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Sample records for chemical composition antioxidant

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS. MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA. A. Rebiai* and T.Lanez. University of El Oued, VTRS Laboratory, P.O. Box 789, 39000, El Oued, Algeria. Received: 08 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 December 2012 / Published online: 31 ...

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum are spices widely used as aroma enhancers and food preservatives. This work assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter ...

  3. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... of dry matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ± 0.042%), ash (5.50 ± 0.42%) and total soluble sugar (0.64 ± 0.001%) (p < 0.05).

  4. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ±. 0.042%), ash .... protein diet need. The unripe plantain flour was found to contain low quantities of ash which reflected its mineral contents. Table 2. Phytochemical composition of unripe plantain flour.

  5. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil

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    Maryam Gharachorloo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits.

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    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products.

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

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    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

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    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  9. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of the essential oil of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Camphene, borneol ...

  11. Antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and chemical composition of selected Thai spices

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    Juraithip Wungsintaweekul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine volatile oils and six methanol extracts from Ocimum americanum, O. basilicum, O. sanctum, Citrus hystrix,Alpinia galanga, Curcuma zedoaria, Kaempferia parviflora and Zingiber cassumunar were assessed for antimicrobial andantioxidant activities. The volatile oils and extracts were investigated against eight bacteria and three fungi. The resultsillustrated that O. americanum volatile oil exhibited broad spectrum activity against tested bacteria with the MICs ranging1.4-3.6 mg/ml and Candida spp. with the MICs ranging from 0.5-0.6 mg/ml. The O. sanctum volatile oil showed a considerableactivity against only Candida spp. with the MICs ranging from 0.8-1.4 mg/ml. Interestingly, growth of Mycobacteriumphlei was inhibited by the volatiles of O. americanum, C. hystrix peel, and C. zedoaria with MIC of 1.7, 3.5 and 1.2 mg/ml,respectively. For antioxidant activity evaluation, the methanol extracts of C. hystrix (leaf and peel and K. parviflora hadpotent antioxidant activity by the radical-scavenging DPPH method with IC50 of 24.6, 66.3 and 61.5 mg/ml, respectively.GC-MS analysis revealed the typical chemical profiles of the volatile oils. The major component showed the characteristicsof the volatile oils and was probably responsible for the antimicrobial effect.

  12. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)–(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)–(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%–(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin B3) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)–(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±.22)–(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)–(576±7.37), (260±3.86)–(280±3.50), and (24±3.51)–(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

  14. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the results were compared to the reference BHT (butyl hydroxy toluene). In the three earlier mentioned assays, the essential oil demonstrated a potential antioxidant which may be considered as potent agent in food preservation and drug discovery. Key words: Thymelaea hirsuta, essential oil, antioxidant activities.

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THREE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM PORTUGUESE FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. Rosário; Tinoco, M. Teresa; Almeida, A. S.; Cruz-Morais, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the evaluation of chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three aromatic herbs, growing wild in the south of Portugal, used in traditional food preparations: Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Rosmarinus officinalis. The principal components of essential oils were anethole (41.2%) for F. vulgare, carvone (41.1%) for M. spicata and myrcene (23.7%) for R. officinalis. Essential oils showed antioxidant activity eit...

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of some indigenous spices consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta; Onuoha, NneOla; Aburime, Lilian; Mbah, Obioma

    2018-01-01

    The chemical compositions and antioxidant capacities of seven spices consumed in Southern Nigeria were determined. They were purchased from majors markets in the study area. Edible portions of the spices were ground into fine powder and their nutrient and phytochemical compositions determined using standard methods. Antioxidant activity were determined on aqueous extract using standard assays, namely, 1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical ability and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). The spices were rich in macro-and micro-nutrients. Ricinodendron heudelotii had the highest protein (30.6%) and fat (24.6%) contents. Tetrapleura tetraptera had the least fat content. The total phenol, flavonoid and vitamin C contents differed significantly (pspices have good nutrient profile and antioxidant potentials. Their increased consumption is recommended and use as functional foods needs to be exploited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil from Cladanthus arabicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Cladanthus arabicus (L.) Cass was studied for its chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. The essential oil (EO) was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty seven compounds representing 94.2% of the oil were identified. The m...

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... College of Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025, China. Accepted 12 March, 2010. This study ... to prolong the storage stability of foods, several synthetic antioxidants such as butylated ... However, these synthetic substances may be inappropriate for chronic human ...

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A.

  20. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species of the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) have been widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, the essential oil was extracted from the leaves of Citrus aurantium and its cytotoxicity effect on six tumor cell lines and a normal cell line was studied. Furthermore, antioxidant potential of the oil was tested by 2, ...

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Hedychium Malayanum Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Yahya Abdo; Wan Yaacob Wan Ahmad; Laily Din; Nazlina Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The leaves and stems of Hedychium malayanum were hydro distilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus to give 0.038 and 0.009 % oils, respectively. Sixteen and seven compounds which made up 98.4 and 100 % of the respective oils were identified using capillary GC and GC-MS with a DB-5 column. These oils contained high amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons with β-pinene being the main compound found in the leaves (39.1 %) and the stems (46.7 %) followed by α-pinene (22.3 %) and β-caryophyllene (13.7 %) which was found in the leaf oil and 1,8-cineole (17.7 %) and α-pinene (16.9 %) in the stem oil. Antioxidant test by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) showed that the leaf oil was a stronger antioxidant (31.1 %) than Trolox (28.4 %), whereas the stem oil was the weakest antioxidant (23.9 %). β-Carotene bleaching (BCB) in linoleic acid showed that both oils were weaker antioxidants than butylated hydroxytoluene (96.8 % inhibition). However, the stem oil (79.8 %) showed a good inhibition whereas the leaf oil possessed a moderate capacity (54.7 %) to prevent the oxidation by linoleic acid. (author)

  2. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

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    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.

  4. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Organic Extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

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    Sharif M. Al-Reza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Premna integrifolia Linn. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in determination 29 different compounds, representing 95.73% of total oil. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and organic extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were determined by three different test systems namely DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The essential oil and methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity among all the tested samples. Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in methanol extract was the highest as compared to other samples. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Premna integrifolia could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3-5 and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi, R.; Dehak, K.; Hadj Mahammed, M.; Didi Ouldelhadj, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of the aerial part of the plant Deverra scoparia Coss. &Dur. The extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation. The composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). 22 constituents were identified, representing 84.63% of the essential oil. The major compounds are: α-bornyl acetate (31.99%) andα-pinene (12.05%). The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil wasmore effective than the two references tested,ascorbic acidand Trolox (author)

  8. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant, Anti-microbial Properties and Chemical Composition of Cumin Essential Oils Extracted by Three Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Lianying; Wang Xiangxing; Guo Limin; Liu Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of cumin essential oils (CEOs) extracted by different techniques, including supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE), subcritical butane extraction (SBE) and traditional solvent extraction (SE). Our results indicated that CEOs are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, including cumin aldehyde, γ-terpinene and β-pinene. The most abundant components found in CEOs obtained by SCE a...

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Three Polysaccharide Fractions from Pine Cones

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    Pu Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for monosaccharide component analysis with pretreatment of acetylation is described with slight modifications and verified in detail in this paper. It was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of component monosaccharides in polysaccharides extracted from the pine cones. The results demonstrated that the three pine cone polysaccharides all consisted of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios. According to the recovery experiment, the described method was proved accurate and practical for the analysis of pine cone polysaccharides, meeting the need in the field of chemical analysis of Pinus plants. Furthermore; the chemical characteristics, such as neutral sugar, uronic acids, amino acids, molecular weights, and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated by chemical and instrumental methods. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides differed from each other, especially in the content of neutral sugar and uronic acid. In the antioxidant assays, the polysaccharide fractions exhibited effective scavenging activities on ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical, with their antioxidant capabilities decreasing in the order of PKP > PAP > PSP. Therefore, although the polysaccharide fractions had little effect on superoxide radical scavenging, they still have potential to be developed as natural antioxidant agents in functional foods or medicine.

  11. Determination of chemical composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of xylanthemum macropodum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiullah, A.; Tareen, R.B.; Khan, N.; Akber, A.; Ali, I.; Khan, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of the phytochemistry, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the endemic plant of northern Balochistan Xylanthemum Macropodum of the Asteraceae family, is reported for the first time in this document. Chemical composition of Xylanthemum Macropodum was determined using well-established chemical tests and modern spectroscopic techniques. Extracts were taken from the whole plant using methanol and the extracts were tested for phytochemicals (secondary metabolites), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The phytochemical (biochemical) examination of Xylanthemum Macropodum exposed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, coumarins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, and quinines. TPC of crude methanolic extract (CME) of plant was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. The TPC determined was 256mg of tannic acid Eq/g of extract. Antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically using the DPPH assay and Ferric ion (Fe/sup +3/) reducing antioxidant power assay. The potency of the DPPH assay of Xylanthemum Macropodum extract was 68% for the 0.10 mg/ml concentration and the FRAP value of the extract was 3.368 mmol Fe/sup +2//g of extract. Xylanthemum Macropodum has proved to be very rich in secondary metabolites, natural phenolics and has a very potent antioxidant activity. (author)

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rania M A; Fageer, Aisha S M; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in Sudan. The results showed that Sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (P varieties contained significantly varied (P varieties were as follows: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 2.82–27.5 mmol/100 g, chelation of Fe2+ ion ranged from 54.31% to 94.98%, and scavenging of H2O2 ranged from 38.48% to 49.13%. There were many correlations (positive, negative, and weak) between antioxidant and mineral extractability of Sudanese date fruits. PMID:25473506

  13. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

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    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Lichen Umbilicaria cylindrica (L. Delise (Umbilicariaceae

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    Nedeljko T. Manojlovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of methanol and chloroform extracts of Umbilicaria cylindrica was determined by HPLC-UV method. The predominant phenolic compound in both extracts was depsidone, salazinic acid (1. Besides salazinic acid, the tested extracts of U. cylindrica contain norstictic acid (2, methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate (3, ethyl haematommate (4, atranorin (5, and usnic acid (6, in different amounts and relations. The lichen extracts showed comparable and strong antioxidant activity, exhibited higher DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavengings, chelating activity, and inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation. The lichen extracts demonstrated important antimicrobial activity against eight strains with MIC values from 15.62 to 62.50 μg/mL. This is the first report of the detail chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the lichen Umbilicaria cylindrica, and the results suggest that this lichen can be used as a new source of the natural antioxidants and the substances with antimicrobial features.

  15. HONEYDEW HONEY: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT

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    OTILIA BOBIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected physico-chemical parameters, total polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of honeydew honey samples from Romanian were determined. Regarding the chemical composition, analysed honey samples framed in this type of honey, phenolic content, determined as gallic acid equivalents, presented a mean value of 116.45mg GAE/100 g honey. Total flavonoid content expressed as quercetin equivalents, was 1.53 mg in honeydew honey. Antioxidant activity expressed as % inhibition of a solution of DPPH, ranged between 47.84 and 62.99%. The concentration of honey that inhibit with 50% the DPPH solution was established to be 16.16%. 10 strains of Staphylococcus aureus presented different inhibition percentages when were treatred with a solution of honey. In conclusion, Honeydew honey could be recommended to complement other polyphenol source in human diet and also used in medical treatment.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

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    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  17. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity in Different Tissues of Brassica Vegetables

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    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate glucosinolate profiles, vitamin C, total phenol, total flavonoid, and free sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose content, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activity in floret and leaf of six cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. The level of chemical constituents as well as antioxidants significantly varied among crop types, cultivars, and their different parts, in that phytochemicals such as glucosinolate were statistically higher in florets compared with leaves in both broccoli and cauliflower cultivars. In contrast, total flavonoid and free sugar were found at higher levels in the leaf parts. The Asia purple cultivar exhibited statistically higher vitamin C (649.7 mg·100 g−1, total phenol (1345.2 mg·GAE 100 g−1, and total flavonoid (632.7 mg·CE 100 g−1 contents and consequently had the highest antioxidant activity (1.12 mg·mL−1 in its florets, while Baeridom and Bridal had the highest total glucosinolate (9.66 µmol·g−1 and free sugar (318.6 mg·g−1 contents, respectively compared with other cultivars. Likewise, the major fatty acids were palmitic (23.52%–38.42%, linoleic (13.09%–18.97%, and linolenic (26.32%–51.80% acids, which comprised the highest compositional ratio (more than 50% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in most cultivars. Among the antioxidants, total phenol exhibited the most significant positive correlation (r = 0.698 ** with antioxidant activity, followed by vitamin C (r = 0.522 ** and total flavonoid (r = 0.494 **, indicating their significant contributions to total antioxidant activity.

  18. Chemical composition, anthelmintic, antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil.

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    Jaradat, Nidal; Adwan, Lina; K'aibni, Shadi; Shraim, Naser; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-10-26

    It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity was tested against the selected strains from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans using MIC assay. The anthelmintic assay was carried out on adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma), while antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Trans-geraniol (35.38 %), α-citral (20.37 %) and β-citral (14.76 %) were the major compounds comprising 70.51 % of the essential oil. Our results showed that T. bovei essential oil exhibited strong anthelmintic activity, even higher than piperazine citrate, the used reference standard, with potential antioxidant activity almost equal to the Trolox standard. Furthermore, T. bovei essential oil had powerful antibacterial and antifungal activities against the studied pathogens. Essential oil of T. bovei exerted excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic activities. Moreover, this study found that T. bovei volatile oil contains active substances that could potentially be used as natural preservatives in food and pharmaceutical industries, these substances could also be employed for developing new anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils from different parts of the oregano.

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    Han, Fei; Ma, Guang-Qiang; Yang, Ming; Yan, Li; Xiong, Wei; Shu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Han-Lin

    This research was undertaken in order to characterize the chemical compositions and evaluate the antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from different parts of the Origanum vulgare L. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heat stroke, fever, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and respiratory disorders. The chemical compositions of the three essential oils from different parts of the oregano (leaves-flowers, stems, and roots) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of each essential oil was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and reducing the power test. Among the essential oils from different parts of the oregano, the leaf-flower oils have the best antioxidant activities, whereas the stem oils are the worst. The results of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of the essential oils were (0.332±0.040) mg/ml (leaves-flowers), (0.357±0.031) mg/ml (roots), and (0.501±0.029) mg/ml (stems), respectively. Interestingly, the results of reducing the power test also revealed that when the concentration exceeded 1.25 mg/ml, the leaf-flower oils had the highest reducing power; however, the stem oils were the lowest.

  20. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

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    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

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    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from pine needle (Cedrus deodara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil from pine needles (Cedrus deodara) was determined, and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. Twenty-three components, representing 95.79% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The main components include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%). Pine needle essential oil showed remarkable antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals, in lipid peroxidation, and in reducing power assays. Moreover, the essential oil revealed strong antimicrobial activity against typical food-borne microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.2 to 1.56 and 0.39 to 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscope observation ascertained that the bactericidal mechanism of pine needle essential oil may be the induction of cytoplasmic outflow and plasmolysis. These results suggest that the essential oil from pine needles has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the potential application of essential oil from pine needles (C. deodara) to be used as a natural resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils from Calamintha nepeta L.

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    Khodja, Nabyla Khaled; Boulekbache, Lila; Chegdani, Fatima; Dahmani, Karima; Bennis, Faiza; Madani, Khodir

    2018-05-24

    Background Essential oils, infusion and decoction extracts of Calamintha nepeta L. were evaluated for their bioactive substances (polyphenols and essential oils) and antioxidant activities. Methods The amounts of phenolic compounds were determined by colorimetric assays and identified by high performance and liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) method. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. For the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of essential oils and extracts, two different assays (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity) were used. Results Infusion extract presented the highest phenolic content, followed by the decoction one, while the lowest amount was observed in essential oils. The amount of flavonoids of the decocted extract was higher than that of the infused one. The phenolic profile of C. nepeta infusion and decoction extracts revealed the presence of 28 and 13 peaks, respectively. Four phenolics compounds were identified in infusion (gallic acid (GA), rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeine (C) and caffeic acid (CA)) and two were identified in decoction (GA and RA). The chemical composition of essential oils revealed the presence of 29 compounds, accounting for the 99.7% of the total oils. Major compounds of essential oil (EO) were trans-menthone (50.06%) and pulegone (33.46%). Infusion and decoction extracts revealed an interesting antioxidant activity which correlates positively with their total phenolic contents. Conclusions These results showed that Calamintha nepeta could be considered as a valuable source of phenolics and essential oils with potent antioxidant activity.

  4. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss

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    J. A. Pandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS; (b to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%, β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%, and α-curcumene (16.17%. With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  5. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandini, J A; Pinto, F G S; Scur, M C; Santana, C B; Costa, W F; Temponi, L G

    2018-02-01

    The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); (b) to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c) to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%), β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%), and α-curcumene (16.17%). With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  6. Interference of germination time on chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white sesame (Sesamum Indicum

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    Luísa Fernandes de Menezes MARES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The consumption of white sesame has become a healthy option for those who are concerned about health and wish to reduce oxidative stress. The germination has been used an effective method to increase the nutrients availability and thus provide a better nutritional quality of these seeds. Due to the lack of researches about sesame germination the objective of this study was to evaluate the different times of germination on the chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein and ashes, the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic compounds of white sesame. The germination occurred inside a greenhouse with controlled temperature at 30 °C and the variables were analyzed in the times 0, 24, 36 and 48 hours of germination. The process increased the levels of moisture and reduced the levels of fat, protein and ashes. On the other hand, it also increased the antioxidant capacity by two methods and raised the quantity of total phenolic compounds. Based in the present study and in others similar works, it is possible to affirm that the germination process increase the white sesames’ antioxidant capacity, however further studies are needed to evaluate a better environmental condition of germination and others factors that may affect the composition.

  7. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. from Turkey

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    Hilal Özbek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. Its chemical content and composition were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.39 µg gallic acid equivalent by Folin–Ciocalteu’s method and the major component was identified as carvacrol (56.8 % along with p-cymene (13.1 %, (Z- b -ocimene (5.4 %, b -caryophyllene (3.9 %, borneol (3.4 % and thymol (3.2 %. After chemical characterization, the essential oil was evaluated for its antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities as well as ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. Besides antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the essential oil were also evaluated by Ellman’s method. It demonstrated inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE, key enzymes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, in addition to significant antioxidant activity.

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extract of Gloiopeltis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yicun; Yao, Fen; Chen, Weizhou; Shi, Ganggang

    2012-12-01

    Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax) is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO₂-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)), lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction), and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical), compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.9 mg/mL), Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL), and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO₂-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing.

  9. Antioxidant, Anti-microbial Properties and Chemical Composition of Cumin Essential Oils Extracted by Three Methods

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    Fang Lianying

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of cumin essential oils (CEOs extracted by different techniques, including supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE, subcritical butane extraction (SBE and traditional solvent extraction (SE. Our results indicated that CEOs are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, including cumin aldehyde, γ-terpinene and β-pinene. The most abundant components found in CEOs obtained by SCE and SBE were similar, while the abundant components in SE, β-Cumic aldehyde (19.31% and α-phellandrene (9.49%, were distinctive. CEOs obtained by SCE exhibited higher antioxidant activity, followed by those extracted by SE and SBE. Moreover, the anti-microbial properties of CEOs obtained by SCE and SBE were higher than that of CEOs collected by SE. In conclusion, CEOs exhibit strong antioxidant and anti-microbial properties, which suggests a potential role of CEOs in preventing diseases associated with aging and oxidative stress, and our results highlight the potential usage of CEOs in the food industry.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and anti-cholinesterase activity of Cordia gilletii (Boraginaceae) leaves essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesi, Marco; Okusa, Philippe N; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Federica; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate for the first time the chemical composition, the antioxidant properties and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae). The essential oil, characterized by 23 constituents (90.1% of the total oil), was constituted by terpene derivatives (25.6%) and non-terpene derivatives (64.5%), among which aldehydes, fatty acids and alkanes were present with the percentage of 16.5%, 18.8% and 23.1%, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. gilletii essential oil was screened by two in vitro tests: DPPH and beta-carotene bleaching test. The essential oil revealed antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 75.0 and 129.9 microg/mL on DPPH radical and beta-carotene decoloration tests, respectively. Moreover, C. gilletii inhibited AChE enzyme with an IC50 value of 105.6 microg/mL.

  11. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

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    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  12. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Activities in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Gloiopeltis tenax

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    Jiaojiao Zheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical, compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 3.9 mg/mL, Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL, and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO2-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing.

  13. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L. leaves

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    Mini Priya Rajendran

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%, Elemol (7.44%, Geranyl acetate (6.18%, Myrcene (6.12%, Allo-Ocimene (5.02, α-Terpinene (4.9%, and (E-β-Ocimene (3.68% and Neryl acetate (3.45%. From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%, monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48% and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%. The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range.

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC 50 value   =   488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC 50  value =   321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA

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    A. Rebiai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of bee pollen produced in the North western region of Algeria. The content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity using the molybdate ion reduction method were determined. The mean contents of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were 30.46 ± 8.22 mg of GAE.g–1 pollen and 8.92 ± 5.5 mg of RE.g–1 pollen, respectively. High antioxidant activities were found for the molybdate ion reduction method, with values that ranged from 71.95 to 101.5 μg of GAE.g–1 pollen. The bee pollen of Boufarik showed high antioxidant activity probably due to the high content of phenolic compounds present in pollen.

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

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    Beatović Damir V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insufficiently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity of essential oil in 100 g of herb (v/w is 0.68%, with 41 components identified in the tested essential oil. The most represented chemical group are sesquiturpene hydrocarbonates with 80.47%. Other groups were much less represented. Sesquiturpene hydrocarbonate β-cariophyllene is a predominant component in the essential oil with 63.80%. The quantity of tested essential oil needed to achieve 50% of inhibition of DPPH radicals is 0.35 μg/ml, and it has high potential to neutralize free radicals. The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity to all tested strains of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative. It affected all strains in an inhibitory way in the interval 0.34-41.50 μl/ml, and in a bactericide way within the range 22.50-124.5 μl/ml. The most sensitive strains of bacteria are Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, while Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococus faecalis showed greatest resistance. The essential oil exhibited antifugal activity on all tested fungi. It affected all tested fungi in an inhibitory way in the interval 4.42-8.83 μl/ml, and in a microbicide way within the range 10.00-50.00 μl/ml. The most sensitive fungi are: Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicilium funiculosum, while the most resistent one is Aspergillus niger. The tested basil essential oil Ocimum sanctum demonstrated significant antioxidative and antimicrobial effect and may be used as a raw material in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  18. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer and cytotoxic effects of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Aisha; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Rashid, Muhammad Abid; Mahmood, Adeel; Shahid, Muhammad; Noor, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Context Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and other ailments. Objective The current study explores scientific validation for this traditional medication. Materials and methods We used ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) assays to estimate antioxidant activity of P. guajava leaf extracts (methanol, hexane and chloroform). Antitumour and in vivo cytotoxic activities were determined using potato disc assay (PDA) and brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Three human carcinoma cell lines (KBM5, SCC4 and U266) were incubated with different doses (10-100 μg/mL) of extracts and the anticancer activity was estimated by MTT assay. NF-κB suppressing activity was determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Chemical composition of the three extracts was identified by GC-MS. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured by colorimetric assays. Results and discussions The order of antioxidant activity of three extracts was methanol > chloroform > hexane. The IC50 values ranged from 22.73 to 51.65 μg/mL for KBM5; 22.82 to 70.25 μg/mL for SCC4 and 20.97 to 89.55 μg/mL for U266 cells. The hexane extract exhibited potent antitumour (IC50  value = 65.02 μg/mL) and cytotoxic (LC50  value = 32.18 μg/mL) activities. This extract also completely inhibited the TNF-α induced NF-κB activation in KBM5 cells. GC-MS results showed that pyrogallol, palmitic acid and vitamin E were the major components of methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts. We observed significant (p guajava leaf extracts play a substantial role against cancer and down-modulate inflammatory nuclear factor kB.

  19. Extraction, chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, Shaghayegh Keshani; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Fathi, Morteza

    2018-06-14

    This paper aims to investigate chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage (CMM). Response surface methodology (RSM) demonstrated that optimum conditions for CMM extraction were as follow: ultrasound power of 99.37 W, extraction temperature of 88.05 °C and solid to water ratio of 16.25 w/w. CMM had, on average, 77.51% carbohydrate, 5.86% total ash, 8.90% protein, 6.90% moisture, and 1.00% fat. Due to a high level of nutrients, CMM can be suggested as a value added by-product in food and pharmaceutical systems. CMM is a low molecular weight polysaccharide containing three fractions with various molecular weights. FT-IR spectrum illustrated that this polymer had all typical bands and peaks characteristics of polysaccharides. Based on steady shear measurements, CMM can be introduced as a new source of hydrocolloid with high-temperature stability. CMM had the desirable antiradical capacity, water solubility and water/oil holding capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  1. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

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    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  2. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  3. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil, Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Satureja montana L.

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    Avni Hajdari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae were collected from seven growing wild populations (four populations in Kosovo, two in Albania and one in Montenegro in 2013 with the aim of assessing the natural variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity of their methanolic extracts. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Sixty-one volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were myrcene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, linalool, thymol, carvacrol and viridiflorol. Total phenolics ranged from 68.1 to 102.6 mg/g dry mass, the total flavonoid content ranged from 38.3 to 67.0 mg/g dm, and the antioxidant activity according to the DPPH assay ranged from 253.3 to 342.9 mg TE/g dm and according to the FRAP assay ranged from 8.9 to 11.4 mg TE/g dm. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analyses were used to assess the geographical variations in the essential oil composition. Statistical analysis revealed that the analysed populations are grouped into four main clusters that appear to reflect the environmental impact on the chemical composition, which is influenced by differences in habitat composition, altitude and microclimatic conditions.

  4. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of the Essential Oil of Thymus haussknechtii Velen.

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    Handan G. Sevindik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Thymus haussknechtii Velen. was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major component of the essential oil was thymol (52.2%. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.9 µg gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities along with ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. In addition to antioxidant activity, anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil was also evaluated. It exhibited inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE which play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease, along with significant antioxidant activity.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Ibrahim, Abeer Y.; Hendawy, Saber F.; Omer, Elsayed A.; Hammouda, Faiza M.; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H.; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragol...

  6. A Member of Complementary Medicinal Food: Anatolian Royal Jellies, Their Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Malkoc, Meltem; Asadov, Alsever

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated various chemical and antioxidant properties of Anatolian royal jelly samples. Moisture, pH, total protein, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and sugars were analyzed from 18 samples. Total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. 10-HDA contents and total protein content of fresh weight ranged between 1.0% and 3.9%, and 11.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The main sugars detected were glucose and fructose. Maltose, trehalose, and melibiose were detected at less than 1.0% in all samples. Lactose, a milk sugar, was detected in only 3 samples, at values between 0.8% and 1.4%. Total henolic content ranged from 91.0 to 301.0 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg fresh weight. Antioxidant activity is due to both to the total phenolic content, proteins and fatty acids of royal jelly. Anatolian royal jelly samples were not different from other royal jelly samples from across the world. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2017-07-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%), camphor (22.40%) and α-pinene (7.16%), with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD 50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC 50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  9. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%, camphor (22.40% and α-pinene (7.16%, with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Nárgella S; Alves, Cassia C F; Alves, José M; Egea, Mariana B; Martins, Carlos H G; Silva, Thayná S; Bretanha, Lizandra C; Balleste, Maira P; Micke, Gustavo A; Silveira, Eduardo V; Miranda, Mayker L D

    2017-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Irene; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Navarro, Casilda; Sendra, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv) determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28%) and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox), but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs), followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs), and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs). P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils. PMID:28231113

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zantar, Said; Haouzi, Rachid; Chabbi, Mohamed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mouhib, Mohammed; Mohammed Boujnah; Bakkali, Mohammed; Zerrouk, Mounir Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils (EOs) have been studied. The chromatographic analysis showed that the studied EOs were constituted mainly by carvacrol for T. vulgaris and pulegone for M. pulegium. Gamma irradiation on the studied doses, affects quantitatively and not qualitatively some components of the investigated oils. This effect was dose dependent. While the antioxidant activity remains stable at any dose applied for the plants studied, the antimicrobial activity increased in the irradiated samples for gram negative bacteria and did not change for gram+bacteria. This study supports that gamma irradiation employed at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants. - Highlights: • The irradiation affects quantitatively the chemical composition of EO of AMPs. • The irradiation affected significantly the antimicrobial activity. • The antimicrobial activity was more pronounced at higher doses for gram−. • The irradiation up to a dose of 30 kGy did not affect the antioxidant activities. • The irradiation at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; El Gendy, Abd El-Nasser G S; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Abd El Razik, K A; Omer, Elsayed A; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose A

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of six spices widely cultivated in Egypt (Origanum syriacum, Majorana hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris, and Artemisia annua); (ii) determine the antioxidant activity of the Egyptian essential oils by means of five different antioxidant tests; and (iii) determine the effectiveness of these essential oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the six Egyptian aromatic plants. Overall, thyme (highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical: 89.40%) and oregano (highest percentage of inhibition of TBARS: 85.79) essential oils presented the best antioxidant profiles, whereas marjoram, lemongrass, and artemisia were highly effective in metal chelating but had a pro-oxidative behavior by Rancimat induction test. Lemongrass essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua with an inhibition zone of 49.00 mm, followed in effectiveness by thyme, marjoram, and oregano.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke and Siparuna guianensis Aublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to chemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (pepper and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (negramina. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger modified apparatus, and the identification and quantification of constituents, through GC/MS and GC-FID analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using β-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH radical sequestering method. In chromatographic analysis, the majority constituents found in the essential oil of C. dinisii were bicyclic monoterpenes, α-pinene (35.41%, β-pinene (17.81%, sabinene (12.01% and sesquiterpene bicyclogermacrene (7.59%. In the essential oil of the fresh leaves of Siparuna guianensis Aublet, acyclic monoterpene, β-myrcene (13.14%, and sesquiterpenes, germacrene-D (8.68% and bicyclogermacrene (16.71% were identified. The antioxidant activity was low by the β-carotene/linoleic acid test and was not evidenced by the DPPH test, for both oils evaluated.

  15. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and B. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Carla T M; Camargo, Vanessa B; Barbosa, F; Gularte, Cláudia; Pereira, Geovana; Miotto, Silvia; Cechinel Filho, V; Luiz Puntel, R; Folmer, V; Mendez, A

    2013-03-01

    Bauhinia species are known to have hypoglycemiant and antioxidant activities. Here, hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and Bauhinia variegata, collected in a Pampa biome region of Brazil, were investigated to characterize their chromatographic profile, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activity (TBARS and DPH assays). The extracts were obtained from dried and fresh leaves. The total flavonoid content was assessed by spectrophotometric determination, and the results ranged between 572.08 and 1,102.99 μg mL-1. Moreover, flavonoids were more predominant in B. variegata than in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa. HPLC analysis detected a complex profile of phenolic compounds, being the flavonoid kaempferitrin founded B. forficata subsp. pruinosa; in addition, other kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were present. In vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated a different behavior depending on the species, leaf treatment and extract concentration. In general, B. variegata extracts obtained from fresh material presented higher antioxidant potential, which can be attributed to the predominance of flavonoids in their chemical composition.

  16. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Egyptian lemongrass Cymbopogon proximus Stapf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from a unique, Egyptian endemic plant, Cymbopogon proximus STAPF. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. proximus was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. A total of 19 constituents representing 95.47% of the oil were identified: piperitone (72.44%), elemol (9.43%), a - eudesmol (4.34%), limonene (2.45%) and a - eudesmol. (Author).

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagella, Praveen; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min

    2012-04-01

    The leaves of Apium graveolens were extracted and the essential oil composition, immunotoxicity effects, and antioxidant activity were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. graveolens leaves. Twenty-eight components, representing 73.72% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are 4-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1-imidazolyl)-valerophenone (19.90%), 1-dodecanol (16.55%), 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester (4.93%), ethyl 4,4-D2-N-hexyl ether (4.11%), 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-phenyl-1-heptadecyn-3-ol (3.28%), 1,4-methano-1H-indene, octahydro-4-methyl-8-methylene-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1α,3αα,4α,7α,7αα)]- (2.99%), 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-(3″-t-butyl)benzodioxepine (2.56%), Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (2.53%), 9H-pyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrrolo[2,1-α]phthalazine-9, 11(10H)-dione, 10-ethyl-8-phenyl (2.07%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) value of 59.32 ppm and an LC(90) value of 127.69 ppm. The essential oil from the A. graveolens leaves was investigated for scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the results demonstrate that the essential oil from the A. graveolens has potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation process. The above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils and also as natural antioxidant.

  18. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. essential oil

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    Haris Nikšić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC of essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. Aim of this study to investigate the quality, antimicrobial andantioxidant activity of wild species Mentha longifolia essential oil from Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The chemical profi le of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 6bacterial strains. RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH.Results: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. longifoliae folium were oxygenated monoterpenes,piperitone oxide (63.58% and 1,8-cineole (12.03%. Essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity.The most important antibacterial activity essential oil was expressed on Gram negative strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerginosa and Salmonella enterica. subsp.enterica serotype ABONY. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a RSC. Investigated essential oil was able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPHH form (IC50=10.5 μg/ml and this activity was dose –dependent.Conclusion: The study revealed signifi cant antimicrobial activity of the investigated essential oil. The examined oil exhibited high RSC, which was found to be in correlation to the content of mainly monoterpeneketones and aldehydes. These results indicate that essential oils could serve as safe antioxidant and antiseptic supplements in pharmaceuticals.

  19. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

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    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  1. Mentha spicata Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Vibrio spp. Strains

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    Mejdi Snoussi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Vibrio spp. activities of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint are investigated in the present study. The effect of the essential oil on Vibrio spp. biofilm inhibition and eradication was tested using the XTT assay. A total of 63 chemical constituents were identified in spearmint oil using GC/MS, constituting 99.9% of the total identified compounds. The main components were carvone (40.8% ± 1.23% and limonene (20.8% ± 1.12%. The antimicrobial activity against 30 Vibrio spp. strains (16 species was evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution assays. All microorganisms were strongly affected, indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of the oil. Moreover, the investigated oil exhibited high antioxidant potency, as assessed by four different tests in comparison with BHT. The ability of the oil, belonging to the carvone chemotype, to inhibit or reduce Vibrio spp. biofilm warrants further investigation to explore the use of natural products in antibiofilm adhesion and reinforce the possibility of its use in the pharmaceutical or food industry as a natural antibiotic and seafood preservative against Vibrio contamination.

  2. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han-Yu; Gao, Yang; Lai, Peng-Xiang

    2017-02-28

    Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer). Fifty-six compounds were identified in the oil which comprised about 97.2% of the total composition of the oil. Major components of the oil were blumenol C (49.7%), β-cedrene (6.1%), limonene (3.8%), α-guaiene (3.3%), cryptone (3.1%), and α-cyperone (2.7%). Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro biological activities displayed by the oil obtained from the aerial parts of P. microphylla, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For this, the IC50 value was estimated to be 0.451 mg/mL. The essential oil of P. microphylla exhibited considerable antibacterial capacity against Escherichia coli with an MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value of 0.15 mg/mL, along with noticeable antibacterial ability against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 0.27 mg/mL. However, the essential oil did not show significant activity against fungus. The oil was tested for its cytotoxic activity towards HepG2 (liver hepatocellular cells) and MCF-7 Cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, and exerted cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.072 and 0.188 mg/mL for 72 h. In conclusion, the essential oil from P. microphylla is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as cytotoxic activity. Thus, it has the potential for utilization in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Effect of chemicals on production, composition and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Quan, Lili; Shen, Mengwei

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides are important secondary metabolites from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Various fatty acids, surfactants and organic solvents as cell membrane-reorganizing chemicals were investigated for their stimulatory effects on the growth of fungal mycelium and production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and endopolysaccharides (IPS) by submerged fermentation of I. obliquus. After evaluation of 14 chemicals, oleic acid, Tween 80, and TritonX-100 were chosen for optimization of addition concentration and addition time. Among the three chemicals, 0.1% (v/v) Tween 80 gave maximum production of mycelial biomass, EPS, IPS1, and IPS2 with a increase of 16.6, 81.6, 37.7 and 18.1%, respectively, when supplemented at the early growth phase (24h after inoculation). These EPS, IPS1, and IPS2 had significantly (pmonosaccharide compositions than those from the control. The simultaneously enhanced accumulation of bioactive EPS and IPS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with Tween 80 was evident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant ca...

  5. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066

  7. Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. essential oils collected from different parts of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oils (ZEOs) collected from four provinces in western Iran (Ilam, Lorestan, Kermanshah and Kurdestan). Carvacrol was the most abundant constituent in the flower, stem and leaf oil samples of Ilam, Lorestan and Kermanshah regions by 73.12-74.29%, 66.47-66.89% and 65.11-65.32%, respectively. The most abundant components in Kurdestan sample were thymol (55.32-55.60%), followed by γ -terpinene (24.45-24.56%), p -cymene (10.21-10.25%) and α -terpinene (2.75-2.77%). The ZEO inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at MIC values between 0.03 and 0.04%. Kermanshah oil sample had a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (0.30-0.31 mg/ml), ability to prevent the bleaching of β-carotene (0.09-0.1 mg/ml), ferric reducing power (0.40-0.42 mg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid (0.004-0.006 Meq of malondialdehyde/g) values than that of ZEOs from Ilam, Kurdestan and Lorestan. The strong in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities supports the traditional use of ZEO in the treatments of gastrointestinal diseases.

  8. Evaluation of chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Aloysia citrodora extract on colon cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirzaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aloysia citrodora belongs to the Verbenaceae family of plants, a well-known herbal medicine in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of A. citrodora extract against human colon cancer (HT29 cells by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow-cytometry methods. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from March to September of 2014. At first, the A. citrodora chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. In addition, antioxidant assay, antibacterial and anti-cancer effect was performed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, disk diffusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT methods, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value was calculated. We extracted total RNA molecules by using RNX solution, after which cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the pro-apoptotic (Bax and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2 gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and apoptotic effects were analyzed using Flow-cytometry method. Results: GC-MS analysis of Aloysia citrodora extract was shown 37 major components and the most frequent component was belonged to Spathulenol (17.57% and Caryophyllene oxide (15.15% The antioxidant activity of the extract was IC50= 0.6±0.03 mg/ml. The maximum and minimum antibacterial effects of extract were belonged to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Cytotoxic results revealed that the A.citrodora extract have IC50= 20.1±0.78 mg/ml against colon cancer (HT29 cell line and real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed the expression level of Bax and Bcl2 was increased and decreased respectively in colon cancer cell line (3.470±0.72 (P< 0.05, 0.43±0.35 (P< 0.05. In addition, the flow-cytometry results indicated the 38

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA

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    A. Rebiai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional compositionand antioxidant activity of bee pollen produced in the North western region of Algeria.The content of total phenolic compounds,flavonoids, and antioxidant activity using the molybdate ion reductionmethod were determined. The meancontents of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were 30.46 ± 8.22 mgof GAE.g–1 pollen and 8.92 ± 5.5 mg of RE.g–1 pollen, respectively. Highantioxidant activities were found for the molybdate ion reductionmethod, with values that ranged from 71.95 to 101.5μg of GAE.g–1 pollen. The bee pollen ofBoufarikshowed high antioxidant activity probably due to the high contentof phenolic compounds present in pollen.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of six pinus taxa native to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-05-21

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%-20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%-12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%-26.31%), α-guaiene (1.23%-8.19%), and germacrene D (1.26%-9.93%). Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-17

    Among popular crops, plum ( Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  12. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L. has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor” juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  13. Effects of germination on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchi, W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the changes in proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics of flaxseed during germination. Flaxseed was germinated for 4 days and observations were taken every day throughout the study. Changes in the seed reserve and antioxidant activity were determined during germination. The oil content of the cultivar decreased from 35.10 to 27.22%. During the germination period, the total protein content increased to 23.84%. Germinated flaxseed showed significantly higher unsaturated as compared to saturated fatty acid ratios and higher calculated oxidizability (Cox values. The Saponification value ranged from 182 to 192 mg KOH·g–1 oil during germination. The highest peroxide value (2.4 mequiv O2·kg−1 oil was observed at the end of germination. The unsaponifiable contents ranged from 1.62 to 1.18%. The oxidation value of the oil samples were statistically in the same range (4.1–6.4%. After 4 days of germination, oil stability was reduced to 1.0 h. The increase in ascorbic acid content was steady. Total phenolic acid contents differed significantly. The greatest concentration was detected in non germinated flaxseed oil. Germinated Flaxssed oil showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals.El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar los cambios en la composición y características físico-químicas de aceites de linaza durante la germinación. La linaza se germinó durante 4 días y el estudio se realizó todos los días durante este proceso. Se determinaron los cambios en la reserva de las semilla y la actividad antioxidante. El contenido de aceite de los cultivos disminuyó de 35,10 a 27,22%. Durante este periodo, el contenido de proteína total aumentó a 23,84%. La linaza germinada mostró valores significativamente más altos de la relación de ácidos grasos insaturados frente a saturados y mayor facilidad de

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia chrysophylla Staph

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    Mehmet Emin Duru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae, endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the essential oil were found to be α-terpinenyl acetate (36.31%, β-caryophyllene (15.29%, linalool (8.12% and β-elemene (4.26%. The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. Anticholinesterase activity was screened against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s diseases. The essential oil showed weak antioxidant activity. However, at 1 mg/mL concentration, the essential oil exhibited mild acetylcholinesterase (52.5±2.0% and modarate butyrylcholinesterase (76.5±2.7% inhibitory activity.

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils isolated from Colombian plants

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    Jesús Olivero-Verbel

    Full Text Available Thirteen essential oils from Colombian plants, obtained by hydrodistillation or microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of total plant, stem, leaves, and flowers were analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was assessed using the brine shrimp assay, and their antioxidant activities measuring their effects on the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on rat liver microsomes induced by Fe2+/H2O2. Five oils showed high cytotoxicity (LC501000 µg/mL.

  16. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  17. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

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    Qing Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%, bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%, β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%, α-guaiene (1.23%–8.19%, and germacrene D (1.26%–9.93%. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  19. INVESTIGATION ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM DRACOCEPHALUM KOTSCHYI BOISS.

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    Ashrafi, Behnam; Ramak, Parvin; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Talei, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss is a herb with wide-spread applications. Lorestan traditional healers have applied it for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and stomach disorders. Hydrodistillation process was used for essential oil extraction, the extracted essential oil was then analyzed through combination of capillary GC-FID, GC-MS and RI. The in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of this essential oil were examined. Results indicate that the essential oil has a broad range of anti-microbial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. The 50% of cytotoxic concentrations was 26.4 μg/ml and 4266.7 μg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The oil cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell line was far higher than the amount required for human healthy cells. Conversely, the essential oil's IC 50 value of 49.2 μg/ml in the DPPH assay, could be regarded as its strong antioxidant potential. According to the data obtained, it can be concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil could be applied as a safe antibacterial and antioxidant agent for food and pharmaceutical purposes.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  1. Screening of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activity of Section Brevifilamentum of Origanum (L. Species

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    Hasibe Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Origanum species, Origanum acutidens (Hand. -Mazz. Ietsw. (OA, Origanum brevidens (Bornm. Dinsm. (OB, Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. (OC, Origanum husnucan-baseri H.Duman, Aytaç & A.Duran (OHB, Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (OL, Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. (OR, belonging to sect. Brevifilamentum were analyzed for their essential oil and phenolic components. For the essential oil analyses, GC-MS and GC-FID were used. Phenolic contents of the aerial parts of the chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity of the species was investigated by three methods; DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene linoleic acid assays and CUPRAC assays. Also, acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition of the extracts were investigated. While the essential oil contents of the section Brevifilamentum showed difference in chemotype, the phenolic contents were found to be coumaric acids and derivatives. These groups were the most abundant components of the extracts. Especially rosmarinic acid was detected in high amounts in acetone and methanol extracts. OA had the best activity both in antioxidant and anticholinesterase assays.

  2. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum

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    Jianglin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat flowers by hydrodistillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nonanoic acid (7.58%, (E-3-hexen-1-ol (6.52%, and benzothiazole (5.08% were the major constituents among the 28 identified components which accounted for 92.89% of the total oil of F. esculentum. 2-Pentadecanone (18.61%, eugenol (17.18%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl ester (13.19%, and (E,E-farnesylacetone (7.15% were the major compounds among the 14 identified components which accounted for 88.48% of the total oil of F. tataricum. Eugenol (12.22%, (E-3-hexen-1-yl acetate (8.03%, linalool oxide (7.47%, 1-hexanol (7.07%, and benzothiazole (6.72% were the main compounds of the 20 identified components which accounted for 90.23% of the total oil of F. cymosum. The three VOs were screened to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 100.0 μg/mL to 800.0 μg/mL against the tested bacteria, and their median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were from 68.32 μg/mL to 452.32 μg/mL. Xanthomonas vesicatoria was the most sensitive bacterium. Moreover, the flower VOs of F. esculentum, F. tataricum and F. cymosum also exhibited noteworthy antioxidant capacity with the IC50 value of 354.15 μg/mL, 210.63 μg/mL, and 264.92 μg/mL for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and the value of 242.06 μg/mL, 184.13 μg/mL, and 206.11 μg/mL respectively for the β-carotene-linoleic bleaching test. These results suggested the volatile oils of buckwheat flowers could be potential resource of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  3. Chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activities of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Houcine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Souchard, Jean Pierre; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2010-08-01

    Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation from berries of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi originating from southern of Tunisia and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Among 57 and 62 compounds (%[mg/100 g dry matter]) identified in these oils, the main were alpha-phellandrene (46.52%[1256.15] and 34.38%[859.60]), beta-phellandrene (20.81%[561.74] and 10.61%[265.15]), alpha-terpineol (8.38%[226.26] and 5.60%[140.03]), alpha-pinene (4.34%[117.29] and 6.49%[162.25]), beta-pinene (4.96%[133.81] and 3.09%[77.30]) and p-cymene (2.49%[67.28] and 7.34%[183.40]), respectively. A marked quantity of gamma-cadinene (18.04%[451.05]) was also identified in the S. terebinthifolius essential oil whereas only traces (0.07%[1.81]) were detected in the essential oil of S. molle. The in vitro antioxidant and antiradical scavenging properties of the investigated essential oils were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Essential oil of S. terebinthifolius expressed stronger antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, with an IC(50) of 24 +/- 0.8 mg/L, compared to S. molle (IC(50)= 257 +/- 10.3 mg/L). Essential oils were also evaluated for their anticancer activities against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). S. terebinthifolius essential oil was more effective against tested cell lines (IC(50)= 47 +/- 9 mg/L) than that from S. molle (IC(50)= 54 +/- 10 mg/L). Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.

  4. Polyphenolic content, in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of extract from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican rambutan) husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristian; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan; De la Garza, Heliodoro; Wong-Paz, Jorge; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé; Martínez-Ávila, Guillermo Cristian; Castro-López, Cecilia; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    To determinate the recovery of total polyphenolic compounds content, in vitro antioxidant activity and HPLC/ESI/MS characterization of extract from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican rambutan). The rambutan husk extract was obtained by aqueous extraction and a polyphenolic fraction was recovered using Amberlite XAD-16. The total polyphenolic compounds content was determined by the Folin Ciocalteu and butanol-HCI methods. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed using ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. Mexican rambutan husk showed a total polyphenolic content of 582 mg/g and an evident antioxidant activity by ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power analysis. The HPLC/ESI/MS assay allowed the identification of 13 compounds, most of which belong to ellagitannins. Geraniin, corilagin and ellagic acid were present in the sample; the mineral composition was also evaluated. Rambutan husk cultivated in Mexico is a promising source for the recovery of added value bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which have potential applications as bioactive antioxidant agents for the treatment of diseases. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

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    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  6. Chemical composition and anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei.

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    Afoulous, Samia; Ferhout, Hicham; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Valentin, Alexis; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Couderc, François; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-06-01

    The essential oil from Cedrelopsis grevei leaves, an aromatic and medicinal plant from Madagascar, is widely used in folk medicine. Essential oil was characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Sixty-four components were identified. The major constituents were: (E)-β-farnesene (27.61%), δ-cadinene (14.48%), α-copaene (7.65%) and β-elemene (6.96%). The essential oil contained a complex mixture consisting mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (83.42%) and generally sesquiterpenes (98.91%). The essential oil was tested cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7), antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum), antiinflammatory and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays) activities. C. grevei essential oil was active against MCF-7 cell lines (IC50=21.5 mg/L), against P. falciparum, (IC50=17.5mg/L) and antiinflammatory (IC50=21.33 mg/L). The essential oil exhibited poor antioxidant activity against DPPH (IC50>1000 mg/L) and ABTS (IC50=110 mg/L) assays. A bibliographical review was carried out of all essential oils identified and tested with respect to antiplasmodial, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial, anticancer and antiinflammatory). According to the obtained correlations, 1,4-cadinadiene (R(2)=0.61) presented a higher relationship with antimalarial activity. However, only (Z)-β-farnesene (R(2)=0.73) showed a significant correlation for anticancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

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    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  8. Inhibition of Melanogenesis Versus Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from Leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC-MS

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    Tsong-Min Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%, monoterpenes (19.25%, esters (14.77%, alcohols (8.53%, aromatic compound (5.90%, ketone (4.96%, ethers (0.4% that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant.

  9. Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-03-30

    This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant.

  10. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

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    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  11. Chemical Composition of Volatiles; Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. (Apiaceae) Essential Oils and Extracts.

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    Petrović, Goran M; Stamenković, Jelena G; Kostevski, Ivana R; Stojanović, Gordana S; Mitić, Violeta D; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition of the headspace volatiles (HS) and essential oils obtained from fresh Chaerophyllum aromaticum root and aerial parts in full vegetative phase, as well as biological activities of their essential oils and MeOH extracts. In HS samples, the most dominant components were monoterpene hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the essential oils consisted mainly of sesquiterpenoids, representing 73.4% of the root and 63.4% of the aerial parts essential oil. The results of antibacterial assay showed that the aerial parts essential oil and MeOH extract have no antibacterial activity, while the root essential oil and extract showed some activity. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited anticholinesterase activity (47.65% and 50.88%, respectively); MeOH extract of the root showed only 8.40% inhibition, while aerial part extract acted as an activator of cholinesterase. Regarding the antioxidant activity, extracts were found to be more effective than the essential oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Five White Onion (Allium cepa L. Landraces

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    Loredana Liguori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five onion landraces belonging to Bianca di Pompei cv., cultivated in Campania region (Italy, were characterized for their main quality parameters. The onion landraces were harvested at the end of the growth cycle corresponding to the ripening time and harvest month, respectively: February, March, April, May, and June. The total content of volatile compounds as well as the sulfur-containing compounds in Aprilatica was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other landraces investigated. The nutraceutical feature investigated through the total phenols, phenols profile, and antioxidant activity showed higher values for the samples harvested in spring months. High pungency values ranging from 9 to 14 μmol/g FW were found in all onion landraces investigated as enzymatically (alliinase produced pyruvate (EPY. The organic acids profile (malic, citric, succinic, pyruvic, oxalic, ascorbic, and tartaric acids highlighted malic and citric acids in higher amounts in all landraces. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were found as soluble sugars and fructose was the most abundant. Generally, the results highlighted the growth temperature influence on the investigated quality parameters.

  13. Chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

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    Bouyahya, Abdelhakim; Et-Touys, Abdeslam; Bakri, Youssef; Talbaui, Ahmed; Fellah, Hajiba; Abrini, Jamal; Dakka, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils and the evaluation of their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Essential oils (EOs) were isolated using steam distillation and the chemical composition was determined using GC-MS analysis. The antibacterial activity was tested against ten pathogenic strains using the diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by microtitration assay. The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging ability and ferric-reducing power. The antileishmanial activity was tested against Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum using MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The yield of essential oils (v/w %) M. puleguim and R. officinalis based on dry weight were 5.4 and 2.7% respectively. GC/MS analysis of R. officinalis essential oil (ROEO) revealed the presence of 29 components, mainly represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (63.743%) and hydrocarbons monoterpenes (21.231%). Mentha pulegium essential oil (MPEO) revealed 21 components, mainly represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (83.865%). The major components of ROEO were α-pinene (14.076), 1,8-Cineole (23.673) and camphor (18.743), while menthone (21.164) and pulegone (40.98) were the main major components of MPEO. M. pulegium and R. officinalis EOs showed a significant antioxidant activity compared with ascorbic acid and Trolox to the IC 50 values of 58.27 ± 2.72 and 85.74 ± 7.57 μg/mL respectively revealed by reducing power assay. As for the antibacterial effect, the highest zone diameters were shown by the MPEO against Bacillus subtilis (30 ± 1.43 mm) and Proteus mirabilis (28 ± 1.32 mm). These values are significantly important compared with those of the commercialized antibiotic (Erythromycin and

  14. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

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    Long-Zen Chang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL, down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%, alcohols (16.72%, sesquiterpenes (15.21%, esters (11.78%, monoterpenes (11.63%, ketones (6.09%, aromatic compounds (5.01%, and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

  15. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

  16. Dual bioactivities of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi as an antimelanogenic versus antioxidant agent and chemical composition analysis by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-11-12

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata (Meliponinae) in flooded fields and cerrado areas of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA,Marisa Cristina Aranha; ABREU,Bruno Vinicius de Barros; DUTRA,Richard Pereira; CUNHA,Mayara Soares; AMARAL,Flavia Maria Mendonça do; TORRES,Luce Maria Brandão; RIBEIRO,Maria Nilce de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geopropolis, a mixture of plant resin, wax, soil and salivary secretion, is produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata. This aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis collected from beehives in two phytogeographical regions, flooded fields and cerrado, in the municipalities of Palmeirândia and Fernando Falcão, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. The geopropolis compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass sp...

  18. Effect of Different Parts (Leaf, Stem and Stalk) and Seasons (Summer and Winter) on the Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

  19. Effects of germination on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Herchi, W.; Bahashwan, S.; Sebei, K.; Ben Saleh, H.; Kallel, H.; Boukhchina, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the changes in proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics of flaxseed during germination. Flaxseed was germinated for 4 days and observations were taken every day throughout the study. Changes in the seed reserve and antioxidant activity were determined during germination. The oil content of the cultivar decreased from 35.10 to 27.22%. During the germination period, the total protein content increased to 23.84%. Germinated flaxseed...

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

    2012-11-01

    A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-β-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), β-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and β-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3 mg GAE g(-1) and 16.3 mg RE g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8 mg GAE g(-1) and 12.3 mg RE g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species.

  1. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  2. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017 on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  3. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Portuguese Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martinez and its relation with their chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Sofia; Rodrigues, Cleide F; Araújo, João P; Rocha, Pedro M; Rodilla, Jesus M; Diez, David; Granja, Ángela P; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2016-01-01

    Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martinez is an endemic aromatic Labiatae the Iberian Peninsula, common in semi-arid regions of southern Portugal and southwestern Spain, that produces an active antibacterial essential oil from the leaves and flowers. This work presents the study of the chemical variation in various stages of growth of leaves and flowers of L. luisieri. It has been found that the essential oils are mainly constituted by 1,8-cineol, camphor, linalool and trans-α-necrodil acetate. It was also studied the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity on leaves and flowers. The ethanol extraction from de leaves contents the highest total phenol, important factor for the antioxidant activity of the plant, extract. It has been studied too, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp . and Staphylococcus aureus . In accordance with the obtained results, the antibacterial activities stand out against Staphylococcus , of the oil of L. luisieri (leaves and flowers).

  4. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (Pmeat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of oil mill waste water from Tunisian olive varieties (Chetoui and Chemlali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Khemakhem Sellami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil mill waste water (OMWW is of great interest due to the presence of valuable resources such as biophenols that can be recovered as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of physicochemical composition of OMWW from Chetoui and Chemlali varieties, to evaluate phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of OMWW extracts under native and acidified conditions. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed for the extraction of polyphenols. Antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP tests. Phenolic compounds content was determined by HPLC-DAD method. OMWW from Chetoui variety has been shown to contain an important amount of K, Ca and Na whereas Chemlali cultivar was rich in Mg. Phenolic extract from Chetoui fruit (COCt has been  shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols (2.48 ± 0.21 g L-1 as well as an appreciable content of flavonoids (9.39 ± 0.32 g L-1. However, phenolic extract from Chemlali fruit (COCm has been shown to have the highest content of proanthocyanidins (0.39 ± 0.00 g L-1. Acidification treatment improved polyphenol recovery of extracts from both varieties. COCt was more active using DPPH (EC50 of 7.5 mg L-1 and FRAP tests. However, COCt and COCm exhibited the same activity using ABTS test. In general, acidification treatment decreased antioxidant activity of extracts. COCt has been shown to contain higher amount of hydroxytyrosol when compared to COCm (157.16 ± 0.820 and 23.440 ± 0.440 mg g-1 D.W. of extract, respectively as revealed by HPLC-DAD analysis. 

  6. Chemicals Compositions, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cynara scolymus Leaves Extracts, and Analysis of Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC

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    Maryem Ben Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. was one of the plant remedies for primary health care. The present study was focused on the determination of chemical composition, antioxidant activities, and anti-inflammatory activity and on analyzing its major bioactive polyphenols by HPLC. Methods. Artichoke Leaves Extracts (ALE were analyzed for proximate analysis and phytochemical and antioxidant activity by several methods such as DDPH, ABTS, FRAP, and beta-carotene bleaching test. The carrageenan (Carr model induced paw oedema in order to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenols compounds were done by HPLC method. The oxidative stress parameters were determined; CAT, SOD, GSH, MDA, and AOPP activities and the histopathological examination were also performed. Results. It was noted that EtOH extract of ALE contained the highest phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents and the strongest antioxidants activities including DDPH (94.23%, ABTS (538.75 mmol, FRAP assay (542.62 umol, and β-carotene bleaching (70.74% compared to the other extracts of ALE. Administration of EtOH extract at dose 400 mg/kg/bw exhibited a maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by Carr for 3 and 5 hours compared to reference group Indomethacin (Indo. Conclusion. ALE displayed high potential as natural source of minerals and phytochemicals compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  7. Study of the chemical composition of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium sclerocarpum and evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds and the resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Salina, Melissa; Rodilla, Jesús; Torres, René

    2009-11-12

    Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE) and total reacting equivalents (TRE).

  8. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

  9. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman El Abed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated. The essential oil extracted was chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen components were identified, of which carvacrol represented (88.89% of the oil. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using both the DPPH and the ABTS assays. The findings showed that the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity, which was comparable to the reference standards (BHT and ascorbic acid with IC50 values of 44.16 and 0.463 μg/mL determined by the free-radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The results demonstrated that the zone of inhibition varied from moderate to strong (15–80 mm and the minimum inhibition concentration values ranged from 0.32 to 20 mg/mL. In addition, essential oil evaluated in vivo against Listeria monocytogenes showed clear and strong inhibitory effect. The application of 0.25 or 1% (v/w essential oil of T. capitata to minced beef significantly reduced the L. monocytogenes population when compared to those of control samples (P-value  <0.01.

  11. Investigation of the Anti-Melanogenic and Antioxidant Characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Flower Essential Oil and Determination of Its Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Ho, Ya-Chi; Lim, Jia-Min; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Ho, Chen-Lung; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus camaldulensis flowers oil on melanogenesis and the oil’s antioxidant characteristics were investigated. Assays of mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin content of mouse melanoma cells were performed spectrophotometrically, and the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blotting. The possible signaling pathways involved in essential oil-mediated depigmentation were also investigated using specific protein kinase inhibitors. The results revealed that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil effectively suppresses intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases melanin amount in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The essential oil also exhibits antioxidant properties and effectively decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chemical constituents in the essential oil are predominately oxygenated monoterpenes (34.9%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (31.8%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.0%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.3%). Our results indicated that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil inhibits melanogenesis through its antioxidant properties and by down-regulating both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. The present study indicates that the essential oil has the potential to be developed into a skin care product. PMID:25961954

  12. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Satureja montana L. Essential Oil and Its Antibacterial Potential against Salmonella Spp. Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene Miladi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes chemical composition as well as cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of winter savory Satureja montana L. essential oil (EO. The plant was collected from south France mountain, and its EO was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Thirty-two compounds were identified accounting for 99.85% of the total oil, where oxygenated monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (59.11%. The oil was dominated by carvacrol (53.35%, γ-terpinene (13.54%, and the monoterpenic hydrocarbons p-cymene (13.03%. Moreover, S. montana L. EO exhibited high antibacterial activities with strong effectiveness against several pathogenic food isolated Salmonella spp. including S. enteritidis with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 21 to 51 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.39–1.56 mg/mL to 0.39–3.12 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the S. montana L. EO was investigated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The results revealed a significant cytotoxic effect of S. montana L. EO against A549 cell line and an important antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that S. montana L. EO may be considered as an interesting source of components used as potent agents in food preservation and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries.

  13. Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Wong, Lee Min; Bhat, Rajeev; Cheng, Lai Hoong

    2012-02-01

    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption. In the present study, the chemical composition, bioactive/antioxidant compounds and functional properties of green and ripe mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) peel and pulp flours were evaluated. Compared to commercial wheat flour, mango flours were significantly low in moisture and protein, but were high in crude fiber, fat and ash content. Mango flour showed a balance between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber proportions, with total dietary fiber content ranging from 3.2 to 5.94 g kg⁻¹. Mango flours exhibited high values for bioactive/antioxidant compounds compared to wheat flour. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of mango flours ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 g kg⁻¹ and from 0.18 to 0.22 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed mango peel flour to be a rich source of dietary fiber with good antioxidant and functional properties, which could be a useful ingredient for new functional food formulations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  16. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Leaves of Mentha piperita Grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenliang; Wang, Huiyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Lianming; Yang, Peiming

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil from leaves of Mentha piperita (MEO) grown in China were investigated. Using GC-MS analysis, the chemical composition of MEO was characterized, showing that it was mainly composed of menthol, menthone and menthy acetate. MEO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in a croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. It could also effectively inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cytotoxic effect was assessed against four human cancer cells. MEO was found to be significantly active against human lung carcinoma SPC-A1, human leukemia K562 and human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 value of 10.89, 16.16 and 38.76 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, MEO had moderate antioxidant activity. The results of this study may provide an experimental basis for further systematic research, rational development and clinical utilization of peppermint resources.

  17. Chemical composition, toxicity and antioxidant activities of essential oils of stem bark of Nigerian species of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Taiye R.; Oloyede, Ganiyat Kehinde; Aponjolosun, Babalola S.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil from the stem bark of Nigerian species of Psidium guajava of the family Myrtaceae was obtained by hydro-distillation using an all-glass Clavenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS analysis were carried out on the essential oil and was found to contain 62 compounds constituting 99.98 % of the total oil composition. The principal constituents are hydrocarbons, amines, amides and esters with 3,6-dioxa-2,4,5,7-tetraoctane,2,2,4,4,5,5,7,7-octamethyl (11.67 %) and cyclononane (10.66 %) dominating the total essential oil. Brine shrimp lethality test was carried out to determine the toxicity of the oils to living organisms (shrimps). LC50 value (µg/ml) of 1.0009 obtained showed that the essential oil of P. guajava stem bark was toxic. The antioxidant property of essential oil was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorption at 517 nm of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in a UV/visible spectrophotometer. The oil showed better activity as a radical scavenger than α-tocopherol. The oil activity was 71.83 % at 0.2 mg/ml and the absorption is stoichiometric with respect to the number of electron taken up. Thus, the results of this study showed that the essential oil from P. guajava was not only toxic; it possessed antioxidant activity, which could exert beneficial actions against pathological alterations caused by the presence of highly reactive free radicals. The toxicity of the oil can be taken advantage of in the therapy of diseases involving cell or tumor growth. PMID:27857663

  18. Helichrysum gymnocephalum Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic, Antimalarial and Antioxidant Activities, Attribution of the Activity Origin by Correlations

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    François Couderc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil (EO was prepared by hydrodistillation of its leaves and characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Twenty three compounds were identified. 1,8-Cineole (47.4%, bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%, γ-curcumene (5.6%, α-amorphene (5.1% and bicyclogermacrene (5% were the main components. Our results confirmed the important chemical variability of H. gymnocephalum. The essential oil was tested in vitro for cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7, antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum: FcB1-Columbia strain, chloroquine-resistant and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays activities. H. gymnocephalum EO was found to be active against MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 of 16 ± 2 mg/L. The essential oil was active against P. falciparum (IC50 = 25 ± 1 mg/L. However, the essential oil exhibited a poor antioxidant activity in the DPPH (IC50 value > 1,000 mg/L and ABTS (IC50 value = 1,487.67 ± 47.70 mg/L assays. We have reviewed the existing results on the anticancer activity of essential oils on MCF-7 cell line and on their antiplasmodial activity against the P. falciparum. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial and anticancer. β-Selinene (R² = 0.76, α-terpinolene (R² = 0.88 and aromadendrene (R² = 0.90 presented a higher relationship with the anti-cancer activity. However, only calamenene (R² = 0.70 showed a significant correlation for the antiplasmodial activity.

  19. Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil: chemical composition and cytotoxic, antimalarial and antioxidant activities, attribution of the activity origin by correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoulous, Samia; Ferhout, Hicham; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Valentin, Alexis; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Couderc, François; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-09-29

    Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil (EO) was prepared by hydrodistillation of its leaves and characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Twenty three compounds were identified. 1,8-Cineole (47.4%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%), γ-curcumene (5.6%), α-amorphene (5.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (5%) were the main components. Our results confirmed the important chemical variability of H. gymnocephalum. The essential oil was tested in vitro for cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7), antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum: FcB1-Columbia strain, chloroquine-resistant) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays) activities. H. gymnocephalum EO was found to be active against MCF-7 cells, with an IC(50) of 16 ± 2 mg/L. The essential oil was active against P. falciparum (IC(50) = 25 ± 1 mg/L). However, the essential oil exhibited a poor antioxidant activity in the DPPH (IC(50) value > 1,000 mg/L) and ABTS (IC(50) value = 1,487.67 ± 47.70 mg/L) assays. We have reviewed the existing results on the anticancer activity of essential oils on MCF-7 cell line and on their antiplasmodial activity against the P. falciparum. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial and anticancer). β-Selinene (R² = 0.76), α-terpinolene (R² = 0.88) and aromadendrene (R² = 0.90) presented a higher relationship with the anti-cancer activity. However, only calamenene (R² = 0.70) showed a significant correlation for the antiplasmodial activity.

  20. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghaffar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan. EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%, α-pinene (31.4%, citrinyl acetate (13.3%, eugenol (11.8% and terpenene-4-ol (10.2% were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively. The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  1. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-11-18

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  2. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oils of four dietary and medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye Foe, Florentine Marie-Chantal; Tchinang, Tatiana Flore Kemegni; Nyegue, Ascencion Maximilienne; Abdou, Jean-Pierre; Yaya, Abel Joel Gbaweng; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; Essame, Jean-Louis Oyono; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2016-04-07

    In the Cameroonian traditional medicine, plants of the Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Liliaceae families are used to treat several metabolic diseases. These plants are rich in various compounds belonging to the glucosinolates and thiosulfinates family. Till date, very little studies have been done aiming at assessing the antioxidant and inflammatory properties of the essential oils (EOs) of these plants. Essential oils are volatile extracts produced by secondary metabolism. They are usually constituted of terpens and may also contain specific non terpenic components such as glucosinolates and thiosulfinates for the species that are being considered in the present study. This study highlights and compares the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the essential oils of the stem barks of Drypetes gossweileri (Euphorbiaceae), roots of Pentadiplandra brazzeana (Capparidaceae), red bulbs of Allium cepa and Alium sativum (Liliaceae) collected in Cameroon (Central Africa). The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In vitro antioxidant activities were determined using the radical scavenging assay, total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and determination of antioxidant activity index (AAI) according to the method described by Scherer and Godoy. The anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using albumin denaturation method. Differences (p essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (41.62 %), diallyl disulfide (19.74 %), allyl methyl trisulfide (12.95 %), diallyl sulfide (7.1 %) and diallyl tetrasulfide (4.22 %). Those of Allium cepa essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (22.17 %), dipropyl trisulfide (11.11 %), 2-methyl-3,4-dithiaheptane (9.88 %), methyl propyl trisulfide (8.14 %), dipropyl tetrasulfide (8.07 %) and 2-propenyl propyl disulfide (5.15 %). Drypetes gossweileri and Pentadiplandra

  3. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat

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    Christiane Takayama

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF OILS EXTRACTED BY TRADITIONAL AND HEXANE METHODS FROM TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. KERNELS

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    Bérenger A. L. Ladele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of Terminalia catappa L. kernel oils extracted by two methods has been done. The oil yields were 28.13 % and 61.78 % respectively for traditional and hexane methods and the fatty acid profiles showed palmitic acid (40.79 % and 40.03 % respectively oleic acid (25.55 % and 26.09 % respectively, linoleic acid (26.72 % and 26.64 % respectively and stearic acid (4.35 % and 4.49 % respectively as major components. The oils extracted by the two ways showed similar physico-chemical properties, good calorific values and non-toxicity against Artemia salina L. Oil obtained by traditional method exhibited more antioxidant capacity (1.40 than the hexane one (0.15. This traditional method helps to extract 45 % of the total oil. It gives oil free of organic solvent, with good physico-chemical properties that could be useful as edible oil and for industrial applications.

  5. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  6. Eucalyptus oleosa Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Oils from Different Plant Parts (Stems, Leaves, Flowers and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Larbi Khouja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (stems, adult leaves, immature flowers and fruits of Eucalyptus oleosa were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their chemical composition. According to GC-FID and GC-MS, the principal compound of the stem, immature flowers and the fruit oils was 1,8-cineole, representing 31.5%, 47.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Spathulenol (16.1% and γ-eudesmol (15.0% were the two principal compounds of adult leaves oil. In the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the oils of the four parts showed moderate antioxidant activity. In the ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate assay, the most active part was the adult leaves, with a IC50 value 13.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, followed by stems (IC50 = 43.5 ± 1.4 mg/L. The essential oils showed a better antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a significant antifungal activity also was observed against yeast-like fungi. A strong correlations between oxygenated monoterpenes and antimicrobial activity (especially 1,8-cineole were noted (R2 = 0.99, 0.97 and 0.79 for B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively.

  7. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  8. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng.

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    Rosany Lopes Martins

    Full Text Available Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E -β-farnesene (37.615%, Linalool (33.375%, α-Santalene (3.255% and linalyl acetate (3.222%. The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1.

  9. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva; de Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1.

  10. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Smaoui, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2017-08-03

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is a flowing plant belonging to the Rutaceae family. Citrus plants constitute one of the main valuable sources of essential oil used in foods and medicinal purposes. In this study, we assessed chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. limon essential oil (ClEO) with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major components of the obtained ClEO. The antioxidant activities of this ClEO were determined according to the β-carotene bleaching assay, as well as by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For antimicrobial activity, agar well diffusion method was used and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as well as the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined. The in situ effect of the ClEO was evaluated through physicochemical parameters (pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as against L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat model. Twenty one components were identified in the ClEO and the two dominant compounds were limonene (39.74%) and β-Pinene (25.44%). This ClEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an extract concentration providing 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of 15.056 μg/ml and a strong β-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC 50 of 40.147 μg/ml. The MICs varied from 0.039 to 1.25 mg/ml for Gram positive bacteria and from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria. The meat preserving potential of ClEO was investigated against L. monocytogenes. ClEO successfully inhibited development of L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat. The application of ClEO at a 0.06 and 0.312 mg/g, may open new promising opportunities for the prevention of contamination from and growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly L. monocytogenes, during minced beef meat storage at 4 °C. Additionally, during

  12. Effect of the type of brewing water on the chemical composition, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Zou, Chun; Gao, Ying; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2017-12-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, sensory quality, and antioxidant activity of tea infusions prepared with purified water (PW), mineral water (MW), mountain spring water (MSW), and tap water (TW) from Hangzhou were investigated. The results showed that the taste quality, catechin concentration, and antioxidant capacity of green, oolong, and black tea infusions prepared using MW and TW were significantly lower than those prepared using PW. Extraction of catechins and caffeine was reduced with high-conductivity water, while high pH influenced the stability of catechins. PW and MSW were more suitable for brewing green and oolong teas, while MSW, with low pH and moderate ion concentration, was the most suitable water for brewing black tea. Lowering the pH of mineral water partially improved the taste quality and increased the concentration of catechins in the infusions. These results aid selection of the most appropriate water for brewing Chinese teas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Yong; Zhong, Yi-Rong; Yu, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Macleaya cordata R.Br. obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-eight compounds consisting of up to 92.53% of the essential oil were identified. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil were evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity. In addition, the essential oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 ± 0.5 to 17.2 ± 1.2 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration values from 125 to 500 μg/mL. We selected the most sensitive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus as model to observe of the action of essential oils of M. cordata on the membrane structure by scanning electron microscopy. The treated cell membranes were damaged severely. The results presented here indicate that the essential oil of M. cordata may be potential sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in the future.

  14. Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)--their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinowska, Renata; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2016-01-01

    It was shown that the method for obtaining hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) influences the content of active compounds and the aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the hydrolates. The content of volatile organic compounds ranged from 9.12 to 97.23 mg/100 mL of hydrolate. Lavender hydrolate variants showed low antimicrobial activity (from 0% to 0.05%). The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was from 3.6 ± 0.5% to 3.8 ± 0.6% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) results were from 0 to 266 μM Trolox equivalent, depending on the hydrolate variant.

  15. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi A. Mothana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae, collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%. Hexadecanoic acid (32.8% and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8% were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%. Camphor (6.1% and linalool (3.2% were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively.

  16. Intrastrain Comparison of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and Its Potent Neuritogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Phan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF production. Linoleic acid (4.5–5.0%, w/w which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL. The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154–192 g kg−1, total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health.

  17. Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Bonani, Vanderlea F.L.; Peruzzo, Gisele M.; Peres, Marize T.L.P.; Hess, Sania C. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Morel, Ademir Farias Morel; Stuker, Caroline Z. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Poppi, Nilva Re; Raposo Junior, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFMS), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oil obtained from the stem bark of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) was analysed by GC and GC-MS. 83 compounds were identified and borneol (14.7%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), 1-isopropyl-7-methyl-4-methylene-1,3,4,5,6,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalane-4a-ol (14.7%), sesquicineole (10.5%) and {gamma}-gurjunene epoxide (5.4%) were the main components. The EC{sub 50} value of the crude essential oil in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay was 3.21 mg mL{sup -1}. The fraction of the crude essential oil that presented antioxidant activity was purified by prep-TLC on silica gel. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that a-bisabolol (38.3%), a-eudesmol (9.3%) and guaiol (8.2%) were the main components of the antioxidant fraction. The EC{sub 50} value measured for the bioactive oil fraction in the DPPH assay was 1.05 mg mL{sup -1}. The antimicrobial activity of the crude essential oil was assayed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three yeasts. Measured MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 10.00 mg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Bonani, Vanderlea F.L.; Peruzzo, Gisele M.; Peres, Marize T.L.P.; Hess, Sania C.; Morel, Ademir Farias Morel; Stuker, Caroline Z.; Poppi, Nilva Re; Raposo Junior, Jorge Luiz

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from the stem bark of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) was analysed by GC and GC-MS. 83 compounds were identified and borneol (14.7%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), 1-isopropyl-7-methyl-4-methylene-1,3,4,5,6,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalane-4a-ol (14.7%), sesquicineole (10.5%) and γ-gurjunene epoxide (5.4%) were the main components. The EC 50 value of the crude essential oil in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay was 3.21 mg mL -1 . The fraction of the crude essential oil that presented antioxidant activity was purified by prep-TLC on silica gel. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that a-bisabolol (38.3%), a-eudesmol (9.3%) and guaiol (8.2%) were the main components of the antioxidant fraction. The EC 50 value measured for the bioactive oil fraction in the DPPH assay was 1.05 mg mL -1 . The antimicrobial activity of the crude essential oil was assayed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three yeasts. Measured MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 10.00 mg mL -1 . (author)

  19. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus (Oliv.) Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haobin; Zheng, Xudong; Hu, Huaisheng

    2012-09-01

    The leaf essential oil of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus, a widely used medicinal plant, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by using combination of capillary GC-FID, GC-MS and RI. Fifty-nine components, representing 93.1% of the total oil, were identified in the essential oil and the main components of the oil were β-pinene (7.3%), linalool (6.5%), p-cymene (6.3%), β-elemene (3.8%), γ-terpinene (3.7%), spathulenol (3.2%) and cis-sabinene hydrate (3.1%). Furthermore, the in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil were examined. The test results showed that the essential oil exhibited a broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity against all microorganisms tested. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the oil than gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The oil possessed moderate cytotoxicity on human tumor cells with lower IC(50) values of 25.65μg/ml (Hep G2), 28.71μg/ml (Hela), 30.15μg/ml (Bel-7402) and 37.55μg/ml (A-549). The moderate antioxidant activity of the oil was also evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Citrus limon essential oil and its application in margarine preservation

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    Louiza HIMED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic oil liquids obtained from various plant parts. The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic antioxidant agents by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and the screening of plant materials in order to identify new compounds. The study aims to evaluate the use of essential oil extract by cold pression of Citrus limon (Lisbon variety as a substitute of Tocoblend (mixture of α, β, γ and δ-tocopherol used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The major constituents of the essential oil extract Identified were Limonene (66.75% followed by β-Pinene (13.92% and γ-Terpinene (3.10%. In both DPPH scavenging and bleachability of β-carotene in linoleic acid system assays, the essential oil extract exhibited the highest activity compared to the Tocoblend. Tests conducted at pilot scale showed that the margarine elaborated with essential oil extract was more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with Tocoblend. In addition, the physicochemical properties were not modified.

  1. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities on Laserpitium carduchorum Hedge & Lamond Essential Oil and Extracts During Various Growing Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Dara; Salehi, Peyman; Maroofi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Laserpitium carduchorum is frequently used as a spice, and in Bane folk medicine, the aerial parts of this are used to treat urinary infections. Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Iranian L. carduchorum at different developmental growth stages including vegetative, flowering, and seed ripening is reported. In total, 33 compounds were identified and quantified in the oils of vegetative, flowering, and seed ripening stages, representing 97.8%, 98.8%, and 98.7% of the oils, respectively. α-Pinene (45.1, 61.4, and 46.4%), sabinene (16.5, 10.3, and 17.5%), and limonene (6.4, 8.5, and 20.4%) were the main compounds in all samples. The antioxidant activities of different extracts of L. carduchorum at different developmental growth stages were examined by employing various established in vitro experiments including DPPH, FRAP, and TEAC assays. The amounts of total phenolics were also determined spectrophotometerically. Antimicrobial activities of different extracts and essential oils of L. carduchorum at different developmental growth stages were examined against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, as well as two fungi. The results showed that maximum antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts were at the flowering stage of the plant. Maximum antimicrobial activity of essential oils was at seed ripening stage. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant and antifungal properties of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint and Mentha arvensis L. (cornmint samples

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    Nilo, M.C.S.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and infusions from commercial peppermint sachets (CPS, and non-commercial genuine peppermint (NCP and cornmint (NCC samples were analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of mint oils against Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates was determined. Antioxidant potential was monitored by total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and soybean oil oxidation tests. CPS and NCC oils had lower menthofuran content than NCP. Mint oils did not show a uniform standard of antifungal activity and they had the modest reducing ability. CPS and NCC infusions showed higher IC50 and lower TPC than NCP ones. In the soybean oxidation test, mint oils presented prooxidant behavior. CPS infusions showed antioxidant potential significantly (P<0.05, Tukey lower than that from NCC and NCP infusions. NCP infusions were more efficient in delaying propagation reaction than NCC ones. This may be attributed to higher amount of rosmarinic acid and hesperidin in NCP.

  3. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC 50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  4. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities in immumosuppressed mice of polysaccharides isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Huang, Dan-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Chang

    2013-10-01

    Polysaccharide MP was isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 5.364:12.260:3.448:12.260:32.567:30.651, with 11.00%±0.24% uronic acid and 9.046%±0.04% protein. Its antioxidant activity on the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice was investigated. The spleen and the thymus indices were investigated, and the biochemical parameters were evaluated in three organs (liver, heart and kidney). MP was able to overcome the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and can significantly raise the T-AOC, CAT, SOD and GSH-PX level. It also raised the spleen and thymus indices and decreased the MDA level in mice. MP could play an important role during the prevention process of oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  6. Chemical Composition of Four Essential Oils of Eugenia from the Brazilian Amazon and Their Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Barreto, Leilane H; da Silva, Nádia Carolina F; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Montenegro, Raquel C; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2017-07-08

    Background: Eugenia species are appreciated for their edible fruits and are known as having anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and insecticidal actions. Methods: The plant material was collected in the southeastern Pará state of Brazil and submitted to hydrodistillation. GC-MS analyzed the oils, and their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated by the DPPH and MTT assays. Results: The main components identified in the Eugenia oils were 5-hydroxy- cis -calemene, (2 E ,6 E )-farnesol, (2 E ,6 Z )-farnesol, caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5α-ol-5β-ol, E -γ-bisabolene, β-bisabolene, germacrene D, and ishwarane. The oil of E. egensis showed the most significant antioxidant activity (216.5 ± 11.6 mg TE/mL), followed by the oils of E. flavescens (122.6 ± 6.8 mg TE/mL) and E. patrisii (111.2 ± 12.4 mg TE/mL). Eugenia oils were cytotoxic to HCT-116 (colon cancer) cells by the MTT assay, where the most active was the oil of E. polystachya (10.3 µg/mL), followed by the oils of E. flavescens (13.9 µg/mL) and E. patrisii (16.4 µg/mL). The oils of E. flavescens and E. patrisii showed the highest toxicity for MRC5 (human fibroblast) cells, with values of 14.0 µg/mL and 18.1 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that Eugenia oils could be tested in future studies for the treatment of colon cancer and oxidative stress management.

  7. Chemical composition, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts prepared from aerial parts of Oenothera biennis L. and Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok obtained after seeds cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granica, Sebastian; Czerwińska, Monika E; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Ziaja, Maria; Kiss, Anna K

    2013-01-30

    In the present study we investigated the chemical composition of extracts prepared from aerial parts of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok and Oenothera biennis L. and their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-DAD-MS/MS studies showed that both extracts contain a wide variety of polyphenols (39 identified constituents) among which macrocyclic ellagitannin turned out to be the main constituent. During the in vitro studies, using noncellular models, both extracts scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner, and the lowest SC(50) values were obtained for O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2). Both extracts inhibited ROS production by stimulated human neutrophils. The stronger activity in the case of formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine stimulation suggests that both extracts may act through the receptor-dependent pathway. O. paradoxa extract and O. biennis extract exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by the inhibition of hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase in a concentration-dependent manner. The stronger activity of O.biennis extract toward lipoxygenase may be explained by its higher oenothein B content.

  8. Rapid extraction of Amomum tsao-ko essential oil and determination of its chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi; Wang, Li-Tao; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Wang, Hui-Mei; Guo, Na; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-09-01

    A simple, green and efficient extraction method named modified-solvent free microwave extraction (M-SFME) was employed for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Amomun tsao-ko. The process of M-SFME was optimized with the prominent preponderance of such higher extraction yield (1.13%) than those of solvent free microwave extraction (SFME, 0.91%) and hydrodistillation (HD, 0.84%) under the optimal parameters. Thirty-four volatile substances representing 95.4% were identified. The IC 50 values of EOs determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay were 5.27 and 0.63mg/ml. Furthermore, the EOs exhibited moderate to potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested strains including five gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria (MIC: 2.94-5.86mg/ml). In general, M-SFME is a potential and desirable alternative for the extraction of EOs from aromatic herbs, and the EOs obtained from A. tsao-ko can be explored as a potent natural antimicrobial and antioxidant preservative ingredient in food industry from the technological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Massry, Khaled F; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Shaaban, Hamdy A; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil, dichloromethane extract, and ethanol extract were prepared from fresh Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The essential oil comprised 4.97% monoterpenes, 56.96% sesquiterpenes, 34.37% oxygenated monoterpenes, and 3.32% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major compounds in the essential oil were cis-beta-terpineol (GC peak area%, 17.87%), (E)-caryophyllene (17.56%), beta-cedrene (9.76%), and citronellal (7.03%). The major phenolic compounds identified in the ethanol extract were caffeic acid (5.07 mg/100 mg extract), coumaric acid (1.64 mg), and syringic acid (1.59 mg). The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract, which was comparable with that of butylhydroquinone, was superior to essential oil and dichloromethane extract in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and beta-carotene/bleaching assays. The dichloromethane extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity against 6 strains, followed by the ethanol extract and the essential oil.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of dried jujube fruits as affected by cultivar and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Legua, Pilar; Lech, Krzysztof; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dying methods, such as convective drying (CD: 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD: 120, 480, 480-120 W), a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying [(CPD (60 °C)-VMFD (480-120 W)], and freeze-drying (FD) on key quality parameters of dried jujube fruits (cv. "GAL", "MSI", and "PSI"). The parameters studied included bioactive compounds (flavan-3-ols and flavonols, identified by LC-PDA-MS, and vitamin C), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP), and sensory attributes (e.g. hardness, jujube-ID, and sweetness). The best quality of the dried product (high contents of bioactive compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes) was found in fruits treated by FD and VMD 480-120 W. The best cultivars were "PSI" and "GAL" from the point of view of bioactive content and sensory quality, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of seaweeds collected from Saudi Arabia (Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine M.S. Moubayed

    2017-01-01

    FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oil and hexane extract of Salvia chionantha and their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Gülsen; Oztürk, Mehmet; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Harmandar, Mansur; Topçu, Gülaçti

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil and methyl ester of hexane extract of Salvia chionantha Boiss. were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Totally, 54 components were detected in the essential oil and all of them were fully determined. Germacrene D (25.03%), β-caryophyllene (8.71%), spathulenol (5.86%) and α-humulene (4.82%) were identified as the major compounds. In the methylated hexane extract, 3-hydroxy hexadecanoic acid (39.39%), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (12.66%) and palmitic acid (12.02%) were the major fatty acids elucidated. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and the hexane extract was determined by using four complementary test systems; namely, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH() scavenging, ABTS(+)* scavenging, and CUPRAC assays. In β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, the extract showed 81.2±0.1% lipid peroxidation inhibition at 0.8 mg/mL concentration, while in ABTS(+)* assay the essential oil exhibited 77.4±0.5% inhibition at same concentration. Since, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes are taking place in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil and the extract was also studied spectrophotometrically. At 0.5mg/mL concentration, the essential oil showed moderate acetylcholinesterase (56.7±1.9%) and butyrylcholinesterase (41.7±2.9%) inhibitory activity, while the extract was only exhibited activity (63.1±0.8%) against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme. Hence, the essential oil may be useful as a moderate anticholinesterase agent, particularly against acetylcholinesterase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-07-02

    Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%, hexadecanoic acid (16.57%, (9Z,12Z-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%, and (9Z-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone, but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (80.45%, superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%, and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  16. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  18. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  19. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  20. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  1. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical composition and antioxidant properties of a sweetpotato variety ( Ipomoea batatas L) commercially sold in South Eastern Nigeria. ... Results show that this sweet potato variety has potentials of biological properties and could have wide utility in food, alcohol and sugar industries. In addition, it could serve as ...

  3. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of protein supplement, valuable minerals and dietary antioxidants. They can serve as scavengers of free radicals reported to be associated with occurrence of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Peppers, phytochemicals, Nutritional composition, Free radicals, Diseases ...

  4. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile. Components of Two Salvia spp. F Forouzin*, R Jamei and R Heidari. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, West Azerbaijan, Iran. *For correspondence: Email: f_forouzin@yahoo.com, rjamei274@gmail.com, r.heidari@mail.urmia.ac.ir; Tel: ...

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-05-01

    To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  6. Investigation of the Potential Health Benefits as Lipase Inhibitor and Antioxidant of Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl.: Variability of Chemical Composition of Wild and Cultivated Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; La Grotteria, Stefania; Araniti, Fabrizio; Conforti, Filomena

    2017-09-01

    There is a great interest in the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits and how the habitat affects nutritive and biological properties. In vitro studies here reported were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of formulations from edible plant on pancreatic lipase. The aim of this study was also to evaluate the biovariability of L. comosa (L.) Parl. bulbs from Italy. The wild bulbs were compared with the same cultivated species that are commonly commercialized to identify samples with the best quality for a potential therapeutic application. Hydroalcoholic extract and polar fraction of wild bulbs showed a very important pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, with IC 50 values of 0.166 ± 0.005 and 0.153 ± 0.005 mg/mL, respectively. In order to characterize the extracts, gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed, revealing the predominance of palmitic acid. Phenolic and flavonoid composition was also evaluated. L. comosa extract obtained from wild bulbs demonstrated both antioxidant and anti-obesity activities that might be attributed to a wide range of present phenolic compounds.

  7. Chemical composition of patikaraparpam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, A; Rani, M G; Susan, T; Purushothaman, K K

    1997-04-01

    Patikaraparpam, a Siddha formulation in prepared by trituration of potash alum with egg albumin followed by calcinatin. The three authentic laboratories made parpams as well as six commercial samples have been examined for their chemical composition. The analytical data that emerged from the analysis of the above samples showed that seven parpams contained only aluminium sulphate and they did respond to tests for potassium. An inspection of the crude drugs patikaram' available in the market established that potash alum and ammonia alum are indiscriminateldy taken for use, according to literature, only potash alum should be used in Indian system of medicine. Patikarapparapam is indicated in urinary inflammations and obstructions and is a reputed diuretic. Potassium salts are established diuretic. These studies show that the raw drugs sellers, the pharamaceutists or manufacturers of medicine and the physician as well should make sure that only potash alum is used in Indian medicine.

  8. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects o...

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  10. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena; Scandolera, Elia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roscigno, Graziana; Zaccardelli, Massimo; De Falco, Enrica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of two different cultivars of Florence fennel cropped under three different fertilization treatments (Control not fertilized; Mineral Fertilization; Compost from Municipal Solid Wastes) have been analyzed. All the oils were characterized by high anethole concentration and some showed also a good percentage of limonene. Thus, the leaves of Florence fennel, which are agricultural wastes, could be used for the recovery of anethole to be used for its flavoring and biomedical properties. The antimicrobial activity expressed by assays on the examined oils indicates an appreciable effect, generally higher on Gram-positive bacteria. The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole. © 2013.

  11. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants. PMID:28074117

  12. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125  µ g/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1 β , IL-6, and TNF- α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahpour, Shabnam; Selamat, Jinap; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Khatib, Alfi; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2018-02-13

    This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83-13.78%) and FRAP (84.9-2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract), followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively), for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract), 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sepahpour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83–13.78% and FRAP (84.9–2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract, followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively, for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract, 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  15. From rice bag to table: Fate of phenolic chemical compositions and antioxidant activities in waxy and non-waxy black rice during home cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yayuan; Cai, Weixi; Xu, Baojun

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to systematically analyze degradation rate of functional substances, such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3glc), and peonidin-3-glucoside (Pn3glc), as well as antioxidant activities in cooked waxy and non-waxy black rice through different home cooking manners. Results showed that greater phenolics and antioxidant capacities were detected in non-waxy rice rather than waxy one. All processed black rice exhibited significantly (price. Different processing methods significantly degraded the content and activities of antioxidants of both waxy and non-waxy black rice. Under the same cooking time, black rice porridge retained more active substances than that of cooked rice by rice cooker. Therefore, to maintain bioavailability of active components, black rice porridge may gain more health promoting effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical composition of essential oil and hexane extract and antioxidant activity of various extracts of Acmella uliginosa (Sw. Cass flowers from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askal Maimulyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant which are used in the prevention and treatment of disease like artherosclerosis, heart stroke, diabetes and cancer and to delay the process of aging. Acmella uliginosa (Sw. Cass is an edible herb traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. Analysis of volatile components in the flower extract used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed the main components of the essential oil were caryophyllene (21.27%, caryophyllene oxide (15.49%, and 3-carene (10.73%. The main components of the hexane extract were N-isobutyl-2E,6Z,8E-decatrienamide (37.80%, α-pinene (4.98% and hexadacanoic acid-methyl ester (4.78%. The antioxidant activity of A. uliginosa (Sw. Cass flower from Indonesia was determined using 1,1, diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The IC50 (defined as the total antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial DPPH radical by 50% of extracts was calculated. A comparative study determined that A. uliginosa (Sw. Cass in methanol extract showed higher antioxidant potential (IC50 = 96.83 μg/mL compared to ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 123.46 μg/mL and n-hexane extract (905.92 μg/mL against DPPH free radicals.

  17. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.) Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nameer Khairullah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid; Muhialdin, Belal J.; Alhelli, Amaal M.

    2016-01-01

    The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and cold press (CP) to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) were Caryophyllene (17.47%) followed by thymoquinone (TQ) (11.80%), 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%), longifolene (3.5%), and carvacrol (1.82%). The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE. PMID:27642353

  18. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nameer Khairullah Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and cold press (CP to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO were Caryophyllene (17.47% followed by thymoquinone (TQ (11.80%, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%, longifolene (3.5%, and carvacrol (1.82%. The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE. This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE.

  19. Chemical composition of the volatile extract and antioxidant activities of the volatile and nonvolatile extracts of Egyptian corn silk (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed; El-Massry, Khaled F; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2007-10-31

    A total of 36 compounds, which comprised 99.4% of the extract, were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the volatile dichloromethane extract obtained from Egyptian corn silk. The main constituents of the volatile extract were cis-alpha-terpineol (24.22%), 6,11-oxidoacor-4-ene (18.06%), citronellol (16.18%), trans-pinocamphone (5.86%), eugenol (4.37%), neo-iso-3-thujanol (2.59%), and cis-sabinene hydrate (2.28%). Dried Egyptian corn silk was also directly extracted with petroleum ether, ethanol, and water. All extracts from solvent extraction and the volatile extract described above exhibited clear antioxidant activities at levels of 50-400 microg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/linoleic acid assay. The ethanol extract inhibited DPPH activity by 84% at a level of 400 microg/mL. All samples tested via the beta-carotene bleaching assay also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity with clear dose responses. This study indicates that corn silk could be used to produce novel natural antioxidants as well as a flavoring agent in various food products.

  20. (+/-)-catechin: chemical weapon, antioxidant, or stress regulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

    2009-08-01

    (+/-)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (+/-)-catechin has been implicated as a 'chemical weapon' that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (+/-)-catechin's low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor recovery from soil. In the current study, (+/-)-catechin did not inhibit the development of white and black mustard to an extent that was comparable to the highly phytotoxic juglone, a naphthoquinone that is allegedly responsible for the allelopathy of the walnut tree. At high stress levels, caused by sub-lethal methanol concentrations in the medium, and a 12 h photoperiod, (+/-)-catechin even attenuated growth retardation. A similar effect was observed when (+/-)-catechin was assayed for brine shrimp mortality. Higher concentrations reduced the mortality caused by toxic concentrations of methanol. Further, when (+/-)-catechin was tested in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, it was an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they were present in higher concentrations. This antioxidant effect was enhanced when iron was chelated directly by (+/-)-catechin. Conversely, if iron was chelated to EDTA, pro-oxidative effects were demonstrated at higher concentrations; in this case (+/-)-catechin reduced molecular oxygen and iron to reagents required by the Fenton reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals. A comparison of cyclic voltammograms of (+/-)-catechin with the phytotoxic naphthoquinone juglone indicated similar redox-cycling properties for both compounds although juglone required lower electrochemical potentials to enter redox reactions. In buffer solutions, (+/-)-catechin remained stable at pH 3.6 (vacuole) and decomposed at pH 7.4 (cytoplasm

  1. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH

  2. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; González González, Gloria María; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora and Chrysactinia mexicana leaves, and from Schinus molle leaves and fruit, were characterized by gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight compounds from M. grandiflora leaves were identified (representing 93.6% of the total area of the gas chromatogram), with the major component being bornyl acetate (20.9%). Colorless and yellow oils were obtained from the C. mexicana leaves with 18 (86.7%) and 11 (100%) compounds identified, respectively. In both fractions, the principal component was sylvestrene (36.8% and 41.1%, respectively). The essential oils ofS. molle leaves and fruit were each separated into colorless and yellow fractions, in which 14 (98.2) and 20 (99.8%) compounds were identified. The main component was alpha-phellandrene in all fractions (between 32.8% and 45.0%). The M. grandiflora oil displayed antifungal activity against five dermatophyte strains. The oils from S. molle and M. grandiflora leaves had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, which cause skin infections that potentially may lead to sepsis. However, the antioxidant activities of all oils were small (half maximal effective concentration values >250 microg/mL).

  3. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Mentha rotundifolia Essential oils from Algeria extracted by microwave and hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacéra HADDACHE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds growing wild from East Algeria (Naciria at 60Km in East of Algiers obtained by hydrodistillation (HD° and a microwave distillation process (MD have been analysed by means of GC-FID and GC/MS in combination with retention indices. In total, 54 constituents were identified (accounting for 96.7 and 95.6% in HD and MD oils, respectively. The main components were piperitone oxide (25.1 and 29.1% in HD and MD oils, respectively, piperitenone oxide (8.9 – 11.8%, terpinen-4-ol (9.3 – 3.4%, β-caryophyllene (5.4 – 7.3%, allo-aromadendrene (5.3 - 6.4% and Dgermacrène (5.4 – 7.1%. In comparison with HD, MD allows to obtain oil in a very short time, with the reduction of solvent used similar yields, comparable qualities and substantial savings of energy. The antioxidant activity was determined according to the ability of the tested samples to scavenge the free radicals 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*. The essential oil were slightly active (32.6 and 21.8% in HD and MD oils, respectively comparing with BHT (64.7%. The antibacterial activities of the essential oils indicated that Staphylococcus aureus was the more sensitive strain tested to the oils of Mentha rotundifolia with the strongest inhibition zone 28.3 for HD and 26.5 mm for MO.

  4. The Chemical Composition of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Nittler, Larry R.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Grove, Timothy L.; Peplowski, Patrick N.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planetary body reflects its starting conditions modified by numerous processes during its formation and geological evolution. Measurements by X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectrometers on the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed Mercury's surface to have surprisingly high abundances of the moderately volatile elements sodium, sulfur, potassium, chlorine, and thorium, and a low abundance of iron. This composition rules out some formation models for which high temperatur...

  5. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin: effect of collection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid

    2013-06-15

    The properties of essential oils obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resins (OGRs) collectioned in three collections times in 15 June (OGR1), 30 June (OGR2) and 15 July (OGR3) 2011 was investigated. Essential oil from OGR1 was constituted high levels of (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.9%) and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (15.1%). Essential oil from OGR2 was constituted high levels of (Z)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (27.7%) and (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (20.3%). Essential oil from OGR3 was constituted high levels of β-pinene (47.1%) and α-pinene (21.3%). Inhibitory concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging were 0.012-0.035, 0.025-0.047 and 0.035-0.066 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi grpwth were 0.028-0.111, 0.027-0.107 and 0.018-0.058 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Essential oils obtained from different OGRs have different composition and biological activity thus have different applications in food and health industry. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  8. Effects of geographical origin, variety and farming system on the chemical markers and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Brazilian purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margraf, Tiago; Santos, Érica Neulyana Taborda; Andrade, de Eriel Forville; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of farming system, geographical origin, and grape variety on the in vitro antioxidant capacity, some physicochemical properties and chemical composition were investigated. Major and minor phenolic compounds, reducing and antioxidant assays using chemical and biological systems were

  9. Comparing phenolics composition and antioxidant activities of different pomegranate products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasila, H.; Li, X.; Liu, L.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    The phenolics and antioxidant abilities of pomegranate juices (aril juice (aj) and aril-mesocarp-epicarp mixture juice (amej), by-product extracts (extract of aril-mesocarp-epicarp (eame) and rind extract (er) were determined and compared. The results showed no significant difference in phenolic compositions however ratio of phenolic constituent were found different. The total phenolics, total flavonoids and total tannins contents followed the order of er>eame>amej>aj, and total anthocyanins followed the trend eame>amej>aj>er. The total antioxidant, total reduction, abts o+ radical scavenging and dppho radical scavenging capacities followed the sequence r>aj>eame>amej, amej>er>eame>aj, er>amej>eame>aj and amej>er>aj>eame respectively. With the exception of abtso+ scavenging capacities, strongest antioxidant activity found in juices compared to their corresponding purified products. These data suggest that phenolics play a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of pomegranate products. (author)

  10. Studies on the chemical constituents, antioxidants and membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical constituents, antioxidant and membrane stability activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) flower were determined. The total anthocyanin was 165 mg / kg with about 6 % reduction due to fermentation. Tannin, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenol were 11.8 g / kg; 478 mg / kg; and 14.4 mg / g, ...

  11. Chemical composition of lunar material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J A; Abbey, S; Champ, W H

    1970-01-30

    Chemical and emission spectrographic analyses of three Apollo 11 samples, 10017-29, 10020-30, and 10084-132, are given. Major and minor constituents were determined both by conventional rock analysis methods and by a new composite scheme utilizing a lithium fluoborate method for dissolution of the samples and atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry. Trace constituents were determined by optical emission spectroscopy involving a d-c arc, air-jet controlled.

  12. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  13. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Composition and antioxidant activities of four polysaccharides extracted from Herba Lophatheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qing; Mao, Jian-wei; Guo, Xiao-qing; Zhou, Yi-feng; Gong, Jing-yan; Mao, Shuang-rong

    2013-09-01

    Four polysaccharides (BLF80-A, BLF80-B, BLF80-C and BLF80-D) were isolated by hot-water extraction and purified from the leaves of Herba Lophatheri by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of DPPH radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay and superoxide radical assay. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and the higher molecular weight, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, the monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. BLP80-D showed the strongest scavenging ability, followed by BLP80-C, BLP80-B and BLP80-A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  16. Chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the leaves of chosen highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Janiuk M.; Najda A.; Gantner M.; Błażewicz-Woźniak M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of two highbush blueberry varieties: ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Northland’. The study revealed differences in the content of the analyzed components. Leaves of cv. ‘Bluecrop’ were characterized by a higher content of chlorophyll, flavonoids and anthocyanins, while the leaves of cv. ‘Northland’ contained more reducing sugars and total phenolic acids, tannins, and essential oils. Capacity of neutrali...

  17. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Eryngium maritimum (sea holly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Rjeibi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the antioxidant potential of Tunisian Eryngium maritimum (E. maritimum leaf, root and stems extracts, as well as their phenolic compositions. Methods: The antioxidant activity of different extracts was assessed using DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phenolic profiles were determined by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD. Results: All plant parts were a rich source of phenolics. Polyphenols and flavonoids were present in leaf extracts. E. maritimum leaf extracts displayed the strongest H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 = 76.83 µg/mL and the highest DPPH scavenging activity value (IC50 = 47.87 µg/mL compared to other extracts. Good relationships were observed between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Nine bioactive compounds were detected in E. maritimum extracts. Conclusions: Our results provided evidence that E. maritimum could be an interesting source of natural antioxidant that can be used to treat divers diseases.

  18. Effect of Storage Method on Nutrients Composition, Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corchorus olitorious is a vegetable that is popularly consumed in West Africa. It is also known to be rich in nutrients. The effects of market storage methods of vegetables on nutrient composition, antioxidant contents and consumer acceptability of Corchorus olitorious were assessed at Owo, Ondo state, Southwest Nigeria.

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrat, Lamia; Espina, Laura; Bakkali, Mohammed; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Laglaoui, Amin

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments. EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects. This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Sikora; Małgorzata I. Bieniek; Barbara Borczak

    2013-01-01

      Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, ...

  1. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Eryngium campestre L., Apiaceae from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurim Nebija

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is outlined to define the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts of aerial part and root of Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae from Kosovo. Analysis of the chemical composition include determination of total ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, loss on drying and the content of water extract, as well as determination of flavonoids in aerial part and hemolytic activity of the root. The mineral composition (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, K, Co, Pb, Cd and Cr in aerial parts and root has been studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and ETAAS. Different part of E. campestre accumulate different amounts of investigated minerals. Antioxidant activity was determined by four various testing systems: DPPH assay, inhibition of production of hydroxyl radical, β-carotenebleaching assay, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBA test. In DPPH system, ethanol extract of root of E. campestre exhibited higher radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.72 mg ml-1 compared to the extract of the aerial part (IC50 = 1.14 mg ml-1. On the other hand, aerial part ethanol extract has exhibited stronger inhibition capacity on the production of hydroxyl radical in deoxyribose system than the root extract (50% and 45%, respectively. However, both ethanol extracts of E. campestre exhibited low antioxidant activity in β-carotenebleaching assay as well as, low capacity for inhibition of spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate.

  2. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward the antioxidant and chemical characterization of mycorrhizal mushrooms from northeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Heleno, Sandrina A; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional properties and pharmacological value as sources of important bioactive compounds. Mycorrhizal macrofungi associate with plant roots constituting a symbiotic relationship. This symbiosis could influence the production of secondary metabolites, including bioactive compounds. We focused on the evaluation of antioxidant potential and chemical composition of mycorrhizal mushrooms species from Northeast Portugal: Amanita caesarea, Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Chroogomphus fulmineus, Cortinarius anomalus, Cortinarius collinitus, Cortinarius violaceus, Lactarius quietus, Lactarius volemus, Russula sardonia, Suillus luteus, and Tricholoma ustale. A similar profile of metabolites was observed in the studied species with the order sugars > fat > ascorbic acid > phenolic compounds > tocopherols. Nevertheless, the samples revealed different compositions: prevalence of sugars in L. volemus, fat and ascorbic acid in A. muscaria, phenolic compounds in C. anomalus and tocopherols, and antioxidant activity in S. luteus. Chemical characterization of 12 mycorrhizal mushrooms was achieved. They are sources of nutraceuticals, such as sugars and fatty acids, and contain bioactive compounds, such as vitamins and phenolic acids. Edible species can be incorporated in diets as sources of antioxidants, while nonedible species can be explored as sources of bioactive metabolites. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) raw and cooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Bodziarczyk, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F(1) and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F(1) variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m.), vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m.), alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m.) and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.). The average amounts of nitrites (III) and (V) were 3.36 mg NaNO(2)/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO(3)/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Winterbor F(1) variety of kale has a great nutritive value and high

  5. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, P.; Oliveira Falcao, A. de; Alves Macedo, J.; Silva, L.H.M. da; Rodrigues, A.M. da C.; Alves Macedo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6%) and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0%) and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated(39.3%) triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%). Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil) and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1) were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%). The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes. (Author)

  6. Phyto-nutrient composition and antioxidative potential of ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vitamin composition (mg/100 g) were 0.36 ± 0.01 thiamin, 0.19 ± 0.02 niacin, 24.27 ± 0.25 ascorbic acid, 1.85 ± 0.32 tocopherol, 0.12 ± 0.05 riboflavin while mineral composition (mg/100 mg) was 14428 ± 0.02, 122.11 ± 0.01, 325.12 ± 0.02 for calcium, magnesium and zinc, respectively. To determine the antioxidative ...

  7. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas production characteristics and acceptability study of some forage for ruminant feeding in South-Western Nigeria. ... Chemical composition and qualitative analysis of saponins, phenol and steroids of the plants were determined. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was ...

  9. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of new formulations for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications, the main focus of this research. Herein, we describe the study of the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activity of a guava extract prepared with non-toxic solvents aiming its use at biological applications. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to identify the major components, while thermoanalytical measurements and hot stage microscopy were used to assess the chemical stability of guava fruit extract. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated assessing the SOD-like activity and ABTS free radical scavenger. The results show that the extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds, such as quercetin, kaempferol, schottenol, among many others. All of the components found in guava extract exhibit biological effects according to the literature data, mainly antioxidant properties.

  10. Characterisation of commercial aromatised vinegars: phenolic compounds, volatile composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María J; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-04-01

    Nineteen commercially available aromatised vinegars, which were representative of this type of product, were tested to ascertain their phenolic and volatile composition and antioxidant activity. The aromatised vinegars came from different raw materials such as fruits, spices, herbs and vegetables. The antioxidant activity was determined by means of photochemiluminescence, phenolic profile by using ultra performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, and the volatile composition was determined by using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine polyphenolic compounds and 141 volatile compounds were identified. Vinegar aromatised with black truffle and rosemary obtained the highest values of antioxidant activity, followed by those aromatised with lemon, tarragon, aromatic herbs and vegetables. Antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the presence of trans-p-coutaric acid, trans-caftaric acid, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural and furfural. Moreover, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol was exclusive to the vinegar aromatised with tarragon, while p-menth-1,8-ol, dimethyl styrene, 4-methyl acetophenone and nootkatone were only found in vinegar aromatised with lemon. On the basis of the results from the cluster analysis of cases, it can be concluded that the grouping responds more to the trademark of each vinegar than to the raw material. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the leaves of chosen highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Janiuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of two highbush blueberry varieties: ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Northland’. The study revealed differences in the content of the analyzed components. Leaves of cv. ‘Bluecrop’ were characterized by a higher content of chlorophyll, flavonoids and anthocyanins, while the leaves of cv. ‘Northland’ contained more reducing sugars and total phenolic acids, tannins, and essential oils. Capacity of neutralizing the free radicals (DPPH in leaves of both tested cultivars was found at comparable levels.

  12. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of the Oil from Peony Seeds (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peony seed oil (PSO is a novel vegetable oil developed from the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. The present study aimed to make an overall investigation on the chemical profile and antioxidant activities of PSO for reasonable development and utilization of this new resource food. Chemical analysis revealed that PSO was characterized by an uncommon high portion of α-linolenic acid (>38%, fairly low ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.69, and much higher content of γ-tocopherol than various conventional seed oils. In vitro assay indicated that PSO is a more potent scavenger of free radicals than extra virgin olive oil. Moderate intake of PSO exhibited obvious protection against various oxidative damages such as tetrachloromethane-induced acute liver injury in mice and diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The changes in the key indicators of oxidative injury and fatty acid composition in the liver caused by PSO administration were measured, and the results demonstrated that antioxidant properties of PSO are closely related to their characteristic chemical composition. Consequently, the present study provided new evidence for the health implications of PSO, which deserves further development for medical and nutritional use against oxidative damages that are associated with various diseases.

  13. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  14. Sempervivum davisii: phytochemical composition, antioxidant and lipase-inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Yusuf; Dalar, Abdullah; Konczak, Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Sempervivum davisii Muirhead (Crassulaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb from Eastern Anatolia. To date the composition of phytochemicals and physiological properties of this herb were not subjected to any research. This study identifies compounds in S. davisii hydrophilic extracts and evaluates their potential biological properties. Ethanol-based lyophilized extracts were obtained from aerial parts of plant (10 g of ground dry plant material in 200 mL of acidified aqueous ethanol, shaken for 2 h at 22 °C with supernatant collected and freeze-dried under vacuum). Phytochemical composition was investigated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, phenolics) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, volatiles). Phenolic compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Subsequently, antioxidant capacity [ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays] and enzyme inhibitory properties (isolated porcine pancreatic lipase) of the extracts were determined. Polyphenolic compounds were the main constituents of lyophilized extracts, among which kaempferol glycosides and quercetin hexoside dominated. The extracts exhibited potent antioxidant (FRAP values of 1925.2-5973.3 μM Fe 2+ /g DW; ORAC values of 1858.5-4208.7 μM Trolox Eq./g DW) and moderate lipase inhibitory (IC 50 : 11.6-2.96 mg/mL) activities. Volatile compounds (nonanal, dehydroxylinalool oxide isomers, 2-decenal, 2-undecenal, 2,6-di-tetr-butylphenol) were also found. Phenolic compounds with the dominating kaempferol and quercetin derivatives are the sources of potent antioxidant properties of S. davisii hydrophilic extracts. The extracts exhibit moderate inhibitory properties towards isolated pancreatic lipase.

  15. Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Heleno, Sandrina A; Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovic, Dejan; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma genus comprises one of the most commonly studied species worldwide, Ganoderma lucidum. However, other Ganoderma species have been also reported as important sources of bioactive compounds. Polysaccharides are important contributors to the medicinal properties reported for Ganoderma species, as demonstrated by the numerous publications, including reviews, on this matter. Yet, what are the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides that have bioactivity? In the present manuscript, the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with reported antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities (the most studied worldwide) are analyzed in detail. The composition of sugars (homo- versus hetero-glucans and other polysaccharides), type of glycosidic linkages, branching patterns, and linkage to proteins are discussed. Methods for extraction, isolation and identification are evaluated and, finally, the bioactivity of polysaccharidic extracts and purified compounds are discussed. The integration of data allows deduction of structure-activity relationships and gives clues to the chemical aspects involved in Ganoderma bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Ganoderma Species from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodai, Mary; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Fernandes, Ângela; Kortei, Nii Korley; Dzomeku, Matilda; Teegarden, Matthew; Schwartz, Steven J; Barros, Lillian; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-25

    The chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of twelve wild strains of Ganoderma sp. from Ghana, nine (LS1-LS9) of which were found growing wild simultaneously on the same dying Delonix regia tree, were evaluated. Parameters evaluated included the nutritional value, composition in sugars, fatty acids, phenolic and other organic compounds and some vitamins and vitamin precursors. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by investigating reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition using five in vitro assays. Protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and energy contents ranged between 15.7-24.5 g/100 g·dw, 73.31-81.90 g/100 g, 0.48-1.40 g/100 g, 0.68-2.12 g/100 g ash and 396.1-402.02 kcal/100 g, respectively. Fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids were relatively abundant. Free sugars included rhamnose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose and trehalose. Total tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic compounds' content ranged between 741-3191 µg/100 g, 77-1003 mg/100 g and 7.6-489 µg/100 g, respectively. There were variations in the β-glucans, ergosterol and vitamin D₂ contents. The three major minerals in decreasing order were K > P > S. Ganoderma sp. strain AM1 showed the highest antioxidant activity. This study reveals, for the first time, chemical characteristics of Ganoderma spp. which grew simultaneously on the same tree.

  17. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Antimutagenic and Antimicrobial Activities of Geopropolis from the Stingless Bee Melipona orbignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helder Freitas Dos; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Santos, Cintia Miranda Dos; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Estevinho, Leticia Miranda; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-05-03

    Geopropolis is a resin mixed with mud, produced only by stingless bees. Despite being popularly known for its medicinal properties, few scientific studies have proven its biological activities. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of the Melipona orbignyi geopropolis. The hydroalcoholic extract of geopropolis (HEGP) was prepared and its chemical composition determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by the capture of free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme and the antimutagenic action was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies. The antimicrobial activities were determined against bacteria and yeasts, isolated from reference strains and hospital origin. The chemical composition of HEGP included flavonoids, derivatives of glycosylated phenolic acids and terpenoids. HEGP showed high antioxidant activity, it inhibited the activity of the inflammatory enzyme hyaluronidase and reduced the mutagenic effects in S. cerevisiae . In relation to the antimicrobial activity, it promoted the death of all microorganisms evaluated. In conclusion, this study reveals for the first time the chemical composition of the HEGP of M. orbignyi and demonstrates its pharmacological properties.

  18. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Antimutagenic and Antimicrobial Activities of Geopropolis from the Stingless Bee Melipona orbignyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Estevinho, Leticia Miranda; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a resin mixed with mud, produced only by stingless bees. Despite being popularly known for its medicinal properties, few scientific studies have proven its biological activities. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of the Melipona orbignyi geopropolis. The hydroalcoholic extract of geopropolis (HEGP) was prepared and its chemical composition determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by the capture of free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme and the antimutagenic action was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies. The antimicrobial activities were determined against bacteria and yeasts, isolated from reference strains and hospital origin. The chemical composition of HEGP included flavonoids, derivatives of glycosylated phenolic acids and terpenoids. HEGP showed high antioxidant activity, it inhibited the activity of the inflammatory enzyme hyaluronidase and reduced the mutagenic effects in S. cerevisiae. In relation to the antimicrobial activity, it promoted the death of all microorganisms evaluated. In conclusion, this study reveals for the first time the chemical composition of the HEGP of M. orbignyi and demonstrates its pharmacological properties. PMID:28467350

  19. Composition and antioxidant capacity of the essential oil of leaves of Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel) Moldenke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Frohlich, Janaína Kieling; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Froeder, Amanda Luana Forbrig; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-04-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Vitex megapotamica. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 27 components, representing 92.36% of the total oil composition. The main components in the oil were butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (34.17%), phytol (12.66%), α-caryophyllene (11.84%), δ-elemene (10.65%), β-caryophyllene (7.82%), γ-elemene (4.24%) and germacrene D (2.82%). The antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated in terms of their free-radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The oil showed percentage inhibition of 35.62% and 75.25% at concentrations of 76 and 101.6 mg mL(-1), respectively. BHT (36.30%) was also determined by HPLC-DAD in the hexane fraction from the leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of the species V. megapotamica.

  20. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Edible Neotropical Blueberries: Antioxidant and Compositional Fingerprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASTMALCHI, KEYVAN; FLORES, GEMA; PETROVA, VANYA; PEDRAZA-PEÑALOSA, PAOLA; KENNELLY, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Edible blueberry species are well recognized for their potential health benefits. Ericaceae fruits including the North American highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and five less common edible blueberry relatives from the New World tropics, Anthopterus wardii Ball, Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerld, Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm., Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl., and Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth, were investigated for their antioxidant properties and phenolic profiles. The Neotropical berries C. grandifolia and A. wardii exhibited significantly higher DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging and iron chelation activities than V. corymbosum. Total phenolic content and HPLC-PDA compositional fingerprint analyses were also carried out. Significant correlations were observed among total phenolic contents, DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, and iron chelation activities. Using HPLC-PDA, the phenolic constituents in the berries were identified as chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin and vitexin. Principal components analysis reduced the dimensions of antioxidant and total phenolic data to two components, which accounted for 95% of total variation among the six fruits. Each fruit species formed its own cluster, and therefore the antioxidant profile of each species was shown to be distinct. PMID:21391608

  2. Phytochemical Composition, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Duguetia furfuracea A. St.-Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods. The antifungal activity was determined by microdilution assay. Results. HPLC analysis revealed caffeic acid and rutin as major compounds (HEDF), caffeic acid and quercitrin (Mt-OH fraction), and quercitrin and isoquercitrin (Ac-OEt fraction). The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were found for Ac-OEt fraction, and the crude extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant potential. The antifungal activity showed synergic effect with fluconazole and EHDF against C. krusei, fluconazole and Mt-OH against C. krusei and C. tropicalis, and Ac-OE and fluconazole against C. albicans. Conclusion. The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were marked with antioxidant effect. This is the first report of bioactivity of the synergic effect of HEDF and fractions. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of synergic action. PMID:27127550

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Vegetables and Its Relation with Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino M. Alencar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are widely consumed in Brazil and exported to several countries. This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables commonly consumed in Brazil using five different methods, namely DPPH and ABTS free radical, β-carotene bleaching, reduction of Fe3+ (FRAP, oxidative stability in Rancimat, and the chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1.2 mg GA/g (carrot to 16.9 mg GA/g (lettuce. Vegetables presenting the highest antioxidant activity were lettuce (77.2 µmol Trolox/g DPPH; 447.1 µmol F2+/g FRAP, turmeric (118.6 µmol Trolox/g ABTS•+; 92.8% β-carotene, watercress and broccoli (protective factor 1.29—Rancimat method. Artichoke, spinach, broccoli, and asparagus also showed considerable antioxidant activity. The most frequent phenolic compounds identified by GC-MS were ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric, 2-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin. We observed antioxidant activity in several vegetables and our results point out their importance in the diet.

  4. Chemical composition of stars in Ruprecht 106 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P.

    High resolution spectra of 9 stars belonging to the globular cluster Rup 106 have been used to determine their chemical composition. The results reveal that Ruprecht 106 exhibits abundance anomalies when compared to galactic globular cluster of similar metallicity. The chemical composition of these stars is similar to what is found in Dwarf spheroidal galaxies favoring the hypothesis that Rup 106 has not been formed in our Galaxy.

  5. Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances.

  6. Determination of the chemical composition, the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the seed of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), the physicochemical properties of the seed oil and the amino acids profiles of the seed protein have been determined. In proximate composition, the crude fat content of 58.41% indicates that the plant seed is an oil seed. Its protein content of ...

  7. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  8. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  9. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of

  10. Chemical composition of Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboua, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition and mineral content were determined in snail without and with shell and shell atone from Achatina fulica. This snail has high protein (above 40 %, low fat (less than 3 % and is a relatively good source of macrominerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Achatina fulica is an excellent source of iron but is poor in copper, zinc and manganese. The snail is very rich in calcium but very poor in phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

  11. Chemical composition and biological properties of Satureja avromanica Maroofi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Elham; Javadi, Shima; Akhgari, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyran; Dastan, Dara

    2017-03-01

    Satureja avromanica is an indigenous plant which is frequently used as a spice in Avraman-Kurdistan region of Iran. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the S. avromanica . In addition, rosmarinic acid and total phenolic content of S. avromanica was assessed by spectrophotometric method and HPTLC. The essential oil and methanolic extract were isolated by hydrodistillation and maceration methods, respectively. A total of 32 compounds representing 98.6% of the essential oil were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. The main constituents were n -pentacosane (23.8%), spathulenol (11.5%), β-bourbonen (11.3%) and n -docosane (11.0%). The antibacterial activity of samples were carried out by disc diffusion method and evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) essential oil and methanolic extract were found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus . The highest scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract of S. avromanica (21.58 µg/mL) and the total phenolics of methanolic extract of S. avromanica was 95.3 mg GAE/g. The rosmarinic acid content of S. avromanica methanolic extract was 0.83 mg/g plant. Antioxidant activity and rosmarininc acid content of S. avromanica suggests that the essential oil and methanolic extract of S. avromanica has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent to preserve food.

  12. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  13. Effect of plant extracts Kitaibelia vitifolia on antioxidant activity, chemical characteristics, microbiological status and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurćubić Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of cheese (Pirotski kachkaval fortification by polyphenols attributed to Kitaibelia vitifolia ethanol herb extract, applied in two different manners (added to the cheese curd after texturizing or sprayed on surface of cheese. Investigation of the used antioxidant effects of polyphenols, physic-chemical composition, microbiological quality and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval was undertaken. Antioxidant activity of conventional and fortified cheese was evaluated by five contemporary and compatible methods, and revealed a slight emphasis on phenol-linked antioxidant activity of fortified samples of cheese in comparison to samples of the control group. Fortified Pirotski kachkaval had higher sensory evaluation scores than the controls. Statistically significant (P 0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009 i br. OI 172016

  14. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  15. Nutritional composition of boletus mushrooms from Southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Di; You, Yuxian; Zeng, Siqi; Li, Yiwen; Tang, Qianqian; Han, Guoquan; Liu, Aiping; Feng, Chaohui; Li, Cheng; Su, Yujie; Su, Zhao; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-11-15

    Thirteen samples representing five species were collected from different provinces of Southwest China, and their chemical composition, antihyperglycemic activity, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. These mushrooms had high crude protein (21.72-30.59g/100g dw) and total carbohydrate (49.18-62.58g/100g dw) contents, but low crude fat contents (1.96-7.87g/100g dw). They also accumulated notable quantities of potassium, zinc, sodium, magnesium and copper from the soil. The potassium content, in particular, was 18.75-39.21 times that found in the soil at the collection site. The natural habitat of these mushrooms, especially the mineral content of the soil, seems to have more influence on the mineral content of these mushrooms than their species. Most of the samples possessed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Suillellus luridus showed the highest antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activities, suggesting that S. luridus shows potential for development as a dietary nutritional supplement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ferula assafoetida and its essential oil composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehpour, A.; Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Seyed Fazel, N.; Seyed Mohammad, N.

    2009-07-01

    The antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of Ferula assafoetida was determined by employing various in vitro assay systems. IC{sub 5}0 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 380 {+-} 12 mg ml{sup -}1. The extracts showed good nitric oxide-scavenging activity (IC{sub 5}0 was 270 {+-}3) and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating ability (IC{sub 5}0 was 0.57 {+-} 0.02 mg ml-1). The peroxidation inhibition (antioxidant activity) of the extracts exhibited values from 82% (at 24 hrs) and 88% (at 72 hrs). The extract exhibited a fairy weak reducing power at 25-800 {mu}g ml-1 of extracts which was not comparable with Vitamin C (p < 0.001). The tested extracts exhibited very low antioxidant activity. In addition, the chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts was determined. The major compounds were phenol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methyl ethyl) (18.2 %), {alpha}.-Bisabolol (10.4%) and Arsine triethyl (8.7 %). Total phenol compounds, as determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method, were 94.8 {+-} 5.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder and the total flavonoid content (by AlCl{sub 3} method) was 90.9 {+-} 6.3 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract powder. (Author) 30 refs.

  17. A quantum chemical explanation of the antioxidant activity af flavonoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; de Groot, M.J.; van den Berg, D.J.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Donné-Op den Kelder, G.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1996-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring antioxidants, which over the past years have gained tremendous interest because of their possible therapeutic applicability. The mechanism of their antioxidant activity has been extensively studied over several decades. However, there is still much

  18. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6% and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0% and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3% triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%. Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1 were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.El aceite de Buriti es un ejemplo de aceite de palma amazónica de gran importancia económica. La población local utiliza este aceite para la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades; sin embargo, hay pocos estudios científicos que evalúen sus propiedades. En este estudio, se determinaron las propiedades antioxidantes del aceite de Buriti. El ácido graso predominante fue el oleico (65,6 % y las principales clases de triglicéridos fueron tri-insaturadas (50,0 % y Di-insaturados-mono-saturada (39,3 %. La distribución posicional de las

  19. Evaluation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects in Phenolrich Fraction of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in Hyperlipidemia Rats and Identification of Chemical Composition by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadropole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Chen, Lanying; Yang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruit has enjoyed a great popularity as a pleasant-tasting food associated with hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Objective: Our aim was to screen the effective fraction of hawthorn fruit in the treatment of hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit (Fr.1) and four fractionated extracts (Fr.2, Fr.3, Fr.4, and Fr.5) were compared to total phenol content evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu method, and hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects were assessed in hyperlipidemic rats. Results: Total phenol content of Fr.4 was higher than other fractions by at least 2 fold. Furthermore, this fraction possessed the strongest hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in hyperlipidemic rats. On this basis, 15 phenolic compounds and four organic acids in Fr.4 were positively or tentatively identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In addition, 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid butyl ester was first reported in hawthorn fruit. Conclusion: Phenol-rich fraction in hawthorn fruit exhibited satisfactory hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, and this could be exploited for further promotion of functional foods. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction in hawthorn fruit possesses most potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in hyperlidemia rats. Abbreviations used: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS: Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglyceride; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; MDA: Malondialdehyde; CAT: Catalase; NO: Nitric oxide; NOS: Nitric oxide synthase; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; •OOH: Superoxide anions, •OH: Hydroxyl radicals. PMID:29200740

  20. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl...

  1. Chemical composition and strength of dolomite geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, E. A.; Al Bakri, A. M. M.; Liew, Y. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The chemical composition of dolomite and the compressive strength of dolomite geopolymer composites were studied. The both composites prepared with mechanical mixer manufactured by with rotor speed of 350 rpm and curing in the oven for 24 hours at 80˚C. XRF analysis showThe dolomite raw materials contain fewer amounts of Si and Al but high Ca in its composition. Dolomite geopolymer composites with 20M of NaOH shows greater and optimum compressive strength compared to dolomite geopolymer with other NaOH molarity. This indicated better interaction of dolomite raw material and alkaline activator need high molarity of NaOH in order to increase the reactivity of dolomite.

  2. Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties for both lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food products manufacturing and provide consistency in food processing, analogous to other food legumes. Therefore, the research findings can be used by ...

  3. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  4. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  5. Chemical composition of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn P. Urbanski; Wei Min Hao; Stephen Baker

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires are major sources of trace gases and aerosol, and these emissions are believed to significantly influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. The wide variety of pollutants released by wildland fire include greenhouse gases, photochemically reactive compounds, and fine and coarse particulate matter. Through...

  6. Effect of roasting conditions on the composition and antioxidant properties of defatted walnut flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joana; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Sena-Moreno, Estela; Rabadán, Adrián; Pardo, José E; Beatriz Pp Oliveira, M

    2018-03-01

    Walnut oil extraction by pressure systems produces a press cake as a by-product, with many of the beneficial walnut properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant properties of walnut flours submitted to different roasting protocols (50, 100 and 150 °C during 30, 60 and 120 min). All walnut flours had about 42% protein and a significant amount of dietary fibre (17%), not being affected by the roasting process. Nonetheless, the fat content increased around 50% in walnuts flours subjected to longer and higher roasting temperatures (150 °C). The lipid fraction showed a good nutritional quality with a high vitamin E content (mainly γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid profile rich in linoleic and linolenic acids. The high phenolic content also provides great antioxidant capacity to the flours. Mild roasting of walnuts did not affect the quality of the flours that could be used as a functional ingredient in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (pmangoes exhibited significantly (pmango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Variability, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils and Hydrosol Extract of Calendula arvensis L. from Western Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbes, Rania; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Ilias, Faiza; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of 53 compounds amounting to 92.3 - 98.5% with yields varied of 0.09 - 0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7 - 29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2 - 12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1 - 12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6 - 19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5 - 23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum and pepper (Capsicum annuum seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šućur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of allelochemicals as weed control agents is becoming widely investigated. However, the impact of these bioherbicides on cultivated plants is less known. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Clinopodium menthifolium on black nightshade (Solanum nigrum antioxidant properties to explore the potential of this species in weed control and on pepper (Capsicum annuum antioxidant properties so as to assess its possible side effects when applied as bioherbicide in organic production. Taking into account that plant extracts should be an alternative source for insect control, additional aim was also to evaluate contact effect of C. menthifolium aqueous extract against the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Analysis by HPLC confirmed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid and 2-hidroxy-cinnamic acid as major components in the C. menthifolium aqueous extract. Both tested concentrations of C. menthifolium aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade leaves and roots. It was observed that the aqueous extract with a concentration of 0.1% showed a toxic effect with 50% mortality of greenhouse whitefly adults.

  10. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  11. Composition And Antioxidant And Antimicrobial Activities Of Clove, Citronella And Palmarosa Essential Oils [composição E Atividades Antioxidante E Antimicrobiana Dos óleos Essenciais De Cravo-da-índia, Citronela E Palmarosa

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer R.; Wagner R.; Duarte M.C.T.; Godoy H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as the chemical composition of essential oils of clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L.), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) were studied. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and the antimicrobial activity determined by the microdilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentration was defined against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, ...

  12. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  13. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  14. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  15. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  16. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Influencia del clima en la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de Justicia pectorales Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de la altitud en el contenido de fenoles y flavonoides y la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de diferentes polaridades provenientes de Justicia pectorales (Acanthaceae. Se halló que las plantas cultivadas en las condiciones del suelo y el clima de la zona Ibagué-Tolima pueden constituirse en compuestos antioxidantes, especialmente en preparados acuosos. El análisis cromatográfico reveló que los extractos de J. pectorales poseen en lo fundamental flavonoides del tipo flavona como es la apigenina. Un mayor contenido (sino el mayor de flavonoides se detectó en el extracto etanol obtenido de las muestras de la planta cultivadas a 1 265 metros por encima del nivel del mar (2 748,03 mg/L. La altitud no parece influir en las propiedades funcionales, ni en el contenido de fitofenoles del extracto. La J. pectorales puede considerarse una especie de gran potencial terapéutico y buenas posibilidades de comercialización.

  17. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  18. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sulphide mineralization and their chemical evo- lution in relative .... properties and chemical compositions. Electron ..... from the sulphide lode provide clues to the chang- ing fluid ..... Raymond O L 1996 Pyrite composition and ore geneis in.

  1. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (19.11 ± 0.22 mg GAE•g-1 dw, 4.47 ± 0.12 mg QE•g-1 dw, respectively. The extract of E. vesicaria had the highest value of TEAC for scavenging DPPH, whereas L. nobilis extract was active for ABTS and FRAP. GC/MS analysis revealed that the essential oil from the aerial parts of T. capitatus contained thirty-seven compounds; thymol was the major constituent (82.79 %. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, and trace amounts of Zn, Cu and Mn in all four extracts.

  4. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys Growing Spontaneously in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Hammami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys (Lamiaceae collected from Zaghouan province of Tunisia are reported. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds were identified representing 88.6% of the total essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the most abundant component (26.1% followed by caryophyllene oxide (6.3%, myristicin (4.9% and α-cubebene (3.9%. The antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity to the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The IC50 value of the oil was evaluated as 0.77 mg·mL−1. In addition, the essential oil was found to possess moderate cytotoxic effects on the HEp-2 cell line (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 = 653.6 µg·mL−1. The potential antiviral effect was tested against Coxsackievirus B (CV-B, a significant human and mouse pathogen that causes pediatric central nervous system disease, commonly with acute syndromes. The reduction of viral infectivity by the essential oil was measured using a cytopathic (CPE reduction assay.

  5. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid) and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic) fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were ...

  6. CHEMICAL VALORIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF XYLAN-BASED ANTIOXIDANTS FROM ALMOND SHELL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ebringerová

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of non-cellulosic polysaccharides from both almond shells and their solid residue after autohydrolysis using a two-step alkaline extraction without and in combination with short ultrasonic treatment was investigated. The obtained polysaccharide preparations were characterized by yield, chemical composition and structural features, and the antioxidant activity of the water-soluble preparations was discussed in relation to the content of phenolics. The results suggested that, depending on the extraction conditions used, xylan associated to various extent with pectic polysaccharides and phenolics can be prepared, and the reaction time significantly shortened by application of ultrasound. The xylan polymers might serve as biopolymer sources in native form or after targeted modification for production of value-added substances and polysaccharide-based antioxidants, applicable in food, cosmetics and other areas.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joselena M; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica ("mandaguari") in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high contents of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as high antioxidant activity. The constituents characterized were mainly flavonols, such as quercetin methyl ethers, and methoxychalcones. Such chemical profile is similar to the composition of a green propolis from the same area of RN, which is produced by Africanized Apis mellifera , using shoot apices of Mimosa tenuiflora , popularly known as "jurema-preta." This finding provides evidence that "mandaguari" geopropolis and honeybee propolis have the same botanical origin in RN. The sharing of a plant resin source by phylogenetically distant bees (Apinae and Meliponinae) suggests that bee genetic factors play little role in the choice of plants for resin collection and that the availability of potential botanical sources plays a decisive role.

  8. Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Graziela Bragueto; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali; Marques, Mariza Boscacci; Azevedo, Luciana; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Sant'Ana, Anderson Souza; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Granato, Daniel

    2018-05-19

    This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, and FRAP. Only the temperature influenced the total phenolic content, non-anthocyanin flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The statistical approach made it possible to obtain the optimised experimental extraction conditions to increase the level of bioactive compounds. Chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, isoquercitrin, and coumarin were identified as the major compounds in the optimised extract. The optimised extract presented anti-hemolytic and anti-hypertensive activity in vitro, in addition to showing stability and reversibility of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity with pH variation. The C. cyanus extract exhibited high IC 50 and GI 50 (>900 μg/mL) values for all cell lines, meaning low cytotoxicity. Based on the stress oxidative assay, the extract exhibited pro-oxidant action (10-100 μg/mL) but did not cause damage or cell death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Campos Nunes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health.

  10. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Byrsonima gardneriana (Malpighiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolim, Thaisa Leite; Wanderley, Flavia Talita de Sousa; Cunha, Emidio Vasconcelos Leitao da; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes de; Assis, Temilce Simoes

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Byrsonima gardneriana led to the isolation of five triterpenes and one flavonoid: D:B-Friedoolean-5-en-3-one (1), friedoolean-14-en-3-one (2), friedelan-3-one (3), lup-20(29)-en-3-ol (4), 3β-hydroxiolean-12-ene (5) and 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavan (6). Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques and comparison with published spectral data. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extract and phases were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl- 2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, evaluation of total phenolic content and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). (author)

  11. Tocopherol composition of deodorization distillates and their antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogala-Kalucka, Malgorzata; Korczak, Jozef; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2004-02-01

    During the last stage of plant oil refining, deodorization distillates containing very important biological substances such as tocopherols, sterols, terpenoids or hydrocarbons are formed as a by-products. This study aimed at evaluating the content and antioxidant capacity of tocopherol concentrates from deodorization distillates obtained after the refining of rapeseed, soybean and sunflower oil. The majority of the matrix substances were eliminated from deodorization distillates by freezing with an acetone solution at -70 degrees C. The tocopherol concentrates obtained in this way contained approximately fivefold more tocopherols than the quantity in condensates after deodorization. Antioxidant activity was investigated by observing the peroxide value at 25 degrees C and using the Oxidograph test. The test medium was lard enriched with the tocopherol concentrates of the three plant oils versus single, synthetic alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols (-T), which served for comparison. In these model systems, all investigated tocopherol concentrates exhibited antioxidant capacity. Their antioxidant effect was significantly lower than that of single delta-T and gamma-T, but significantly higher than alpha-T. The results prove that natural tocopherol concentrates obtained from plant oils are valuable food antioxidants and they also increase the biological and nutritional value of food especially when administered to animal fats or food of animal origin. Tocopherol concentrates can fully replace synthetic antioxidants that have been used thus far.

  12. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  13. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  14. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...

  15. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, A.; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaves, and flowers of Eichornia crassipes; (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] radical...... and in the antioxidant activities of extracts from the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analyzed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of a varied number of phenolic acids...... oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized aquatic weed, could be a potential natural antioxidant source for food, feed, and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  17. Quantum-chemical study of antioxidant additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O.Yu. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Karimova, R.I. [Bashkir State Agrarian Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    To obtain the necessary quality of jet fuels it can be used technological methods (hydrocracking, deep hydration, hydrogenation) that increases the cost of the finished product. The second way is to use less purified raw materials with the introduction of effective additives. Fuels obtained by direct distillation, in ambient air are oxidized with great difficulty and oxidation products accumulate in them is very slow. Fuels derived by hydrogenation processes, have high susceptibility to oxidation, as a result in 1-2 years of storage considerably reduced their quality. Antioxidant additives play an important role in improving the quality of jet fuel. (orig.)

  18. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Some Small Fruits Containing Anthocyanins Using Electrochemical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Căta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the antioxidant capacity of some fruits extracts containing anthocyanins (strawberry, raspberry, elderberry, mulberry, blackberry, bilberry, black and red currant using an electrochemical technique and three classical chemical methods based on reaction between antioxidants and a chromogen compound. evaluation of antioxidant activities of extracts was performed by using FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant capacity, ABTS (2,2’-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate] and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were correlated with their content of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. Good correlations were obtained especially between antioxidant activities and total phenolics content. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the evaluation of overall reducing capacity of the extracts using a glassy carbon electrode. Reducing capacity of selected fruits extracts was assessed based on the half-peak potential (E1/2 of the first oxidation peak. The oxidation potentials characterized by E1/2 value were not correlated with the antioxidant activities evaluated by the classical methods. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  20. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  1. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; hide

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  2. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. Design: O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay, respectively. Results: The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC–MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%, γ-terpinene (8.4%, p-cymene (6.1%, linalool (1.4%, and caryophyllene (1.3%. O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus

  3. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Fitsiou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Papavassilopoulou, Eleni; Vamvakias, Manolis; Pappa, Aglaia; Oreopoulou, Antigoni; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany) is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC-MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%), γ-terpinene (8.4%), p-cymene (6.1%), linalool (1.4%), and caryophyllene (1.3%). O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus essential oil was 0.045±0.0042% (v/v) and was mainly

  4. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  5. Phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines from R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Boros, Borbala; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dimovska, Violeta; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Wine quality largely depends on the phenolic compounds, which contribute to the wine colour, bitterness and astringency. Furthermore, phenolic compounds demonstrate the antioxidant potential of wines, which is mainly due to the flavonoids. In this study, phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vitis Vinifera red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon from three vintages, 2006, 2007 and 2008, produced in the Republic of Macedonia, have been evaluated. Separation of the in...

  6. Phenolic Composition, Colour and Antioxidant Activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Boros, Borbala; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Wine quality largely depends on the phenolic compounds, which contribute to the wine colour, bitterness and astringency. Furthermore, phenolic compounds demonstrate the antioxidant potential of wines, which is mainly due to the flavonoids. In this study, phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vitis Vinifera red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon from three vintages, 2006, 2007 and 2008, produced in the Republic of Macedonia, have been evaluated. Separation of the in...

  7. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 m...

  8. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity of Salvia verticcilata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antioxidants are of great importance for preventing oxidative stress that may cause several degenerative diseases. Studies have indicated phytochemicals have high free-radical scavenging activity, which helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of the present study is the determination of ...

  9. Composition and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the oil constituents of Lippia gracilis were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antifungal activities were also evaluated. The leaf oil showed a yield of 3.7% and its main constituents were thymol (70.3%), p-cymene (9.2%), thymol ...

  10. Helichrysum monizii Lowe: phenolic composition and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sandra; Castilho, Paula C

    2012-01-01

    In Madeira Archipelago there are four endemic Helichyrsum species and three of them are used in the traditional medicine. Helichrysum monizii is a rare endemism with very scarce information available concerning its uses in the local traditional medicine. The aim of this work was to study for the first time Helichrysum monizii in terms of its antioxidant capacity and the identification of the phenolic compounds to which that activity is due. Three different methods of extraction were performed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts were correlated to radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and β-carotene assays. An HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) method was employed for the separation and identification of the phenolic and flavonoid components. The results revealed a high antioxidant potential mainly related to the phenolic profile of the plant. Polar components of methanol extracts of Helichrsyum monizii were detected by a high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) ) method. Thirty-three compounds were identified and 19 of them were identified as quinic acid derivatives. The high antioxidant potential Helichrysum monizii was for the first time established. Dicaffeoylquinic acids are the main responsible for that activity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... explored as novel potential antioxidants (Chen et al.,. 2008b; Ge et al., 2009; ... well as a medicinal mushroom cultured in China and. Japan. It belongs to ... Dextran standards of T-2000, 500, 70, 40, 20, 10 were purchased.

  12. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  13. MINEQL, Chemical Equilibrium Composition of Aqueous Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, John C.; Zachary, Joseph L.; Morel, Francois M.M.; Parsons, Ralph M.; Schweingruber, M.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINEQL is a subroutine package to calculate equilibrium composition of an aqueous system, accounting for mass transfer. MINEQL-EIR contains an additional base on enthalpy and heat capacity data and has the option to do calculations at temperatures different from 25 degrees C. 2 - Method of solution: In MINEQL, the Gibbs free-energy function is minimized and mass balance chemical reaction equations are solved simultaneously. In MINEQL-EIR, the iteration scheme to solve the system of equations has been improved to make the probability of divergence very small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MINEQL does not take into account mass transfer of water molecules

  14. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  15. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Luís

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs, together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  16. Chemical composition of water extracts from shungite and shungite water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charykova, M.V.; Bornyakova, I.I.; Polekhovskij, Yu.S.; Charykov, N.A.; Kustova, E.V.; Arapov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water extracts from shungite-3 of Zagozhino deposit (Karelia) and natural water contacting with shungite rocks are done. Chemical composition and bactericide properties of shungite water are studied [ru

  17. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in .... h to steam distillation using a Clevenger apparatus to produce the essential oil in a .... The amount of crude methanol extract was 189 mg/g dry.

  19. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... Mohammad-Bagher Majnooni1,3, Kamran Mansouri2,3*, Mohammad-Bagher Gholivand4, Ali. Mostafaie3, Hamid-Reza Mohammadi-Motlagh3, Nazanin-Sadat Afnanzade1, Mir-Mehdi ... Carvalho-Freitas and Costa, 2002; Pultrini et al., 2006; ..... Ijaz Hussain A, Anwar F, Sherazi TH, Przybylski R (2008).

  20. Chemical Compositions, Chromatographic Fingerprints and Antioxidant Activities of Andrographis Herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an HPLC-UV-MS method for quantitative determination of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in Andrographis Herba and establishment of its chromatographic fingerprint. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precisions, repeatability, stability and recovery. All the validation results of quantitative determination and fingerprinting methods were satisfactory. The developed method was then applied to assay the contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide and to acquire the fingerprints of all the collected Andrographis Herba samples. Furthermore, similarity analysis and principal component analysis were used to reveal the similarities and differences between the samples on the basis of the characteristic peaks. More importantly, the DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric reducing capacities of the Andrographis Herba samples were assayed. By bivariate correlation analysis, we found that six compounds are positively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities, and four compounds are negatively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... are no literatures about systemic and multi-method evaluations on .... hydrochloric acid, the absorbance of the red color was measured at. 500 nm. The level of .... cineole (eucalyptol) is the main component of the two kinds of ...

  2. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Gautam, N.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene), flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65–70%) over SFA (30–35%) was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities. PMID:26199938

  3. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65–70% over SFA (30–35% was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities.

  4. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Gautam, N

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene), flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65-70%) over SFA (30-35%) was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities.

  5. Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids from the Flower of Paeonia ostii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Mengke; Liu, Pu; Wang, Xinsheng; Deng, Ruixue

    2016-12-23

    Paeonia ostii is a traditional medicinal plant popularly used in China. This study intended to evaluate the antioxidant properties and the chemical components of the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii . The results showed that the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii had strong scavenging capacities on 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), hydroxyls, superoxide anions, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol ( 1 ), apigenin-7- O -β-d-glucoside ( 2 ), apigenin-7- O -β-d-neohesperidoside ( 3 ), kaempferol-7- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ), and kaempferol-3- O -β-d-glucopyranosyl-7- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), were isolated from the flavonoid-rich extracts of the flowers of P. ostii . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that compounds 3 and 4 were abundant in the P. ostii flower and in flavonoid-rich extracts. The main components of the flower of P. ostii are flavonoids. The high antioxidant activity of the flavonoid-rich extracts may be attributed to the high content of flavonoids. The five isolated flavonoids were the primary antioxidant ingredients, and may play important roles in the strong antioxidant activities of this flower. Based on the obtained results, the flower of P. ostii could be a potential source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A R; Sandjo, L P; Friedemann, M T; Tomazzoli, M M; Maraschin, M; Mello, C F; Santos, A R S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis) and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus. Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.

  7. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus. Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.

  8. Chemical composition of felt-tip pen inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Giulia; Garrappa, Silvia; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2018-01-01

    Felt-tip pens are frequently used for the realization of sketches, drawings, architectural projects, and other technical designs. The formulations of these inks are usually rather complex and may be associated to those of modern paint materials where, next to the binding medium and pigments/dyes, solvents, fillers, emulsifiers, antioxidants, plasticizers, light stabilizers, biocides, and so on are commonly added. Felt-tip pen inks are extremely sensitive to degradation and especially exposure to light may cause chromatic changes and fading. In this study, we report on the complete chemical characterization of modern felt-tip pen inks that are commercially available and commonly used for the realization of artworks. Three brands of felt-tip pens (Faber-Castell, Edding, and Stabilo) were investigated with complementary analytical techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), VIS-reflectance spectroscopy, μ-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), GC-MS, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The use of TLC proved to be very powerful in the study of complex mixtures of synthetic dyes. First derivatives of the reflectance spectra acquired on the TLC spots were useful in the preliminary identification of the dye, followed by Raman spectroscopy and SERS, which allowed for the unambiguous determination of the chemical composition of the pigments (phthalocyanines, dioxazines, and azo pigments) and dyes (azo dyes, triarylmethanes, xanthenes). FTIR spectroscopy was used especially for the detection of additives, as well as for confirming the nature of solvents and dyes/pigments. Finally, (Py-)GC-MS data provided information on the binders (styrene-acrylic resins, plant gums), solvents, and additives, as well as on pigments and dyes.

  9. Composition of the essential oils of three Uzbek Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirjonovna; Sharopov, Farukh; Satyal, Prabodh; Azimova, Shahnoz Sadykovna; Wink, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria immaculata Nevski ex Juz., Scutellaria ramosissima M. Pop. and Scutellaria schachristanica Juz. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Uzbekistan was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oils from S. immaculata were acetophenone (30.39%), eugenol (20.61%), thymol (10.04%) and linalool (6.92%), whereas constituents of the essential oils fromS. schachristanica were acetophenone (34.74%), linalool (26.98%) and eugenol (20.67%). The S. ramosissima oil is dominated by germacrene D (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (11.09%), linalool (9.63%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.34%). The essential oils of Scutellaria species exhibited weaker antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. In FRAP assay, only eugenol exhibited a substantial reducing power IC 50  = 2476.92 ± 15.8 (mM Fe(II)/g).

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CAATINGA POTENTIAL FORAGES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dynara Layza de Souza da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of some potential forages species, natives from Caatinga region, were evaluated. Samples of Macroptilium heterophyllum, Stylosanthes humilis, Rhynchosia mínima, Desmodium tortuosum Sw. Dc, Merremia aegyptia, Mimosa tenuiflora Wild, Bauhinia cheilantha and as well Macroptilium lathyroides, Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Mimosa tenuiflora hays were collected in Rio Grande do Norte Stated, during 2011 rainy season. The analyses: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP mineral matter (MM ether extract  (EE neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin (LIG, insoluble neutral detergent nitrogen, (INDN insoluble acid detergent nitrogen, (ADIN, total phenol (TF and total tannin (TT were done at Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos in Ceará State. Plants analyzed, as expected, for tropical species, exhibited high level of cell wall constituents, high lignifications rate and revealed substantial presence of anti nutritional compounds. However, regardless of this data, the main problem, for grazing animals, is due to its xerophytes characteristics. Most of the shrubs and trees are deciduous, losing its leaves during the dry season. In addition, herbaceous presents a very rapid lifetime cycle, germinating and senescing during the brief wet season.

  11. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...... the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained...... the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Ethanolic extracts of leaf were found to have high Fe2+ chelating activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in liposomes and fish oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized...

  13. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Ruta graveolens L. In Vitro Culture Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Diwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. is a medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo, leucoderma, and lymphomas with well-known anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Therefore antioxidant potential of R. graveolens (in planta and in vitro was investigated. As antioxidants present in plant extracts are multifunctional, their activity and mechanism depends on the composition and conditions of the test system. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated using assays that detect different antioxidants: free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS, transition metal ion reduction (phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power, and nitric oxide reduction. Content of furanocoumarin-bergapten in the extracts showed good corelation with free radical scavenging, transition metal reduction and reducing power, while total phenolic content showed good corelation with nitric oxide reduction potential. Antioxidant activity of in vitro cultures was significantly higher compared to in vivo plant material. The present study is the first report on comprehensive study of antioxidant activity of R. graveolens and its in vitro cultures.

  14. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  15. Sulforaphane composition, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of crucifer vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur compounds in sulphur rich food have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of cancer development. One such compound is sulforaphane (SF, a cancer chemopreventive agent identified in broccoli (F. cruciferae. In this study, SF content was assessed in extracts of several crucifer vegetables including broccoli, brussels sprout, green cabbage, red cabbage, Chinese kale and turnip, in parallel with anticancer and antioxidant activity. Among tested crucifers, cabbage demonstrated a pronounced anticancer effect against A-549 lung cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 38 μg mL−1, and correlated with high SF levels at 540 μg g−1. Except for red cabbage and kale, crucifer extracts displayed moderate to weak activity in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH free radicals relative to vitamin E standard.

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Şahin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA. The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I. The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III and blackberry (I, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts.

  17. Beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Comparative Chemical Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia BOBIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beebread is a valuable bee product, both for bee nutrition and for humans. The high nutritional and bioactive properties of beebread were evaluated by chemical composition analysis of beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Bee bread harvested from Romania and India, coming from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata bees, were evaluated for their chemical composition. Analyses were made in APHIS Laboratory from USAMV Cluj, using validated methods for bee products. Lipids were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method, total protein content was determined by Kjehldahl method, sugar spectrum was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-IR. Water content of beebread samples were situated between 11.45 and 16.46%, total protein content between 16.84 and 19.19% and total lipids between 6.36 and 13.47%.  Beebread has high bioactive properties which can be expressed as antioxidant and/or antibacterial activity. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of beebread is influenced by floral origin of the pollen which the bees collect and place in combs for fermentation. Also the climatic conditions have an important role in developing different fermentation compounds, that may act as antioxidants or antibacterial agents.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Investigations of Eryngium triquetrum Essential Oil from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medbouhi, Ali; Merad, Nadjiya; Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Bendahou, Mourad; Djabou, Nassim; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from Eryngium triquetrum from Algeria were studied. The chemical composition of sample oils from 25 locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-four components representing always more than 87% were identified in essential oils from total aerial parts of plants, stems, flowers and roots. Falcarinol is highly dominant in the essential oil from the roots (95.5%). The relative abundance of falcarinol in the aerial parts correlates with the phenological stages of the plant. Aerial parts of E. triquetrum produce an essential oil dominated by falcarinol during the early flowering stage, and then there is a decrease in falcarinol and rebalancing of octanal during the flowering stage. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the chemical composition of E. triquetrum essential oil. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity by means of the paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration assays, showed a moderate efficiency of E. triquetrum essential oil. Using the DPPH method, the interesting antioxidant activity of E. triquetrum essential oil was established. These activities could be attributed to the dominance of falcarinol. The outcome of our literature search on the occurrence of falcarinol in essential oils suggests that E. triquetrum from Algeria could be considered as a possible source of natural falcarinol. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  20. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  2. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  3. Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition revealed a low lipid ...

  4. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S. K.; Gautam, N.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, ...

  5. Agaricus bohusii from Serbia: chemical characterization, antioxidant potential and antifungal preserving properties in cream cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Filipa S.; Stojković, Dejan; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional and bioactive properties. They have been considered valuable health foods being a source of many different nutraceuticals, including antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds [1,2]. Agaricus bohusii Bon is an edible and prized mushroom especially common in Serbia and southern Europe. As far as we know, there are no studies about this species. In the present work, a detailed chemical characterization of A. bohusii was ...

  6. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Odunlade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition of vegetable powders significantly increased the protein (9.50 to 13.93%, fibre (1.81 to 4.00%, ash (1.05 to 2.38%, and fat (1.27 to 2.00%. Supplementation with vegetable powder however significantly decreased (p<0.05 the carbohydrate and moisture contents. Significant (p<0.05 increases were recorded for all evaluated minerals as the level of vegetable powder increased. Supplementation with vegetable powder caused significant decrease in total phenolic content, percentage DPPH inhibition, metal chelating ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity. Sensory results showed that there was significant decrease in sensory qualities with increasing supplementation. This therefore suggests that bread supplemented with vegetable powder could have more market penetration if awareness is highly created.

  7. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant attributes of Cyclea gracillima Diels extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Tien Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclea gracillima Diels is a Taiwanese native medicinal herb. However, there are currently few relevant reports on its biochemical activity. In this study, the antioxidant attributes of the ethanol and hot water extracts of this herb were assayed using in vitro models, including the following: 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-hydrazyl radical scavenging, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, reducing power, and chelating ferrous ions. The following biochemical models were also assayed: inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation, inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and scavenging oxygen radicals in human blood. The composition and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in these extracts were also analyzed. The results showed that these extracts with high polyphenol levels presented remarkable antioxidant effects in all assays, especially when extracted with ethanol. Six phenolic acids (mainly ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and syringic acid and 12 flavonoids (mainly narigenin, myricetin, naringin, and apigenin were found in these extracts.

  11. Qualitative/Chemical Analyses of Ankaferd Hemostat and Its Antioxidant Content in Synthetic Gastric Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koluman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ankaferd hemostat (ABS is the first topical haemostatic agent involving the red blood cell-fibrinogen interactions. The antihemorrhagic efficacy of ABS has been tested in controlled clinical trials. The drug induces the formation of an encapsulated complex protein web with vital erythroid aggregation. The aim of this study is to detect the essential toxicity profile and the antioxidant molecules inside ABS. Methods. The pesticides were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS. The determination by ICP-MS after pressure digestion was performed for the heavy metals. HPLC was used for the detection of mycotoxins. Dioxin Response Chemically Activated Luciferase Gene Expression method was used for the dioxin evaluation. TOF-MS and spectra data were evaluated to detect the antioxidants and other molecules. Results. TOF-MS spectra revealed the presence of several antioxidant molecules (including tocotrienols, vitamin E, tryptophan, estriol, galangin, apigenin, oenin, 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran, TBHQ, thymol, BHA, BHT, lycopene, glycyrrhetinic acid, and tomatine, which may have clinical implications in the pharmacobiological actions of ABS. Conclusion. The safety of ABS regarding the presence of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, GMO and dioxins, and PCBs was demonstrated. Thus the present toxicological results indicated the safety of ABS. The antioxidant content of ABS should be investigated in future studies.

  12. [Peroxide modification of membranes and isomorphic composition of cytochrome P-450 of rat liver microsomes during antioxidant deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubskiy, Iu I; Paramonova, G I; Boldeskul, A E; Primak, R G; Bogdanova, L A; Zadorina, O V; Litvinova, N V

    1992-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO), physico-chemical properties of the membranes and isoformic composition of microsomal cytochrome P-450 from the rat liver were studied under conditions of antioxidant insufficiency (AOI) which was modelled by exclusion of alpha-tocopherol from the animals' ration. An insignificant accumulation of microsomal diene conjugates and schiff bases against a sharp increase of the ability to the prooxidant stimulated LPO in vitro took place. A significant decrease of membrane lipid microviscosity and a change in surface properties of microsomal membranes of rats with AOI was determined. Absence of alpha-tocopherol in the ration was accompanied by a significant change in the content of separate isoforms of cytochrome P-450 exhibited in growth of a polypeptide with m. w. 54 kDa and the lowering of proteins with m. w. 48 and 50 kDa. Less intensive quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide was also revealed, which testified to a lower accessibility of the quencher to membrane proteins or their fluorophore sites. Modification of lipid composition and of physicochemical properties of the rat liver membrane microsomes which was observed at AOI was significantly correlated by pretreatment with the antioxidant 4-methyl-2,6-ditretbutylphenol (ionol).

  13. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  14. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of 6 New Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedum, Eleazu; Kate, Eleazu; Sonia, Chukwuma; Ironkwe, Adanma; Andrew, Igwe

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of 6 new NRCRI turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) accessions (39, 35, 60, 30, 50 and 41) were determined using standard techniques. The moisture contents of the tumeric samples ranged from 15.75 to 47.80% and the curcumin contents of the turmeric samples fell within the range of curcumin obtained from turmeric in other countries of the world. Furthermore, the turmeric accessions contained considerable amounts of antioxidants (measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reducing power assays), alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolics. There was significant correlation between the anthocyanin contents of the tumeric accessions versus their alkaloid (0.744) and flavonoid contents (0.986) suggesting an additive effect between the anthocyanins and alkaloids in turmeric; significant correlation between the inhibition of the turmeric accessions on DPPH radical versus their flavonoid (0.892) and anthocyanin (0.949) contents and significant correlation between the reducing power of the turmeric accessions versus their flavonoid (0.973) and anthocyanin (0.974) contents suggesting that anthocyanins as flavonoids largely contribute to the antioxidant activities of turmeric. The positive regression recorded between inhibition of DPPH radical by the turmeric accessions and quercetin versus reducing power (R2 = 0.852) suggest that any of these methods could be used to assess the antioxidant activities of tumeric. Finally, the study indicated the potentials of the turmeric accessions especially accessions 30 and 50 as promising sources of antioxidants.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  16. Selection of grapevine leaf varieties for culinary process based on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriano; Bento, Albino; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Grapevine leaves are an abundant sub-product of vineyards which is devalued in many regions. The objective of this work is to study the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of ten grapevine leaf varieties (four red varieties: Tinta Amarela, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, and Touriga Nacional; and six white varieties: Côdega do Larinho, Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, and Viosinho) to select varieties to be used as food ingredients. White grapevine leaves revealed higher antioxidant potential. Malvasia Fina reported better antioxidant properties contrasting with Touriga Franca. Phenolic content varied between 112 and 150mgGAEg(-1) of extract (gallic acid equivalents), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols varied between 76 and 108mgCAEg(-1) of extract (caffeic acid equivalents) and 39 and 54mgQEg(-1) of extract (quercetin equivalents). Malvasia Fina is a good candidate for culinary treatment due to its antioxidant properties and composition in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Mun Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131 from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE, its hexane (HF, ethyl acetate (EAF, and aqueous (AF fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Seven Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Genotypes Grown in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lachowicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of fruits of three new Polish breeding clones (No. 5/6, type S, and type N and four Canadian cultivars (cvs. (“Martin”, “Smoky”, “Pembina”, and “Honeywood” grown in Poland in 2016 were investigated. Fruits were analyzed for their contents of triterpenoids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and polyphenolics with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS method, sugar with the high-performance liquid chromatography–evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method, and antioxidant capacity with the ability to reduce free radical (ABTS and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP method. Thirty-eight bioactive compounds, including twenty-eight polyphenolic compounds (four anthocyanins, nine phenolic acids, nine flavonols, and seven flavan-3-ols, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three triterpenoids were identified in the fruits. The fruits of the tested Saskatoon berry genotypes were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (3773.94–6390.36 mg/100 g·dm, triterpenoids (66.55–91.31 mg/kg·dm, and carotenoids (478.62–561.57 mg/kg·dm, with high ABTS and FRAP capacity (10.38–34.49 and 9.66–25.34 mmol·Trolox/100 g·dm, respectively. Additionally, the berries of these genotypes seemed to be a good source of sugar (9.02–19.69 g/100 g, pectins (0.67%–1.33%, and ash (0.59%–0.67%. Some genotypes of Saskatoon berry, especially the clones type S, type N, and cvs. “Honeywood” and “Smoky”, may be selected for their potential applications in commercial cultivation to produce fruits with valuable health-promoting nutritional effects on human health. Additionally, three new genotypes that may offer new functional materials can be recommended for fruit growers.

  19. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radical in vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting of Monodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, and Aframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs with α-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%, which was followed by (--β-bourbonene (15.78% and 5-(1-methylethyl-α-phellandrene (11.80%. Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oil in vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents, α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However, in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  20. Seeds of Peganum Harmala L. chemical analysis, antimalarial and antioxidant activities, and cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabir, Naziha; Ibrahim, Hany; Romdhane, Hany; Valentin, Alexis; Moukarzel, Beatrice; Mars, Mohamed; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and anthocyanins from Peganum harmala L. seeds and determined their antioxidant, antiplasmodial and anticancer potentials. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Extracts of P. harmala seeds from Oudref and Djerba (two places in Tunisia) were obtained by successive extraction solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. Their composition was evaluated for phenolics (gallic acid equivalent 2.48 to 72.52 g/kg), tannins (catechin equivalent 0 to 25.27 g/kg), anthocyanins (cyanidin equivalent 0 to 20.56 mg/kg) and flavonoids (quercetin equivalent 0 to 3.12 g/kg). Ethanolic extract exerted the highest activities against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (IC₅₀=23 mg/L), against human breast cancer cells MCF7 (IC₅₀=32 mg/L) and against free radical (IC₅₀=19.09±3.07 mg/L). Correlations were studied between each chemical family and the three activities. Total phenolics content exhibited the highest correlation with antiplasmodial activity (R²=0.92) and with anticancer activity (R²=0.86), respectively.

  1. Fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of apple seed oil obtained from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram

    2014-03-30

    Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Chemical synthesis, redox transformation, and identification of sonnerphenolic C, an antioxidant in Acer nikoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadate, Takehiro; Nihei, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-15

    Sonnerphenolic C (3), which was predicted in a redox product of epirhododendrin (1) isolated from Acer nikoense, was synthesized for the first time via the epimeric separation of benzylidene acetal intermediates as a key step. From a similar synthetic route, 1 was obtained concisely. As a result of their antioxidative evaluation, only 3 revealed potent activity. The redox transformation of 1 into 3 was achieved in the presence of tyrosinase and vitamin C. Moreover, 3 was identified in the decoction of A. nikoense by HPLC analysis with the effective use of synthesized 3. Thus, a novel naturally occurring antioxidant 3 was developed through the sequential flow including redox prediction, chemical synthesis, evaluation of the activity, and identification as the natural product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  4. Phyto chemical and antioxidant screening of extracts of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is an endangered economic plant used for production of agar wood worldwide. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The aqueous and methanol extracts along with dry powder of leaf of the plant was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. They were also tested for antioxidant activities. The result indicates the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and tannins. The phyto chemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 8.0 x 102 μg/ ml, 1.6 x 102 μg/ ml, 1.4 x 102 μg/ ml, 30.0 μg/ ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quercetine respectively. Determination on antioxidant activity of each crude extract showed that methanol crude extract had the highest IC50 value than ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane crude extract. This means that methanol possess the highest inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the other crudes but still lower than Quercetin (standard). Phyto chemical analysis on the hexane extract of Aquilaria malaccensis has been conducted. Several chromatographic methods have been employed to the hexane of the leaves which led to the isolation of three compounds namely Stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and 3-fridelanol. The present study has proved the usefulness of agar wood tree for medicinal purposes and its potential as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  5. Advancing Consumer Product Composition and Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes EPA efforts to collect, model, and measure publically available consumer product data for use in exposure assessment. The development of the ORD Chemicals and Products database will be described, as will machine-learning based models for predicting chemical function. Finally, the talk describes new mass spectrometry-based methods for measuring chemicals in formulation and articles. This presentation is an invited talk to the ICCA-LRI workshop "Fit-For-Purpose Exposure Assessments For Risk-Based Decision Making". The talk will share EPA efforts to characterize the components of consumer products for use in exposure assessment with the international exposure science community.

  6. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant activity of several pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luana; Pereira, J.A.; Lopéz-Cortés, Isabel; Salazar, Domingo M.; González-Álvarez, Julia; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Nine pomegranate cultivars grown in Spain were selected, and their physicochemical (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, maturity index, monomeric anthocyanin pigment, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, and vitamin C) and antioxidant properties and polyphenolic composition of the juices were compared. A total of 53 polyphenols were identified, showing cultivars different profiles. Of all nine cultivars, Katirbasi had the highest contents of flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins and vitamin...

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboid...

  8. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Dalene de; Schulze, Alexandra; Joubert, Elizabeth; Villiers, André de; Malherbe, Christiaan; Stander, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlin...

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Mono- and Heterofloral Bee Pollen of Different Geographical Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Silva Araújo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity. Cocos nucifera and Miconia spp. extracts exhibited important antioxidant properties in the different assays (ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Moreover, these extracts had greater amounts of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to others. The increase in antioxidant activity (decrease in EC50 values was accompanied by an increase in the amount of total phenols in the extracts. The pollen extracts contained linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids, followed by palmitic acid, and oleic acid. In this study, differences were observed in both chemical constituents and biological activities of the samples related to the geographical and botanical origin of bee pollen.

  10. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  11. Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and energy values of cereal grains produced in the Western Cape area of South Africa. TS Brand, CW Cruywagen, DA Brandt, M Viljoen, WW Burger ...

  12. Antimicrobial activity and chemical compositions of Turkish propolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative bacteria and its chemical composition were evaluated by the method of agar-well diffusion and GC-MS, respectively. Some typical compounds samples were identified in the propolis samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the ...

  13. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  14. Relationship between bacterial density and chemical composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    Key words: Bacterial density, chemical composition, oxidation pond, sewage, tropics. INTRODUCTION ... pond for about two weeks during which algae, bacteria and other organisms act ..... Chloride can serve as nutrient for micro- organisms ...

  15. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca were analyzed ... brown or dark green in colors and fragrant. .... extraction used and geographic origin of plant studied.

  16. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  17. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  18. Chemical modification, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhan; Chen, Haixia; Tian, Jingge; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha; Wang, Jia

    2013-10-15

    Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and α-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacities of Chinese Local Pummelo Cultivars' Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefang Lü

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the main production areas of pummelo [Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck.] in the world and has lots of distinctive local cultivars. Systematic research on the detection of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of peels of mature local cultivars pummelo  fruits is rare. In the current study, phenolic composition and content in peels (flavedo and albedo of ten Chinese local pummelo cultivars were determined using Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods in the current study. The research not only provides data that support making full use of the resources of Chinese local pummelo cultivars, but also lays the theoretical basis for research of pummelo fruit nutrition and health values. The results showed that the total phenolic (TP content in albedo was significantly higher than that in flavedo; on the contrary, the total flavonoid (TF content was lower in the albedo than in the flavedo. C. grandis ‘Hongxinyou’ flavedo contained the highest TP contents, C. grandis ‘Liangpingyou 78-8’ flavedo contained the highest TF contents, and C. grandis ‘Guanxi Miyou’ albedo contained the highest TP and TF contents. Naringenin, hesperetin, diosmin, and gallic acid were the predominant phenolics in the flavedo, whereas hesperetin, diosmin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were the primary phenolics in the albedo. The flavedo of C. grandis ‘Yubei Shatianyou’ and the albedo of C. grandis ‘Dianjiang Baiyou’ had the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC indexes. Overall, the ‘Yubei Shatianyou’ flavedo and the ‘Dianjiang Baiyou’ albedo are excellent sources of antioxidants and have the greatest potential value for exploitation and utilization.

  1. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  2. Micro-encapsulation of refined olive oil: influence of capsule wall components and the addition of antioxidant additives on the shelf life and chemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Patricia; Castaño, Angel Luís; Lozano, Mercedes; González-Gómez, David

    2012-10-01

    Although refined olive oils (ROOs) exhibit lower quality and less stability toward thermal stress than extra-virgin olive oils, these types of oil are gaining importance in the food industry. The inclusion of ROOs in processed food may alter the oxidative stability of the manufactured products, and therefore having technological alternatives to increase oil stability will be an important achievement. For this reason the main goal of this study was to assess the influence of the micro-encapsulation process on the ROO chemical composition and its oxidative stability. Factors such as microcapsule wall constituents and the addition of the antioxidant butyl hydroxytoluene were investigated in order to establish the most appropriate conditions to ensure no alteration of the refined olive oil chemical characteristics. The optimised methodology exhibited high encapsulation yield (>98%), with micro-encapsulation efficiency ranging from 35 to 69% according to the nature of the wall components. The encapsulation process slightly altered the chemical composition of the olive oil and protected the oxidative stability for at least 11 months when protein components were included as wall components. It was concluded that the presence of proteins constituents in the microcapsule wall material extended the shelf life of the micro-encapsulated olive oil regardless the use of antioxidant additives. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Chemical characterization and extractives composition of heartwood and sapwood from Quercus faginea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available Heartwood and sapwood of Quercus faginea were evaluated in relation to summative chemical composition and non-polar and polar extracts composition, including an assessment of antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP. Twenty trees from two sites in Portugal were analysed. Heartwood had approximately two times more solvent extractible compounds than sapwood (on average 19.0% and 9.5%. The lipophilic extractible compounds were below 1%, and most of them were polar e.g. ethanol-soluble compounds corresponded to 65% of total extractives in heartwood and 43% in sapwood. Lignin content was similar in sapwood and heartwood (28.1% and 28.6% of extractive-free wood respectively as well as the sugar composition. Site did not influence the chemical composition. The lipophilic extractible compounds from both sapwood and heartwood included mainly saturated fatty acids (23.0% and 36.9% respectively and aromatic compounds were also abundant in sapwood (22.9%. The ethanol-water extractibles had a high content of phenolic substances (558.0 and 319.4 mg GAE/g extract, respectively of heartwood and sapwood. The polyphenolic composition was similar in heartwood and sapwood with higher content of ellagitannins (168.9 and 153.5 mg tannic acid/g of extract in sapwood and heartwood respectively and very low content of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was very high with IC50 of 2.6 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml for sapwood and heartwood respectively, as compared to standard antioxidants (IC50 of 3.8 μg/ml for Trolox. The ferric reducing ability was 2.8 and 2.0 mMol Trolox equivalents/g extract of heartwood and sapwood respectively. The variability between trees was low and no differences between the two sites were found. Q. faginea showed a very good potential for cooperage and other applications for which a source of compounds with antioxidant properties is desirable.

  4. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  6. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Some Waste Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Uluata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC and oxidative stability of cherry seed (SCO, sweet cherry seed (SCSO, mulberry seed (MSO and plum seed oil (PSO were determined. Oleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid (42.9-67.3%, and followed by linoleic acid (23.4-41.8% for SCO, SCSO and PSO. Linoleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid in MSO. γ-tocopherol was determined the main and highest tocopherol isomers varied from 579.9 to 605 mg/kg oil in SCO, SCSO and PSO, whereas δ-tocopherol was determined main tocopherol isomer with 1354mg/kg oil value in MSO. Plum seed oil (PSO was the highest antioxidant activity values in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. There was no significant differences in lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation among SCO, SCSO and MSO. PSO had the highest induction period (15.1 h, followed by MSO (1.4 h, SCSO (1.5 h, SCO(1.3 h. PSO was oxidatively more stable than the other oil samples. This research shows that these waste seed oils have high antioxidant capacity and tocopherol content, so they could be used in food industry.

  8. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  10. Chemical constituents of the essential oil, antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Elettariopsis curtisii Baker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanida Chairgulprasert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Elettariopsis curtisii Baker, the culinary and medicinal herb, was investigated to elucidate its chemical constituents and determine antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The essential oil of E. curtisii was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes in a maximum yield of 0.63%. GC-MS data indicated the presence of six compounds, of which trans-2-decenal (78.03% was the principal constituent. The essential oils and also the hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the rhizomes and leaves were assessed for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In an evaluation of antioxidant activity, the crude dichloromethane extract of the leaves exhibited the highest scavenging effect on the DPPH radicalwith an EC50 of 0.28+0.01 mg/mL. The leaf dichloromethane extract also had the highest total phenol concentration, (73.4+2.80 mg GA/g of extract whereas the crude methanol extract from the rhizomes had the highest reducing power with an EC50 of 2.07+0.06 mg/mL. In terms of antibacterial activity, the essential oil (distilled from either the leaves or the rhizomesdisplayed the highest inhibitory activity, with the same MID value of 1 mg/disc against 5 strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. Chemical composition of the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M; Spaans, M

    2003-01-01

    A prediction of standard inflationary cosmology is that the elemental composition of the medium out of which the earliest stars and galaxies condensed consisted primarily of hydrogen and helium (4)He, with small admixtures of deuterium, lithium (7)Li, and (3)He. The most redshifted quasars,

  12. Ethylene vinylacetate copolymer and nanographite composite as chemical vapour sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, Santa; Sakale, Gita; Knite, Maris

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-nanostructured carbon composite as chemical vapour sensor is described, made by the dissolution method of a non-conductive polymer, ethylene vinylacetate copolymer, mixed with conductive nanographite particles (carbon black). Sensor exhibits relative electrical resistance change in chemical vapours, like ethanol and toluene. Since the sensor is relatively cheap, easy to fabricate, it can be used in air quality monitoring and at industries to control hazardous substance concentration in the air, for example, to protect workers from exposure to chemical spills

  13. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  14. Effect of newer antioxidants on the bond strength of composite on bleached enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Manoharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to evaluate the effect of the application of two antioxidants on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: Eighty enamel surfaces were obtained from forty human extracted premolars. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20. Group 1: No bleaching (control; Group 2a: Bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide gel; Group 2b: Bleaching, followed by application of 10% sodium ascorbate gel; Group 2c: Bleaching, followed by application of 5% proanthocyanidin agent. Surfaces were etched followed by application of total etch bonding system, and composite resin cylinders were bonded. Specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance was used for multiple group comparison and post hoc Tukey′s test for individual group-wise comparison. Results: Significantly higher shear bond strength values were observed in Group 2c and 2b as compared with Group 1 and 2a (P < 0.05. Among the antioxidants, Group 2c showed significantly higher shear bond strength values than Group 2b (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of antioxidant before bonding procedures on bleached enamel completely neutralizes the deleterious effects of bleaching and increases the bond strength significantly.

  15. Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of grain legume seeds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2017-11-01

    Legumes are a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds which play significant roles in many physiological as well as metabolic processes. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and condensed tannins are the primary phenolic compounds that are present in legume seeds. Majority of the phenolic compounds are present in the legume seed coats. The seed coat of legume seeds primarily contains phenolic acids and flavonoids (mainly catechins and procyanidins). Gallic and protocatechuic acids are common in kidney bean and mung bean. Catechins and procyanidins represent almost 70% of total phenolic compounds in lentils and cranberry beans (seed coat). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is in direct relation with their chemical structures such as number as well as position of the hydroxyl groups. Processing mostly leads to the reduction of phenolic compounds in legumes owing to chemical rearrangements. Phenolic content also decreases due to leaching of water-soluble phenolic compounds into the cooking water. The health benefits of phenolic compounds include acting as anticarcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-ulcer, anti-artherogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunemodulating, anti-microbial, cardioprotective and analgesic agents. This review provides comprehensive information of phenolic compounds identified in grain legume seeds along with discussing their antioxidant and health promoting activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the oxide layers are chemically bonded to graphene (Zhang ... sists of three glass chambers, one to contain the metal halide. (TiCl4, SiCl4 ... In this step, the metal halide reacts with the oxygen function- ... 1·0 g of FeCl3 were vigorously stirred in 30 ml of ethylene ... Reaction with water vapour results in hydrolysis of the un-.

  17. The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruit and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin C composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteggente, Anna R; Pannala, Ananth Sekher; Paganga, George; Van Buren, Leo; Wagner, Eveline; Wiseman, Sheila; Van De Put, Frans; Dacombe, Clive; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2002-02-01

    Recent studies are emphasising the importance and putative modes of action of specific flavonoids as bioactive components of the diet in in vivo and in vitro models. Thus, it is important to have a clear idea of the major phenolic families of which fruit and vegetables are comprised and the levels contained therein. Regularly consumed fruit and vegetables of mixed varieties available on the UK market were analysed for the composition of the major individual phenolic components. The total phenolic content (applying the Folin assay) and the vitamin C levels were also determined. The antioxidant capacities of aqueous/methanolic extracts were comparatively assessed using the TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays, which comprise contributions from polyphenols, simple phenols and the ascorbate component. The results were calculated in terms of 100 g fresh weight (FW) uncooked portion sizes. Fruit and vegetables rich in anthocyanins (e.g. strawberry, raspberry and red plum) demonstrated the highest antioxidant activities, followed by those rich in flavanones (e.g. orange and grapefruit) and flavonols (e.g. onion, leek, spinach and green cabbage), while the hydroxycinnamate-rich fruit (e.g. apple, tomato, pear and peach) consistently elicited the lower antioxidant activities. The TEAC, FRAP and ORAC values for each extract were relatively similar and well-correlated with the total phenolic and vitamin C contents. The antioxidant activities (TEAC) in terms of 100 g FW uncooked portion size were in the order: strawberry> raspberry = red plum > red cabbage >grapefruit = orange > spinach > broccoli > green grape approximately/= onion > green cabbage > pea > apple > cauliflower tomato approximately/= peach=leek > banana approximately/= lettuce.

  18. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides extracted from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anqiang; Xiao, Nannan; He, Pengfei; Sun, Peilong

    2011-12-01

    Boletus edulis is a well-known delicious mushroom. In this study, three crude polysaccharides (BEPF30, BEPF60 and BEPF80) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of B. edulis with boiling water. Chemical and physical characteristics of the three crude polysaccharides were investigated by the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis methods. Their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro systems including hydroxyl assay, superoxide radical assay, reducing power and chelating activity. Among these three polysaccharides, BEPF60 showed more significant reducing power and chelating activity; and highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical. These results indicated that polysaccharides extracted from B. edulis might be employed as ingredients in healthy and functional food to alleviate the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of bee venom collected in Northeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Filipa; Sampaio, Andreia; Falcão, Soraia; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Bee venom (BV) or apitoxin is a complex mixture of substances with reported biological activity. In the present work, five bee venom samples obtained from Apis mellifera iberiensis from the Northeast Portugal (two different apiaries) were chemically characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. The LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) analysis of the samples showed that melittin was the most abundant compound, followed by phospholipase A2 and apamin. All the samples revealed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity but without a direct relation with any of the individual chemical components identified. The results highlight that there are specific concentrations (present in BV5) in which these compounds are more active. The BV samples showed similar cytotoxicity for all the tested tumour cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2), being MCF-7 and HeLa the most susceptible ones. Nevertheless, the studied samples seem to be suitable to treat breast, hepatocellular and cervical carcinoma because at the active concentrations, the samples were not toxic for non-tumour cells (PLP2). Regarding the non-small cell lung carcinoma, BV should be used under the toxic concentration for non-tumour cells. Overall, the present study corroborates the enormous bioactive potential of BV being the first report on samples from Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kainari, a Unique Greek Traditional Herbal Tea, from the Island of Lesvos: Chemical Analysis and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Bampali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, as well as the total phenolic content (TPC and the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, of three Kainari-herbal tea samples from different areas of Lesvos Island (Greece was evaluated. The rich aroma of the mixtures was studied through GC-MS, as well as through Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME/GC-MS analyses. Cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, pepper, and ginger were identified as main ingredients, while, throughout the chemical analysis of the volatiles of one selected sample, several secondary metabolites have been isolated and identified on the basis of GC-MS as well as spectral evidence as eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and myristicin, cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, two food dyes, azorubine and amaranth, were also isolated and identified from the infusions. The total phenolic content was estimated and the free radical scavenging activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested showing a very interesting profile against all the assayed microorganisms. Due to its very pleasant aroma and taste properties as well as to its bioactivities, Kainari-herbal tea could be further proposed as functional beverage.

  1. Chemical food composition: implications for atherosclerosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto

    2011-01-01

    To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p UNIFESP table is American in origin.

  2. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  3. Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill): anatomy, physiology and chemical composition with emphasis on its biofunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aguilar, Rosa Isela; Bosquez-Molina, Elsa; Bautista-Baños, Silvia; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) is native to Mesoamerica and marketed in different forms such as fresh, frozen or pre-cooked. Worldwide, this vegetable is recognized for its pharmaceutical actions, including its antioxidant, diuretic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties, as well as their antiviral and antispermatogenic effects. However, not all of these properties have been associated with its chemical composition; therefore, this review aims to present and integrate information available on the physiology and anatomy of cactus stem and its chemical composition, focusing on some of the many factors that determine its biofunctionality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Chemical composition of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (18.2 km2, 1.3 km3, 143 m max. depth has been severely polluted since industrialisation of its watershed began in 1926, at which time the lake began to receive industrial effluents containing high concentrations of copper and ammonia. Chromium-, nickel-, and zinc-rich effluents from plating factories have also contributed to pollution levels, and pH -levels dropped below 4.0 as a result of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrates. More than 60 papers have documented the evolution of the chemical characteristics of both water and sediment, and the sudden decline of plankton, as well as benthos and fish. As a remedial action the lake was limed from May 1989 to June 1990 with 10,900 tons of CaCO3. The treatment was immediately effective in raising the pH and decreasing the metal concentrations in the water column, and plankton and fish communities quickly rebounded. However, the chemical characteristics of sediments were influenced by the liming to a much lesser extent. Since 900 tons of copper and the same amount of chromium were contained in the top 10 cm of sediment, it appears likely that the sediment could potentially act as a current and future source of these metals to the water column. This observation has resulted in the implementation of a vigorous monitoring regime to track the post-liming recovery of Lake Orta.

  5. Phenolic composition and related antioxidant properties in differently colored lettuces: a study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Usue; Pinzino, Calogero; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ranieri, Annamaria; Sgherri, Cristina

    2014-12-10

    Differently colored lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars (green, green/red, and red) were studied to correlate their phenolic composition with their antioxidant kinetic behavior. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was employed to monitor decay kinetics of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), which allowed the identification of three differently paced antioxidants. The results showed that as long as lettuce had higher red pigmentation, the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity increased together with the contents in free and conjugated phenolic acids, free and conjugated flavonoids, and anthocyanins. EPR allowed the identification of slow-rate antioxidants in green and green/red cultivars, intermediate-rate antioxidants in green, green/red, and red cultivars, and fast-rate antioxidants in green/red and red cultivars. At present, the different kinetic behaviors cannot be attributed to a specific antioxidant, but it is suggested that the flavonoid quercetin accounted for the majority of the intermediate-rate antioxidants, whereas the anthocyanins accounted for the majority of the fast-rate antioxidants.

  6. Development of functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, J.H. [Dept. of Materials Technology, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea); Fang Hai-Tao; Lai Zhong-Hong; Yin Zhong-Da [Materials Science and Engineering School, Harbin Inst. of Tech., Harbin (China)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was originated in the research field of thermal barrier coatings. Continuous changes in the composition, grain size, porosity, etc., of these materials result in gradients in such properties as mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. In recent years, functionally graded structural composite materials have received increased attention as promising candidate materials to exhibit better mechanical and functional properties than homogeneous materials or simple composite materials. Therefore the research area of FGMs has been expending in the development of various structural and functional materials, such as cutting tools, photonic crystals, dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics, thermoelectric semiconductors, and biomaterials. We have developed functionally graded structural ceramic/metal composite materials for relaxation of thermal stress, functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and functionally graded dielectric ceramic composites to develop advanced dielectric ceramics with flat characteristics of dielectric constant in a wide temperature range. This paper introduces functionally graded coatings for C/C composites with superior oxidation resistance at high temperatures. (orig.)

  7. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

    2008-01-01

    The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination.

  8. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRAESEPE (M44)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Roper, Brian W.; Lum, Michael G., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: brianwroper@gmail.com, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu [Visiting astronomer, W. M. Keck Observatory jointly operated by the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Star clusters have long been used to illuminate both stellar evolution and Galactic evolution. They also hold clues to the chemical and nucleosynthetic processes throughout the history of the Galaxy. We have taken high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectra of 11 solar-type stars in the Praesepe open cluster to determine the chemical abundances of 16 elements: Li, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, and Ba. We have determined Fe from Fe I and Fe II lines and find [Fe/H] = +0.12 ±0.04. We find that Li decreases with temperature due to increasing Li depletion in cooler stars; it matches the Li-temperature pattern found in the Hyades. The [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] abundances are below solar and lower than the field star samples due to the younger age of Praesepe (0.7 Gyr) than the field stars. The alpha-elements, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, have solar ratios with respect to Fe, and are also lower than the field star samples. The Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, track Fe and have solar values. The neutron capture element [Y/Fe] is found to be solar, but [Ba/Fe] is enhanced relative to solar and to the field stars. Three Praesepe giants were studied by Carrera and Pancino; they are apparently enhanced in Na, Mg, and Ba relative to the Praesepe dwarfs. The Na enhancement may indicate proton-capture nucleosynthesis in the Ne → Na cycling with dredge-up into the atmospheres of the red giants.

  9. The Effect of Methylation and Anti-Oxidant on Discoloration of Weathered Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivand Darabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs become more widespread, the resistance of these products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more important. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor ultraviolet light, rain, snow and atmosphere pollution, they will be degraded which can be indicated by color fade. To investigate the effects of methylation and Anti-Oxidant separately and together on discoloration of weathered wood plastic composites, composites of poplar wood flour and high density polyethylene.Were made according to the ASTMD 2565, samples were placed in Atlas Xenon apparatus for 250 and 2000 hours. Discoloration and FT-IR spectra of the samples were measured and compared. The results have shown that methylation in short term and long term can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples and also in short term can hinder the photodegradation. FT-IR spectra showed that, in long term, neither of the treatments could protect lignin from irradiation within wood flour. But methylation limited the depth of penetration of weathering. The Antioxidant did not have an influence on color change in a long period of time, but was able to relatively decrease it in short term.

  10. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae Turcz. leaves of different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Cerda, Marcelo; Arancibia-Radich, Jorge; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Paula; Pérez-Arancibia, Rodrigo; Barriga, Andrés; Seguel, Ivette; García, Lorena; Delporte, Carla

    2017-01-15

    Ugni molinae Turcz. is a native shrub of Chile, known for its edible berries and its leaves, which have been the focus of recent attention, as a good source of phenolic compounds to be used in cosmetics and food products. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts from the leaves of 10 genotypes of U. molinae, that were cultivated under the same soil, climate and agronomical management. Antioxidant activity was assessed by complementary methods (ORAC-Fl, FRAP and DPPH assay), phenolic composition of each extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Phenolic and flavonoid total contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods. Significative differences were found by these methods, and ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives and flavonols were identified as responsible for these differences, showing the influence of the genotype on the phenolic composition of U. molinae leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Catechin Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Black Teas in Relation to Brewing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2017-11-01

    Black tea infusions are one of the most popular beverages across the world. Their extract composition depends on several factors, brewing time being one of the most important determinants. The aim of the present study was to determine the catechin composition of different black tea infusions using a validated LC electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS method. Additionally, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of infusions were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). An optimized LC-MS method enabled the precise identification of the studied catechins [epicatechin (EC), EC gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] and gallic acid (GA). The major catechin in all investigated teas was EGC (25.6 mg/100 cm3 after 4 min of brewing). EC was present at the lowest concentration in all extracts. TPC and antiradical scavenging activity were in a good agreement with catechins and GA content. In general, the longer the brewing time, the higher the concentration of catechin, TPC, and antioxidant activity values. However, it should be noted that after 2 min brewing, most phenolics had already been extracted, and extract composition did not significantly change at a prolonged extraction time.

  12. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  13. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

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    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  14. Chemical composition and microstructure of Bauhinia grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Dlamini, Nomusa

    2014-09-01

    Bauhinia is a leguminous plant species found in almost every part of the world, including southern Africa. In this study, grain composition and protein body microstructure of two indigenous southern African Bauhinia species, B. galpinii and B. petersiana were determined. Protein (38 g/100 g) and fat (23 g/100 g) were the major constituents of Bauhinia. Bauhinia grains also contained substantial amounts of zinc (6 mg/100 g) and iron (3 mg/100 g) when compared to FAO/WHO standards. The parenchyma cells of Bauhinia showed spherical protein bodies with globoids inclusions and these were surrounded by lipids. However, the protein bodies of B. petersiana were smaller in size (7 ± 3 μm) than those of B. galpinii (13 ± 4 μm). The microstructure of protein bodies in Bauhinia is very similar to that of soya, suggesting that the processing technology developed for soya protein may be adopted for Bauhinia.

  15. Light history modulates antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to both natural (light) and chemical (herbicides) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Sague, Irene Gallardo; Urrea, Gemma; Guasch, Helena

    2012-05-01

    In multiple stress situations, the co-occurrence of environmental and chemical factors can influence organisms' ability to cope with toxicity. In this context, the influence of light adaptation on the response of freshwater biofilms to sudden light changes or to herbicides exposure was investigated by determining various parameters: diatom community composition, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll a content, antioxidant enzyme activities. Biofilms were grown in microcosms under sub-optimal, saturating, and high light intensities and showed already described characteristics of shade/light adaptation (community structure, photosynthetic adaptation, etc.). Light history modulated antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to the stress caused by short-term exposure to sudden light changes or to herbicides. First biofilms adapted to sub-optimal light intensity (shade-adapted) were found to be more sensitive to an increase in light intensity than high-light adapted ones to a reduction in light intensity. Second, while light history influenced biofilms' response to glyphosate, it had little influence on biofilms' response to copper and none on its response to oxyfluorfen. Indeed glyphosate exposure led to a stronger decrease in photosynthetic efficiency of shade-adapted biofilms (EC(50) = 11.7 mg L(-1)) than of high-light adapted communities (EC(50) = 35.6 mg L(-1)). Copper exposure led to an activation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in biofilms adapted to sub-optimal and saturating light intensity while the protein content decreased in all biofilms exposed to copper. Oxyfluorfen toxicity was independent of light history provoking an increase in APX activity. In conclusion this study showed that both previous exposure to contaminants and physical habitat characteristics might influence community tolerance to disturbances strongly.

  16. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; GHADDAR, A.; NASREDDINE, M.; KATTAN, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H + ,Na + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 + and NH + 4 ) and major anions (Cl - , NO - 3 , HCO - 3 and SO 2 - 4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na + and Cl - in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO - 4 and NO - 3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  17. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae, which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  20. Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/green tea extract composite nanofiber mats and their antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusporini, Pusporini; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Sriyanti, Ida; Suciati, Tri; Miftahul Munir, Muhammad; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal

    2018-05-01

    Electrospinning was employed to make PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)/GTE (green tea extract) composite nanofiber mats. The electrospun PVP nanofiber mat as well as the PVP/GTE nanofiber mats were uniform. The average fiber diameter of PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mat decreased with increasing the GTE weight fraction (or decreasing the PVP weight fraction) in the PVP/GTE solution because the PVP/GTE solution concentration decreased. Then, the broad FTIR peak representing the stretching vibrations of O–H in hydroxyl groups of phenols and the stretching of N–H in amine groups of the GTE paste shifted to higher wavenumbers in the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mats. These peak shifts implied that PVP and catechins of GTE in the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mats had intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds between carbonyl groups of PVP and hydroxyl groups of catechins in GTE. Lastly, the antioxidant activity of the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mat increased with reducing the average fiber diameter because the amount of catechins in the composite nanofiber mat increased with the increase of surface area due to the reduction of the average fiber diameter.

  1. Evaluation of physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in different varieties of banana (musa acuminata), indigenous to pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizuddin, A.; Ghafoor, S.; Mahmood, T.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and physico-chemical analysis on the pulp of three different varieties of Musa acuminata, were studied namely Cavendish basrai, Grand naine and Plantain, collected from Gharo, Adam Khas Kheli Road near Karachi (Pakistan). DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, reducing power (RPA) and phosphomolybdenum assays were used for determination of their antioxidant capacity. Cavendish basrai characterized the highest antioxidant capacity among three varieties, DPPH (82.46 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (43.59 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (38.90 mg/100 g) in methanolic extract and DPPH (67.27 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (27.03 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (24.27 mg/100 g) in water extract. The phenolic (83.04 mg/100 g, 19.50 mg/100 g) and flavonoid contents (11.66 mg/100 g, 4.77 mg/100 g) were also high in Cavendish basrai in methanolic and water extracts, respectively showed the direct relation of antioxidant capacity to the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the DPPH assay revealed more power full assay for determination of antioxidant capacity among these assays. In correlation with antioxidant capacity, Plantain showed comparatively high physico-chemical characteristics revealed high nutritional contents such as total dry matter, total sugar contents, TSS, titratable acidity and % NaCl. (author)

  2. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant activities and chemical analysis of sulfated chitosan from Sepia prashadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-06-01

    The chitin and chitosan of S. prashadi was prepared through demineralization, deproteinzation, deacetylation process and sulfation were carried by chlorosulfonic acid in N,N-dimethylformamide. The sulfate content in chitosan was found to be 18.9%. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen composition of the sulfated chitosan were recorded 39.09%, 6.95% and 6.58% respectively. The structural analysis was done by using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy technique. The DSC curves of sulfated chitosan showed a large endothermic peak resolved with T o value of 54.57°C and T P value of 97.46°C. The morphology of sulfated chitin and sulfated chitosan were studied by SEM. The Further in vitro antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan was screened by scavenging activity of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, metal-ion chelating effect and reducing power. Its anticoagulant activity was tested for human plasma with respect to Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT). Results prove that sulfated chitosan has potent antioxidant and anticoagulant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus , Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella ornithinolytica , Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera . The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  5. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  6. Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Hashim, Puziah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abdullah, Nur Azilah

    2014-10-07

    Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength). LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent. Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

  7. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  8. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga." This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  10. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl and phenylpropanyl heteroside derivatives, flavanones, diterpenes, and triterpenes. HEG showed antioxidant action via the direct capture of free radicals and by inhibiting the levels of oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde in human erythrocytes under oxidative stress. HEG also reduced the frequency of gene conversion and the number of mutant colonies of S. cerevisiae . The anti-inflammatory action of HEG was demonstrated by the inhibition of hyaluronidase enzyme activity. In addition, HEG induced cell death in all evaluated gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts, including clinical isolates with antimicrobial drug resistance. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of M. q. anthidioides geopropolis for the prevention and treatment of various diseases related to oxidative stress, mutagenesis, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections.

  11. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Miranda dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG included di- and trigalloyl and phenylpropanyl heteroside derivatives, flavanones, diterpenes, and triterpenes. HEG showed antioxidant action via the direct capture of free radicals and by inhibiting the levels of oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde in human erythrocytes under oxidative stress. HEG also reduced the frequency of gene conversion and the number of mutant colonies of S. cerevisiae. The anti-inflammatory action of HEG was demonstrated by the inhibition of hyaluronidase enzyme activity. In addition, HEG induced cell death in all evaluated gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts, including clinical isolates with antimicrobial drug resistance. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of M. q. anthidioides geopropolis for the prevention and treatment of various diseases related to oxidative stress, mutagenesis, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections.

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  13. Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Li Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and composition of pitanga seeds Capacidade antioxidante e composição de sementes de pitanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bagetti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Food industry generates a significant amount of seed wastes from the juice production, frozen pulps and jams. Considering that the characterization of wastes is the first step to determine their potential use, the aim of the present study was to determine the composition and the antioxidant capacity of seeds from pitanga fruits with different flesh colors (purple, red and orange. Chemical composition results revealed that pitanga seeds are a good source of insoluble dietary fiber, with low protein and fat levels, and no relevant differences were found among pitanga seeds from different flesh colors. Pitanga seed extracts had powerful antioxidant capacity that was partially correlated to their high phenolic content and showed some variation according to the pitanga flesh colors. Accordingly, it's suggested that this low value waste of pitanga processing, could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and dietary fiber, for animal and/or human nutrition.A indústria de alimentos gera quantidades significativas de resíduos de sementes a partir da produção de sucos, polpas congeladas e geleias de frutas. Considerando que a caracterização dos resíduos é o primeiro passo para determinar o seu uso potencial, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição e a capacidade antioxidante de sementes de pitanga com diferentes colorações de polpa (roxa, vermelha e laranja. Os resultados da composição química revelaram que as sementes de pitanga são boas fontes de fibra alimentar insolúvel, com níveis baixos de proteína e gordura, e sem diferenças relevantes entre as sementes de pitangas de diferentes colorações. Os extratos das sementes apresentaram uma excelente capacidade antioxidante, que foi parcialmente correlacionada com o alto teor de fenólicos e apresentou alguma variação de acordo com a coloração da polpa das pitangas. Assim, sugere-se que esse resíduo de baixo valor, resultante do processamento da pitanga

  15. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and in vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Fruit Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ljevar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wines contain a wide range of phenolic compounds with biological effects, but their composition and potential benefits to human health have been studied to the much lesser extent compared to grape wines. The aim of this research is to study the phenolic profile of different types of fruit wines and to evaluate their antioxidant and biological potential. Commercially available fruit wines from blackberry, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant, strawberry and apple produced in Croatia were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive screening of Croatian fruit wines. The phenolic characterization was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-PDA/MS analysis. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ABTS and FRAP assays, while in vitro biological activity was analyzed by the cytotoxicity assay on human breast (MCF-7, colon (CaCo-2 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Among the studied fruit wines, blackberry, cherry and blackcurrant wines contained the highest amount of total phenolics, while the last two also contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds showed distinctive phenolic composition of each type of fruit wine, notably as regards anthocyanins. Blackberry, followed by cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines also had a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry and apple wines. Fruit wines inhibited the growth of human cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with differing susceptibility among tested cancer cells. Blackberry, cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines in the volume ratio of 10 and 20 % showed to be the most effective anti-proliferative agents, with higher susceptibility in HeLa and MCF-7 cells than CaCo-2 cells.

  16. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of koose, a deep-fat fried cowpea cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Serem, June C; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2017-12-15

    Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The phenolic acids identified included benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The predominant flavonoid classes were flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Deep-fat frying of the cowpea pastes decreased their TPC, radical scavenging capacities and total quantified flavonoids. The koose inhibited radical-induced oxidative cellular and DNA damage. It is concluded that koose is a potential functional food that can contribute to alleviating radical-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  18. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  19. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content of Panicum maximum-Moringa ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2015) > ... Tannin concentrations in these diets were below the 6.00g/100g toxic level for small ruminants.

  1. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  2. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum gilletii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation, and its chemical compositions determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The oil was dominated by sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes which accounted for 38.30 and 34.00%, respectively. The oil showed good activity against A. gambiae and recorded LC50 ...

  3. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  4. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  5. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  6. The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition of dwarf green coconut (Cocu nucifera linn) seedling. ... Elimination of magnesium also leads to reduction in the concentration of chlorophyll. starch and sugar concentrations improved with nitrogen and potassium but decreased with were more ...

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  8. Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil derived from Illicium fargesii Finet et Gagnep fruits against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Essential oil of I. fargesii fruits was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by GC (Gas Chromatography) ...

  9. The chemical composition and industrial quality of Barite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the mineralization is of high industrial quality and compares favourably with the Azara barite deposits of the Benue Trough. The quality of the barite meets American Petroleum institute (API) requirements for use as drilling mud. KEYWORDS: Barite, mineralization, quality, chemical composition, southeastern Nigeria.

  10. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue pasture for dairy cows. TJ Dugmore, KP Walsh, Sally J. Morning, CI MacDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  11. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  12. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca ... Volatile constituents and bioactivity studies are available in the literature on Xylopia aethiopica (Issakou et al., 2014;. Sylvain et al, 2014; Vyry et al, 2014), Xylopia longifolia. (Fourier et al, 1993), ...

  13. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  14. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their ... the soil in agriculture and engineering (Imasuen et al. 1989b). Clay mineral ..... Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The. University of Western ...

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The essential oils obtained yielded of 5.9 for Eugenia caryophylla and 0.2% Mentha sp cf piperita respectively. The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha ...

  16. Antimicrobial properties and chemical compositions of the petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and chemical compositions of the petroleum ether extract of theaerial parts of Rauvolfia vomitoria. The aerial parts of the plant were air dried under shade, pounded using wooden mortar and pestle into coarse powder. The coarse powder was extracted in aSoxhlet ...

  17. Computer program determines chemical composition of physical system at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, S. S.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 digital computer program calculates equilibrium composition of complex, multiphase chemical systems. This is a free energy minimization method with solution of the problem reduced to mathematical operations, without concern for the chemistry involved. Also certain thermodynamic properties are determined as byproducts of the main calculations.

  18. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A long-term variation of chemical composition in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Okimura, Takashi; Okumura, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation samples are collected at the six localities in the southwestern Japan weekly or monthly over a long period of time (1978-1989) in order to estimate chemical weathering rates and amount of weathered materials through chemical composition in natural waters. Major chemical composition is determined for the precipitation samples. Together with the data available in the literature, the following characteristics are recognized : 1) Most pH values fall in the narrow range of 4.4 to 5.4, 2) Systematic variations in pH values are observed among the precipitation samples of different geologic environments, 3) pH values become almost constant from 1984 to 1989, 4) NO 3 - concentrations gradually decrease to an almost constant value with time, and 5) ΔSO 4 2- concentrations gradually have a tendency to decrease from 1978 to 1985. The mechanism of phenomena described above is also presented. (author)

  20. Characterization of Conventional, Biodynamic, and Organic Purple Grape Juices by Chemical Markers, Antioxidant Capacity, and Instrumental Taste Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Margraf, T.; Brotzakis, I.; Capuano, E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and

  1. Oxidative Stress Regulation on Endothelial Cells by Hydrophilic Astaxanthin Complex: Chemical, Biological, and Molecular Antioxidant Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zuluaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance in the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid with high antioxidant capacities, has been shown to prevent the first stages of oxidative stress. Here, we evaluate the antioxidant capacities of astaxanthin included within hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD-A to directly and indirectly reduce the induced ROS production. First, chemical methods were used to corroborate the preservation of astaxanthin antioxidant abilities after inclusion. Next, antioxidant scavenging properties of CD-A to inhibit the cellular and mitochondrial ROS by reducing the disturbance in the redox state of the cell and the infiltration of lipid peroxidation radicals were evaluated. Finally, the activation of endogenous antioxidant PTEN/AKT, Nrf2/HO-1, and NQOI gene and protein expression supported the protective effect of CD-A complex on human endothelial cells under stress conditions. Moreover, a nontoxic effect on HUVEC was registered after CD-A complex supplementation. The results reported here illustrate the need to continue exploring the interesting properties of this hydrophilic antioxidant complex to assist endogenous systems to counteract the ROS impact on the induction of cellular oxidative stress state.

  2. Fatty acid composition and natural antioxidant capacity of ten Serbian linseed cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about nutritional characteristics of linseed cultivars from some specific geographical area or country is scarce. For that very reason, following paper is presenting fatty acid (FA compositions and antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble (ACL components of ten native linseed cultivars from Serbia. These characteristics can be interesting, especially due to the increasing trend of linseed usage in human diet. Presented results show that there were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences between linseed kernels in FA composition. Negative correlation was found between FA C18:0 and α-linolenic acid (ALA. The cultivar with the highest ACL value was No. 10 (342.66 μmol trolox/kg d.m., meaning that it had very strong protection against oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs. Nevertheless, correlation between ACL and polyunsaturated FA content in cultivars was not statistically significant (p=0.84. ACL of the samples did not depend on FA composition of linseed, but it might depend on characteristics of a specific cultivar. The aforementioned results show potential usage in storage of linseeds or its products, while FA composition of linseed kernels might be one of criteria for authentication of linseed origin, and can be of great help in future selection of the cultivars, depending on purpose of linseed production.

  3. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer' varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-03-01

    The nutritional and antioxidant composition of four tomato Portuguese farmer' varieties widely cultivated in homegardens was determined. The analysed components included macronutrients, individual profiles of sugars and fatty acids by chromatographic techniques, hydrophilic antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenolics, flavonols and anthocyanins, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols, β-carotene and lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and TBARS formation inhibition. One of the four varieties, which is locally known as round tomato or potato tomato, proved to be the most powerful in antioxidant activity (EC50 values≤1.63 mg/ml), phenolic compounds (phenolics 31.23 mg ClAE/g extract, flavonols 6.36 mg QE/g extract and anthocyanins 3.45 mg ME/g extract) and carotenoids (β-carotene 0.51 mg/100 g and lycopene 9.49 mg/100 g), while the so-called yellow tomato variety revealed interesting nutritional composition, including higher fructose (3.42 g/100 g), glucose (3.18 g/100 g), α-linolenic acid (15.53%) and total tocopherols (1.44 mg/100 g) levels. Overall, these farmer' varieties of garden tomato cultivated in the Northeastern Portuguese region could contribute as sources of important antioxidants related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as cancer and coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  6. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves (n = 16, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS. A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans–cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different (p < 0.05 in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves (p < 0.05. Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of

  7. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  8. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Miron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae, native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL. The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ioana Bărnuţiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the literature data regarding the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of RoyalJelly. Royal Jelly is a secretion from the hypofaringeal glands of worker bees which serves as a food for queen beeand to the growing up larvae. Having biological properties already proven, Royal Jelly has considerable commercialappeal and is today used in many sectors (pharmaceutical, food industries and cosmetic products. Thephysicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins,vitamins,aminoacids, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; RJ is the key substance in the antimicrobial function of the system Apismellifera. The intact Royal Jelly exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  10. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-05-11

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa , using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves ( n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans⁻cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different ( p rich in proanthocyanidins and exhibiting high antioxidant activity.

  11. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  12. Food ingredient extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Schulze, Alexandra E; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Villiers, André; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Stander, Maria A

    2012-12-07

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP) content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin), flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin), a flavone (scolymoside), a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside) and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside). Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  13. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  14. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Tuscan bee pollen of different botanic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Domenici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the apicultural products, the honey bee-pollen is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. For the first time, bee-pollen samples from Tuscany (Italy were studied to evaluate botanical origin, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. The investigated pollen loads were composed of three botanical families: Castanea, Rubus and Cistus.The highest levels of proteins and lipids were detected in Rubus pollen. Castanea pollen contained greater polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content, while the highest flavonols level wasdetected in Cistus pollen. These results were also confirmed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, used here, for the first time, as a fast tool to characterize bee-pollens.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  16. Pressure vessel steels: influence of chemical composition on irradiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, M.M.; Hammad, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of the steels used in the construction of the nuclear reactor pressure vessels can lead to the embrittlement of these materials, increasing the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and decreasing the fracture energy, which can limit the plant life. The knowledge of irradiation embrittlement and the means for minimizing such degradation is therefore important in the field of assuring the safety of the nuclear power plants. Irradiation embrittlement is quite a complex process. It involves many variables. The most important of these are irradiation temperature, neutron fluence (neutron dose), neutron flux (neutron dose rate), and chemical composition of the irradiated material. This paper is concerned with the effect of chemical composition, the role of residual and alloying elements in the irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels in light water reactors. It presents a critical review for the published work in this field through the last 25 years

  17. Treatment of chemical waste piassava for application in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Carvalho, G.G.P.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Piassava fibers were investigated with the aim of adding new business value. The surface of the fibers were treated with NaOH and H 2 SO 4 for 1 h at room temperature. The samples were characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, chemical composition, XRD, SEM and tensile tests. The micrographs of the fibers showed that treatment with NaOH cleaned the fiber surface of a large amount of impurities and cause fibrillation. Chemical analysis, using the Van Soest method, showed that the palm fiber is a fiber rich in lignin, as evidenced by their brown color and with alkali treatment there was partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, increasing the crystallinity index of the fiber, observed by XRD. The acid treatment caused no significant changes in the properties of the fiber. Therefore, the mercerisation was efficient in the fiber of palm fiber, improving their properties, enabling thus their use as reinforcement in polymer composites. (author)

  18. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  19. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of extracts and essential oil of Boswellia dalzielii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoude, Midéko Justin; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Agbani, Pierre; Ayedoun, Marc-Abel; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2017-12-01

    Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Burseraceae) is an aromatic plant. The leaves are used for beverage flavouring. This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts. The essential oil was prepared via hydrodistillation. Identification and quantification were realized via GC-MS and GC-FID. Consecutive extractions (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were carried out and various chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, antocyanins and sugar) were quantified. The volatile compounds of organic extracts were identified before and after derivatization. Antioxidant, antihyperuricemia, anti-Alzheimer, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated. In the essential oil, 50 compounds were identified, including 3-carene (27.72%) and α-pinene (15.18%). 2,5-Dihydroxy acetophenone and β-d-xylopyranose were identified in the methanol extract. Higher phenolic (315.97 g GAE/kg dry mass) and flavonoid (37.19 g QE/kg dry mass) contents were observed in the methanol extract. The methanol extract has presented remarkable IC 50  =   6.10 mg/L for antiDPPH, 35.10 mg/L for antixanthine oxidase and 28.01 mg/L for anti-5-lipoxygenase. For acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the best IC 50 (76.20 and 67.10 mg/L) were observed, respectively, with an ethyl acetate extract and the essential oil. At 50 mg/L, the dichloromethane extract inhibited OVCAR-3 cell lines by 65.10%, while cyclohexane extract inhibited IGROV-1 cell lines by 92.60%. Biological activities were fully correlated with the chemical groups of the extracts. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts could be considered as potential alternatives for use in dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of diseases because of these extracts natural antioxidant, antihyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  1. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71 μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76 μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  2. Influence of type of amphora on physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of 'Falanghina' white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta; Varva, Gabriella; De Gianni, Antonio; Viggiani, Ilaria; Terracone, Carmela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    The present research was aimed to evaluate the effects of ageing and type of container on physico-chemical indices and on antioxidant compounds of 'Falanghina' wines. Wines were stored for 12months in raw, glazed, and engobe amphorae, and in stainless steel tanks. Lactic, acetic, citric, succinic, and hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids, and the antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) were not affected by the type of container for the duration of the ageing. Flavonoids decreased by about 85% in all the containers. The concentrations of flavans reactive with vanilline were reduced by 100% in raw and glazed amphorae, 23% in engobe amphorae, and 59% in stainless steel tanks. The hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids decreased by about 11% in raw and engobe amphorae and by ∼22% in glazed amphorae and in stainless steel tanks. During the whole ageing time, the decrease of the antioxidant capacity ranged from 28% (raw amphorae) to 43% (stainless steel tanks). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  4. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  5. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    <300µm, <106µm, <63µm and <44µm respectively. There was no remarkable difference in silica (SiO2) as particle fractions reduced from <. 300µm - < 106µm - < 63µm but an observed. Table 1.0 Chemical composition of crude clay. Component wt (%). SiO2. 38.48. Al2O3. 12.46. Fe2O3. 6.18. TiO2. 1.85. MgO. 14.67. CaO.

  6. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  7. Chemical Composition of Apricot Pit Shells and Effect of Hot-Water Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Corbett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, wheat straw, and nut shells show promise as feedstocks for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their relatively high polysaccharide content and low or no nutritional value for human consumption. Apricot pit shells (APS were studied in this work to assess their potential for use in a biorefinery. Hot water extraction (HWE; 160 °C, 2 h, proposed to remove easily accessible hemicelluloses, was performed to evaluate the susceptibility of APS to this mild pretreatment process. The chemical composition of APS before and after HWE (EAPS was analyzed by standard methods and 1H-NMR. A low yield of the remaining HW-extracted APS (~59% indicated that APS are highly susceptible to this pretreatment method. 1H-NMR analysis of EAPS revealed that ~77% of xylan present in raw APS was removed along with ~24% of lignin. The energy of combustion of APS was measured before and after HWE showing a slight increase due to HWE (1.61% increase. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS, proposed as a quick non-invasive method of biomass analysis, was performed. NIRS corroborated results of traditional analysis and 1H-NMR. Determination of antioxidizing activity (AOA of APS extracts was also undertaken. AOA of organic APS extracts were shown to be more than 20 times higher than that of a synthetic antioxidizing agent.

  8. Chemical composition of silica-based biocidal modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the amount of fungi spores and micotixines causes the increase in the number of different diseases. Because of this, ensuring the biological safety in buildings is becoming more and more important today. The preferred way to guarantee the biological safety of a building is to employ modern building materials that prevent the settlement of the fungi colonies on the inner surfaces of walls. Such building materials can be produced using novel biocidal modifiers that allow controlling the number of microorganisms on the surface and in the bulk of a composite construction. The precipitation product of zinc hydrosilicates and sodium sulfate is one of the mentioned modifiers. Till now, the exact chemical composition of such precipitation product is controversial; it is obvious, though, that the efficacy of the biocidal modifier is mostly determined by the type of the copper compounds. In the present work an integrated approach is used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the biocidal modifier. Such an approach consists in the examination of the modifier’s composition by means of different, yet complementary, research methods: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DTA. It is shown that the chemical composition of the modifier mainly depends on the amount of precipitant. X-ray diffraction reveals that the major part of the modifier is represented by amorphous phase. Along with the increase of the precipitant’s amount the crystalline phase Zn4SO4(OH6•xH2O formation takes place. Such a crystalline phase is not appropriate as a component of the biocidal modifier. Another two methods - DTA and IR spectroscopy - reveal that the amorphous phase consists essentially of zinc hydrosilicates.

  9. Systematic chemical analysis approach reveals superior antioxidant capacity via the synergistic effect of flavonoid compounds in red vegetative tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Yanfen; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Shuangxi; Yao, Yuncong

    2018-02-01

    The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL) and ever-green leaves (GL) of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies.

  10. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  11. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemical Constituents of YUZU and LIME Essencial Oils and Their Antioxidative Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tachibana, Shinya; Tanimoto, Shinich; Murai, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Yoshiharu; Nomura, Masato

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] In this examination, antioxidant activities and whitening effects of yuzu(Citrus junos Sieb.ex Tanaka ) and lime(Citrus aurantifolia S.) essencial oils which are widely used in food flavors were studied. As a result, we found out that 1% to 2% concentration yuzu essencial oil contains equal antioxidant activity to □-tocopherol which is a substance commercially used as antioxidant. Also, from the result of tyrosinase activity inhibition test, an evaluation test on whitening effect...

  13. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activities of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 1 and 4-O-α-l-rhamnopyran-osyl-(1 → 6-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 2, and seven known compounds, compound 3, 6, 7 (acid components, compound 8, 9 (flavonoids, compound 4 (a coumarin and compound 5 (an alkaloid, were isolated from the 70% ethanol aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and 1H and 13C-NMR. Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant activity of all the compounds was evaluated by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. All compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of all the compounds on MCF-7 cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 method. The results showed that compounds 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 exhibited better antioxidant activity compared to the other compounds. compounds 1–9 had different inhibitory effects on the release of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by LPS, of which compound 7 was the most effective against inflammatory factors. compounds 1 and 2 have better antitumor activity compared to other compounds. Further research to elucidate the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall is

  14. Bioactive composition and antioxidant potential of different commonly consumed coffee brews affected by their preparation technique and milk addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niseteo, Tena; Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Budeč, Maja

    2012-10-15

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, prepared and consumed in many different ways. Taste, aroma and composition of the coffee brew vary depending on the preparation method. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of different brewing methods on the polyphenol and methylxanthine composition and antioxidant capacity of thirteen different coffee brews. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined spectrophotometrically and the content of chlorogenic acid derivates (3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA) and caffeine using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA). Antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was evaluated by using the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assays. Instant coffee brews showed the highest values in content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid derivates, caffeine and antioxidant capacity, which significantly decreased by milk addition. The antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was in compliance with the total phenol content and content of chlorogenic acid derivates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using multiple criteria for fingerprinting unknown oil samples having very similar chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.F.; Sigouin, L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in which 3 mystery oil samples from Quebec were fingerprinted using a multi-criterion approach. The three objectives of the study were to determine the nature and the type of product, to obtain the detailed hydrocarbon composition of the samples, and to determine if the samples came from the same source. The product type was first determined by identifying the hydrocarbon distribution patterns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles were then compared and then the conclusions were verified by quantifying biomarkers and by determining several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds. Additives in the oil were also identified. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was determined that the 3 oils were probably hydraulic-fluid type oil. They were very pure, and composed mostly of saturated hydrocarbons with the total aromatics being 4 to 10 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon. Although it was determined that the oils were mixtures of 2 different hydraulic fluids, there was no clear indication if they had been weathered. The PAH concentration was very low, while the biomarker concentration was very high. Three unknown compounds (antioxidants) were positively identified. Two of the samples came from the same source. One of the samples had similar group hydrocarbon composition but it was not identical in chemical composition and did not come from the same source. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Nam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone, anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L., exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.

  18. Chemical structure and antioxidant activity of a new exopolysaccharide produced from Micrococcus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohamed Selim Asker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An exopolysaccharide (EPS reaching a maximum of 13 g/L was isolated from Micrococcus luteus by ethanol precipitation. The crude EPS was purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200, affording a polysaccharide active fraction (AEP with a molecular weight of ∼137 kDa. AEP was investigated by a combination of chemical and chromatographic methods including FTIR, HPLC, periodate oxidation, methylation and GC–MS. Data obtained indicated that AEP was composed of mannose, arabinose, glucose and glucuronic acid in a molar ratio of 3.6:2.7:2.1:1.0, respectively. The main backbone consists of mannose units linked with (1→6-glycosidic bonds and arabinose units linked with (1→5-glycosidic bonds. There is a side chain consisting of mannose units linked with (1→6-glycosidic bonds at C3, when all glucose and most of glucuronic acid are found in the side chain. The in vitro antioxidant assay showed that AEP possesses DPPH radical-scavenging activity, with an EC50 value of 180 μg/mL.

  19. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result ( p coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  20. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.