibrations needed to suppressed during machining. Aim of study is to control different parameters like thickness of composite plates, cutting speed and depth of cut which affects on response like amplitude (acceleration of vibration and surface roughness of machined part. In present work machine tool vibration on slotted table horizontal milling machine have been reduced using composites. In this work glass fiber epoxy plates and glass fiber polyester plates are used as composites. Initially holes are drilled on each composite plate. Mild steel plate is placed on the composite plates and setup is fixed to the table of horizontal milling machine using nuts and bolts. A milling operation is carried out. Amplitude (acceleration of vibration is recorded on the screen of vibxpert signal analyzer and Surface roughness of machined mild steel plate is measured by tr110 surface roughness tester machine.

  11. Composite particles formed by complexation of poly(methacrylic acid) - stabilized magnetic fluid with chitosan: Magnetic material for bioapplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Ivo; Stepanek, Miroslav; Uchman, Mariusz; Slouf, Miroslav; Baldikova, Eva; Nydlova, Leona; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka

    2016-10-01

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) stabilized by poly(methacrylic acid) has been developed. This ferrofluid was used to prepare a novel type of magnetically responsive chitosan-based composite material. Both ferrofluid and magnetic chitosan composite were characterized by a combination of microscopy (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM), scattering (static and dynamic light scattering, SANS) and spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Magnetic chitosan was found to be a perspective material for various bioapplications, especially as a magnetic carrier for immobilization of enzymes and cells. Lipase from Candida rugosa was covalently attached after cross-linking and activation of chitosan using glutaraldehyde. Baker's yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were incorporated into the chitosan composite during its preparation; both biocatalysts were active after reaction with appropriate substrates. PMID:27287146

  12. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Meilan Lisangan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway. Akway (Drimys piperita Hook f. is a woody, evergreen andaromatic plan that was a member of winteraceae. This plant is used by Sougb tribe lived in Sururey village, District ofManokwari, to heal malaria and to enhance the vitality of body. The objectives of this research were to know the yieldof essential oil using water distillation of leaves and its chemical composition using gas chromatography and massspectroscopy (GC-MS. The results indicated that the yield of leaves essential oil by using water distillation was 0.2%.The essential oil composed by 49 compounds categorized by terpene and its derivatives 83.67%, derivatives of benzene4.08% and alifatic compounds 8.16%.

  13. Composition adjustment of low activation materials for shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three representative low activation materials for a fusion reactor are ferritic steel, V-alloy and SiC/SiC composite. The adjustment of the material composition of these materials to increase the fraction of shallow land burial in Japan was considered. In Japan, the fission waste having any single radionuclide exceeding the limiting concentration value, causing 100 μSv year-1 individual dose, determined by the Nuclear Safety Commission will not qualify as a low level waste (LLW), which could be disposed by shallow land burial. The limiting concentration values of radionuclides produced in fusion reactor were derived based on the methodology of the Nuclear Safety Commission. Radionuclide concentrations of the radwastes generated from the fusion power reactors using the three low activation materials based on the composition of existing materials were evaluated. Radwastes are classified into LLW and medium level waste (MLW), which is defined as the waste which does not qualify for LLW because one or more of the radionuclides exceeds the derived limiting concentration value. The weight fraction of MLW among the sum of LLW and MLW is found to be 10% for ferritic steel, 54% for V-alloy and 43% for SiC/SiC. The possibility of decreasing the MLW fraction by the material composition adjustment is considered. It is found that if Nb impurity content in V-alloy and N impurity content in SiC/SiC composite could be reduced, the MLW fraction can be significantly decreased. On the other hand, the content of the alloy component material (W), needs to be reduced to further decrease the MLW fraction in case of the ferritic steel F82H

  14. Interpreting chemical compositions of small scale basaltic systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Small scale basaltic magmatic systems occur in all of the major tectonic environments of planet Earth and are characteristically expressed at the Earth's surface as fields of small monogenetic cones. The chemical compositions of the materials that make up these cones reflect processes of magma generation and differentiation that occur in their plumbing system. The volumes of magmas involved are very small and significantly their compositional ranges reveal remarkably complex processes which are overwhelmed or homogenized in larger scale systems. Commonly, compositions are basaltic, alkalic and enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, although the spectrum extends from highly enriched nephelinites to subalkalic and tholeiitic basalts. Isotopic analyses of rocks from volcanic fields almost always display compositions which can only be explained by the interaction of two or more mantle sources. Ultimately their basaltic magmas originate by small scale melting of mantle sources. Compositional variety is testament to melting processes at different depths, a range of melting proportions, a heterogeneous source and fractionation, magma mixing and assimilation within the plumbing system that brings magmas to the surface. The fact that such a variety of compositions is preserved in a single field shows that isolation of individual melting events and their ascent is an important and possibly defining feature of monogenetic volcanism, as well as the window their chemical behavior provides into the complex process of melt generation and extraction in the Earth's upper mantle.

  15. Chemical composition of flaxseed's hydrolyzate and content determination of SDG%亚麻籽水解物化学成分研究及SDG含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腾; 张崇禧; 黄建军

    2012-01-01

    Linum usitatissimum which belongs to Linaceae. SDG is one chemical composition of flaxseed's hydrolyzate, it has antioxidant activity, resist cancer and treat diabetes. This paper researches flaxseed's hydrolysate, several compounds are separated by silica gel column chromatography and C18 reversed- phase chromatography column. Five compounds are identified by NMR, namely (E)-methyl3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate, nonadecanoic acid, (+)-pinoresinol4-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-13-d-glucopyranoside, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, daucosterol. Analyzing content of SDG by HPLC, the result shows that SDG is 22.5% in flaxseed's hydrolysate.%亚麻是亚麻科亚麻属植物。亚麻籽水解物化学成分含有亚麻木酚素(SDG),该成分具有抗氧化、抗肿瘤、治疗糖尿病等作用。主要研究亚麻籽水解物,通过硅胶柱层析、C18反相层析分离出多种化合物。借助NMR技术鉴定得到5种,即3,4-二羟基苯基-丙烯酸甲酯(Ⅰ)、十九烷酸(Ⅱ)、松脂醇葡萄糖苷(Ⅲ)、开环异落叶松脂素二葡萄糖苷(Ⅳ)(亚麻木酚素,SDG)、β-胡萝卜苷(Ⅴ)。利用高效液相色谱分析亚麻木酚素的含量,结果显示其在亚麻籽水解物中的含量为22.5%。

  16. Compositions and chemical bonding in ceramics by quantitative electron energy-loss spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, J.; Horton, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); McKernan, S.; Carter, C.B. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Revcolevschi, A. [Univ. de Paris-Sud, Lab. de Chemie des Solides (France); Tanaka, S.; Davis, R.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Quantitative electron energy-loss spectrometry was applied to a range of ceramic materials at a spatial resolution of <5 nm. Analysis of Fe L{sub 23} white lines indicated a low-spin state with a charge transfer of {approximately}1.5 electrons/atom onto the Fe atoms implanted into (amorphized) silicon carbide. Gradients of 2 to 5% in the Co:O stoichiometry were measured across 100-nm-thick Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} layers in an oxidized directionally solidified CoO-ZrO{sub 2} eutectic, with the highest O levels near the ZrO{sub 2}. The energy-loss near-edge structures were dramatically different for the two cobalt oxides; those for CO{sub 3}O{sub 4} have been incorrectly ascribed to CoO in the published literature. Kinetically stabilized solid solubility occurred in an AlN-SiC film grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on {alpha}(6H)-SiC, and no detectable interdiffusion occurred in couples of MBE-grown AlN on SiC following annealing at up to 1750C. In diffusion couples of polycrystalline AlN on SiC, interfacial 8H sialon (aluminum oxy-nitride) and pockets of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rich {beta}{prime} sialon in the SiC were detected.

  17. Features of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Steviavebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borisovna Krasina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the study of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Stevia. Dry leaves of Stevia contain diterpene glycosides that contribute to their sweet taste, which makes possible the use of Stevia as a sugar substitute in a production of flour confectionery products. The evaluation of amino acid composition of dried leaves of Stevia showed that their composition includes 7 essential amino acids, among them the limiting amino acid is valine.During experimental researches it was established that they are containing in a sufficient quantity water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in their composition. We have studied the effect of processing conditions on the degree of milling of dry leaves of Stevia. It was revealed that the pressure of 5 MPa in the contact zone of the working elements do not guarantee a product with a desired degree of milling. Milling of dried leaves of Stevia at a pressure equal to 10 MPa, allows achieving a high degree of size reduction with a simultaneous formation of the main physical and chemical characteristics of amilledproduct. It was established that granulometric composition of dry leaves of Stevia, obtained by milling in a rotor-roller disintegrator, presents the highest content of particles with a size from 5 to 30 μm, ensuring high consumer properties of the obtained biologically active additives (BAA.

  18. Laboratory analogues simulating Titan's atmospheric aerosols: Compared chemical compositions of grains and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Jomard, François; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Cernogora, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Two sorts of solid organic samples can be produced in laboratory experiments simulating Titan's atmospheric reactivity: grains in the volume and thin films on the reactor walls. We expect that grains are more representative of Titan's atmospheric aerosols, but films are used to provide optical indices for radiative models of Titan's atmosphere. The aim of the present study is to address if these two sorts of analogues are chemically equivalent or not, when produced in the same N2-CH4 plasma discharge. The chemical compositions of both these materials are measured by using elemental analysis, XPS analysis and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The main parameter probed is the CH4/N2 ratio to explore various possible chemical regimes. We find that films are homogeneous but significantly less rich in nitrogen and hydrogen than grains produced in the same experimental conditions. This surprising difference in their chemical compositions could be explained by the efficient etching occurring on the films, which stay in the discharge during the whole plasma duration, whereas the grains are ejected after a few minutes. The higher nitrogen content in the grains possibly involves a higher optical absorption than the one measured on the films, with a possible impact on Titan's radiative models.

  19. Chemical composition of coal and coke ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluzhnikov, A.I.; Tsymbal, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Karaganda Metals uses low sulphur coal from Karaganda and Kuzbass coalfields and is seeking ways of improving coke in terms of ash and its effect on blast furnace operations, chiefly coke rate reduction. Ash in coke has a critical effect on iron quality, slag composition and desulphurisation. The index used to demonstrate the change in coke consistency during incineration in the blast furnace is that of pyrolytic change: this closely reflects changes in coal charge composition. Control of coke ash content by suitably selecting the charge can be used to influence slag basicity and iron quality.

  20. Metallization of polymer composites by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Cu: Surface functionalization driven films characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Duguet, Thomas; Senocq, François; Laffont-Dantras, Lydia; Vahlas, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    The present work is an evaluation of the most efficient pretreatments that are used in the field ofmetallization of poly-epoxies. In particular, we treat the case of MOCVD metallization with the constraints of limiting preparation steps and non-null, though limited thermal budget, and obtaining smooth, adherent, and highly conductive Cu coatings. Several results are presented after applying ex or in situ mechanical and chemical treatments. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy ...

  1. Spectral evolution of and radiation energy generation by coeval stellar populations with different initial composition and chemical enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Traat, P

    2004-01-01

    The results, obtained with evolutionary synthesis code package, developed by the author, for spectral properties of stellar populations with different initial metallicities Z, are presented and discussed . Also, their contributions to the production of most common nucleosynthesis elements He, C and O were followed. These computations have been performed on the basis of two available but different homogeneous multicomposition stellar evolutionary tracks grids by Geneva and Padova groups and the Kurucz model atmospheres. Next to the discussion of overall effects and evelutionary differences, caused by chemical composition, we also present and comment the normalized per stellar mass unit standard tables of the detailed radiation energy output from stellar populations, integrated over the whole lifetime of their stars, in function of metallicity, likewise the tables on He, C and O production. They might serve as useful tools for studies of cosmological problems as well as for studies of buildup of heavy elements ...

  2. Lightweight, Thermally Conductive Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Loftin, Timothy A.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminum reinforced with carbon fibers superior to copper in some respects. Lightweight composite material has high thermal conductivity. Consists of aluminum matrix containing graphite fibers, all oriented in same direction. Available as sheets, tubes, and bars. Thermal conductivity of composite along fibers rises above that of pure copper over substantial range of temperatures. Graphite/aluminum composite useful in variety of heat-transfer applications in which reduction of weight critical. Used to conduct heat in high-density, high-speed integrated-circuit packages for computers and in base plates for electronic equipment. Also used to carry heat away from leading edges of wings in high-speed airplanes.

  3. Chemical Composition of Urban Street Sediments and Its Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cen Kuang; Hou Min; Thomas Neumann; Stefan Norra; Doris Stüben

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and the concentrations of various chemical elements in street sediments were investigated along a rural-urban boundary in Beijing, China. The statistical factor analysis of the data concerned identifies two anthropogenic sources responsible for the contamination of Beijing air. The first source is a steel factory in the western part of Beijing. From this source, Mn, Fe and Ti were emitted into the atmosphere through chimneys and by wind from coal heaps used as the primary energy source for the factory. The second source is a combination of traffic, domestic heating and some small factories in the center of Beijing urban area discharging Cu, Pb, Zn and Sn. Grain-size analyses show that most of the metals in the road dust have higher concentrations in the small grain-size fraction <0.125 mm, which is the severest case because these small particles with larger specific surface area and high heavy metal contents fly up easily and float in the air for a long time. Besides the anthropogenic contamination, such elements as Y, Zr, Nb, Ce and Rb are derived mainly both from natural soils and from the deserts. This is supported by mineral-phase analysis, which shows a clear imprint of materials in road dusts coming from the west China deserts. Our results clearly show that the chemical compositions of the urban road dusts can be used to identify distinctive sources responsible for the contamination mentioned above. The study shows that the chemistry of road dusts is an important monitor to assess the contamination in the urban environment.

  4. Chemical composition of leaf extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni grown experimentally in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    IVANA S. MARKOVIC; ZOLTAN A. DJARMATI; BILJANA F. ABRAMOVIC

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of leaf extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, grown for the first time on an experimental field near Zrenjanin, was examined by GC–MS. The tested plant material was harvested in September of 2002. To analyze the chemical composition of the lipophilic components of the plant leaves, essential oils and ethyl acetate extract were isolated. Qualitative analysis of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation showed that among the identified 88 compounds, the majority ...

  5. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  6. Detection and quantification of defects in composite material by using thermal wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This paper explored the results of experimental investigation on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sample with thermal wave technique. The thermal wave technique combines the advantages of both conventional thermal wave measurement and thermography using a commercial Infrared camera. The sample comprises the artificial inclusions of foreign material to simulate defects of different shape and size at different depths. Lock-in thermography is employed for the detection of defects. The temperature field of the front surface of sample was observed and analysed at several excitation frequencies ranging from 0.562 Hz down to 0.032 Hz. Four-point methodology was applied to extract the amplitude and phase of thermal wave's harmonic component. The phase images are analyzed to find qualitative and quantitative information about the defects.

  7. Chemical immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd by phosphate materials and calcium carbonate in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Su, Xiaojuan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Zhu, Yifei; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination with toxic metals has increasingly become a global concern over the past few decades. Phosphate and carbonate compounds are good passivation materials for Pb immobilization, while the effect of phosphate and carbonate on the immobilization of multiple heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cd) in contaminated soils was seldom investigated. In this study, bone meal (BM), phosphate rock (PR), oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), super phosphate (SP), and calcium carbonate (CC) were added to the contaminated soils to evaluate the effect of phosphate materials and calcium carbonate on the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd. The results showed that the pH of the treated soils increased 1.3-2.7, except SP which decreased 0.5 at most. Compared to the control treatment, all phosphates and calcium carbonate added to the polluted soils increased the fraction of residual metals, and the application of APR, PR, BM, and CC significantly reduced exchangeable and carbonate-bound fraction metals. PR and APR were the most effective for the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd in the soils among these materials. Moreover, the concentrations of all metals in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate decreased with increasing amounts of amendments, and the concentrations of Pb in the TCLP leachate for soils treated with PR and APR were below the nonhazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) (US Environmental Protection Agency). Based on our results, phosphate rock and oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock are effective in the immobilization of multiple metals by reducing their mobility in the co-contaminated soils. PMID:27197655

  8. HPC in Computational Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Blaheta, R. (Radim); Kolcun, A. (Alexej); Jakl, O. (Ondřej); Souček, K; Starý, J. (Jiří); Georgiev, J.

    2015-01-01

    By micromechanics we understand analysis of the macroscale response of materials through investigation of processes in their microstructure. Here by the macroscale, we mean the scale of applications, where we solve engineering problems involving materials. Examples could be analysis of aircraft constructions with different composite materials and analysis of rock behaviour and concrete properties in geo- and civil engineering applications. Analysis of bio-materials with many medicine...

  9. Influence of various coagulation factors on chemical composition of sera gained by centrifugation from casein gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological operations applied during curd processing influence syneresis and total solids content of cheese. Syneresis is not a simple physical process representing whey segregation due to curd contractions. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of various parameters (pH, quantity of CaCl2 added, temperature of coagulation and heat treatment on induced syneresis. Reconstituted instant skim milk (control samples and reconstituted instant skim milk heated at 87ºC for 10 min (experimental samples were coagulated at 30ºC and 35ºC, and pH of 5.8 and 6.2 with 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added. According to our results, these parameters had significant influence on nitrogen content of serum as well as on the distribution of nitrogen matter from gel into sera. Due to the formation of coaggregates the best rheological properties of gel were obtained for experimental samples coagulated with 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added at pH 5.8 and temperature of 35ºC.

  10. Impact and hardness optimisation of composite materials inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenberg, Gerrit; Graupner, Nina; Müssig, Jörg

    2015-08-20

    The babassu nut is the fruit of the babassu palm Orbignya speciosa. The combination of hardness and impact strength is difficult to acquire for artificial materials, making the babassu nut a promising source for biomimetic inspiration. Unnotched Charpy impact tests, Shore D hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy were used for mechanical and microscopical analysis of the pericarp. Four major principles were found for a biomimetic approach: a hard core ((1); endocarp) is embedded in a soft outer layer of high impact strength ((2); epicarp) and is reinforced with fibres of variable fineness (3), some of which are oriented radial to the core (4). Biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites were produced using abstracted mechanisms of the babassu nut based on regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell, L) with two different fineness values as reinforcement embedded in a polylactide (PLA) core matrix and polypropylene (PP) based outer layers. The biomimetic fibre composite reaches a significantly higher impact strength that is 1.6 times higher than the reference sample produced from a PLA/PP/L-blend. At the same time the hardness is slightly increased compared to PP/L.

  11. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  12. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Raijeli L.; Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Ng, Jack; Harris, Hugh H.; Noller, Barry

    2010-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  13. Durability of polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu

    The purpose of this research is to examine structural durability of advanced composite materials under critical loading conditions, e.g., combined thermal and mechanical loading and shear fatigue loading. A thermal buckling model of a burnt column, either axially restrained or under an axial applied force was developed. It was predicted that for a column exposed to the high heat flux under simultaneous constant compressive load, the response of the column is the same as that of an imperfection column; the instability of the burnt column happens. Based on the simplified theoretical prediction, the post-fire compressive behavior of fiberglass reinforced vinyl-ester composite columns, which have been exposed to high heat flux for a certain time was investigated experimentally, the post-fire compressive strength, modulus and failure mode were determined. The integrity of the same column under constant compressive mechanical loading combined with heat flux exposure was examined using a specially designed mechanical loading fixture that mounted directly below a cone calorimeter. All specimens in the experiments exhibited compressive instability. The experimental results show a thermal bending moment exists and has a significant influence on the structural behavior, which verified the thermal buckling model. The trend of response between the deflection of the column and exposure time is similar to that predicted by the model. A new apparatus was developed to study the monotonic shear and cyclic-shear behavior of sandwich structures. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed using PVC foam core polymeric sandwich materials. Shear failure occurred by the extension of cracks parallel to the face-sheet/core interface, the shear modulus degraded with the growth of fatigue damage. Finite element analysis was conducted to determine stress distribution in the proposed specimen geometry used in the new technique. Details for a novel apparatus used for the fatigue testing of thin

  14. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ON RETAINED AUSTENITE IN TRIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; Q.F. Wang; G.L. Yuan; C.Y. Li; X.Y. Li; Y.X. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The systematic chemical compositions including common C, Si, Mn, Al, and micro- alloying elements of Ti and Nb were designed for high volume fraction of retained austenite as much as possible. The thermo-cycle experiments were conducted by using Gleeble 2000 thermo-dynamic test machine for finding the appropriate composition. The experimental results showed that chemical composition had a significant effect on retained austenite, and the appropriate compositions were determined for commercial production of TRIP steels.

  15. In-situ Analysis of Laminated Composite Materials by X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Romain; Germaneau, Arnaud; Dupré, Jean-Christophe; Doumalin, Pascal; Mistou, Sébastien; Fazzini, Marina

    2013-01-01

    International audience The complex mechanical behaviour of composite materials, due to internal heterogeneity and multi-layered composition impose deeper studies. This paper presents an experimental investigation technique to perform volume kinematic measurements in composite materials. The association of X-ray micro-computed tomography acquisitions and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique allows the measurement of displacements and deformations in the whole volume of composite speci...

  16. Synthesis of Nanocobalt Powders for an Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Chemical Reduction and Carbon Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeon Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Co powders were prepared by a chemical reduction method with and without CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, C19H42BrN and carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, and the electrochemical properties of the prepared nanosized Co powders were examined to evaluate their suitability as an anode material of Li-ion batteries. Nanosized amorphous Co-based powders could be synthesized by a chemical reduction method in which a reducing agent is added to a Co ion-dissolved aqueous solution. When the prepared nanosized Co-based powders were subjected to carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, the amorphous phase was crystallized, and a Co single phase could be obtained. The Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction with CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment had a smaller first discharge capacity (about 557 mAh/g than the Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction without CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment (about 628 mAh/g. However, the former had a better cycling performance than the latter from the third cycle. The carbon-coated layers are believed to have led to quite good cycling performances of the prepared Co-based powders from the third cycle.

  17. Material Recognition for Content Based Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Geusebroek

    2002-01-01

    One of the open problems in content-based Image Retrieval is the recognition of material present in an image. Knowledge about the set of materials present gives important semantic information about the scene under consideration. For example, detecting sand, sky, and water certainly classifies the im

  18. Creep of fibrous composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Models are presented for the creep behaviour of fibrous composite materials with aligned fibres. The models comprise both cases where the fibres remain rigid in a creeping matrix and cases where the fibres are creeping in a creeping matrix. The treatment allows for several contributions...

  19. Modification of the titanium oxide morphology and composition by a combined chemical-electrochemical treatment on cp Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Peláez-Abellán

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A combined chemical-electrochemical oxidation method to obtain porous bioactive TiO2 films on titanium is reported. In this case, a titanium chemical pre-etching followed by the micro-arc oxidation (MAO treatment is proposed and optimized, to obtain a high-roughness and porous surface which benefits the titanium/bone integration. The MAO treatment at various rates (different current densities allowed to define the influence of the oxide growth rate on the surface morphology and to design the best features for each case. Titanium samples were pre-etched using a 2% HF solution as a function of the etching time, and then anodized by the MAO treatment in a 0.5 M H3PO4 solution at current densities in the 10 to 90 mA.cm-2 range. High porosity (0.5 to 1 µm-diameter pores and higher phosphorous content for TiO2 films were achieved by first etching the Ti sample for 180 seconds in the HF solution, and then applying current densities in the 80 to 90 mA.cm-2 range for the micro-arc oxidation process.

  20. Chemical Composition of Micrometer-Sized Filaments in an Aragonite Host by a Miniature Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulej, Marek; Neubeck, Anna; Ivarsson, Magnus; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Detection of extraterrestrial life is an ongoing goal in space exploration, and there is a need for advanced instruments and methods for the detection of signatures of life based on chemical and isotopic composition. Here, we present the first investigation of chemical composition of putative microfossils in natural samples using a miniature laser ablation/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS). The studies were conducted with high lateral (∼15 μm) and vertical (∼20-200 nm) resolution. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the instrument performance on micrometer-sized samples both in terms of isotope abundance and element composition. The following objectives had to be achieved: (1) Consider the detection and calculation of single stable isotope ratios in natural rock samples with techniques compatible with their employment of space instrumentation for biomarker detection in future planetary missions. (2) Achieve a highly accurate chemical compositional map of rock samples with embedded structures at the micrometer scale in which the rock matrix is easily distinguished from the micrometer structures. Our results indicate that chemical mapping of strongly heterogeneous rock samples can be obtained with a high accuracy, whereas the requirements for isotope ratios need to be improved to reach sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:26247475

  1. Preparation and characteristics of C/C composite brake disc by multi-cylindrical chemical vapor deposition processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yi-dong; ZHANG Fu-kuan; ZHOU Wan-cheng

    2005-01-01

    The C/C composite brake discs were prepared by tri-cylindrical chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The optimum processing parameters were as follows: deposition temperature was 830-930 ℃, the gas-flow rates of N2 and propylene were 4.8-5.2 m3/h and 5.8-6.2 m3/h, respectively, the furnace pressure was 4.5-5.5 kPa and the deposition time was 200 h.The effects of processing parameters on the densified rates, thermal-physical property and mechanical performance of C/C composite brake discs were studied. The results show that density, heat conductivity, bend strength and abrasion ratio of the multi-cylindrica brake discs are 1.02-1.78 g/cm3, 31 W/(m·K), 114 MPa and 7 μm/s, respectively, which are approximately similar to those of the single-cylindrical ones. The gas flow rate has no relation to the number of the cylinder and furnace loading. The utilization ratio of carbon can be improved by multi-cylinder CVD process without changing the characteristics of brake disc.

  2. Polyphenols content of spent coffee grounds subjected to physico-chemical pretreatments influences lignocellulolytic enzymes production by Bacillus sp. R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil, Omar; Choubane, Slimane; Cheba, Ben Amar

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of polyphenols content changes issued after physico-chemical treatments of spent coffee grounds on lignocellulolytic enzymes production by Bacillus sp. R2. Total polyphenols of the collected substrates were extracted with water under autoclaving conditions. Results showed that polyphenols content of spent coffee grounds decreased with continued treatments. Untreated spent coffee grounds were the best substrate for cellulase and pectinase (1.33±0.06μ/ml and 0.32±0.02μ/ml respectively). A strong positive correlation was noticed between polyphenols content and cellulase and pectinase activities. However, xylanase and peroxidase correlated moderately with polyphenols content and their highest activities were registered with spent coffee grounds treated with boiling water and 1% EDTA (0.31±0.002μ/ml and 15.56±0.56μ/ml respectively). The obtained results indicate that polyphenols content of the pretreated substrates influences the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Bacillus sp. R2.

  3. Polyphenols content of spent coffee grounds subjected to physico-chemical pretreatments influences lignocellulolytic enzymes production by Bacillus sp. R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil, Omar; Choubane, Slimane; Cheba, Ben Amar

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of polyphenols content changes issued after physico-chemical treatments of spent coffee grounds on lignocellulolytic enzymes production by Bacillus sp. R2. Total polyphenols of the collected substrates were extracted with water under autoclaving conditions. Results showed that polyphenols content of spent coffee grounds decreased with continued treatments. Untreated spent coffee grounds were the best substrate for cellulase and pectinase (1.33±0.06μ/ml and 0.32±0.02μ/ml respectively). A strong positive correlation was noticed between polyphenols content and cellulase and pectinase activities. However, xylanase and peroxidase correlated moderately with polyphenols content and their highest activities were registered with spent coffee grounds treated with boiling water and 1% EDTA (0.31±0.002μ/ml and 15.56±0.56μ/ml respectively). The obtained results indicate that polyphenols content of the pretreated substrates influences the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Bacillus sp. R2. PMID:27036331

  4. Gas and grain chemical composition in cold cores as predicted by the Nautilus 3-phase model

    CERN Document Server

    Ruaud, Maxime; Hersant, Franck

    2016-01-01

    We present an extended version of the 2-phase gas-grain code NAUTILUS to the 3-phase modelling of gas and grain chemistry of cold cores. In this model, both the mantle and the surface are considered as chemically active. We also take into account the competition among reaction, diffusion and evaporation. The model predictions are confronted to ice observations in the envelope of low-mass and massive young stellar objects as well as toward background stars. Modelled gas-phase abundances are compared to species observed toward TMC-1 (CP) and L134N dark clouds. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed ice species. It is found that the reaction-diffusion competition strongly enhances reactions with barriers and more specifically reactions with H2, which is abundant on grains. This finding highlights the importance to have a good approach to determine the abundance of H2 on grains. Consequently, it is found that the major N-bearing species on grains go from NH3 to N2 and HCN when the reaction-di...

  5. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed.

  6. Densification and microstructure of carbon/carbon composites prepared by chemical vapor infiltration using ethanol as precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration of carbon fiber felts with uniform initial bulk density of 0.47 g·cm-3 was investigated at the ethanol partial pressures of 5-20 kPa,as well as the temperatures of 1050,1100,1150 and 1200°C.Ethanol,diluted by nitrogen,was employed as the precursor of pyrolytic carbon.Polarized light microscopy(PLM),scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were adopted to study the texture of pyrolytic carbon deposited at various temperatures.A change from medium-to high-textured pyrolytic carbon was observed in the sample infiltrated at 1050°C.Whereas,homogeneous high-textured pyrolytic carbons were deposited at the temperatures of 1100,1150 and 1200°C.Extinction angles of 19°-21° were determined for different regions in the samples densified at the temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1200°C.Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface after bending test indicated that the prepared carbon/carbon composite samples exhibited a pseudo-plastic fracture behavior.In addition,fracture behavior of the carbon/carbon samples was obviously effected by their infiltration temperature.The fracture mode of C/C composites was transformed from shearing failure to tensile breakage with increasing infiltration temperature. Results of this study show that ethanol is a promising carbon source to synthesize carbon/carbon composites with homogeneously high-textured pyrolytic carbon over a wide range of temperatures(from 1100 to 1200°C).

  7. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested

  8. Layer by Layer Ex-Situ Deposited Cobalt-Manganese Oxide as Composite Electrode Material for Electrochemical Capacitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusi

    Full Text Available The composite metal oxide electrode films were fabricated using ex situ electrodeposition method with further heating treatment at 300°C. The obtained composite metal oxide film had a spherical structure with mass loading from 0.13 to 0.21 mg cm(-2. The structure and elements of the composite was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. The electrochemical performance of different composite metal oxides was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD. As an active electrode material for a supercapacitor, the Co-Mn composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 285 Fg(-1 at current density of 1.85 Ag(-1 in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The best composite electrode, Co-Mn electrode was then further studied in various electrolytes (i.e., 0.5 M KOH and 0.5 M KOH/0.04 M K3Fe(CN 6 electrolytes. The pseudocapacitive nature of the material of Co-Mn lead to a high specific capacitance of 2.2 x 10(3 Fg(-1 and an energy density of 309 Whkg(-1 in a 0.5 M KOH/0.04 M K3Fe(CN 6 electrolyte at a current density of 10 Ag(-1. The specific capacitance retention obtained 67% of its initial value after 750 cycles. The results indicate that the ex situ deposited composite metal oxide nanoparticles have promising potential in future practical applications.

  9. Bacterial community composition in the gut content and ambient sediment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    Full Text Available The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments.

  10. Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  11. Schima superba outperforms other tree species by changing foliar chemical composition and shortening construction payback time when facilitated by shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Guo, Qinfeng; Ren, Hai; Sun, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year field experiment was conducted in a subtropical degraded shrubland to assess how a nurse plant, the native shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, affects the growth of the target trees Pinus elliottii, Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, and Michelia macclurei, and to probe the intrinsic mechanisms from leaf chemical composition, construction cost (CC), and payback time aspects. We compared tree seedlings grown nearby shrub canopy (canopy subplots, CS) and in open space (open subplots, OS). S. superba in CS showed greater growth, while P. elliottii and M. macclurei were lower when compared to the plants grown in the OS. The reduced levels of high-cost compounds (proteins) and increased levels of low-cost compounds (organic acids) caused reduced CC values for P. elliottii growing in CS. While, the levels of both low-cost minerals and high-cost proteins increased in CS such that CC values of S. superba were similar in OS and CS. Based on maximum photosynthetic rates, P. elliottii required a longer payback time to construct required carbon in canopy than in OS, but the opposite was true for S. superba. The information from this study can be used to evaluate the potential of different tree species in the reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands. PMID:26814426

  12. [Chemical composition analysis of bluish-white porcelain unearthed from Fanchang kiln, Anhui province by wave disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-zhang; Zhang, Ju-zhong; Zan, Yi

    2010-08-01

    Fanchang kiln was the earliest Chinese bluish-white porcelain kiln which first fired this special porcelain class as early as in Five Dynasties (AD 907-960). However, this important kiln declined rapidly in the middle North Song dynasty (AD 1023-1085). As to the decline reason, it is still not clearly identified till now. In order to find the truth, wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) was used to determine the elemental abundance patterns of its porcelain bodies in Five Dynasties, the early North Song dynasty and the middle North Song dynasty. The analytical results indicate that the chemical compositions of major, minor and trace elements in porcelain bodies changed greatly in the middle North Song dynasty. Combined with the results of INAA and glaze study, this change in elemental composition should be caused by the change in porcelain raw materials or body-making crafts. Meanwhile, it was just this change that led to the quality decline of raw material and rapid collapse of Fan-chang kiln in the middle North Song dynasty shortly after its establishment. PMID:20939361

  13. Analysis of Composite Material Blended With Thermoplastics and Jute Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently natural fibres have been receiving considerable attention as substitutes for synthetic fibre reinforcements due to their low cost, low density, acceptable specific strength, good thermal insulation properties, reduced tool wear, reduced thermal and respiratory irritation and renewable resources. The aim of this work is to develop chemically treated and chemically untreated fibre reinforced composite material with optimum properties so that it can replace the existing synthetic fibre reinforced composite material for a suitable application. In this work, polyester resin has been reinforced with jute fabric, so as to develop jute fibre reinforced plastic (JFRP with a weight ratio of 10:1:1 Hand lay-up technique was used to manufacture the composites where Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and cobalt Naphthalene were used as coupling agent and accelerator respectively. The thickness of the composite specimen was obtained by laying up layer of fibre and matrix. The untreated composites have been used and mechanical properties are compared with natural fibre and jute fibre composite by using the Ansys method.

  14. Synthesis and degradation properties of -TCP/BG porous composite materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fan Xin; Chen Jian; Ruan Jianming; Zhou Zhongcheng; Zou Jianpeng

    2011-04-01

    -TCP/BG porous composite materials were successfully fabricated by foaming technology. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystal structure of powders. The pore size and distribution of the resulting materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The porosity and degradation performance of materials were also investigated. The results showed that the porous composite materials possessed the pore size ranging from 100 to 500 m in diameter, whereas the interconnection among macrospores was poor. The porosity in materials increased from 58.7% to 63.47% with BG content ranging from 0 to 3 wt%, further increasing of BG content results in a decrease in porosity. The degradation rate of composite materials can be adjusted by varying the BG content.

  15. Absolute fission rate measurement of 238U induced by 14 MeV neutrons penetrated composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prove the model calculation method and parameter, the 238U absolute fission rate in the case of 14 MeV neutrons penetrating through the special composite material was measured by minitype slab uranium fission chambers. The measuring spots are distributed in the surface of iron ball hull along the different position of equator. The calculated results are compared with the experiment results. The total error of measured 238U absolute fission rate is 6.1%. (author)

  16. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Qiang Han; Shuya Cao; Feng Huang; Molin Qin; Chenghai Guo; Mingyu Ding

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical an...

  17. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G). Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication. (paper)

  18. STUDY OF THE VARIABILITY IN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BARK LAYERS OF QUERCUS SUBER L. FROM DIFFERENT PRODUCTION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jové

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cork is the bark of the cork oak tree (Quercus suber L, a renewable and biodegradable raw bioresource concentrated mainly in the Mediterranean region. Development of its potential uses as a biosorbent will require the investigation of its chemical composition; such information can be of help to understand its interactions with organic pollutants. The present study investigates the summative chemical composition of three bark layers (back, cork, and belly of five Spanish cork samples and one cork sample from Portugal. Suberin was the main component in all the samples (21.1 to 53.1%, followed by lignin (14.8 to 31%, holocellulose (2.3 to 33.6%, extractives (7.3 to 20.4%, and ash (0.4 to 3.3%. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether the variations in chemical composition with respect to the production area and bark layers were significant. The results indicate that, with respect to the bark layer, significant differences were found only for suberin and holocellulose contents: they were higher in the belly and cork than in the back. Based on the results presented, cork is a material with a lot of potential because of its heterogeneity in chemical composition.

  19. Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage. The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%, p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%, trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%, d-limonene (0.51-3.03% and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%. The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TFC, total triterpenoids content (TTC and total free amino acids content (TFAAC were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam.

  20. Fabrication of a nanostructured gold-polymer composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K; Witcomb, M; Scurrell, M

    2006-07-01

    A facile synthesis route is described for the preparation of a poly-(o-aminophenol)-gold nanoparticle composite material by polymerization of o-aminophenol (AP) monomer using HAuCl(4) as the oxidant. The synthesis was carried out in a methanol medium so that it could serve a dual solvent role, a solvent for both the AP and the water solution of HAuCl(4). It was found that oxidative polymerization of AP leads to the formation of poly-AP with a diameter of 50+/-10nm, while the reduction of AuCl(4) (-) results in the formation of gold nanoparticles ( approximately 2nm). The gold nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and highly stabilized throughout the macromolecular chain that formed a uniform metal-polymer composite material. The resultant composite material was characterized by means of different techniques, such as UV-vis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, which offered the information about the chemical structure of polymer, whereas electron microscopy images provided information regarding the morphology of the composite material and the distribution of the metal particles in the composite material.

  1. Measurement of nonlinear optical refraction of composite material based on sapphire with silver by Kerr-lens autocorrelation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-xiang; Wang, Yu-hua

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n(2) = -1.1 × 10(-15) cm(2)W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

  2. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  3. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  4. Composite materials based on porous ceramic preform infiltrated by aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, A.; A. J. Nowak; M. Kremzer; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this project is the optimization of manufacturing technology of the ceramic preforms basedon Al2O3 powder manufactured by the pressure infiltration method with liquid metal alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the method of sintering of ceramicpowder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the forming factor ofthe structure of canals and pores inside the ceramic agglomerated framework the carbon fibers...

  5. Elaboration of Alumina-Zirconia Composites: Role of the Zirconia Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palmero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alumina-zirconia (AZ composites are attractive structural materials, which combine the high hardness and Young’s modulus of the alumina matrix with additional toughening effects, due to the zirconia dispersion. In this study, AZ composites containing different amounts of zirconia (in the range 5–20 vol % were prepared by a wet chemical method, consisting on the surface coating of alumina powders by mixing them with zirconium salt aqueous solutions. After spray-drying, powders were calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. Green bodies were then prepared by two methods: uniaxial pressing of spray-dried granules and slip casting of slurries, obtained by re-dispersing the spray dried granulates. After pressureless sintering at 1500 °C for 1 h, the slip cast samples gave rise to fully dense materials, characterized by a quite homogeneous distribution of ZrO2 grains in the alumina matrix. The microstructure, phase composition, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation behavior and mechanical properties were investigated and are here discussed as a function of the ZrO2 content. The material containing 10 vol % ZrO2 presented a relevant hardness and exhibited the maximum value of KI0, mainly imputable to the t → m transformation at the crack tip.

  6. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  7. Fertilization Effects on the Chemical Composition and In vitro Organic Matter Digestibility of Semi-natural Meadows as Predicted by NIR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. DALE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of livestock grazing in highly-productive mountain meadows is an important aspect for the economic viability and the environmental impact of a grassland-based farm. The main aim of this study was to build near infrared models to determine the chemical composition and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Romanian meadow forages. The treatments were organic and mineral fertilizer combinations, and forage samples were obtained from three fertilization experiments conducted in the Apuseni Mountains; these samples were analysed using classical and NIR methods. The samples were scanned in the NIR wavelength band. The CRA-W Gembloux ‘local’ calibration models were validated with Romanian meadow forages and then used in order to predict the forage quality of samples. A second objective of the study was to determine the effects of fertilization on forage quality. The results showed a decrease in crude protein content from the NPK treatment (150:75:75, which can be explained by a reduction of Fabaceae plants with this treatment from 17.25% of the populations in the control (semi-natural meadow not fertilized to 6.25% in the fertilized plots. The decrease in protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility was related to a reduced Fabaceae presence. Our recommendation is to use mineral fertilization with NPK doses less than 100:50:50 to improve meadow productivity; meanwhile organic fertilization can also be used to complement and maintain biodiversity and forage quality.

  8. RELATION BETWEEN PARTICLES SIZE OF RAW MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES OF MULLITE–ZrO2 COMPOSITES PREPARED BY REACTION-SINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAHMANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mullite–zirconia composites were prepared by reaction-sintering of alumina and zircon powder. Besides, the slip casting method was employed for fabrication of these composites and different times of milling process were used for reducing the particles size of raw materials. Then, the effect of raw materials particles size on the properties of these composites was investigated. The physical properties, fracture toughness, flexural strength, phase composition and microstructure of these composites after firing at 1600°C were studied. The results showed that the milling time and then, particles size of raw materials have a great effect on the phase composition and properties of mullite–zirconia composites. The formation of tetragonal-zirconia is favored by reducing of particle size which, leads to increasing of the fracture toughness and flexural strength of these composites.

  9. Chemical modeling of boron adsorption by humic materials using the constant capacitance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The constant capacitance surface complexation model was used to describe B adsorption behavior on reference Aldrich humic acid, humic acids from various soil environments, and dissolved organic matter extracted from sewage effluents. The reactive surface functional groups on the humic materials wer...

  10. Chemical composition of lamina and sheath of Lolium perenne as affected by herbage management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of grass in terms of form and relative amounts of energy and protein affects both animal production per unit of intake and nitrogen (N) utilization. Quality can be manipulated by herbage management and choice of cultivar. The effects of N application rate (0, 90 or 390 kg N ha¿1 year¿1),

  11. INTELLIGENT MATERIALS BASED ON CERAMIC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Maximov, Y.; Merzlikin, V.; Sidorov, O.; Suttugin, V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility to design intellectual materials based on film composites. Ferroelectric composites are offered to use as the film composites. The authors discuss ferroelectric composites of different structures. Sensors and intellectual materials on the basis of the obtained composites are considered.

  12. On the chemical characterization of colloid cyst contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, ECI; Go, KG; Molenaar, WM; Amerongen, AVN; Vissink, A

    1998-01-01

    Colloid cysts of the third ventricle have been investigated by chemical characterization of the cyst contents using ELISA with monoclonal antibodies for certain carbohydrate epitopes as well as a polyclonal antiserum against peptide domains, and immunohistochemistry on the cyst wall using the same a

  13. HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLUIDS EMITTED BY THE CRATER FUMAROLES AT MT. ETNA

    OpenAIRE

    Liotta, Marcello; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia

    2010-01-01

    The geochemistry of gas discharges located at the top of volcanic edifices is receiving upward consideration as it critically constrains models and schemes of fluid circulation below crateric areas. The fumarolic system at the crater area of Mt. Etna volcano represents an interesting case study from this point of view. Mt Etna is one of the most-active volcanoes in the world. It is characterized by major eruptions, frequent Strombolian activity, and ash emissions. The volcano summit consi...

  14. The Development of Low-Cost Integrated Composite Seal for SOFC: Materials and Design Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinyu Huang; Kristoffer Ridgeway; Srivatsan Narasimhan; Serg Timin; Wei Huang; Didem Ozevin; Ken Reifsnider

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted by UConn SOFC seal development team during the Phase I program and no cost extension. The work included composite seal sample fabrication, materials characterizations, leak testing, mechanical strength testing, chemical stability study and acoustic-based diagnostic methods. Materials characterization work revealed a set of attractive material properties including low bulk permeability, high electrical resistivity, good mechanical robustness. Composite seal samples made of a number of glasses and metallic fillers were tested for sealing performance under steady state and thermal cycling conditions. Mechanical testing included static strength (pull out) and interfacial fracture toughness measurements. Chemically stability study evaluated composite seal material stability after aging at 800 C for 168 hrs. Acoustic based diagnostic test was conducted to help detect and understand the micro-cracking processes during thermal cycling test. The composite seal concept was successfully demonstrated and a set of material (coating composition & fillers) were identified to have excellent thermal cycling performance.

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS THE DIETARY CORN BY-PRODUCTS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA CIURESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study conducted in INCDBNA –BALOTESTI on 840 Ross- 308 broilers from hatching to 42 days. The broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control – C, and two experimental – GLU and GERM, with 280 broilers per group (3 groups ´ 2 replicates ´ 140 broilers. Three compound feeds formulations were used, one control and two experimental. The control diet was based on corn, soybean meal, full fat soy and fish meal; in the experimental groups the fish meal was replaced by corn gluten (GLU; in the other experimental group the full fat soy was replaced by corn germs (GERM. All compound feeds formulations were isoprotein, isocaloric and contained equal levels of total and digestible sulphur amino acids, lysine, calcium and available phosphorus, in agreement with the feeding requirements recommended for the intensive rearing of these performing hybrids. The broilers were phased feed with diets according to their age: start (0 – 14 days, growerdeveloper (15 – 28 days and finisher (29 – 42 days. The monitored productive parameters were: average daily feed intake (g; body weight evolution by growth stage (g; feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain; stock liveability (%; slaughtering yield and proportion of carcass parts (%, economic efficiency (%.

  16. Tough composite materials: Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosteen, L. F. (Editor); Johnston, N. J. (Editor); Teichman, L. A. (Editor); Blankenship, C. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The present volume broadly considers topics in composite fracture toughness and impact behavior characterization, composite system constituent properties and their interrelationships, and matrix systems' synthesis and characterization. Attention is given to the characterization of interlaminar crack growth in composites by means of the double cantilever beam specimen, the characterization of delamination resistance in toughened resin composites, the effect of impact damage and open holes on the compressive strength of tough resin/high strain fiber laminates, the effect of matrix and fiber properties on compression failure mechanisms and impact resistance, the relation of toughened neat resin properties to advanced composite mechanical properties, and constituent and composite properties' relationships in thermosetting matrices. Also treated are the effect of cross-link density on the toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified epoxies, the chemistry of fiber/resin interfaces, novel carbon fibers and their properties, the development of a heterogeneous laminating resin, solvent-resistant thermoplastics, NASA Lewis research in advanced composites, and opportunities for the application of composites in commercial aircraft transport structures.

  17. Comparative investigation of minerals, chlorophylls contents, fatty acid composition and thermal profiles of olive leaves (Olea europeae L. as by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahloul, N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a chemical (the minerals, chlorophyll contents and fatty acids and thermophysical investigation (DSC profile of four varieties of olive leaves grown in Tunisia. The total chlorophy1l contents of olive leaves ranged from 1132.33 to 1795.93 ppm. The results showed that linolenic acid (C18:3 is the major fatty acid in olive leaves (from 30.02 to 42.16%, followed by oleic acid (C18:1 and palmitic acid (C16:0. The thermal profiles of olive leaf extracts determined by their DSC melting curves revealed simple thermograms with a single peak after melting. The hexane extract of the Chemchali variety, which contained relatively high unsaturated fatty acids and low saturated fatty acid levels, exhibited the lowest peak temperature value (54.59 °C and required the smallest amount of energy for melting (31.57 J·g−1. This study showed that olive leaves possessed physicochemical properties and a fatty acid composition that may become interesting for industrial applications.Este trabajo presenta estudios de la composición química (minerales, contenido de clorofila y ácidos grasos e inves tigaciones termofísicas ( perfil DSC de cuatro variedades de hojas de olivo cultivadas en Túnez. Los contenidos totales de clorofila de las hojas de olivo oscilaron entre 1132,33 y 1795,93 ppm. Los resultados mostraron que el ácido linolénico (C18:3 es el ácido graso principal en las hojas de olivo (30,02 a 42,16%, seguido de los ácidos oleico (C18:1 y palmítico (C16:0. Los perfiles térmicos de los extractos de hoja de olivo determinados por sus curvas de fusion, DSC mostró termogramas simples con un solo pico después de la fusión. El extracto de hexano de la variedad Chemchali, que contenía ácidos grasos insaturados relativamente mas altos y bajos niveles de ácidos grasos saturados, exhibió el pico de temperatura más baja (54,59 °C y requiere menor energía para la fusión (31,57 J·g−1. Este estudio mostró que las hojas de olivo

  18. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  19. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  20. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  1. Optimization of chemical compositions in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel produced by ultra-fast continuous annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Futao, E-mail: dongft@sina.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Linxiu; Liu, Xianghua [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, Fei [College of Electrical Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2013-10-15

    The influence of Mn,S and B contents on microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties and hydrogen trapping ability of low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel was investigated. The materials were produced and processed in a laboratory and the ultra-fast continuous annealing processing was performed using a continuous annealing simulator. It was found that increasing Mn,S contents in steel can improve its hydrogen trapping ability which is attributed by refined ferrite grains, more dispersed cementite and added MnS inclusions. Nevertheless, it deteriorates mechanical properties of steel sheet. Addition of trace boron results in both good mechanical properties and significantly improved hydrogen trapping ability. The boron combined with nitrogen segregating at grain boundaries, cementite and MnS inclusions, provides higher amount of attractive hydrogen trapping sites and raises the activation energy for hydrogen desorption from them. - Highlights: • We study microstructures and properties in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel. • Hydrogen diffusion coefficients are measured to reflect fish-scale resistance. • Manganese improves hydrogen trapping ability but decrease deep-drawing ability. • Boron improves both hydrogen trapping ability and deep-drawing ability. • Both excellent mechanical properties and fish-scale resistance can be matched.

  2. State of the Art of degasification techniques, in the shaping processes of composite materials prepared by resin infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tarazona Romero, Myriam Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The development of composite materials has represented many advances in the naval, aeronautical and aerospace sector complying with specific properties that increase the strength of the material, depending on the application being used and the environmental conditions to which it is exposed. Composite materials as the constituted with carbon fiber reinforcements of epoxy type matrix, nowadays are used for the manufacture of components in the structure of the aircrafts for their reductions of ...

  3. The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  4. Investigation of the chemical composition of mineral fractions of the Tsarev chondrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, L.F.; Fisenko, A.V.; Kashkarova, V.G.; Melnikova, L.N.; Bezrogova, E.V.; Pomytkina, V.A.; Lavrukhina, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    A selective-dissolution method was used to study the chemical composition of mineral fractions of the Tsarev chondrite. Redistributions of Na, K, and P were found in mineral fractions of L-chondrites which have experienced different degrees of impact metamorphism. It is shown that the normative composition of inclusions in olivine in the Tsarev chondrite is characterized by a high content of diopside and anorthite components. 24 references.

  5. Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeli, Mara; Perrenet, Jacob; Jochems, Wim M. G.; Zwaneveld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article is to understand to what extent Computer Science teachers can find support for their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in teaching material. We report the results of a study in which PCK is used as framework to develop a research instrument to examine three high school computer science textbooks, with special focus on…

  6. Effect of different alkali treatments on the chemical composition, physical properties, and microstructure of pidan white

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianwei; Jiang, Aimin; Chen, Mingtsao; Ockerman, Herbert W.; Chen, Jiaojiao

    2013-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical property and microstructure of pidan white treated with 4.5 % NaOH or 5.5 % KOH were monitored during pickling up to 4 weeks, and followed by aging for another 2 weeks. As the pickling and ageing times increased, moisture content of pidan white decreased and salt content increased for both (4.5 % NaOH and 5.5 % KOH) treatments (P 

  7. Chemical composition of Earth-like planets

    CERN Document Server

    Ronco, M P; Marboeuf, U; Alibert, Y; de Elía, G C; Guilera, O M

    2015-01-01

    Models of planet formation are mainly focused on the accretion and dynamical processes of the planets, neglecting their chemical composition. In this work, we calculate the condensation sequence of the different chemical elements for a low-mass protoplanetary disk around a solar-type star. We incorporate this sequence of chemical elements (refractory and volatile elements) in our semi-analytical model of planet formation which calculates the formation of a planetary system during its gaseous phase. The results of the semi-analytical model (final distributions of embryos and planetesimals) are used as initial conditions to develope N-body simulations that compute the post-oligarchic formation of terrestrial-type planets. The results of our simulations show that the chemical composition of the planets that remain in the habitable zone has similar characteristics to the chemical composition of the Earth. However, exist differences that can be associated to the dynamical environment in which they were formed.

  8. Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S thin films with low Zn content obtained by an ammonia-free chemical bath deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreón-Moncada, I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, CP. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coah., México (Mexico); González, L.A., E-mail: luis.gonzalez@cinvestav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, CP. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coah., México (Mexico); Pech-Canul, M.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, CP. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coah., México (Mexico); Ramírez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, CP. 76001 Querétaro, Qro., México (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S films with low Zn content were obtained on glass substrates by an ammonia-free chemical bath deposition process. Alkaline reaction solutions were prepared using cadmium chloride, zinc chloride, sodium citrate, thiourea and potassium hydroxide. As a result of varying the mixture ratio between Cd and Zn precursors, microstructural studies from X-ray diffraction reveal that the resulting films have hexagonal, wurzite type, crystalline structure with changes in the preferential growth orientation. Important changes on the surface morphology and thickness of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S films were also observed as effects of adding Zn to the CdS lattice. Optical studies show that Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S thin films with energy band gaps in the range from 2.48 to 2.65 eV were obtained. - Highlights: • Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S layers were grown on glass by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition • Films with low Zn content were obtained using reaction solutions with pH11.5 • Zn addition produced changes on the orientation growth and morphology of the films • Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S films have energy band gap values from 2.48 to 2.65 eV.

  9. Correlation between biogas yield and chemical composition of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandikas, V; Heuwinkel, H; Lichti, F; Drewes, J E; Koch, K

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the influence of the chemical composition of energy crops on biogas and methane yield. In total, 41 different plants were analyzed in batch test and their chemical composition was determined. For acid detergent lignin (ADL) content below 10% of total solids, a significant negative correlation for biogas and methane yields (r≈-0.90) was observed. Based on a simple regression analysis, more than 80% of the sample variation can be explained through ADL. Based on a principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, ADL and hemicellulose are suggested as suitable model variables for biogas yield potential predictions across plant species. PMID:25443623

  10. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste. PMID:27216729

  11. Global Materials Structure Search with Chemically Motivated Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosetti, Chiara; Krautgasser, Konstantin; Palagin, Dennis; Reuter, Karsten; Maurer, Reinhard J

    2015-12-01

    Identification of relevant reaction pathways in ever more complex composite materials and nanostructures poses a central challenge to computational materials discovery. Efficient global structure search, tailored to identify chemically relevant intermediates, could provide the necessary first-principles atomistic insight to enable a rational process design. In this work we modify a common feature of global geometry optimization schemes by employing automatically generated collective curvilinear coordinates. The similarity of these coordinates to molecular vibrations enhances the generation of chemically meaningful trial structures for covalently bound systems. In the application to hydrogenated Si clusters, we concomitantly observe a significantly increased efficiency in identifying low-energy structures and exploit it for an extensive sampling of potential products of silicon-cluster soft landing on Si(001) surfaces.

  12. Interface structure of Ag(111)/SnO2(200) composite material studied by density functional theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Electric contact material of Ag/SnO2 was successfully synthesized by in situ process method.The in-terface structure was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy(HTEM) and simulated at atomic scale on computer.The mean-square displacements of atoms near the interface were calculated,and the results showed that near the interface both Ag side and SnO2 were mis-matched and this effect decays rapidly far from the interface.By inspecting the calculated density of states(DOS),we found that the electric-conductivity of this composite material was decreased because of the localized 4d and 2p electrons of Ag and O near the Fermi surface,respectively.Electron density changed acutely across the interface,so that there was no extra compound precipitated.A mi-cro-electric field also formed in the whole material due to the interface structure,and this may affect the electron conduction and the related electric-conductivity of the composite.It is found that the interface cohesive energy of Ag(111)/SnO2(200) was-3.50 J/m2,which is higher than the experimental results.

  13. Catechol-based layer-by-layer assembly of composite coatings: a versatile platform to hierarchical nano-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C X; Braendle, A; Menyo, M S; Pester, C W; Perl, E E; Arias, I; Hawker, C J; Klinger, D

    2015-08-21

    Inspired by the marine mussel's ability to adhere to surfaces underwater, an aqueous catechol-based dip coating platform was developed. Using a catechol-functionalized polyacrylamide binder in combination with inorganic nanoparticles enables the facile fabrication of robust composite coatings via a layer-by-layer process. This modular assembly of well-defined building blocks provides a versatile alternative to electrostatic driven approaches with layer thickness and refractive indices being readily tunable. The platform nature of this approach enables the fabrication of hierarchically ordered nano-materials such as Bragg stacks.

  14. High-temperature superconducting materials produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma spraying method is used widely for the formation of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials in the form of coatings. The structure of these coatings after spraying consists mainly of disc-shaped particles with a thickness of 1-10 μm, solidified separately (Fig. 1). Depending on the power of the plasma jet (the temperature of sprayed particles) and the substrate temperature, the chemical composition of the coatings changes, and the increase of temperature is accompanied by a relative decrease of the content of Ba and Cu (Fig. 2)

  15. DOE/MSU composite material fatigue database: Test methods, materials, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, J.F.; Samborsky, D.D. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the results from fatigue studies of wind turbine blade composite materials carried out at Montana State University (MSU) over the last seven years. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the DOE/MSU composite Materials Fatigue Database. The fatigue testing of composite materials requires the adaptation of standard test methods to the particular composite structure of concern. The stranded fabric E-glass reinforcement used by many blade manufacturers has required the development of several test modifications to obtain valid test data for materials with particular reinforcement details, over the required range of tensile and compressive loadings. Additionally, a novel testing approach to high frequency (100 Hz) testing for high cycle fatigue using minicoupons has been developed and validated. The database for standard coupon tests now includes over 4,100 data points for over 110 materials systems. The report analyzes the database for trends and transitions in static and fatigue behavior with various materials parameters. Parameters explored are reinforcement fabric architecture, fiber content, content of fibers oriented in the load direction, matrix material, and loading parameters (tension, compression, and reversed loading). Significant transitions from good fatigue resistance to poor fatigue resistance are evident in the range of materials currently used in many blades. A preliminary evaluation of knockdowns for selected structural details is also presented. The high frequency database provides a significant set of data for various loading conditions in the longitudinal and transverse directions of unidirectional composites out to 10{sup 8} cycles. The results are expressed in stress and strain based Goodman Diagrams suitable for design. A discussion is provided to guide the user of the database in its application to blade design.

  16. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Seidel, J.

    2016-08-01

    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  17. Physical Characterization and Steam Chemical Reactivity of Carbon Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, Robert Andrew; Pawelko, Robert James; Smolik, Galen Richard

    2001-05-01

    This report documents experiments and analyses that have been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to measure the steam chemical reactivity of two types of carbon fiber composites, NS31 and NB31, proposed for use at the divertor strike points in an ITER-like tokamak. These materials are 3D CFCs constituted by a NOVOLTEX preform and densified by pyrocarbon infiltration and heat treatment. NS31 differs from NB31 in that the final infiltration was done with liquid silicon to reduce the porosity and enhance the thermal conductivity of the CFC. Our approach in this work was twofold: (1) physical characterization measurements of the specimens and (2) measurements of the chemical reactivity of specimens exposed to steam.

  18. The chemical composition of rivers and snow affected by the 2014/2015 Bárðarbunga eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2016-04-01

    The 2014/15 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption was the largest in Iceland for more than 200 years. This eruption released into the atmosphere on average 60,000 tonnes/day of SO2, 30,000 tonnes/day of CO2, and 500 tonnes/day of HCl affecting the chemical composition of rain, snow, and surface water. The interaction of these volcanic gases with natural waters, decreases fluid pH and accelerates rock dissolution. This leads to the enhanced release of elements, including toxic metals such as aluminium, to these waters. River monitoring, including spot and continuous osmotic sampling, shows that although the water conductivity was relatively stable during the volcanic unrest, the dissolution of volcanic gases increased the SO4, F, and Cl concentrations of local surface waters by up to two orders of magnitude decreasing the carbon alkalinity. In addition the concentration of SiO2, Ca, Mg, Na and trace metals rose considerably due to the water-molten lava and hot solid lava interaction. The presence of pristine lava and acidic gases increased the average chemical denudation rate, calculated based on Na flux, within Jökulsá á Fjöllum catchment by a factor of two compared to the background flux. Melted snow samples collected at the eruption site were characterised by a strong dependence of the pH on SO4, F and Cl and metal concentrations, indicating that volcanic gases and aerosols acidified the snow. Protons balanced about half of the negatively charged anions; the rest was balanced by water-soluble salts and aerosols containing a variety of metals including Al, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg. The concentrations of F, Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu, and Pb in the snowmelt water surpassed drinking- and surface water standards. Snowmelt-river water mixing calculations indicate that low alkalinity surface waters, such as numerous salmon rivers in East Iceland, will be more affected by polluted snowmelt waters than high alkalinity spring and glacier fed rivers.

  19. Ceramic materials for energy and environmental applications: Functionalizing of properties by tailored compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Mariya; Ricote, Sandrine; Baumann, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    Stable social development requires novel approaches for energy production, distribution and storage combined with reasonable restrictions of the environmental impact. The fuel cell-based technologies, as well as the separation of gases from mixtures, particularly implemented into innovative power...... separation and ion/electron transport at the relevant operating conditions and stability ranges, improved electrical or ionic conductivities and permeation rates are required. That can be achieved by doping and substitution which are actors on a nano-scale that usually lead to macroscopic impacts...... of protons, oxygen ions and/or electronic carriers, stability, etc. The present chapter will therefore consider the structural features of selected material classes, as well as the principles of transport in bulk and microporous solids. It will furthermore illustrate and discuss the effects of selected...

  20. Evaluation of fracture resistance of indirect composite resin crowns by cyclic impact test: influence of crown and abutment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Kenji; Minami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of abutment materials on the fracture resistance of composite crowns for premolars. Composite crowns were fabricated using two different indirect composite resin materials (Meta Color Prime Art or Estenia C&B) and cemented onto either a metal (Castwell M.C. 12) or composite resin (Build-It FR and FibreKor) abutment with resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Twenty-four specimens were fabricated for four groups (n=6 each) and subjected to 280-N cyclic impact loading at 1.0 Hz. The number of cycles which caused the composite crown to fracture was defined as its fracture resistance. All data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and the Bonferroni test (α=0.05). Composite crowns cemented onto resin abutments showed higher fracture resistance than those cemented onto metal abutments.

  1. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  2. Chemical and physical changes of packaging materials for food by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Yamada, Takashi [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Film and sheet of polyethylene and polystyrene added with BHT, Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 as antioxidant were treated by gamma-ray irradiation. The change of additive residues, monomer and decomposition products of additives, the tensile strength and change of tone and odor were studied. Polystyrene was the most stable for irradiation. Polypropylene products and large amount of decomposition products indicated very decrease of tensile strength. Polyethylene was more stable than polypropylene, but yellowing was very large. Acetic acid, propion acid, 2-butanone and 2, 4-penyanedione in the decomposition products were controlled by adding antioxidants. Their irradiated decompositions, DTBBQ and 2, 4-DP, were observed. Decreasing of the tensile strength of polypropylene was improved by addition of Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168. The antioxidants were decreased by irradiation, especially BHC and Irgafos 168. (S.Y.)

  3. Chemical and physical changes of packaging materials for food by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Film and sheet of polyethylene and polystyrene added with BHT, Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 as antioxidant were treated by gamma-ray irradiation. The change of additive residues, monomer and decomposition products of additives, the tensile strength and change of tone and odor were studied. Polystyrene was the most stable for irradiation. Polypropylene products and large amount of decomposition products indicated very decrease of tensile strength. Polyethylene was more stable than polypropylene, but yellowing was very large. Acetic acid, propion acid, 2-butanone and 2, 4-penyanedione in the decomposition products were controlled by adding antioxidants. Their irradiated decompositions, DTBBQ and 2, 4-DP, were observed. Decreasing of the tensile strength of polypropylene was improved by addition of Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168. The antioxidants were decreased by irradiation, especially BHC and Irgafos 168. (S.Y.)

  4. Chemical composition and temperature dependent performance of ZnO-thin film transistors deposited by pulsed and continuous spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) deposited by continuous and pulsed spray pyrolysis were investigated to analyze process kinetics which make reduction of process temperature possible. Thus, fluid mechanics, chemical composition, electrical performance, and deposition and annealing temperature were systematically analyzed. It was found that ZnO layers continuously deposited at 360 °C contained zinc oxynitrides, CO3, and hydro carbonate groups from pyrolysis of basic zinc acetate. Statistically, every second wurtzite ZnO unit cell contained an impurity atom. The purity and performance of the ZnO-TFTs increased systematically with increasing deposition temperature due to an improved oxidation processes. At 500 °C the zinc to oxygen ratio exceeded a high value of 0.96. Additionally, the ZnO film was not found to be in a stabilized state after deposition even at high temperatures. Introducing additional subsequent annealing steps stabilizes the film and allows the reduction of the overall thermal stress to the substrate. Further improvement of device characteristics was obtained by pulsed deposition which allowed a more effective transport of the by-products and oxygen. A significant reduction of the deposition temperature by 140 °C was achieved compared to the same performance as in continuous deposition mode. The trap density close to the Fermi energy could be reduced by a factor of two to 4 × 1017 eV−1 cm−3 due to the optimized combustion process on the surface. The optimization of the deposition processes made the fabrication of TFTs with excellent performance possible. The mobility was high and exceeded 12 cm2/V s, the subthreshold slope was 0.3 V dec−1, and an on-set close to the ideal value of 0 V was achieved

  5. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  6. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  7. Relationship of water content and swelling with tensile properties of polymer-fiber composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These tests have been performed to asses the environmental degradation of textile waste fiber-polymer composite. The fiber material used was (cutting waste in the form of yarns, each yarn contained 85% polyester and 15% viscose). To assess the stability of these organically filled material, the mechanical characteristics of the composite were tested after accelerated weathering (moisture content and water swelling at normal temperatures), water saturation, and fungal attack. The effect of fiber content (w %), were studied. The composites showed significantly less weathering degradation, after 45 days. The 100 % short fiber composite exhibited more degradation than the other fiber composites. The trends and experimental conditions were similar for all 80, 60, 40 and 20 % (w %) of the waste of textile fiber. As expected, water content, water re-gain and water saturation (water swelling) levels increased, with increased fiber content. It has been observed that the higher moisture content caused significant degradation in the mechanical properties of this composite. (author)

  8. Removal of ammonia from aqueous solutions by catalytic oxidation with copper-based rare earth composite metal materials: catalytic performance, characterization, and cytotoxicity evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Mao Hung

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) has an important use in the chemical industry and is widely found in industrial wastewater.For this investigation of copper-based rare earth composite metal materials,aqueous solutions containing 400 mg/L of ammonia were oxidized in a batch-bed reactor with a catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation of copper nitrate,lanthanum nitrate and cerium nitrate.Barely any of the dissolved ammonia was removed by wet oxidation without a catalyst,but about 88% of the ammonia was reduced during wet oxidation over the catalysts at 423 K with an oxygen partial pressure of 4.0 MPa.The catalytic redox behavior was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV).Furthermore,the catalysts were characterized using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX),which showed that the catalytic behavior was related to the metal oxide properties of the catalyst.In addition,the copper-lanthanum-cerium composite-induced cytotoxicity in the human lung MRC-5 cell line was tested,and the percentage cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetra-zolium (MTS) analysis in vitro.No apparent cytotoxicity was observed when the human lung cells were exposed to the copper-lanthanum-cerium composite.

  9. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happo, M.S.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Halinen, A.I.; Jalava, P.I.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Hillamo, R.; Salonen, R.O. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM2.5-0.2) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM2.5-0.2 correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca{sup 2+}, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM2.5-0.2-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM10 (2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM2.5 (0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  10. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Halinen, Arja I; Jalava, Pasi I; Pennanen, Arto S; Sillanpaa, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM(2.5-0.2) correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO3(-), NH4(+)) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO4(2-) had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca2+, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM(2.5-0.2)-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM(10-2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM(2.5-0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects. PMID:18855153

  11. Control of carbon content in amorphous GeTe films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous and smooth GeTe thin films are deposited on 200 mm silicon substrates by plasma enhanced—metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE–MOCVD) using the commercial organometallic precursors TDMAGe and DIPTe as Ge and Te precursors, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a stoichiometric composition of the deposited GeTe films but with high carbon contamination. Using information collected by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and XPS, the origin of carbon contamination is determined and the dissociation mechanisms of Ge and Te precursors in H2 + Ar plasma are proposed. As a result, carbon level is properly controlled by varying operating parameters such as plasma radio frequency power, pressure and H2 rate. Finally, GeTe films with carbon level as low as 5 at. % are obtained. (paper)

  12. Impact of chabazite SSZ-13 textural properties and chemical composition on CO2 adsorption applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodinger, Sebastian; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Varga, Tamas; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha K.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.

    2016-04-01

    Chabazite SSZ-13 samples with varying silica content (Si/Al from 6 to 35) were synthesized in both stirring and static conditions to obtain material with changing particle size and morphology and thoroughly analysed with various characterization techniques. The role of particle size and chemical compositions of SSZ-13 chabazite on CO2 and N2 adsorption measurements was investigated. The Si/Al ratio played a major role for CO2 adsorption with Al-rich SSZ-13 showing a higher CO2 uptake than Al-poor material. This was attributed to the high density of active charged species in the chabazite cage. Particle size also played an important role in the sorption capacities with smaller particles, obtained in stirring conditions, showing enhanced CO2 uptakes compared to larger particles of same chemical composition. This was associated with an increased density of surface active sites and shorter diffusion pathways.

  13. Changes of Mouse Gut Microbiota Diversity and Composition by Modulating Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Contents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunjung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary proteins influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, depending on their quantity and quality. Here, using pyrosequencing, we compared the fecal microbiota composition in Balb/c mice fed either a normal protein/carbohydrate diet (ND, 20% casein and 68% carbohydrate) or a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet (HPLCD, 30% casein and 57% carbohydrate). The results showed that HPLCD feeding for 2 weeks reduced the diversity and altered the composition of the microbiota compared with the ND mice, ...

  14. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  15. Identification of Chemical Composition of Leaves and Flowers from Paeonia rockii by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Kuang, Gang; Chen, Xiaohu; Zeng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The Paeonia genus, an important source of crude drugs, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat cardiovascular and female-related diseases. Although many peony species have been investigated, the study of Paeonia rockii is still quite limited, especially its chemical composition. Here, an advanced ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analytical technique combined with Q-Exactive Orbitrap hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry utilizing high-resolution full MS and MS/MS scan modes was applied to screen and identify the chemical constituents of this species. As a result, a total of 46 compounds were characterized, including 11 monoterpene glycosides, five phenolic acids, six tannins and 24 flavonoids. Among them, 16 compounds were reported for the first time in Paeonia rockii. PMID:27455214

  16. Identification of Chemical Composition of Leaves and Flowers from Paeonia rockii by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paeonia genus, an important source of crude drugs, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat cardiovascular and female-related diseases. Although many peony species have been investigated, the study of Paeonia rockii is still quite limited, especially its chemical composition. Here, an advanced ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC analytical technique combined with Q-Exactive Orbitrap hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry utilizing high-resolution full MS and MS/MS scan modes was applied to screen and identify the chemical constituents of this species. As a result, a total of 46 compounds were characterized, including 11 monoterpene glycosides, five phenolic acids, six tannins and 24 flavonoids. Among them, 16 compounds were reported for the first time in Paeonia rockii.

  17. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20-35%. PMID:27524014

  18. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  19. Influence of physical properties and chemical composition of sample on formation of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond laser ablation at 213 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa, E-mail: mhola@sci.muni.c [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Konecna, Veronika [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kaiser, Jozef [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of sample properties and composition on the size and concentration of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser ablation at 213 nm was investigated for three sets of different materials, each containing five specimens with a similar matrix (Co-cemented carbides with a variable content of W and Co, steel samples with minor differences in elemental content and silica glasses with various colors). The concentration of ablated particles (particle number concentration, PNC) was measured in two size ranges (10-250 nm and 0.25-17 mum) using an optical aerosol spectrometer. The shapes and volumes of the ablation craters were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and by an optical profilometer, respectively. Additionally, the structure of the laser-generated particles was studied after their collection on a filter using SEM. The results of particle concentration measurements showed a significant dominance of particles smaller than 250 nm in comparison with larger particles, irrespective of the kind of material. Even if the number of particles larger than 0.25 mum is negligible (up to 0.1%), the volume of large particles that left the ablation cell can reach 50% of the whole particle volume depending on the material. Study of the ablation craters and the laser-generated particles showed a various number of particles produced by different ablation mechanisms (particle splashing or condensation), but the similar character of released particles for all materials was observed by SEM after particle collection on the membrane filter. The created aerosol always consisted of two main structures - spherical particles with diameters from tenths to units of micrometers originally ejected from the molten surface layer and mum-sized 'fibres' composed of primary agglomerates with diameters in the range between tens and hundreds of nanometers. The shape and structure of ablation craters were in good agreement with particle concentration

  20. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  1. Composite backfill materials for radioactive waste isolation by deep burial in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonite and hectorite were found to sorb Pu(IV) and Am(III) from concentrated brines with distribution coefficients K/sub d/ > 3000 ml/g. The permeability of bentonite to brine was less than 1 microdarcy at a confining pressure of 18 MPa, the expected lithostatic pressure at the 800 m level in a salt repository. Getters for sorption of TcO4- (K/sub d/ approx. 300 ml/g), I- (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 30 ml/g), Cs (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 30 ml/g) and Sr (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to approx. 100 ml/g) from brines were identified. Their sorption properties are presented. Thermal conductivity results (>0.5 W/mK) and evidence for bentonite stability in brines at hydrothermal conditions are also given. It is shown by calculated estimates that a 3-ft-thick mixture of bentonite with other getter materials could retain Pu, Am, and TcO4- for >104 years and I- for > 103 years. Another tailored mixture could retain Cs for approx. 600 years, Sr for approx. 700 years, TcO4 for approx. 4000 years and I- for approx. 400 years. The backfill can offer a significant contribution to the isolation capability of a waste package system

  2. Longevity of dental amalgam in comparison to composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windisch, Friederike

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Caries is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. For (direct restaurations of carious lesions, tooth-coloured composite materials are increasingly used. The compulsory health insurance pays for composite fillings in front teeth; in posterior teeth, patients have to bear the extra cost. Scientific background: Amalgam is an alloy of mercury and other metals and has been used in dentistry for more than one hundred and fifty years. Composites consist of a resin matrix and chemically bonded fillers. They have been used for about fifty years in front teeth. Amalgam has a long longevity; the further development of composites has also shown improvements regarding their longevity. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the longevity (failure rate, median survival time (MST, median age of direct amalgam fillings in comparison to direct composite fillings in permanent teeth from a medical and economical perspective and discusses the ethical, legal and social aspects of using these filling materials. Methods: The systematic literature search yielded a total of 1,149 abstracts. After a two-step selection process based on defined criteria 25 publications remained to be assessed. Results: The medical studies report a longer longevity for amalgam fillings than for composite fillings. However, the results of these studies show a large heterogeneity. No publication on the costs or the cost-effectiveness of amalgam and composite fillings exists for Germany. The economic analyses (NL, SWE, GB report higher costs for composite fillings when longevity is assumed equal (for an observation period of five years or longer for amalgam compared to composite fillings. These higher costs are due to the higher complexity of placing composite fillings. Discussion: Due to different study designs and insufficient documentation of study details, a comparison of different studies on longevity of direct amalgam and composite

  3. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Brazilian Commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Castro Melo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves, seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68% the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  4. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Burdonov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will reduce development pressure on the environment and improve the physical and mechanical properties of the material. The article shows research results of the ash chemical composition as well as the properties of the resulting materials on its basis. According to the research conclusions there is a prospect for using this material in the construction industry.

  5. Determination of the HMX and RDX content in synthesized energetic material by HPLC, FT-MIR, and FT-NIR spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Elizabeth C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for determining the content of mixtures of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, the HMX/RDX ratio, in explosive compositions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, in the regions MIR (mid infrared and NIR (near infrared with reference values obtained by chromatographic analysis (HPLC. Plots of relative MIR (A917 / A783 or NIR absorbance values (A4412 / A4317 versus HMX/RDX ratio determined by HPLC analysis revealed good linear relationships.

  6. Composite materials for wind power turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, P.; Lilholt, H.; Lystrup, Aa.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy resources, of which wind energy is prominent, are part of the solution to the global energy problem. Wind turbine and the rotorblade concepts are reviewed, and loadings by wind and gravity as important factors for the fatigue performance of the materials are considered. Wood and ...... composites, new structural materials concepts, new structural design aspects, structural health monitoring, and the coming trends and markets for wind energy....

  7. A Potential Impact on the Chemical Composition in the Marine Boundary Layer in the Arctic Ocean by Ship Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Wang, X.; Blum, J. D.; Sun, L.

    2005-12-01

    Samples of aerosols in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Arctic Ocean were collected aboard R/V ()Xuelong during the summer on the Second Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (July-September, 2003). Chemical compositions including major and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosol particles were analyzed. Results showed that significant amounts of S, Fe, V and Ni are emitted from ship diesel engines and contaminate the ambient air. The total amount of Fe, which plays a significant role in the ocean ()biological pump, emitted from ships in the Arctic is estimated at 4.33-A106 kg yr-1. Sulfur emitted into the atmosphere may be transformed to sulfur acid and result in a chlorine depletion in sea-salt. Because the global inventory of sulfur from ship exhausts is large and halogens may have important consequences in possible tropospheric ozone destruction, the role of ships in effecting halogen depression in sea-salt should be evaluated. For organic compounds, 17 PAHs including Fluoranthene, Phenanthrene, Chrysene, Indeno[123-cd]pyrene, Pyrene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]pyrene, Naphthalene, Benzo[a]anthracene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Coronene, Fluorene, Benzo[a]pyrene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and Acenaphthylene were detected. The average levels of subspecies of PAHs in ambient air ranged from 0.003 to 0.089 ng/m3. Among the 17 PAHs, fluoranthene had a relative high level, while the level of acenaphthylene was relative low. The aerosols contaminated by the ship, which were commonly excluded in previous investigations, thus provide an opportunity to investigate and understand the role of ship emissions in the atmospheric chemistry of the marine boundary layer, especially in the Arctic Ocean.

  8. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  10. Identification of the genotype from the content and composition of the essential oil of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alejandra; Van Baren, Catalina M; Di Leo Lira, Paola M; Bandoni, Arnaldo L

    2007-10-17

    Aloysia citriodora accessions from cultivated material, botanical collections, and wild populations were studied by means of their biomass and essential oil production and composition to assist the selection of the most promising genotype. The study was carried out through both field experiments during two year's time and laboratory processes. Data were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate techniques. Aloysia citriodora intraspecific variation was accounted for by differences in both yield and chemical profiles of the essential oils, but no differences were found in the biomass production. Three chemotypes were identified according to qualitative and quantitative differences of the essential oils. For the higher contents of neral and geranial, Mendoza accession was the most promising to be encouraged for future crops. PMID:17880159

  11. [Preparation of polyacrylonitrile/natural sand composite materials and analysis of adsorption properties of Pb(II) on it by FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduwayit, Medine; Nurulla, Ismayil; Abliz, Shawket

    2015-02-01

    Surfaces of natural sand particles were modified with (3-chloropropyl) trichlorosilane, so that bridging groups were introduced on the surfaces of natural sand particles; By grafting polyacrylonitrile onto the modified surfaces of the natural sand particles, a novelpolyacrylonitrile/natural sand composite material was prepared from the acrylonitrile, the azobisisobutyronitrile, the divinylbenzene and the modified natural sand particles, which are as functional monomer, initiator, either skeleton monomer or cross-linking agent and carrier respectively; the composite materials were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy; On the FTIR spectrum, the main characteristic peaks of various functional groups including nitrile, benzene ring, and silicon hydroxyl, which were from functional monomer, cross-linking agent and carrier respectively, were observed. On the SEM, two different cross section morphologies having different density which were from acrylonitrile and modified sand particles were observed; This proved that the polyacrylonitrile was decorated on modified sand particles during our preparation process. After preparing the composite materials, micro-column of separation and preconcentration was prepared using the composite materials as filler; the adsorption of some toxic heavy metal ions onto the composite materials was observed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); The results show that the adsorption of Pb2+ onto the composite materials was more stronger than the absorption of other toxic heavy metal ions, therefore, in this paper, the adsorption of Pb2+ onto the composite materials was mainly studied, at room temperature, when pH and flow rate of solution were 5. 4 and 4 mL x min(-1) respectively, the trace Pb(II) ions could be quantitatively adsorbed onto the composite materials; the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) on the composite materials can reach 62.9 mg x g(-1). The column was eluted by 0.5 mol x L

  12. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  13. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  14. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  15. Influence of graphite content on sliding wear characteristics of CNTs-Ag-G electrical contact materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; FENG Yi; LI Shu; LIN Shen

    2009-01-01

    CNTs-Ag-G electrical contact composite material was prepared by means of powder metallurgical method. The influence of the graphite content on sliding wear characteristics of electrical contact levels was examined. In experiments, CNTs content was retained as 1% (mass fraction), and graphite was added at content levels of 8%, 10%, 13%, 15% and 18%, respectively. The results indicate that with the increase of graphite content, the contact resistance of electrical contacts is enhanced to a certain level then remains constant. Friction coefficient decreases gradually with the increase of graphite content. Wear mass loss decreases to the minimum value then increases. With the small content of graphite, the adhesive wear is hindered, which leads to the decrease of wear mass loss, while excessive graphite brings much more worn debris, resulting in the increase of mass loss. It is concluded that wear mass loss reaches the minimum value when the graphite mass fraction is about 13%. Compared with conventional Ag-G contact material, the wear mass loss of CNTs-Ag-G composite is much less due to the obvious increase of hardness and electrical conductivity, decline of friction surface temperature and inhibition of adhesive wear between composites and slip rings.

  16. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  17. Changes of Mouse Gut Microbiota Diversity and Composition by Modulating Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Contents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-03-01

    Dietary proteins influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, depending on their quantity and quality. Here, using pyrosequencing, we compared the fecal microbiota composition in Balb/c mice fed either a normal protein/carbohydrate diet (ND, 20% casein and 68% carbohydrate) or a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet (HPLCD, 30% casein and 57% carbohydrate). The results showed that HPLCD feeding for 2 weeks reduced the diversity and altered the composition of the microbiota compared with the ND mice, which included a decrease in the proportion of the family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and increases in the proportions of the genus Bacteroides and Parabacteroides, especially the species EF09600_s and EF604598_s. Similar changes were reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and in mouse models of CRC and colitis, respectively. This suggests that HPLCD may lead to a deleterious luminal environment and may have adverse effects on the intestinal health of individuals consuming such a diet. PMID:27069907

  18. Morphology, chemical composition and nanostructure of single carbon-rich particles studied by transmission electron microscopy: source apportionment in workroom air of aluminium smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbruch, Stephan; Benker, Nathalie; Kandler, Konrad; Ebert, Martin; Ellingsen, Dag G; Berlinger, Balázs; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2016-02-01

    Sources of C-rich particles at work places in two aluminium smelters in Norway were studied by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on morphology, nanostructure and chemistry, three different types of C-rich particles are distinguished: (a) chain-like agglomerates (70-100% by number, relative to the sum of C-rich particles) consisting of primary particles with typical onion-shell structure of graphene layers, (b) multi-walled carbon nanotube particles (≈3%) and (c) spheres or agglomerates of amorphous C-rich particles (0-30%). Chain-like agglomerates are interpreted as diesel soot in accordance with literature data on primary particle diameter, chemical composition and nanostructure of primary particles. The source of the observed multi-walled carbon nanotubes is not known. The amorphous C-rich particles most likely consist of organic carbon species which cannot be characterized further by X-ray microanalysis. Unaltered graphitic electrode material was not found among the C-rich particles. The high fraction of diesel soot particles indicates that elemental carbon is generally suited as proxy for diesel soot in aluminium smelters. However, due to the presence of carbon nanotubes and amorphous C-rich particles, detailed characterization of sources of carbon-rich particles by electron microscopy is recommended for accurate assessment of adverse health effects. PMID:26637216

  19. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  20. Processing of spent Ni-MH batteries for the recovery of cobalt, nickel and rare earth elements bearing materials by means of a chemical and electrochemical sequential process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvasto, P.; Orta Rodríguez, R.; Blanco, S.

    2016-02-01

    Rechargeable Ni-MH batteries contain strategic metal values which are worth to be recovered. In the present work, a preliminary sequential chemical and electrochemical procedure is proposed, in order to reclaim materials bearing Ni, Co and rare earth elements (REE) from Ni-MH spent batteries. Initially, spent batteries are disassembled to separate the electrode materials (anode and cathode), which are then leached with an aqueous solution of 5w% sulphuric acid. The metal content of this solution is checked by atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. The obtained solution is pH-adjusted (with NaOH), until pH is between 4.0 and 4.3; then, it is heated up to 70°C to precipitate a rare earth elements sulphate (Nd, La, Pr, Ce), as determined by means of x-ray fluorescence techniques. The solids-free solution is then electrolyzed, in order to recover a Ni-Co alloy. The electrolysis conditions were established through a cyclic voltammetry technique.