WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical attractants

  1. Optimization of a chemical attractant for Epicometis (Tropinota) hirta Poda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Schmera, Dénes; Imrei, Zoltán

    2004-01-01

    In field trapping tests in Hungary cinnamyl alcohol (3-phenyl-2-propen-l-ol) and transanethole [(1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene)] attracted significantly more adult Epicometis (Tropinota) hirta (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) when presented together in the same bait compared to the single compounds Best attraction was recorded by a 1:1 mixture. Addition of other common floral scent compounds, ie. 3-methyl eugenol, 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, anisylacetone, beta-ionone, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, indole, 2-phenylethanol or phenylacetaldehyde did not influence catches. The binary cinnamyl alcohol/trans-anethole bait described in this study is recommended for use in traps of E. hirta for agricultural purposes.

  2. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  3. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  4. Reverse and conventional chemical ecology approaches for the development of oviposition attractants for Culex mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Leal

    Full Text Available Synthetic mosquito oviposition attractants are sorely needed for surveillance and control programs for Culex species, which are major vectors of pathogens causing various human diseases, including filariasis, encephalitis, and West Nile encephalomyelitis. We employed novel and conventional chemical ecology approaches to identify potential attractants, which were demonstrated in field tests to be effective for monitoring populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus in human dwellings. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that an odorant-binding protein from this species, CquiOBP1, is expressed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae, including short, sharp-tipped trichoid sensilla type, which house an olfactory receptor neuron sensitive to a previously identified mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP, 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. CquiOBP1 exists in monomeric and dimeric forms. Monomeric CquiOBP1 bound MOP in a pH-dependent manner, with a change in secondary structure apparently related to the loss of binding at low pH. The pheromone antipode showed higher affinity than the natural stereoisomer. By using both CquiOBP1 as a molecular target in binding assays and gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD, we identified nonanal, trimethylamine (TMA, and skatole as test compounds. Extensive field evaluations in Recife, Brazil, a region with high populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, showed that a combination of TMA (0.9 microg/l and nonanal (0.15 ng/microl is equivalent in attraction to the currently used infusion-based lure, and superior in that the offensive smell of infusions was eliminated in the newly developed synthetic mixture.

  5. Trehalose is a chemical attractant in the establishment of coral symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hagedorn

    knowledge, this is the first report of a chemical cue attracting the motile coral larvae to the symbiont.

  6. Chemical attraction of kleptoparasitic flies to heteropteran insects caught by orb-weaving spiders.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, T.; Eisner, M; Deyrup, M

    1991-01-01

    Insects of the heteropteran families Pentatomidae (stink bugs) and Coreidae (squash bugs), when being eaten by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes, attract flies of the family Milichiidae. The flies aggregate on the bugs and, as kleptoparasites, share in the spider's meal. Stink bugs and squash bugs typically eject defensive sprays when attacked; they do so when caught by Nephila, but the spray only minimally affects the spider. Evidence is presented indicating that it is the spray of the...

  7. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla B Toth

    Full Text Available The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next

  8. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  9. Fatal attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the use of the Danish ihjel-construction which accounts for patterns of attraction of construction-verb attraction, patterns of productivity, and various types of subconstructions, including item- and item-class-based ones and metaphorical extensions. The description of the ihjel-construction should also...

  10. Attraction of several human odorous chemicals to mosquitoes%几种人体气味物质对蚊虫引诱效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余静; 李黎; 甘志才; 王杰; 胡挺松; 冯子良; 范泉水

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test attraction of six human odorous chemicals to mosquitoes in laboratory and field. Methods "Y" olfactometer and CO2 trap methods were adopted to investigate attraction effects in laboratory and fields trails. Results Octoic acid and indole exhibited significant attractiion to Ae. Albopictus at 1,10 and 0. 1 μg/μl dose respectively in laboratory tests. In field trials, 10 μg/ μl octoic acid + CO2 attracted 368 mosquitoes and the percentage of Culex mosquitoes was 99%. The results indicated that octoic acid could increase attractive effects of CO2 to Culex mosquitoes. 0. 1μg/μl indole + CO2 attracted more mosquitoes than indole or CO2 used a-lone. Indole exhibited the attractive potential to Anopheles mosquitoes. Used with CO2, p-Cresol exhibited significant attraction to midges at 1 μg/μl dose. Compared to the p-Cresol or CO2, this chemical may play an important role in attraction to midges. Conclusion Attraction effects of octoic acid and indole markedly enhance when using with CO2. Octoic acid shows the specific attraction to Culex mosquitoes,and p-cresol shows the attraction potential to midges.%目的 在室内测试几种人体气味化学物质对蚊虫的引诱效果,并在野外进行现场效果测试.方法 室内引诱效果评价以白纹伊蚊为测试对象,采用“Y”型嗅觉仪的方法;现场引诱效果评价采用化学物质与二氧化碳灯诱相结合的方法.结果 室内测试中,1μg/μl和10 μg/μl辛酸、0.1μg/μl吲哚对白纹伊蚊引诱作用明显;现场引诱结果显示,10μg/μl辛酸+CO2共引诱蚊虫368只,库蚊占99%,比单独二氧化碳的引诱效果好,表明辛酸具有增效引诱作用,并对库蚊具有较强的引诱专一性.0.1 μg/μl吲哚与二氧化碳共用时,诱集蚊虫数量比单独用二氧化碳和单独用吲哚多,而且诱集按蚊33只,占诱集蚊虫的30%,而单独用吲哚和单独用二氧化碳都没有诱集到按蚊,表明吲

  11. Altruists Attract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Farrelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Explaining human cooperation continues to present a challenge because it goes beyond what is predicted by established theories of kinship and reciprocal altruism. Little attention has been paid to the sexual selection hypothesis that proposes that cooperation can act as a display that attracts mates. The costs of cooperating are then offset not by kinship or reciprocation but by increased mating success. Here we present results from a series of experiments which show that, as predicted by the sexual selection hypothesis, people preferentially direct cooperative behavior towards more attractive members of the opposite sex. Furthermore, cooperative behavior increases the perceived attractiveness of the cooperator. Economically costly behaviors can therefore bring benefits through mate choice and sexual selection should be regarded as an evolutionary mechanism capable of promoting cooperation.

  12. Fatal attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, it presents an argument for usage-based inheritance models over complete inheritance models in construction grammar. It is argued that, with the principle of inductive language learning as their foundation, usage-based inheritance models allow...... for redundancies and incongruities in construction networks which enables linguists to take into account details of language use, which would otherwise not be facilitated in complete inheritance models. Secondly, making use of the method of collostructional analysis, the article offers a corpus-based description...... of the use of the Danish ihjel-construction which accounts for patterns of attraction of construction-verb attraction, patterns of productivity, and various types of subconstructions, including item- and item-class-based ones and metaphorical extensions. The description of the ihjel-construction should also...

  13. Tests for attraction to prey and predator avoidance by chemical cues in spiders of the beech forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetter, Melissa B.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiders leave draglines, faeces and other secretions behind when traveling through their microhabitat. The presence of these secretions may unintentionally inform other animals, prey as well as predators, about a recent and possible current predation risk or food availability. For a wolf spider, other spiders including smaller conspecifics, form a substantial part of their prey, and larger wolf spiders, again including conspecifics, are potential predators. We tested two hypotheses: that large wolf spiders may locate patches of potential spider prey through the presence of silk threads and/or other secretions; and that prey spiders may use secretions from large wolf spiders to avoid patches with high predation risk. We used large (subadult or adult Pardosa saltans to provide predator cues and mixed dwarf spiders or small (juvenile P. saltans to provide prey cues. Subadult wolf spiders were significantly attracted to litter contaminated by dwarf spiders or small conspecifics after 6 hours but no longer after 24 hours. In contrast, neither dwarf spiders nor small P. saltans showed significant avoidance of substrate contaminated by adult P. saltans. However, small P. saltans showed different activity patterns on the two substrates. The results indicate that wolf spiders are able to increase the efficiency of foraging by searching preferentially in patches with the presence of intraguild prey. The lack of a clear patch selection response of the prey in spite of a modified activity pattern may possibly be associated with the vertical stratification of the beech litter habitat: the reduced volume of spaces in the deeper layers could make downward rather than horizontal movement a fast and safe tactic against a large predator that cannot enter these spaces.

  14. LDRD final report on chemical functionalization of oligo(hydrido)silanes, economically attractive routes to new photoresponsive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Loy, D.A.; Curro, J.G. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Metathesis-catalyzed polymerizations of primary silanes were performed to generate polysilanes suitable for functionalization with a variety of side groups. Modeling was employed to predict conformations and estimate electronic properties of candidate functionalized polysilanes. Chemical functionalization of oligo(hydrido)silanes with terminal {alpha}, {omega}-dienes under free radical conditions yielded highly crosslinked, nonporous polysilane networks. Ketone reduction with oligo(hydrido)silanes under free radical conditions led to novel poly(phenylalkoxysilanes). Free radical reduction of terminal alkenyl(alkoxy)silanes forms functionalized polysilanes which can be further transformed into sol-gel matrices with the polysilane functionality intact. These gels may be processed into nonporous xerogels or high surface area aerogels.

  15. Trap effects of different physical and chemical attractants on Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus%不同物理、化学因子对致倦库蚊的引诱效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷依露; 高小峰; 杨晓菁; 葛台明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the trap effects of several different physical and chemical attractants on adult Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, providing better designs of new mosquito trap devices. Methods The "Y" - tube olfactometer was used to measure the trap effects of seven chemicals (urea, lactic acid, glycerol, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and nonyl aldehyde) and two physical attractants (sound and visible light) on adult Cx. Pipiens quinquefasciatus. The number of individuals attracted by the tested attractants was calculated and compared among the groups. Results Chemical attractants including urea (10 mg/L), lactic acid (1000 mg/L), hexadecanoic acid (10 mg/L), nonyl aldehyde (0.1 mg/L) and physical attractants including 150 Hz sinus tone and 380 nm visible light had better mosquito trap effects. Conclusion The chemical and physical attractants mentioned above can be introduced to the design of mosquito trap devices to improve the efficiency of mosquito control.%目的 研究不同物理、化学因子对致倦库蚊的引诱效果,以更好地设计改进新一代灭蚊器.方法 使用Y形嗅觉测试仪测定化学因子(尿素、乳酸、丙三醇、十二烷酸、十四烷酸、十六烷酸、壬醛)以及物理因子(声波和可见光)对致倦库蚊成虫的引诱作用;将致倦库蚊成虫逐只放入Y形嗅觉测试仪,统计飞入处理端的个体数,通过比较得出对致倦库蚊具有较好引诱效果的物理、化学因子.结果 对致倦库蚊具有较高引诱率的化学因子有尿素(10 mg/L)、乳酸(1000 mg/L)、十六烷酸(10 mg/L)和壬醛(0.1 mg/L);物理因子中150 Hz的正弦波和380 nm的可见光分别对致倦库蚊具有较高引诱率.结论 可将上述引诱效果较佳的物理、化学因子引入到灭蚊器的设计生产中,以提高灭蚊效率.

  16. Euclidean gravity attracts

    CERN Document Server

    De Bakker, B V; Bakker, Bas de; Smit, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We look at gravitational attraction in simplicial gravity using the dynamical triangulation method. On the dynamical triangulation configurations we measure quenched propagators of a free massive scalar field. The masses measured from these propagators show that gravitational attraction is present.

  17. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  18. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  19. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  20. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers......Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...

  1. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  2. Rules of Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles. Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  3. Physical attractiveness and personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J; Crossman, S M; Adams, G R

    1978-05-01

    A test of the relationship between physical attractiveness and ego development was completed through an interview study of 294 men and women college students. Ss responded to personality measures assessing identity formation, locus of control, and ego functioning and were rated on facial attractiveness and body form scales. Contrary to the physical attractiveness stereotype, attractive and unattractive Ss did not differ in their personality styles.

  4. Communication and Culture: Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lydia Ledesma; Emry, Robert A.

    Cultural differences in interpersonal attraction were studied using 93 black, 112 Chicano, and 112 white college students who completed 40 Likert-type rating scales for each of four concepts of attraction (intimate, friendship, acquaintance, and stranger attraction). When a factor solution was generated, differences were noted in the amount of…

  5. Properties of magnetically attractive experimental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, S; Yasukawa, H; Nomoto, R; Moriyama, K; Hirasawa, T

    1996-12-01

    SUS444 stainless steel filled chemically cured resin composites that can attract magnet were fabricated. The filler was treated with various concentrations of silane. The experimental composite was easy to handle and showed a good shelf life. The maximal properties obtained are as follows; The attraction force to a magnetic attachment was 1/3-1/4 lower than the commercially available magnet-keeper system for dental magnetic attachment. Flexural strength and Knoop hardness of the composite were 76MPa (7.7 kgf/mm2) and 64 KHN. These values were lower than the commercially available chemically cured composite used as a reference. Eluted metal from the composite in 1% lactic acid solution for 7 days showed 0.7 mg/cm2, but in 0.9% NaCl solution for 7 days, it could not be detected.

  6. Judging attractiveness: Biases due to raters’ own attractiveness and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Yen-Lin Sim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tennis and Dabbs (1975 reported that physically attractive males showed a positivity bias when rating the attractiveness of others. The opposite pattern was observed for females. We attempted to replicate and extend these findings by: (1 using self-assessed attractiveness rather than the experimentally derived attractiveness measure used in previous research, (2 using face-to-face interactions with targets as opposed to using photographs, and (3 examining the effect of another ego-involving attribute: intelligence. Consistent with previous research, attractiveness judgments made by men, but not women, correlated positively with their own self-perceived level of attractiveness (r = .51, p < .001. Attractiveness judgments made by women, but not men, correlated negatively with their intelligence (r = −.32, p = .001. Judgments of attractiveness are thus biased by a rater’s own attributes (e.g. attractiveness and intelligence, but these effects are not generalizable across men and women raters, and may be driven by different mechanisms.

  7. Physical Attractiveness Stereotypes about Marriage: Attractiveness Matching Is Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; And Others

    Previous research on physical attractiveness stereotypes about marriage have used stimulus individuals in isolation. To examine these attractiveness stereotypes using couples as targets, 72 college students (36 females, 36 males) rated eight photographs of four male-female couple types. Members of each couple were either matched (attractive…

  8. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  10. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  11. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals.

  12. Effects of student physical attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about another person along a relatively great number of dimensions. Experimental paradigm, introduced in the sphere of interpersonal perception around the mid-20th century, led to a relatively great number of studies on stereotype based on physical attractiveness. One of the most often quoted conclusions of studies on physical attractiveness is summarized by the idiom "what is beautiful is good". For example, socially desirable personality traits (responsibility kindness, energy quality, modesty, more successful private and professional life, are all attributed to physically attractive persons. In addition physical attractiveness is coupled with positive expectations, peer acceptance, academic achievement etc. On the basis of studies on the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, we have situated our analysis within the domain of roles regulating social interaction between teachers and students i.e. effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations, peer acceptance and academic achievement.

  13. The most attractive energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, T.

    2003-07-01

    Photovoltaic modules for seamless integration into the roof or the facade are still relatively expensive. Only few building clients treat themselves to the luxury of this attractive power supply. The range on offer is nevertheless very diverse. (orig.)

  14. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  15. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  16. Acarine attractants: Chemoreception, bioassay, chemistry and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ann L; Roe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the "foretarsal sensory organ" (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction-aggregation-attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study.

  17. Attracting and Preparing Worthy Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Mankichi; Chonan, Mitsuo

    1993-01-01

    Attracting worthy teachers to the compulsory education system in Japan requires attention to three issues: teacher salaries, strengthening initial teacher preparation, and expansion and systemization of teacher training. The one-year beginning teachers' inservice training program began in 1989 in response to the third issue. (IAH)

  18. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  19. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  20. The Ambiguous Attractiveness of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ’ can help us understand the attractiveness of constantly being ‘on the move’. Qualitative data from three exemplars of this elite group of workers is used to illustrate how the ideal of being mobile is perceived as an often problematic imperative, but also as one which is nevertheless rewarding...

  1. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  2. Attract Visitors to Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    To be a success, a website has to attract-and keep--visitors. This Mini Missing Manual shows you how to attract new and return visitors and use the power of keywords and Web search engines to rise up in the rankings of search results. You'll also learn how to use a powerful-and free--service that tracks visitor activity on your site so you know which of your Web pages they love, and-just as important--which pages don't work for them. Using this information, you can fine-tune your site to keep the visitors coming. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Man

  3. On Attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karrasch, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we show that in the autonomous, two-dimensional incompressible saddle flow, contrary to common intuition, also attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) can show up as ridges of the forward finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. This raises the issue of characterization of attracting LCSs from forward time FTLE analysis. First, we extend recent results of Haller & Sapsis (2011) [11] on the relation between forward and backward maximal and minimal stretching rates to the whole finite-time Lyapunov spectrum and to stretching directions by considering the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the deformation gradient. We show two significant advantages of the SVD compared to the usual eigendecomposition of the Cauchy-Green strain tensor: (1) one gains theoretical insight into local deformation under a finite-time dynamical system, and (2) one obtains both complete forward and backward strain information from a single grid advection. Furthermore, we give a short and direct proof of t...

  4. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  5. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  6. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  7. Attracting Principals to the Superintendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Howley

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Responding to a perceived shortage of school superintendents in Ohio as well as elsewhere in the nation, this study examined the conditions of the job that make it attractive or unattractive as a career move for principals. The researchers surveyed a random sample of Ohio principals, receiving usable responses from 508 of these administrators. Analysis of the data revealed that principals perceived the ability to make a difference and the extrinsic motivators (e.g., salary and benefits associated with the superintendency as conditions salient to the decision to pursue such a job. Furthermore, they viewed the difficulties associated with the superintendency as extremely important. Among these difficulties, the most troubling were: (1 increased burden of responsibility for local, state, and federal mandates; (2 need to be accountable for outcomes that are beyond an educator’s control; (3 low levels of board support, and (4 excessive pressure to perform. The researchers also explored the personal and contextual characteristics that predisposed principals to see certain conditions of the superintendency as particularly attractive or particularly troublesome. Only two such characteristics, however, proved to be predictive: (1 principals with fewer years of teaching experience were more likely than their more experienced counterparts to rate the difficulty of the job as important to the decision to pursue a position as superintendent, and (2 principals who held cosmopolitan commitments were more likely than those who did not hold such commitments to view the salary and benefits associated with the superintendency as important. Findings from the study provided some guidance to those policy makers who are looking for ways to make the superintendency more attractive as a career move for principals. In particular, the study suggested that policy makers should work to design incentives that address school leaders’ interest in making a difference at the

  8. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  9. Geoengineering in lakes: welcome attraction or fatal distraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackay, E.; Maberly, S.C.; Pan, G.; Reitzel, K.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of geoengineering techniques for phosphorus management offers the promise of greater and quicker chemical and ecological recovery. It can be attractive when used with other restoration measures but should not be considered a panacea. The range of materials being proposed for use as well as t

  10. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  11. The Ambiguous Attractiveness of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ’ can help us understand the attractiveness of constantly being ‘on the move’. Qualitative data from three exemplars of this elite group of workers is used to illustrate how the ideal of being mobile is perceived as an often problematic imperative, but also as one which is nevertheless rewarding......This article examines the forms of mobility that characterize contemporary work life. In doing so, it applies the theoretical framework associated with Luc Boltanski’s sociology of critique (Boltanski, 2012 [1990]; Boltanski and Thévenot, 2006 [1991]) and argues that this framework offers...... a fruitful and important perspective in conceptualizing and understanding the forms of mobility that are becoming increasingly prevalent in today’s knowledge work. The sociology of critique allows one to chart the economic and historical conditions of mobility critically, while its sociology of morals also...

  12. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  13. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  14. Investment attractiveness of Ukraine: problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onishchenko Irina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes basic questions of the investment climate and investment attractiveness of Ukraine. Investment Attractiveness Index is analyzed by the methodology of European Business Association. The main advantages of Ukraine that attract foreign investors are revised. The article applies the comprehensive approach to study the problems hindering the increase of investment attractiveness of Ukraine. It determines the ways of solving the problems associated with deterring investment development.

  15. Attraction of the housefly (Musca domestica L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, RC; den Otter, CJ; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1998-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light attracts more houseflies compared to green and white light. The attractiveness of UV light is not effected by its spectral composition. The number of flies attracted does not seem to change when a UV lamp is combined with moving elements, although the time spend on the lamp de

  16. Attribution, the Attractiveness Stereotype, and the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F.; Pittenger, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Tests the applicability of the physical attractiveness stereotype to perceptions of the elderly. In the first study, college-age and elderly observers rated the attractiveness of faces of elderly people. In the second study, subjects rated faces at three levels of attractiveness on personality, success in life experiences, and occupational…

  17. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group.

  18. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... future research efforts on interpersonal attraction in the buyer– supplier context. Finally, the managerial value and challenges of applying attraction to buyer–supplier exchange relationships are discussed....... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...

  19. A statistical model of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has identified facial averageness and sexual dimorphism as important factors in facial attractiveness. The averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts provide important first steps in understanding what makes faces attractive, and should be valued for their parsimony. However, we show that they explain relatively little of the variance in facial attractiveness, particularly for male faces. As an alternative to these accounts, we built a regression model that defines attractiveness as a function of a face's position in a multidimensional face space. The model provides much more predictive power than the averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts and reveals previously unreported components of attractiveness. The model shows that averageness is attractive in some dimensions but not in others and resolves previous contradictory reports about the effects of sexual dimorphism on the attractiveness of male faces.

  20. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups.

  1. On the modulispace of attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    An Attracting Dynamics is a triple (f,W,a), where W is an open subset of the R(iemann) S(phere), f is a holomorphic map from W into the RS and a is an attracting periodic point for f. Denote by B(a) the attracted basin of the orbit of a for f. Two attracting dynamics (f,W,a) and (f',W',a') are i...... of B(a). The moduli space for the attracting dynamics (f,W,a) is the space of attractings dynamics (f,W,a') which are hybridly equivalent to (f,W,a). The talk will discuss properties of moduli spaces of different attracting dynamics....

  2. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  3. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  4. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  5. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  6. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  7. Attractiveness and Cooperation in Social Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that physically more attractive men are less likely to cooperate in social exchange than less attractive men, while physical attractiveness has no effect on women's tendency toward cooperation, with four different experimental games (Prisoner's Dilemma with 99 players, Allocator Choice with 77 players, Faith with 16 players, and Trust with 21 players. Pictures of the game players were taken after they participated in one of the four games, and those pictures were presented to another set of participants (85 raters in Study 1 and 2, 36 raters in Study 3 for attractiveness ratings. Both male and female raters who were unaware of the photographed game players' actual behavior in the game judged the faces of male defectors (who defected in one of the four games to be more attractive than those of male cooperators, but they did not give differential attractiveness ratings to female defectors and female cooperators.

  8. Observation of attraction between dark solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreischuh, A.; Neshev, D.N.; Petersen, D.E.;

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems...

  9. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  10. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  11. Aging and Attractiveness: Marriage Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Carol Boellhoff

    1989-01-01

    Examined women's agreement with double standard of aging. Women (N=32) aged 28 to 63 shared definitions of attractiveness, femininity, and sexual appeal. Findings showed attractiveness was defined primarily by appearance, femininity by behavior and inferred traits, and sexual appeal by both. Found age differences among married women, but few age…

  12. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  13. The influence of facial attractiveness on imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Veling, H.P.; Baaren, R.B. van; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    People judge, evaluate, and treat attractive people better than moderately attractive or unattractive people [Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M., & Smoot, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126,

  14. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  15. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S

    2016-07-21

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  16. Men's attraction to women's bodies changes seasonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Humans exhibit seasonal variation in hormone levels, behaviour, and perception. Here we show that men's assessments of women's attractiveness change also seasonally. In five seasons (from winter 2004 to winter 2005) 114 heterosexual men were asked to assess the attractiveness of the same stimuli: photos of a female with three different waist-to-hip ratios; photos of female breasts, and photos of average-looking faces of young women. For each season, the scores given to the stimuli of the same category (body shape, breast, and face) were combined. Friedman's test revealed significant changes for body shape and breast attractiveness assessments across the seasons, but no changes for face ratings. The highest scores for attractiveness were given in winter and the lowest in summer. We suggest that the observed seasonality is related to the well-known 'contrast effect'. More frequent exposure to women's bodies in warmer seasons might increase men's attractiveness criteria for women's body shape and breasts.

  17. An Internet study of men sexually attracted to children: Sexual attraction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Hsu, Kevin J; Bernhard, Paula A

    2016-10-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first large study of the attractions of child-attracted men recruited in any manner other than their being charged with legal offenses. We recruited 1,189 men from websites for adults attracted to children. Men in our sample were highly attracted to children, and they were much less attracted to adults, especially to adult men. However, men varied with respect to which combination of gender and age they found most attractive. Men in our sample were especially attracted to pubescent boys and prepubescent girls. Their self-reported attraction patterns closely tracked the age/gender gradient of sexual arousal established in prior research. Consistent with the gradient, men most attracted to prepubescent children were especially likely to have bisexual attractions to children. Pedohebephilia-attraction to sexually immature children-is best considered a collection of related if distinct sexual orientations, which vary in the particular combination of gender and sexual maturity that elicits greatest sexual attraction. Finally, our study reveals the potential power and efficiency of studying highly cooperative child-attracted men recruited via the Internet. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  19. Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, P M; Levi, M; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01

    The recently developed modified Donnan (mD) model provides a simple and useful description of the electrical double layer in microporous carbon electrodes, suitable for incorporation in porous electrode theory. By postulating an attractive excess chemical potential for each ion in the micropores that is inversely proportional to the total ion concentration, we show that experimental data for capacitive deionization (CDI) can be accurately predicted over a wide range of applied voltages and salt concentrations. Since the ion spacing and Bjerrum length are each comparable to the micropore size (few nm), we postulate that the attraction results from fluctuating bare Coulomb interactions between individual ions and the metallic pore surfaces (image forces) that are not captured by meanfield theories, such as the Poisson-Boltzmann-Stern model or its mathematical limit for overlapping double layers, the Donnan model. Using reasonable estimates of the micropore permittivity and mean size (and no other fitting parame...

  20. Integrating Body Movement into Attractiveness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eFink

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  1. Discovery of Linguistic Relations Using Lexical Attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Yuret, D

    1998-01-01

    This work has been motivated by two long term goals: to understand how humans learn language and to build programs that can understand language. Using a representation that makes the relevant features explicit is a prerequisite for successful learning and understanding. Therefore, I chose to represent relations between individual words explicitly in my model. Lexical attraction is defined as the likelihood of such relations. I introduce a new class of probabilistic language models named lexical attraction models which can represent long distance relations between words and I formalize this new class of models using information theory. Within the framework of lexical attraction, I developed an unsupervised language acquisition program that learns to identify linguistic relations in a given sentence. The only explicitly represented linguistic knowledge in the program is lexical attraction. There is no initial grammar or lexicon built in and the only input is raw text. Learning and processing are interdigitated....

  2. Electrostatic attraction between overall neutral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Ram M; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2016-08-01

    Two overall neutral surfaces with positively and negatively charged domains ("patches") have been shown in recent experiments to exhibit long-range attraction when immersed in an ionic solution. Motivated by the experiments, we calculate analytically the osmotic pressure between such surfaces within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, using a variational principle for the surface-averaged free energy. The electrostatic potential, calculated beyond the linear Debye-Hückel theory, yields an overall attraction at large intersurface separations, over a wide range of the system's controlled length scales. In particular, the attraction is stronger and occurs at smaller separations for surface patches of larger size and charge density. In this large patch limit, we find that the attraction-repulsion crossover separation is inversely proportional to the square of the patch-charge density and to the Debye screening length.

  3. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase.

  4. MUSEUMS AS CULTURAL TOURISM ATTRACTIONS IN UBUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Kade Subhiksu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a shift in the attributes of several museums in Ubud in order to attract more tourists to visit museums as cultural tourism attractions. Some museums have expanded their collections and add other attributes to complement their main collections, which as the potential to alter the idealism, functions, and roles of museums. Another challenge faced by museum operators is the development of other tourist attractions, such as the addition of tourism destination attributes in Ubud, which was initially known as tourism destinations that offered art and culture such as dance performances and museums, and now have expanded into yoga destination, adventure destination, and so on. Based on these factors, the problem statements in this research are formulated as follows: (1 How are museums as tourist attractions in Ubud area, from the perspective of operators? (2 How are museums as tourist attractions in Ubud area, from the perspective of visitors? (3 How is the relationship between museums and other tourism components when examined from the role of museums as cultural tourism attractions in Ubud area?. This research on museums was conducted in the Ubud area because Ubud has made museums as the cultural tourism attractions in the area, which include the Blanco Museum, Museum Puri Lukisan, Agung Rai Museum of Art (ARMA, the Rudana Museum, and Neka Art Museum. This research is based on the theories of museum management, marketing, and theories on cultural tourism attraction. The research involved the participation of 82 foreign visitors and 79 domestic visitors as respondents, in addition to five museum owners and two museum professionals as informants. The conclusion of this research are as follows: (1 From the perspective of museum operators, museums function as cultural tourism attractions, as sources of historical information, as the media for cultural preservation, and the actualization of the noble objective of the museum

  5. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Takken Willem; Knols Bart GJ; Beijleveld Hans; Verhulst Niels O; Schraa Gosse; Bouwmeester Harro J; Smallegange Renate C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study ...

  6. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  7. Attraction of female grapevine moth to common and specific olfactory cues from 2 host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Anfora, Gianfranco; Carlin, Silvia; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In herbivorous insects with more than 1 host plant, attraction to host odor could conceptually be mediated by common compounds, by specific compounds released by each plant or by combinations of common and specific compounds. We have compared the attraction of female grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, with specific and common (shared) odors from 2 different plants: a wild host (Daphne gnidium) and a recently colonized host (Vitis vinifera). Odor blends eliciting female attraction to V. vinifera have previously been identified. In this study, olfactory cues from D. gnidium were identified by electroantennographic detection and chemical analysis. The attraction of mated females to synthetic odor blends was then tested in a wind tunnel bioassay. Female attraction was elicited by a blend of compounds released by both from D. gnidium and V. vinifera and by 2 blends with the compounds released specifically from each host. However, more complete odor blends of the 2 plants elicited stronger attraction. The common compounds in combination with the specific compounds of D. gnidium were the most attractive blend. This blend was tested with the common compounds presented both in the ratio emitted by D. gnidium and by V. vinifera, but there was no difference in female attraction. Our findings suggest that specific as well as common plant odor cues play a role in L. botrana host recognition and that there is plasticity in attraction to partial blends. The results are discussed in relation to mechanisms behind host odor recognition and the evolution of insect-plant associations.

  8. Quantifying Variation in the Ability of Yeasts to Attract Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanca, Loida; Gaskett, Anne C.; Günther, Catrin S.; Newcomb, Richard D.; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts that invade and colonise fruit significantly enhance the volatile chemical diversity of this ecosystem. These modified bouquets are thought to be more attractive to Drosophila flies than the fruit alone, but the variance of attraction in natural yeast populations is uncharacterised. Here we investigate how a range of yeast isolates affect the attraction of female D. melanogaster to fruit in a simple two choice assay comparing yeast to sterile fruit. Of the 43 yeast isolates examined, 33 were attractive and seven repellent to the flies. The results of isolate-versus-isolate comparisons provided the same relative rankings. Attractiveness varied significantly by yeast, with the strongly fermenting Saccharomyces species generally being more attractive than the mostly respiring non-Saccharomyces species (P = 0.0035). Overall the habitat (fruit or other) from which the isolates were directly sampled did not explain attraction (P = 0.2352). However, yeasts isolated from fruit associated niches were more attractive than those from non-fruit associated niches (P = 0.0188) regardless of taxonomic positioning. These data suggest that while attractiveness is primarily correlated with phylogenetic status, the ability to attract Drosophila is a labile trait among yeasts that is potentially associated with those inhabiting fruit ecosystems. Preliminary analysis of the volatiles emitted by four yeast isolates in grape juice show the presence/absence of ethanol and acetic acid were not likely explanations for the observed variation in attraction. These data demonstrate variation among yeasts for their ability to attract Drosophila in a pattern that is consistent with the hypothesis that certain yeasts are manipulating fruit odours to mediate interactions with their Drosophila dispersal agent. PMID:24086510

  9. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J; Liu, F; Wu, J; Dai, W

    2004-02-22

    On the basis of visual assessment of figure drawings and front/profile images, past researchers believed that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the body mass index (BMI) were two putative cues to female physical attractiveness. However, this view was not tested on three-dimensional (3D) female images. In the present study, 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attractiveness. The results showed that the body volume divided by the square of the height, defined as volume height index (VHI), is the most important and direct visual determinant of female physical attractiveness. In determining the female attractiveness, human observers may first use VHI as a visual cue, which is also a key indicator of health and fertility owing to its strong linear relation to BMI. To fine-tune the judgement, observers may then use body proportions, the most important of which are the ratio of waist height over the chin height (WHC) (a measure of the length of legs over total tallness) and the deviation of WHR from the ideal ratio. It also appears that the effect of the body's physical parameters on the perception of female physical attractiveness conforms to Stevens' power law of psychophysics.

  10. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  11. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  12. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others......Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus...... (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non...

  13. Hot Particles Attract in a Cold Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Controlling interactions out of thermodynamic equilibrium is crucial for designing addressable and functional self-organizing structures. These active interactions also underpin collective behavior in biological systems. Here we study a general setting of active particles in a bath of passive particles, and demonstrate a novel mechanism for long ranged attraction between active particles. The mechanism operates when the translational persistence length of the active particle motion is smaller than the particle diameter. In this limit, the system reduces to particles of higher diffusivity ("hot" particles) in a bath of particles with lower diffusivity ("cold" particles). This attractive interaction arises as a hot particle pushes cold particles away to create a large hole around itself, and the holes interact via a depletion-like attraction even though all particles have the same size. Although the mechanism occurs outside the parameter range of typical biological organisms, the mechanism could be realized in ...

  14. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon.

  15. Self-attracting walk on heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanghun; Kyoung, Jaegu; Lee, D.-S.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding human mobility in cyberspace becomes increasingly important in this information era. While human mobility, memory-dependent and subdiffusive, is well understood in Euclidean space, it remains elusive in random heterogeneous networks like the World Wide Web. Here we study the diffusion characteristics of self-attracting walks, in which a walker is more likely to move to the locations visited previously than to unvisited ones, on scale-free networks. Under strong attraction, the number of distinct visited nodes grows linearly in time with larger coefficients in more heterogeneous networks. More interestingly, crossovers to sublinear growths occur in strongly heterogeneous networks. To understand these phenomena, we investigate the characteristic volumes and topology of the cluster of visited nodes and find that the reinforced attraction to hubs results in expediting exploration first but delaying later, as characterized by the scaling exponents that we derive. Our findings and analysis method can be useful for understanding various diffusion processes mediated by human.

  16. Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Timetable Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    timetable is, the article categorizes the different interests for each key stakeholder. Based on this categorization, the most important timetable attractiveness parameters are described (timetable structure, timetable complexity, travel time, transfers, punctuality and reliability). The descriptions...... is proposed it is still necessary to keep the individual attractiveness parameters to be able to analyse where it is possible to improve the timetable – and possibly the infrastructure too. Since the indexes are preliminary proposals they can each be improved and thereby also improving the overall timetable...... making it possible to create better transfer indexes....

  17. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  18. Glassy states in attractive micellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, F.; Broccio, M.; Faraone, A.; Chen, W. R.; Chen, S.-H.

    2004-08-01

    Recent mode coupling theory (MCT) calculations show that in attractive colloids one may observe a new type of glass originating from clustering effects, as a result of the attractive interaction. This happens in addition to the known glass-forming mechanism due to cage effects in the hard sphere system. MCT also indicates that, within a certain volume fraction range, varying the external control parameter, the effective temperature, makes the glass-to-liquid-to-glass re-entrance and the glass-to-glass transitions possible. Here we present experimental evidence and details on this complex phase behavior in a three-block copolymer micellar system.

  19. Visual cues to female physical attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovée, M.J.; Maisey, D S; Emery, J. L.; Cornelissen, P L

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of health and reproductive potential. In recent years, research has focused on the ratio of the width of the waist to the width of the hips (the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A low WHR (i.e. a curvaceous body) is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility, and so this shape should be highly attractive. In this paper we present evidence that weight scaled for height (the body mass ...

  20. Attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Nontarget Insects to the Attractant BioLure and its Individual Components in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  1. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  2. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  3. Attraction of Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to its host frass volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Xuéreb, Anne; Thiéry, Denis

    2006-12-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a polyphagous insect able to develop on grapes and wild plants. We tested the hypothesis that the parasitoid Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) uses the larval frass in its host search. A two-armed olfactometer was used to measure the attractiveness of L. botrana larvae, their silk, or their frass after larvae were fed on different host plants. Frass of three Lepidoptera (L. botrana, Eupoecillia ambiguella, Sphinx ligustri) and one Orthoptera (Chorthippus brunneus) was assayed, but only L. botrana was used to test an effect of the larval host plant (two grape cultivars and three other plant species) to D. cavus females. Larvae without frass did not attract D. cavus whatever their origin, but their frass was attractive at a dose of 2-3 days equivalent of larval frass production. The silk produced by a single larva (L. botrana) was not attractive to D. cavus. The parasitoid was most attracted to the odor of S. ligustri; the frass of L. botrana was more attractive than that of E. ambiguella, irrespective of the species on which D. cavus had been reared. There was no difference in attractiveness of frass collected from L. botrana raised on food containing different plants. Chemical extracts using five different polarity solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, hexane, methanol, and water) differed in attractiveness to D. cavus. Water and dichloromethane were the most attractive. This suggests that a complex volatile signal made from intermediate to polar volatiles may be involved in attraction. D. cavus used frass to discriminate between different potential host species. Our results revealed that the larval food of L. botrana did not modify frass attractiveness, but that the moth species did.

  4. Experience-dependent modulation of the attraction to faeces in the kissing bug Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sofía L; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N; Minoli, Sebastián A

    2016-11-11

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of the Chagas disease in Latin America. These nocturnal bugs spend most of the daylight hours aggregated with conspecifics inside crevices in roofs and walls. Around the entrances of the shelters T. infestans deposits faeces that contain chemical cues that attract conspecifics. In this work we investigated whether attraction to faeces can be modulated by experience in this insect species. First, we analyzed if the attraction of nymphs to faeces is innate or acquired through previous sensory experiences. Results show that after hatching, 1st instar nymphs are attracted to faeces even if they had never been in contact with them before, thus indicating that this attraction is innate. Second, we studied if attraction to faeces can be influenced by the presence of con-specifics. No differences were found in the attraction to faeces of nymphs released alone or in groups, suggesting that attraction to faeces is independent of the presence of other individuals. Third, we examined if the innate response to faeces of nymphs can be modulated by experience. After pre-exposing nymphs to faeces during 24h, insects were no longer attracted to faeces. Finally, by pairing the presence of faeces with an aversive mechanical disturbance, nymphs switched from attraction to avoidance of faeces. These results show that although faeces attraction has a strong innate component, it can be modulated by experience. The learning and memory capacities of triatomines have been studied only recently, and our work is the first report on the effects of experience in the aggregation context.

  5. Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Length of Acquaintance as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Tenth and twelfth grade males and females who knew each other judged, within grade levels, their classmates on physical attractiveness (PA), perceived attitude similarity (PAS), and interpersonal attraction (IA). Regression analyses supported the hypotheses that PA and PAS are positively correlated. (Author)

  6. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  7. Living in Shenzhen: attractive for creatives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bontje

    2014-01-01

    Like many cities across the globe, Shenzhen is attempting to redevelop itself as a ‘creative city’. This policy concept can mean different things to different people. Strategies aiming at becoming a ‘creative city’ refer to attracting and developing cultural and creative industries like architecture

  8. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chimera states---curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators---typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we...

  9. Vortex attraction and the formation of sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    A downdraft vortex ring in a stratified atmosphere exhibits universal attraction for nearby vertical magnetic flux bundles. It is speculated that the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the sun are individually encircled by one or more subsurface vortex rings, providing an important part of the observed clustering of magnetic fibrils to form pores and sunspots.

  10. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K

    2014-01-01

    'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...

  11. Agreement Attraction in Comprehension: Representations and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Matthew W.; Lau, Ellen F.; Phillips, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated so-called attraction errors in the production of subject-verb agreement (e.g., "The key to the cabinets are on the table", [Bock, J. K., & Miller, C. A. (1991). "Broken agreement." "Cognitive Psychology, 23", 45-93]), in which a verb erroneously agrees with an intervening noun. Six self-paced reading experiments examined…

  12. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...... of dark solitons. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America...

  13. The Attractive Character of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车婧瑜; 郭文睿

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre,written by Charlotte Bront(e),is a story of the heroine's struggle for independent personality and perfect love.Viewed as a classic work of English literature,the author of Jane Eyre makes it valuable and popular by creating a kind of Hew imagination.This paper argues for Jane's attractive character through her life experience.

  14. Modeling Multiple Risks: Hidden Domain of Attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2011-01-01

    Hidden regular variation is a sub-model of multivariate regular variation and facilitates accurate estimation of joint tail probabilities. We generalize the model of hidden regular variation to what we call hidden domain of attraction. We exhibit examples that illustrate the need for a more general model and discuss detection and estimation techniques.

  15. Male and Female Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Garza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.

  16. Business Partnerships: Sex and Attractiveness Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, T.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the preference for men over women as business partners in three studies. Results showed that both men and women tended to use masculine names when naming imaginary partners, and chose attractive males most and unattractive females least when choosing imaginary partners from photographs. (WAS)

  17. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  18. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  19. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  20. Understanding talent attraction: The influence of financial rewards elements on perceived job attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In order to attract knowledge workers and maintain a competitive advantage,it is necessary for organisations to understand how knowledge workers are attracted todifferent types and levels of financial rewards.Research purpose: This research investigated a set of financial reward elements (remuneration, employee benefits and variable pay to determine whether knowledgeworkers perceived them as attractive inducements when considering a job or position.Motivation for the study: In South Africa there is a shortage of talent, largely due to highrates of emigration of scarce skills (human capital. Financial rewards or inducementsare necessary to attract talent and it is essential to assess which of these rewards are mostsuccessful in this regard.Method: A 23 full-factorial experimental design (field experiment was used. The threefinancial reward elements (remuneration, employee benefits and variable pay weremanipulated in a fictitious job advertisement (each at two levels. Eight (2 × 2 × 2 = 8 differentversions of a job advertisement were used as a stimulus to determine the effect of financialreward elements on perceived job attractiveness. A questionnaire was used to measure howparticipants perceived the attractiveness of the job. A convenience sampling approach wasused. Different organisations throughout South Africa, as well as corporate members of the South African Reward Association, were asked to participate in the study. Respondents (n = 169 were randomly assigned to the various experimental conditions (i.e. one of the eightadvertisements. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A full-factorial analysis ofvariance was used to investigate if significant main effects could be found.Main findings: Participants considered high levels of remuneration, the inclusion ofbenefits and variable pay to be significant job attraction factors within a reward package. Remuneration was found to have the largest main effect on job

  1. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Fatma; Badri, Dayakar V; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Vivanco, Jorge M; Edison, Arthur S

    2009-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to interact chemically with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed by using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites that include organic acids, amino acids, and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and Escherichia coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Pseudomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, thus demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems.

  2. Service Packages – Attractiveness Has Many Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bondos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to identify the impact of the customer age (especially the Baby boomers generation and the X and the Y generation on the assessment of incentives to buy service package. Belonging to different age generations seems to be important for the effectiveness of service packages sales – the entrance by the consumers in subsequent phases of the life cycle is related to their perception of the market offer. The starting point for the empirical part of the article was to analyze the different average scores attractiveness of the ten packages service features (incentives to purchase. Then, using multidimensional scaling authors determined the similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of applied incentives to use service packages. Visible differences indicate a different perception of the attractiveness of packages representatives of the Baby boomer generation and Y generation. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. MEXICO Wants to Attract Chinese Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Though last year many countries were affected by the global financial crisis,tourism in Mexico enjoyed an increase of 5% in 2008.Aiming at attracting more Chinese tourists to Mexico,on April 7,2009,Ambassador Jorge Guajardo together with Mr.Eligio Serna,China Director of the Mexico Tourism Board,held a conference to introduce Mexico Travel in Mexico Embassy to China,Beijing.

  4. Effective attraction between oscillating electrons in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effective interaction between electrons due to the exchange of virtual acoustic waves in low temperature plasma. Electrons are supposed to participate in rapid oscillations and form a spherically symmetric soliton like structure. We show that under certain conditions this effective interaction can result in the attraction between oscillating electrons and can be important for the dynamics of a plasmoid. Some possible applications of the obtained results to the theory of natural long lived plasma structures are also discussed.

  5. Satisfaction with visit to tourism attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Navrátil, Josef; Pícha, Kamil; Navrátilová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a several factors on satisfaction with a visit to water-based natural attractions. After reviewing relevant studies, it was hypothesized that satisfaction is influenced by push motivations, pull motivations, on-site experience, perceived quality and perceived values of visit. As a method of data reduction, the factor analysis based on principal component analysis was used for multi-item constructs (push motivations, pull motivations, on-site ex...

  6. Iconicity and flagshipness of tourist attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenfeld, Adi

    2010-01-01

    Major attractions (iconic or flagship) are considered as tools for economic development and as catalysts of urban regeneration, social change, and rebranding in urban and rural settings as they increase local appeal to visitors and quality of life for residents. Their impact has been often defined in the professional jargon as ‘effect’. This research note calls for further studies on the associated issues of definition, management strategies, social and environmental effects, as well as the d...

  7. The Attraction Effect in Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimara, Evanthia; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications. In a first crowdsource experiment, we indeed partially replicated the attraction effect with three alternatives presented as a numerical table, and observed similar effects when they were presented as a scatterplot. In a second experiment, we investigated if the effect extends to larger sets of alternatives, where the number of alternatives is too large for numerical tables to be practical. Our findings indicate that the bias persists for larger sets of alternatives presented as scatterplots. We discuss implications for future research on how to further study and possibly alleviate the attraction effect.

  8. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α=0.5) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  9. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  10. Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Clara L; Chan, Joy F; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    What does it take to find a member of a different race attractive? In this research, we suggest that for Whites, attraction to Asians may be based, in part, on stereotypes and variations in Asians' racial appearance. Study 1 reveals that Asians are stereotyped as being more feminine and less masculine than other racial groups-characteristics considered appealing for women but not for men to possess. Study 2 examines how variation in racial appearance, phenotypic prototypicality (PP), shapes the degree to which Asians are gender stereotyped and how PP relates to perceptions of attractiveness. Higher PP Asian men are perceived as being less masculine and less physically attractive than lower PP Asian men. These findings inform theory on how within-group variation in racial appearance affects stereotyping and other social outcomes.

  11. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago, E-mail: mastrang@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CBMEG/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica; Neto, Paulo C.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: pcassier@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10{sup th} day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 503.33 - Vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vector attraction reduction. 503.33... STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction § 503.33 Vector attraction reduction. (a)(1) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in § 503.33 (b)(1)...

  13. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  14. Understanding attractiveness in business relationships - A complete literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    or resolve a particular construct: 1) attraction in the development of buyer-supplier relationships, 2) customer attractiveness to suppliers, and 3) attractiveness in portfolio and key account management. This literature review contributes to the understanding of how knowledge of the power of attraction...

  15. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008). PMID:27630594

  16. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  17. Training program attracts work and health researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2007-01-01

    Each year in Canada, the costs of disability arising from work-related causes – including workers’ compensation and health-care costs – exceed $6.7 billion. Despite the significant financial and social impacts of worker injury and illness, only a small fraction of Canadian researchers are dedicated...... to examining work disability prevention issues. An innovative program that attracts international students, the Work Disability Prevention Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program, aims to build research capacity in young researchers and to create a strong network that examines...

  18. Attractivity and bifurcation for nonautonomous dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Although, bifurcation theory of equations with autonomous and periodic time dependence is a major object of research in the study of dynamical systems since decades, the notion of a nonautonomous bifurcation is not yet established. In this book, two different approaches are developed which are based on special definitions of local attractivity and repulsivity. It is shown that these notions lead to nonautonomous Morse decompositions, which are useful to describe the global asymptotic behavior of systems on compact phase spaces. Furthermore, methods from the qualitative theory for linear and nonlinear systems are derived, and nonautonomous counterparts of the classical one-dimensional autonomous bifurcation patterns are developed.

  19. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, J.; Liu, F.; Wu, J.; Dai, W.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of visual assessment of figure drawings and front/profile images, past researchers believed that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the body mass index (BMI) were two putative cues to female physical attractiveness. However, this view was not tested on three-dimensional (3D) female images. In the present study, 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attrac...

  20. Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for phlebotomines

    OpenAIRE

    Galati EAB; VLB Nunes; MEC Dorval; Cristaldo,G; HC Rocha; RM Gonçalves-Andrade; Naufel,G

    2001-01-01

    A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato...

  1. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  2. Colloidal gelation with variable attraction energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Crassous, Jérôme J; Ballauff, Matthias

    2013-03-14

    We present an approximation scheme to the master kinetic equations for aggregation and gelation with thermal breakup in colloidal systems with variable attraction energy. With the cluster fractal dimension df as the only phenomenological parameter, rich physical behavior is predicted. The viscosity, the gelation time, and the cluster size are predicted in closed form analytically as a function of time, initial volume fraction, and attraction energy by combining the reversible clustering kinetics with an approximate hydrodynamic model. The fractal dimension df modulates the time evolution of cluster size, lag time and gelation time, and of the viscosity. The gelation transition is strongly nonequilibrium and time-dependent in the unstable region of the state diagram of colloids where the association rate is larger than the dissociation rate. Only upon approaching conditions where the initial association and the dissociation rates are comparable for all species (which is a condition for the detailed balance to be satisfied) aggregation can occur with df = 3. In this limit, homogeneous nucleation followed by Lifshitz-Slyozov coarsening is recovered. In this limited region of the state diagram the macroscopic gelation process is likely to be driven by large spontaneous fluctuations associated with spinodal decomposition.

  3. Chiral metamaterials reduce the attractive Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Koschny, Th.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2010-08-01

    In our previous work [R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103602 (2009)], we demonstrated theoretically that one can obtain repulsive Casimir forces and stable nanolevitations by using chiral metamaterials if the chirality is strong enough. In our recent work [R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 81, 235126 (2010)], we checked some chiral metamaterial designs and found that the artificial chiral metamaterials constructed by passive materials is very difficult to reach the critical chirality to realize repulsive Casimir force. Therefore, in this paper, we give a four-folded rotated Ω-particle chiral metamaterial as an example, use the effective medium approximation to retrieval the constitutive parameters, and take the same procedure as we did before to see how much the chiral metamaterial can reduce the attractive force. It shows that this un-optimized chiral metamaterial can reduce the Casimir attraction by 70%.

  4. Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for phlebotomines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, E A; Nunes, V L; Dorval, M E; Cristaldo, G; Rocha, H C; Gonçalves-Andrade, R M; Naufel, G

    2001-07-01

    A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for a total of 12 observations and 44 h of capture. The experiment resulted in 889 phlebotomines captured, 801 on the black and 88 on the white trap, representing 13 species. The hourly Williams' means were 8.67 and 1.24, respectively, and the black/white ratio was 7.0:1.0. Lutzomyia almerioi, an anthropophilic species closely associated with caves, was predominant (89%). Only two other species, Nyssomyia whitmani and Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, also anthropophilic, were significantly attracted to the black rather than to the white trap (chi(2) test; p < or = 0.01). The difference between the diversity index of the two traps was not significant at level 0.05. The black trap in these circumstances was much more productive than the white, especially for anthropophilic species.

  5. Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for phlebotomines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galati EAB

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for a total of 12 observations and 44 h of capture. The experiment resulted in 889 phlebotomines captured, 801 on the black and 88 on the white trap, representing 13 species. The hourly Williams' means were 8.67 and 1.24, respectively, and the black/white ratio was 7.0:1.0. Lutzomyia almerioi, an anthropophilic species closely associated with caves, was predominant (89%. Only two other species, Nyssomyia whitmani and Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, also anthropophilic, were significantly attracted to the black rather than to the white trap (chi2 test; p <= 0.01. The difference between the diversity index of the two traps was not significant at level 0.05. The black trap in these circumstances was much more productive than the white, especially for anthropophilic species.

  6. Attraction of Investment in Agriculture of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Abdrakhmanova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic for conditions competition increase in the market of the investments, interfaced to world financial crisis, makes superrigid deman ds to investment decisions. In similar conditions the exit on the capital markets is one of the key advantages, providing to the enterprises their further development. Attraction of investments is interfaced to a number of difficulties. In connection with shortage of own means for financing of investment activity of the organizations by the basic source of financing there was an extra financing. Necessity of considerable volume of financial resources on development of investment projects does their attraction by a paramount problem of the enterprises-borrowers. Availability of credit sources of financing is limited both because of the high price of the extra capital, and owing to inability of the enterprises-borrowers to interest potential creditors in realization of investment projects. It causes necessity of an economic justification of efficiency and appeal of investment investments. Only having defined, what concrete parameters the company should possess, and having developed concrete ways and indicators of achievement of these parameters, it is possible in modern conditions effectively to develop business. Such aspiration creates investment appeal and is realized by means of basic tools considered in given work.

  7. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Qiao He

    Full Text Available To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website, where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  8. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website), where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals) who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  9. Attracting Interest: Dynamic Displays of Proceptivity Increase the Attractiveness of Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Clark

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Proceptive signals may influence judgments of opposite-sex attractiveness because these signals indicate high mate quality and/or non-threatening behavior but they may also signal high probable rate of return for mating effort. If so, individuals observing these signals may be sensitive to where the signals are directed to; signals directed toward other individuals may not predict what signals would be directed toward the observer. To explore these possibilities I made use of video stimuli composed of mock interviews with actors. Each actor did one proceptive and one unreceptive interview. Each interview was presented as being directed toward participants or toward an opposite sex interviewer. Proceptivity enhanced the attractiveness of opposite-sex actors and an interaction between proceptive state and signal direction was found, with this pattern varying substantially between actors. The possibility that this variation is mediated by the physical attractiveness and sex of the actors will be discussed.

  10. Trip Generation Model Based on Destination Attractiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Liya; GUAN Hongzhi; YAN Hai

    2008-01-01

    Traditional trip generation forecasting methods use unified average trip generation rates to determine trip generation volumes in various traffic zones without considering the individual characteristics of each traffic zone.Therefore,the results can have significant errors.To reduce the forecasting error produced by uniform trip generation rates for different traffic zones,the behavior of each traveler was studied instead of the characteristics of the traffic zone.This paper gives a method for calculating the trip efficiency and the effect of traffic zones combined with a destination selection model based on disaggregate theory for trip generation.Beijing data is used with the trip generation method to predict trip volumes.The results show that the disaggregate model in this paper is more accurate than the traditional method.An analysis of the factors influencing traveler behavior and destination selection shows that the attractiveness of the traffic zone strongly affects the trip generation volume.

  11. Attracting the attention of a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-04-26

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can direct the attention of the fly to one or the other of the two visual half-fields. The cue can precede the test stimulus by several seconds and may also be spatially separated from the test by at least 20° and yet attract attention. This kind of external guidance of attention is found only in the lower visual field.

  12. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  13. PROMOTING AND ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIRILA DONCIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available FDI is an important element of the economic development of any country and its functioning on market principles. They have a great importance for strengthening the economy of countries in transition and their integration into the world’s economy. The modernization of national economies occurs with FDI help, by implementing advanced technologies, know-how sites, the most powerful equipment and the new quality standards by switching to a higher type of growth. The purpose of this research is to identify of the policies to attract and promote FDI, adopted by host countries for foreign investors and are highlighted beneficial aspects of foreign investments flows on recipient economies. The research results show that policies aimed at ensuring access to foreign markets, those that are considering providing commercial facilities and last, but not least, policies focused on tax incentives are very important for foreign investors.

  14. A Model of Lexical Attraction and Repulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Beeferman, D; Lafferty, G D; Beeferman, Doug; Berger, Adam; Lafferty, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces new methods based on exponential families for modeling the correlations between words in text and speech. While previous work assumed the effects of word co-occurrence statistics to be constant over a window of several hundred words, we show that their influence is nonstationary on a much smaller time scale. Empirical data drawn from English and Japanese text, as well as conversational speech, reveals that the ``attraction'' between words decays exponentially, while stylistic and syntactic contraints create a ``repulsion'' between words that discourages close co-occurrence. We show that these characteristics are well described by simple mixture models based on two-stage exponential distributions which can be trained using the EM algorithm. The resulting distance distributions can then be incorporated as penalizing features in an exponential language model.

  15. Role of Physical Attractiveness in Peer Attribution of Psychological Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The physical attractiveness stereotype was examined as it pertains to the attribution of psychological disturbance among peers. Consistent with the stereotype, attractive interviewees were judged as less disturbed with better prognosis than unattractive interviewees. (Author)

  16. Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces: Rudiments of a Stereotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies, one with two- to three-month-olds and one with six- to eight-month-olds, examined infant preferences for attractive faces. A visual preference technique was used. Infants were shown slides of faces of adult women previously rated for attractiveness. When shown pairs of attractive and unattractive faces, older and younger infants…

  17. Smile attractiveness. Self-perception and influence on personality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P. van der; Oosterveld, P.; Heck, G.L. van; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate self-perception of smile attractiveness and to determine the role of smile line and other aspects correlated with smile attractiveness and their influence on personality traits. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Participants judged their smile attractiveness with a patient-specific qu

  18. Somatic Attractiveness: As in Other Things, Moderation is Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Harvey R.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether a physical attractiveness stereotype exists when "attractive" is defined in terms of physique and "positive" is defined in terms of sex role characteristics and future life happiness. Sex role and life happiness were rated highest for those of intermediate attractiveness. Results for somatic beauty are discussed. (Author/BL)

  19. Touristic site attractiveness seen through Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Bassolas, Aleix; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a significant contributor to medium and long range travels in an increasingly globalized world. Leisure travel has an important impact on the local and global economy and on the environment as well. The study of touristic trips is thus raising a considerable interest. In this work, we apply a method to assess the attractiveness of 20 of the most popular touristic sites worldwide using geolocated tweets as a proxy for human mobility. We first rank the touristic sites according to the spatial distribution of their visitors' place of residence. The Taj Mahal, the Pisa Tower and the Eiffel Tower appear consistently in the top 5 in these rankings. We then consider a coarser scale and classify the travelers by country of residence. Touristic site's visiting figures are then studied by country of residence showing that the Eiffel Tower, Times Square and the London Tower welcome the majority of the visitors of each country. Finally, we build a network linking sites whenever a user has been detected in more...

  20. Irresistible bouquet of death—how are burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorus) attracted by carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, B.; Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, M.

    2009-08-01

    Chemical composition of volatiles emitted from fresh mouse carcasses (laboratory mice, Mus musculus) was studied using solid sample injection technique (solid-phase micro-extraction), two-dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometric detection and gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection. Electroantennography (EAG) and laboratory olfactometric behavioural observations were used to study the antennal sensitivity to identified infochemicals and their attractiveness for burying beetles Nicrophorus vespillo and Nicrophorus vespilloides (Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). Chemical analysis showed that immediately after death, emitted volatiles did not differ from those emitted by a living organism. However, in the course of time, sulphur-containing chemicals, specifically methanethiol, methyl thiolacetate, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide appear. EAG measurements revealed antennal sensitivity to these compounds. Behavioural tests in laboratory olfactometer showed that dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide are highly attractive to both studied species. The data suggest that sulphur-containing chemicals are involved in mediating the fresh carcass attractiveness for N. vespillo and N. vespilloides.

  1. Exploring Cross-National Attraction in Education: Some Historical Comparisons of American and Chinese Attraction to Japanese Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This book attempts to theorize cross-national attraction by comparing American and Chinese attraction to Japanese education. The study takes a long historical view--spanning roughly from the Meiji Restoration (1868) to today--to determine when and why Japanese education has become attractive to these two countries. It uses a combination of…

  2. Dimensionality and Transcultural Specificity of the Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, María Angeles; Icaza, Vanessa J; Escorial, Sergio

    2012-03-01

    Sexual attraction was considered a component of sexual orientation from the beginning of the second half of the 20th century to present times. However, some recent researchers have studied sexual attraction as an independent field measuring it by the Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ). This study analyzes sexual attraction through the SAQ in 400 university students from a Peruvian catholic university. These participants -191 women and 209 men- show a very diverse curricular background. The following hypotheses were tested: a) the structure of the SAQ, pointing out two concepts: attraction to men and attraction to women; b) the high inverse correlation between these two concepts or factors; c) the specific impact of this context in sexual attraction: higher percentage of attracted by none of the sexes and lower percentage of attracted to the opposite sex, in comparison with other contexts; and d) the Lippa prediction (2006, 2007), regarding a higher polarization of sexual attraction for men than for women. Results support the first three hypotheses. Clarifications are laid down with regard to the fourth one. Discussion focuses on theoretical and applied advantages of using the SAQ as opposed to the frequent use of a single item of sexual attraction for each sex.

  3. Gelation transitions of colloidal systems with bridging attractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangcui; Luo, Junhua; Han, Charles C.; Liu, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Gelation transitions in a colloidal system, where there is a strong reversible attraction between small, soft microgels and large, hard spheres, are systematically investigated. Different from widely studied depletion attraction systems that are also two-component systems, the strong attraction between small solvent and large solute particles introduces bridging attractions between large solute particles. We conclusively demonstrate that the formation of physical gels at the intermediate volume fraction of our bridging attraction system follows more closely with the percolation line that is in stark contrast to what is observed in depletion attraction systems, where the gelation transition is related with the frustrated spinodal separation, not a purely kinetic phenomenon. Our results introduce a different way to control gelation transitions in spherical colloidal systems, and imply that people need to be prudent when generalizing the physical picture of the gelation transitions obtained from systems with different origins of effective attraction as the solvent molecule may play important roles.

  4. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Chen, Sow-Hsin [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T − ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  5. Comparison of the Attraction Index of Male and Female Drosophila. Melanogaster to Varying Odorant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the differences if any, in the olfactory discrematory ability of wild type drosophila and mutated Or83b type and also if these differences exists between male and females of both species. Insect and mammalian olfactory systems are strikingly similar. Therefore, Drosophila can be used as a simple model for olfaction. The olfactory system has evolved the capacity to recognize and discriminate an inordinate number of chemically distinct odors that signal the presence of food, predators, or mating partners. Most organisms including humans rely on their olfactory system to detect and analyze olfactory cues in the environment, cues that are subsequently utilized in the context of behavior. Several works have been done on the olfactory system of the insect drosophila, attraction of various strain of drosophila to different odors but no work has been done to investigate sexual differences in this attraction to odorants. In this research we try investigating differences in the sensitivity of the olfactory receptors of male and female drosophila by measuring their attraction index to odors (yeast. O83b mutants and ORR wild type flies were used. By behavioral analysis, using the attraction index as a measure of sensitivity of the olfactory receptors, we were able to show that the female flies have a higher attraction index to odorant than the males but this difference is not significant statistically as indicated by the p value.

  6. Attracting Students to Fluid Mechanics with Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.

  7. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures.

  8. Attractant Pheromone of the Neotropical Species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alberto Laumann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood, is adapted to various leguminous crops and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce several short-chain esters and acids, and their antennae showed electrophysiological responses to five of these compounds, three common to both sexes (hexyl butanoate, 4-methylhexyl butanoate, and hexyl hexanoate, and two female-specific compounds (4-methylhexyl pentanoate and hexyl pentanoate. Both aeration extracts of females and a solution containing five synthetic compounds mimicking the natural blend were attractive to males and females N. parvus in a laboratory bioassay. Aspects of the chemical ecology of the broad-headed bugs and the possibility to use pheromone-baited traps in the field for monitoring are discussed.

  9. Measuring the operational efficiency of individual theme park attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhee; Kim, Soowook

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the operation efficiency of theme park attractions using the data envelopment analysis, utilizing actual data on 15 attractions at Samsung Everland located in Yongin-si, Republic of Korea. In particular, this study identifies crowding and waiting time as one of the main causes of visitor's satisfaction, and analyzes the efficiency of individual attractions in terms of waiting time. The installation area, installation cost, and annual repair cost are set as input factors and the number of annual users and customer satisfaction as output factors. The results show that the roller coaster-type attractions were less efficient than other types of attractions while rotating-type attractions were relatively more efficient. However, an importance performance analysis on individual attraction's efficiency and satisfaction showed that operational efficiency should not be the sole consideration in attraction installation. In addition, the projection points for input factors for efficient use of attractions and the appropriate reference set for benchmarking are provided as guideline for attraction efficiency management.

  10. Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).

  11. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women.

  12. Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kyle M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes) of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds.

  13. Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Turner

    Full Text Available Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds.

  14. Pollinator and herbivore attraction to cucurbita floral volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2007-09-01

    Mutualists and antagonists may place conflicting selection pressures on plant traits. For example, the evolution of floral traits is typically studied in the context of attracting pollinators, but traits may incur fitness costs if they are also attractive to antagonists. Striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) feed on cucurbits and are attracted to several volatiles emitted by Cucurbita blossoms. However, the effect of these volatiles on pollinator attraction is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether pollinators were attracted to the same or different floral volatiles as herbivorous cucumber beetles. We tested three volatiles previously found to attract cucumber beetles in a factorial design to determine attraction of squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa), the specialist pollinators of cucurbita species, as well as the specialist herbivore A. vittatum. We found that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene was attractive to both the pollinator and the herbivore, indole was attractive only to the herbivore, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde was attractive only to the pollinator. There were no interactions among volatiles on attraction of squash bees or cucumber beetles. Our results suggest that reduced indole emission could benefit plants by reducing herbivore attraction without loss of pollination, and that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene might be under conflicting selection pressure from mutualists and antagonists. By examining the attraction of both mutualists and antagonists to Cucurbita floral volatiles, we have demonstrated the potential for some compounds to influence only one type of interaction, while others may affect both interactions and possibly result in tradeoffs. These results shed light on the potential evolution of fragrance in native Cucurbita, and may have consequences for yield in agricultural settings.

  15. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  16. From the depletion attraction to the bridging attraction: the effect of solvent molecules on the effective colloidal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2015-02-28

    Depletion attraction induced by non-adsorbing polymers or small particles in colloidal solutions has been widely used as a model colloidal interaction to understand aggregation behavior and phase diagrams, such as glass transitions and gelation. However, much less attention has been paid to study the effective colloidal interaction when small particles/molecules can be reversibly attracted to large colloidal particles. At the strong attraction limit, small particles can introduce bridging attraction as it can simultaneously attach to neighbouring large colloidal particles. We use Baxter's multi-component method for sticky hard sphere systems with the Percus-Yevick approximation to study the bridging attraction and its consequence to phase diagrams, which are controlled by the concentration of small particles and their interaction with large particles. When the concentration of small particles is very low, the bridging attraction strength increases very fast with the increase of small particle concentration. The attraction strength eventually reaches a maximum bridging attraction (MBA). Adding more small particles after the MBA concentration keeps decreasing the attraction strength until reaching a concentration above which the net effect of small particles only introduces an effective repulsion between large colloidal particles. These behaviors are qualitatively different from the concentration dependence of the depletion attraction on small particles and make phase diagrams very rich for bridging attraction systems. We calculate the spinodal and binodal regions, the percolation lines, the MBA lines, and the equivalent hard sphere interaction line for bridging attraction systems and have proposed a simple analytic solution to calculate the effective attraction strength using the concentrations of large and small particles. Our theoretical results are found to be consistent with experimental results reported recently.

  17. Different baits and bait amendments to attract Drosophila suzukii

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is a major pest of soft fruits. Baited traps are widely used for monitoring and mass trapping: different commercial baits, different recipes for home-made baits as well as several literature references on attractive compounds are available. In a series of 15 laboratory experiments we compared the attractiveness of different baits for D. suzukii: the commercially available Dros’attract (Biobest Belgium NV) and the Gasser-bait (Biologische Becherfalle für die Kirschessigf...

  18. Back view of beauty: a bias in attractiveness judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Keiichi; Ono, Fuminori; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Attractiveness judgment based on visual appearance seems easy and almost automatic. However, it becomes difficult when we need to rely on glances of a person's back view (eg while passing on the street). How is attractiveness judgment from the back view consistent with that from full-front view? In experiment 1 participants rated the attractiveness of human heads photographed from behind and from the front. Attractiveness ratings between the back and front views were weakly but significantly correlated. However, on average, the back-view photographs were rated more attractive than the front-view photographs. The tendency was most conspicuous when the male participants viewed the photographs of women. In experiment 2 participants were explicitly asked to predict the facial attractiveness of each head's front view based on the back view. Again, the predicted attractiveness based on the back view was higher than the actual rating of the front-view photographs, and the difference reached significance when the male participants viewed the women photographs. These biases in attractiveness judgment would be related to attractiveness judgments in everyday situations where straight full-frontal encounters are rare.

  19. Fatal Attraction Phenomenon in Humans – Cat Odour Attractiveness Increased for Toxoplasma-Infected Men While Decreased for Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Flegr; Pavlína Lenochová; Zdeněk Hodný; Marta Vondrová

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes i...

  20. Identification of Human Semiochemicals Attractive to the Major Vectors of Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; McGaha, Tommy W.; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Toé, Laurent D.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Sanfo, Moussa; Soungalo, Traore; Katholi, Charles R.; Noblet, Raymond; Fadamiro, Henry; Torres-Estrada, Jose L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Baker, Bill; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Cupp, Eddie W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. volvulus in the vector population. However, the key chemical components of human odor that are attractive to vector black flies have not been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Human sweat compounds were analyzed using GC-MS analysis and compounds common to three individuals identified. These common compounds, with others previously identified as attractive to other hematophagous arthropods were evaluated for their ability to stimulate and attract the major onchocerciasis vectors in Africa (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) and Latin America (Simulium ochraceum s. l.) using electroantennography and a Y tube binary choice assay. Medium chain length carboxylic acids and aldehydes were neurostimulatory for S. damnosum s.l. while S. ochraceum s.l. was stimulated by short chain aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes. Both species were attracted to ammonium bicarbonate and acetophenone. The compounds were shown to be attractive to the relevant vector species in field studies, when incorporated into a formulation that permitted a continuous release of the compound over time and used in concert with previously developed trap platforms. Conclusions/Significance The identification of compounds attractive to the major vectors of O. volvulus will permit the development of optimized traps. Such traps may replace the use of human vector collectors for monitoring the effectiveness of onchocerciasis elimination programs and could find use as a contributing component in an integrated vector control/drug program aimed at eliminating river blindness in Africa. PMID:25569240

  1. Identification of human semiochemicals attractive to the major vectors of onchocerciasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. volvulus in the vector population. However, the key chemical components of human odor that are attractive to vector black flies have not been identified.Human sweat compounds were analyzed using GC-MS analysis and compounds common to three individuals identified. These common compounds, with others previously identified as attractive to other hematophagous arthropods were evaluated for their ability to stimulate and attract the major onchocerciasis vectors in Africa (Simulium damnosum sensu lato and Latin America (Simulium ochraceum s. l. using electroantennography and a Y tube binary choice assay. Medium chain length carboxylic acids and aldehydes were neurostimulatory for S. damnosum s.l. while S. ochraceum s.l. was stimulated by short chain aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes. Both species were attracted to ammonium bicarbonate and acetophenone. The compounds were shown to be attractive to the relevant vector species in field studies, when incorporated into a formulation that permitted a continuous release of the compound over time and used in concert with previously developed trap platforms.The identification of compounds attractive to the major vectors of O. volvulus will permit the development of optimized traps. Such traps may replace the use of human vector collectors for monitoring the effectiveness of onchocerciasis elimination programs and could find use as a contributing component in an integrated vector control/drug program aimed at eliminating river blindness in Africa.

  2. Self-Assembly of Nanoclusters into Mono-, Few-, and Multilayered Sheets via Dipole-Induced Asymmetric van der Waals Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhennan; Liu, Jiale; Li, Yanchun; Cheng, Ziyi; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Bai

    2015-06-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials possessing regular layered structures and versatile chemical composition are highly expected in many applications. Despite the importance of van der Waals (vdW) attraction in constructing and maintaining layered structures, the origin of 2D anisotropy is not fully understood, yet. Here, we report the 2D self-assembly of ligand-capped Au15 nanoclusters into mono-, few-, and multilayered sheets in colloidal solution. Both the experimental results and computer simulation reveal that the 2D self-assembly is initiated by 1D dipolar attraction common in nanometer-sized objects. The dense 1D attachment of Au15 leads to a redistribution of the surface ligands, thus generating asymmetric vdW attraction. The deliberate control of the coordination of dipolar and vdW attraction further allows to manipulate the thickness and morphologies of 2D self-assembly architectures.

  3. Facial-Attractiveness Choices Are Predicted by Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Do people appear more attractive or less attractive depending on the company they keep? A divisive-normalization account-in which representation of stimulus intensity is normalized (divided) by concurrent stimulus intensities-predicts that choice preferences among options increase with the range of option values. In the first experiment reported here, I manipulated the range of attractiveness of the faces presented on each trial by varying the attractiveness of an undesirable distractor face that was presented simultaneously with two attractive targets, and participants were asked to choose the most attractive face. I used normalization models to predict the context dependence of preferences regarding facial attractiveness. The more unattractive the distractor, the more one of the targets was preferred over the other target, which suggests that divisive normalization (a potential canonical computation in the brain) influences social evaluations. I obtained the same result when I manipulated faces' averageness and participants chose the most average face. This finding suggests that divisive normalization is not restricted to value-based decisions (e.g., attractiveness). This new application to social evaluation of normalization, a classic theory, opens possibilities for predicting social decisions in naturalistic contexts such as advertising or dating.

  4. Attraction properties of the Ginzburg-Landau manifold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhaus, W.; Shepeleva, A.

    2001-01-01

    We consider solutions of weakly unstable PDE on an unbounded spatial domain. It has been shown earlier by the first author that the set of modulated solutions (called "Ginzburg-Landau manifold") is attracting. We seek to understand "how big" is the domain of attraction. Starting with general initial

  5. Limiting Conditions of the "Physical Attractiveness Stereotype": Attributions about Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Subjects, reading a profile of a couple filing for divorce, made attributions about responsibility, financial settlement, future behavior, and personality traits. Reasons for divorce, physical attractiveness of husband and wife, and sex of subject were varied. Attractiveness strongly influenced personality ratings. Reason for divorce was related…

  6. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  7. Assimilation as Attraction: Computing Distance, Similarity, and Locality in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores similarity effects in assimilation, proposing an Attraction Framework to analyze cases of parasitic harmony where a trigger-target pair only results in harmony if the trigger and target agree on other features. Attraction provides a natural model of these effects by relating the pressure for assimilation to the…

  8. Understanding Teacher Attraction and Retention Drivers: Addressing Teacher Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiedu, Jennifer A.; Scott-Ladd, Brenda D.

    2012-01-01

    The attraction and retention of teachers is a problem faced by schools worldwide and possibly more so in the public sector. One possible solution to this problem is likely to be better targeting of attraction and retention drivers of value to teachers. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study conducted in Australia. The study used…

  9. Attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus to lures containing quercivorol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euwallacea nr. fornicatus is an exotic ambrosia beetle that vectors fungal Fusarium spp. to avocados. Two field trials testing potential attractants to trap Euwallacea spp. were conducted in south Florida. Quercivorol + Ultra High Release Ethanol (URH) was the more powerful attractant for E. nr. for...

  10. Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping on American Television Programs: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Harrison, Sheila K.

    The frequencies of specific types of verbal attractiveness stereotypes portrayed on television commercials and regular programs were determined in two studies. In the first, the 4,294 commercials aired between 8 and 10 p.m. on the 3 major networks were observed during a 7-day period in the spring of 1982. Statements related to attractiveness were…

  11. The Relative Impact of Age and Attractiveness Stereotypes on Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, James M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the impact of old-age and attractiveness stereotypes on persuasion. College students (N=220) read essays attributed to young or old authors. Attractive authors were rated higher and were more persuasive relative to unattractive authors when the essay was weak. (Author/JAC)

  12. Gender and Attractiveness Related to Preschool Peer Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J.

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972) coined the phrase "what is beautiful is good" to describe an apparent stereotype in which attractive individuals are viewed more positively than less attractive individuals on a number of characteristics. The present study was an attempt to understand the ramifications of the "beauty-is-good" stereotype in young…

  13. On Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping in Taiwan: A Revised Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nicole Y.; Shaffer, David R.; Wu, Chenghuan

    1997-01-01

    Questions the current thesis that people from "collectivist" cultures are less likely to make character inferences based on physical attractiveness. Presents the results of a study that revealed Taiwanese undergraduates assigning positive character attributes to people based on their physical attractiveness. Discusses related literature (Karen K.…

  14. Positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the existence of positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and its relations to relationship quality. Positive illusions were assumed to exist when individuals rated their partner as more attractive than their partner rated him or herself. In two Dutc

  15. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  16. Permanence and global attractivity for Lotka-Volterra difference systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z; Wang, W

    1999-09-01

    The permanence and global attractivity for two-species difference systems of Lotka-Volterra type are considered. It is proved that a cooperative system cannot be permanent. For a permanent competitive system, the explicit expression of the permanent set E is obtained and sufficient conditions are given to guarantee the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the system.

  17. Judging Attraction from Nonverbal Behavior: The Gain Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to explore non-verbal behaviors and their capacity to convey attraction between men and women. Examines in particular the gain phenomenon which is the idea that people are more attracted to a person who is initially punishing and then rewarding than to one who is always rewarding. (Author/EJT)

  18. Plant-carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takabayashi, J.; Dicke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plants and carnivorous arthropods can interact mutualistically. A recent discovery is that such mutualisms can be mediated by volatile compounds — produced by plants in response to herbivore damage — that attract carnivores. However, after emission of these attractants, the plant has no control over

  19. Destination Attractiveness of the Silos and Smokestacks National Heritage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Puyong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of destination attractiveness of the Silos and Smokestacks National Heritage Area (SSNHA) in Iowa using the relative attractiveness and importance of the 15 attributes identified by Gearing, Swart, and Var's (1974) scale and 3 attributes identified by Hu and Ritchie (1993). These…

  20. Attracting College Candidates: The Impact of Perceived Social Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Anthony J.; Patrick, Michelle L.; Wilson, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how perceived attractiveness of the social life at a college/university influences potential applicants' likelihood to request information from, visit and apply to (decision approach actions) that school. Results obtained from a study of high school juniors indicate that attractiveness of social life, defined in terms of…

  1. The Perceived Relationship between Physical Attractiveness and Social Influence Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Laura C.; Ashmore, Richard D.

    The power of beauty has been contemplated by writers, poets, and philosophers for centuries. The link between the target physical attractiveness and perceived social influence effectiveness has not been directly and systematically investigated. The goal of this study was to assess whether physically attractive (versus unattractive) individuals are…

  2. Interpersonal Attraction and Organizational Outcomes: A Field Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jerry; Ferris, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 306 male accountants and managers at two public accounting firms examined the relationship of physical attractiveness, attitude similarity, and social background to performance ratings and salaries. Results suggest that physical attractiveness leads to higher ratings and salaries but that attitudes and background have…

  3. Interpersonal Attraction and the Perception of Attitudinal Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Ronald M.; Nelson, Don A.

    One common laboratory manipulation in interpersonal attraction has been the exchange of reinforcements in the form of similar or dissimilar attitude statements. The first impression should influence not only attraction responses and subsequent behavior, but also should influence the perception of subsequent information received in the course of an…

  4. Teaching Family Therapists about Sexual Attraction in Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on sexual attraction in relation to the practice of marriage and family therapy and investigates how family-therapists-in-training regard this phenomenon. Results reveal that new therapists dealing with attraction in therapy encounter a myriad of emotional responses. Proposes that it is the clinical supervisor's…

  5. Olfactory responses to attractants and repellents in tsetse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, KE; Everaarts, E; Den Otter, CJ

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how antennal olfactory cells of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) code odour quality and how they are able to discriminate between attractive and repellent odours. For Glossina pallidipes Austen, a survey is presented of the cells' responses to attractive (1-oc

  6. Liquid Crystal Phase Behaviour of Attractive Disc-Like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We employ a generalized van der Waals-Onsager perturbation theory to construct a free energy functional capable of describing the thermodynamic properties and orientational order of the isotropic and nematic phases of attractive disc particles. The model mesogen is a hard (purely repulsive cylindrical disc particle decorated with an anisotropic square-well attractive potential placed at the centre of mass. Even for isotropic attractive interactions, the resulting overall inter-particle potential is anisotropic, due to the orientation-dependent excluded volume of the underlying hard core. An algebraic equation of state for attractive disc particles is developed by adopting the Onsager trial function to characterize the orientational order in the nematic phase. The theory is then used to represent the fluid-phase behaviour (vapour-liquid, isotropic-nematic, and nematic-nematic of the oblate attractive particles for varying values of the molecular aspect ratio and parameters of the attractive potential. When compared to the phase diagram of their athermal analogues, it is seen that the addition of an attractive interaction facilitates the formation of orientationally-ordered phases. Most interestingly, for certain aspect ratios, a coexistence between two anisotropic nematic phases is exhibited by the attractive disc-like fluids.

  7. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  8. Physical Attractiveness, Social Network Location, and Performance in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    measures that use self -reported physical attractiveness scales are actually measuring personality characteristics, such as narcissism and self - esteem ...of social network location. This work has linked dispositional variables, such as self monitoring and locus of control (e.g. Mehra, Kilduff...the attractive individuals actually adopt many of the characteristics that are attributed to them, which describes a self -fulfilling prophesy

  9. Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Chang, Jen-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chia

    2013-06-01

    Gamification design is considered as the predictor of collaborative storytelling websites' success. Although aforementioned studies have mentioned a broad range of factors that may influence gamification, they neither depicted the actual design features nor relative attractiveness among them. This study aims to identify attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. We first constructed a hierarchical system structure of gamification design of collaborative storytelling websites and conducted a focus group interview with eighteen frequent users to identify 35gamification features. After that, this study determined the relative attractiveness of these gamification features by administrating an online survey to 6333 collaborative storytelling websites users. The results indicated that the top 10 most attractive gamification features could account for more than 50% of attractiveness among these 35 gamification features. The feature of unpredictable time pressure is important to website users, yet not revealed in previous relevant studies. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  10. Is female attractiveness related to final reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Perrett, David I; Kluska, Sylwia

    2008-06-01

    In order to test the assumption that female attractiveness relates to reproductive success, photographs of 47 rural Polish women taken in their youth were rated for attractiveness, and BMI at age 18 was recorded; these measures of attractiveness were then compared with their subsequent life histories. Facial attractiveness did not relate to number of children or grandchildren. It also did not relate to age of marriage or husband's education. It did relate to number of marriages and husband's height. BMI at age 18 did not relate significantly to any of the outcome variables. These results suggest that although more attractive women may have married higher quality (taller) husbands and may in ancestral population have achieved greater reproductive success this way, there is no evidence in a modern, European Catholic society for their having greater reproductive success.

  11. Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Lehmiller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black in two  college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative. Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were given artificial peer evaluation data (positive, negative, or none before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a series of targets. In both samples, positive information was associated with greater levels of attraction and dating interest than negative information, regardless of target race. Within the conservative sample, participants reported greater attraction toward and more dating interest in White targets relative to Black targets, while in the liberal sample, participants’ ratings of targets did not significantly differ from one another. These findings suggest that social influence can affect perceptions of attractiveness even in very different political climates.

  12. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). We also find evidence of seemingly contradictory attraction processes documented previously in heterosexual romantic relationships, in which individuals become disillusioned with the qualities in a partner that were initially appealing. Our findings challenge common stereotypes of same-gender relationships. The results document broad similarities between same-gender and cross-gender couples in attraction.

  13. Select Drosophila glomeruli mediate innate olfactory attraction and aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmelhack, Julia L; Wang, Jing W

    2009-05-14

    Fruitflies show robust attraction to food odours, which usually excite several glomeruli. To understand how the representation of such odours leads to behaviour, we used genetic tools to dissect the contribution of each activated glomerulus. Apple cider vinegar triggers robust innate attraction at a relatively low concentration, which activates six glomeruli. By silencing individual glomeruli, here we show that the absence of activity in two glomeruli, DM1 and VA2, markedly reduces attraction. Conversely, when each of these two glomeruli was selectively activated, flies showed as robust an attraction to vinegar as wild-type flies. Notably, a higher concentration of vinegar excites an additional glomerulus and is less attractive to flies. We show that activation of the extra glomerulus is necessary and sufficient to mediate the behavioural switch. Together, these results indicate that individual glomeruli, rather than the entire pattern of active glomeruli, mediate innate behavioural output.

  14. Pheromones, sexual attractiveness and quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, W B; Genovese, E

    2002-06-01

    Pheromones, and their effects, are reviewed with a special emphasis on their potential contribution to sexual attractiveness in the menopause. Key topics included are biological functions of pheromones in animals and humans, the source of pheromones in humans, the axillary extract studies that led to the independent synthesis of pheromones, olfactory mechanisms for mediating pheromones, and aging, attractiveness and sexual dysfunction. Physical attractiveness is important for a better quality of life. Three separate, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigations, using the same protocol, all demonstrated that a synthesized pheromone, topically applied, increased sexual attractiveness. If partners are available, sexual attractiveness can increase affectionate intimate behavior, which, in turn, increases well-being and quality of life. More research is needed to address ways in which postmenopausal women can benefit from pheromones.

  15. Drones of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea are attracted to (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid and (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Brockmann, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is the major component in the mandibular gland secretion. We show here that A. florea drones are attracted to 9-ODA as well as to 10-HDA. However, 10-HDA attracted higher numbers of drones at lower dosages than 9-ODA, and also was more attractive when directly compared to 9-ODA in a dual attraction experiment. We conclude that 10-HDA has to be viewed as the major sex pheromone in A. florea. The result that both pheromone components are capable of attracting drones when presented alone was unexpected with regard to existing sex pheromone attraction experiments in honey bees.

  16. Attraction and Electroantennography responses of the male Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, to natural essential oils and synthetic blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments and long range bioassays were used to understand the difference in attractiveness among various natural essential oils for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata. Using electroantennography, we have selected various antennally active chemicals and tested their role in the ...

  17. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  18. Preliminary Study of Chemical Composition of the Elaiosome of Sloanea hemsleyana (lto) and Its Ecological Function to Attract Dispersal Agent%仿栗油脂体化学组成及其与种子传播者关系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛瑞娟; 陈高; 黄圣卓; 孙卫邦

    2012-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对仿栗油脂体的化学组成进行研究,并用气相色谱面积归一化法对各成分进行了定量.从仿栗油脂体中得到11个化合物,占成分总量的97.6%,其中主要成分为十六烷酸(棕榈酸)和十八碳烯酸(油酸),分别占36.0%和35.0%.已有研究表明,这两种脂肪酸为蚂蚁所喜好.通过观察及实验证明,在昆明植物园,获得油脂体回报的大头蚁(Pheidole sp.)是仿栗种子的潜在传播者,而油脂体对其他取食者的趋避作用有待进一步的研究.%The chemical composition of the elaiosome of Sloanea hemsleyana ( Elaeocarpaceae) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relative content of each compound was determined by area normalization. E-leven compounds were identified, accounting for 97. 6% of the total oil composition. The major compounds were Palmitic acid (36. 0% ) and Oleic acid (35. 0% ) , which were favour food for ant. And it was demonstrated that the seed of S. Hemsleyana can be dispersed by ant Pheidole sp. In the habitat of Kunming Botanical Garden. As for the defensive function of elaiosome of S. Hemsleyana need to be identified in field.

  19. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-03

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit from polyandry, sexual conflict theory predicts that females should develop mechanisms to counteract AAPs to achieve additional copulations, but no such mechanisms have been documented. Here we show that during copulation Drosophila melanogaster males transfer two AAPs: cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA) to the females' reproductive tract, and 7-Tricosene (7-T) to the females' cuticle. A few hours after copulation, females actively eject cVA from their reproductive tract, which results in increased attractiveness and re-mating. Although 7-T remains on those females, we show that it is the combination of the two chemicals that reduces attractiveness. To our knowledge, female AAP ejection provides the first example of a female mechanism that counter-acts chemical mate-guarding.

  20. Stereochemistry of Fuscumol and Fuscumol Acetate Influences Attraction of Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of the Subfamily Lamiinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G P; Meier, L R; Zou, Y; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M; Ginzel, M D

    2016-10-01

    The chemical structures of aggregation-sex pheromones of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are often conserved among closely related taxa. In the subfamily Lamiinae, adult males and females of several species are attracted by racemic blends of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (termed fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate). Both compounds have a chiral center, so each can exist in two enantiomeric forms. Males of many species of longhorned beetles only produce one stereoisomer of each pheromone component, and attraction may be reduced by the presence of stereoisomers that are not produced by a particular species. In a previous publication, analysis of headspace volatiles of adult beetles of the lamiine species Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman) revealed that males sex-specifically produced (S)-fuscumol and (S)-fuscumol acetate. Here, we describe field trials which tested attraction of this species to single enantiomers of fuscumol and fuscumol acetate, or to blends of enantiomers. We confirmed attraction of A. variegatus to its species-specific blend, but during the course of the trials, found that several other species also were attracted. These included Aegomorphus modestus (Gyllenhall), attracted to (S)-fuscumol acetate; Astylidius parvus (LeConte), attracted to (R)-fuscumol; Astylopsis macula (Say), attracted to (S)-fuscumol; and Graphisurus fasciatus (DeGeer), attracted to a blend of (R)-fuscumol and (R)-fuscumol acetate. These results suggest that chirality may be important in the pheromone chemistry of lamiines, and that specific stereoisomers or mixtures of stereoisomers are likely produced by each species.

  1. Pheromone attraction and cross-attraction of Nezara, Acrosternum, and Euschistus spp. stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Aldrich, J R; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E

    2010-04-01

    Detecting infestations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using pheromones remains problematic, particularly so in the United States for the exotic stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and our native stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Therefore, we conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the reported pheromones for N. viridula and A. hilare and those previously discovered for Euschistus servus (Say) and Plautia stali Scott to N. viridula, A. hilare, and E. servus. The attractiveness of selected pentatomid pheromones to tachinid parasitoids of stink bugs was also examined. We showed for the first time under field conditions that N. viridula can be trapped with its reported pheromone, a 3:1 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend. In fact, attraction of N. viridula increased with higher pheromone doses. Traps baited with a 5:95 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend, the reported male-produced A. hilare attractant pheromone, failed to attract significantly more A. hilare than did unbaited control traps. Instead A. hilare was significantly cross-attracted to the P. stali pheromone [methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate]. The E. servus pheromone [methyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate], either alone or in combination with P. stali pheromone, was more attractive to E. servus than to N. viridula, P. stali, or A. hilare pheromones. In general, tachinid parasitoids were found responsive to the male-specific volatiles of their known hosts, including the attractiveness of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) to sesquiterpenoid blends characteristic of A. hilare and N. viridula. A tachinid parasitoid of E. servus, Cylindromyia sp., seemed to be attracted to E. servus pheromone. In conclusion, our results indicate that stink bug traps baited with lures containing N. viridula pheromone blend, P. stali pheromone, and E. servus pheromone have the greatest potential for detecting populations of N. viridula, A. hilare, and E

  2. Assessing facial attractiveness: individual decisions and evolutionary constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kocsor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies showed that facial attractiveness, as a highly salient social cue, influences behavioral responses. It has also been found that attractive faces evoke distinctive neural activation compared to unattractive or neutral faces. Objectives: Our aim was to design a face recognition task where individual preferences for facial cues are controlled for, and to create conditions that are more similar to natural circumstances in terms of decision making. Design: In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, subjects were shown attractive and unattractive faces, categorized on the basis of their own individual ratings. Results: Statistical analysis of all subjects showed elevated brain activation for attractive opposite-sex faces in contrast to less attractive ones in regions that previously have been reported to show enhanced activation with increasing attractiveness level (e.g. the medial and superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, and anterior cingular cortex. Besides these, females showed additional brain activation in areas thought to be involved in basic emotions and desires (insula, detection of facial emotions (superior temporal gyrus, and memory retrieval (hippocampus. Conclusions: From these data, we speculate that because of the risks involving mate choice faced by women during evolutionary times, selection might have preferred the development of an elaborated neural system in females to assess the attractiveness and social value of male faces.

  3. Malaria-induced changes in host odors enhance mosquito attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stanczyk, Nina M; Betz, Heike S; Pulido, Hannier; Sim, Derek G; Read, Andrew F; Mescher, Mark C

    2014-07-29

    Vector-borne pathogens may alter traits of their primary hosts in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between hosts and vectors. Previous work has reported enhanced mosquito attraction to host organisms infected with malaria parasites but did not address the mechanisms underlying such effects. Here we document malaria-induced changes in the odor profiles of infected mice (relative to healthy individuals) over the course of infection, as well as effects on the attractiveness of infected hosts to mosquito vectors. We observed enhanced mosquito attraction to infected mice during a key period after the subsidence of acute malaria symptoms, but during which mice remained highly infectious. This attraction corresponded to an overall elevation in the volatile emissions of infected mice observed during this period. Furthermore, data analyses--using discriminant analysis of principal components and random forest approaches--revealed clear differences in the composition of the volatile blends of infected and healthy individuals. Experimental manipulation of individual compounds that exhibited altered emission levels during the period when differential vector attraction was observed also elicited enhanced mosquito attraction, indicating that compounds being influenced by malaria infection status also mediate vector host-seeking behavior. These findings provide important insights into the cues that mediate vector attraction to hosts infected with transmissible stages of malaria parasites, as well as documenting characteristic changes in the odors of infected individuals that may have potential value as diagnostic biomarkers of infection.

  4. Conspecific attraction in a grassland bird, the Baird's Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, J.

    2006-01-01

    Territorial songbirds generally use song to defend territories and attract mates, but conspecific song may also serve as a cue to attract other male songbirds to a breeding site. Although known to occur in some colonial and forest-associated species, only recently have investigators examined conspecific attraction in grassland species. We used a playback experiment to examine the possible role of conspecific attraction for males searching for potentially suitable breeding habitat in a grassland specialist, the Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii). Experimental playback plots and control plots with similar landscape and vegetation characteristics were established at two sites in North Dakota. Baird's Sparrows colonized three of six experimental plots and none of six control plots. Males on experimental plots established territories adjacent to the playback stations and were sometimes observed counter-singing with the playback of conspecific songs. Vegetation characteristics were similar on all study plots, and did not explain differences in bird density on our treatment plots. Although we found that playback of conspecific songs attracted male Baird's Sparrows to previously unoccupied, potentially suitable habitat, further experiments are needed to examine the importance of conspecific attraction relative to other cues that birds may use, such as vegetation features. The conservation and management implications of conspecific attraction are not completely understood, but the presence of conspecifics should be considered as a potential cue in habitat selection by all species of birds. ?? 2006 The Author(s).

  5. Attraction-Based Computation of Hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karrasch, Daniel; Haller, George

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances enable the simultaneous computation of both attracting and repelling families of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) at the same initial or final time of interest. Obtaining LCS positions at intermediate times, however, has been problematic, because either the repelling or the attracting family is unstable with respect to numerical advection in a given time direction. Here we develop a new approach to compute arbitrary positions of hyperbolic LCS in a numerically robust fashion. Our approach only involves the advection of attracting material surfaces, thereby providing accurate LCS tracking at low computational cost. We illustrate the advantages of this approach on a simple model and on a turbulent velocity data set.

  6. Bacteria as a source of oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, A A; Chua, T H

    2014-03-01

    Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted which demonstrated that the bacteria in bamboo leaf infusion produce volatile attractants and contact chemical stimulants attractive to the female mosquitoes. The results showed that the female mosquitoes laid most of their eggs (59.9 ± 8.1 vs 2.9 ± 2.8 eggs, PAedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti laid significantly more eggs (63.3 ± 6.5 vs 3.1 ± 2.4 eggs, P<0.001) in bacteria suspension compared to sterile R2A medium. Our results suggest microbial activity has a role in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes.

  7. Attractiveness test of attractants toward dengue virus vector (Aedes aegypti into lethal mosquiTrap modifications (LMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawir Sazali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests have been conducted to determine the ability of Lethal MosquiTRAP Modification (LMM. Modification is basically done to maximize the capture ability toward Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the addition of black color, sticky material and attractants. Disposable plastic bottles were transformed to Lethal mosquiTRAP modification with the addition of attractant sources obtained from hay (Oriza sativa and red chili (Capsicum annum infusion and palm sugar (Arenga pinnata fermentation. Aedes mosquitoes attracted towards different attractant sources are simultaneously killed directly in the trap. Response analysis of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes using different attractant sources was done. There is no significant difference (p=0.984 between different type of attractants, but, the attractant concentrations (10%, 30% and 60% showed a significant difference (p=0.00<0.05 against number of mosquitoes caught in the trap. Statistical average of mosquitoes trapped showed that concentration of 30% was the best combination in the mosquiTRAP. Thus, expected from laboratory tests such mosquiTRAP can be installed in the environment as a dengue vector control measure.

  8. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dötterl

    Full Text Available In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  9. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  10. Androstadienone's influence on the perception of facial and vocal attractiveness is not sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Delplanque, Sylvain; Atanassova, Reni; Sander, David

    2016-04-01

    The androgen steroid androstadienone, an odorous compound emitted from the human axillary region, has recurrently been considered as a candidate compound involved in human chemical communication and mate choice. Although perception of androstadienone has been shown to influence several affective (mood), attentional, physiological and neural parameters, studies investigating its impact on human attractiveness remain unpersuasive because of incomplete designs (e.g., only female participants) and contradictory results. The aim of this study was to investigate how androstadienone may influence others' attractiveness. Specifically, we used a complete design (male and female raters, male and female faces and voices) to determine whether androstadienone influences the perception of social stimuli in a sex-specific manner, which would favor pheromonal-like properties of the compound, or in a more general manner, which would suggest that the compound has broader influences on human psychological responses. After comparing the ratings of men and women who were exposed to androstadienone masked in clove oil with those of men and women who were exposed to clove oil alone, we found that androstadienone enhanced the perceived attractiveness of emotionally relevant stimuli (opposite-sex stimuli in men and in fertile women). Response times for categorizing the stimuli as attractive or not were also affected by androstadienone, with longer response times in men and in fertile women and shorter response times in non-fertile women, irrespective of the stimulus sex. The results favor the hypothesis of general effects over sex-specific effects of androstadienone, thus questioning the relevance of focusing on that particular compound in the study of human attractiveness through body odor and encouraging the search for other semiochemicals that might be significant for human mate choice.

  11. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bah Sekou

    2010-09-01

    to An. gambiae s.l. females and males, respectively. Guava (Psidium guajava and honey melon (Cucumis melo were the two most attractive fruits for both females and males. Of the 26 flowering plants tested, 9 were significantly attractive for females, and 8 were attractive for males. Acacia macrostachya was the most attractive flowering plant. Periodicity studies using this plant showed peaks of An. gambiae s.l. attraction between 1930 and 2200 h and 0400-0500 h, which differed considerably from the response to human odors, which expectedly peaked at around midnight. Conclusion These field experiments in Mali highlight that female and male An. gambiae s.l. have pronounced differences in attraction for diverse types of indigenous fruits/seedpods and flowering plants. The identification of attractive fruits and seedpods shows that a variety of indigenous and locally abundant natural products could potentially be used as juices to make ATSB solution for mosquito control. As well, the simple methods used to identify the most attractive flowering plants provide valuable insights into the natural history of sugar feeding for An. gambiae s.l. These observations can be used to guide future strategies for employing ATSB methods for malaria vector control in Africa. They also provide a basis for subsequent chemical analysis and development of attractive baits for mosquito control.

  12. Duesseldorf :An Attractive City for Investments in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ At the 3rd Chinese Enterprises Outbound Investment Conference,a seminar was sponsored by Duesseldorf municipal government,a city of 600,000 inhabitants in Germany,in hopes of attracting Chinese investments.

  13. The Effects of Attractiveness and Status on Personality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Tartaglia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on personality has shown that perceiving a person as attractive fosters positive expectations about his/her personal characteristics. Literature has also demonstrated a significant link between personality traits and occupational achievement. Present research examines the combined effects of attractiveness, occupational status, and gender on the evaluation of others’ personality, according to the Big Five model. The study consisted of a 2 (Attractiveness: High vs. Low x 2 (occupational Status: High vs. Low x 2 (Target gender: Male vs. Female between-subjects experimental design (N = 476. Results showed that attractive targets were considered more positively than unattractive targets, and this effect was even stronger for male targets. Occupational status influenced perceived agreeableness (lower for high-status targets and perceived conscientiousness (higher for high-status targets.

  14. Intermolecular Repulsion through Interfacial Attraction : Toward Engineering of Polymorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Sändig, Nadja; Fernández Landaluce, Tatiana; Wees, Bart J. van; Rudolf, Petra; Katsonis, Nathalie; Zerbetto, Francesco; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the formation of crystalline polymorphs is of importance for various applications of materials science. Polymorphism of Schiff base derivatives has recently attracted considerable attention because of its influence on photochromic and thermochromic properties of their 3D crystals. The

  15. Periodic points in the intersection of immediate attracting basins boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, Bastien

    2014-01-01

    We give sufficient conditions under which the set of eventually periodic points in the intersection of immediate attracting basins boundaries is non-empty. We give other conditions under which this set is dense in the intersection.

  16. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

  17. Web-building spiders attract prey by storing decaying matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman-Chiswell, Bojun T.; Kulinski, Melissa M.; Muscat, Robert L.; Nguyen, Kim A.; Norton, Briony A.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Westhorpe, Gina E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    The orb-weaving spider Nephila edulis incorporates into its web a band of decaying animal and plant matter. While earlier studies demonstrate that larger spiders utilise these debris bands as caches of food, the presence of plant matter suggests additional functions. When organic and plastic items were placed in the webs of N. edulis, some of the former but none of the latter were incorporated into the debris band. Using an Y-maze olfactometer, we show that sheep blowflies Lucilia cuprina are attracted to recently collected debris bands, but that this attraction does not persist over time. These data reveal an entirely novel foraging strategy, in which a sit-and-wait predator attracts insect prey by utilising the odours of decaying organic material. The spider's habit of replenishing the debris band may be necessary to maintain its efficacy for attracting prey.

  18. Stable Probability Distributions and their Domains of Attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Geluk (Jaap); L.F.M. de Haan (Laurens)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe theory of stable probability distributions and their domains of attraction is derived in a direct way (avoiding the usual route via infinitely divisible distributions) using Fourier transforms. Regularly varying functions play an important role in the exposition.

  19. GLOBAL ATTRACTIVITY IN A PERIODIC DELAY SINGLE SPECIES MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the existence of a positive periodic solution for a periodic delay single species population growth model, and obtain sufficient conditions for the periodic solution to be globally attractive.

  20. 2011 Ten Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yiwen

    2012-01-01

    The results of the "2011 Amazing China - The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" survey were recently released. The top-10 cities for foreigners are Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Suzhou, Chongqing, Xiamen, and Hangzhou.

  1. When gay is pretty: physical attractiveness and low homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innala, S M; Ernulf, K E

    1994-06-01

    Photographs of physically attractive men and women were presented as depicting homosexuals and heterosexuals to subjects on the University of California at Berkeley campus who were generally judged to be nonhomophobic opposite-sexed students. Analysis showed that the 62 women rated 3 men as significantly more physically attractive when they believed the men were homosexual than when they believed the men were heterosexual. The 65 men did not rate photographs of 3 women as more physically attractive when they believed the women were lesbian compared to when they believed the women were heterosexual. The results illustrate an effect of the "gay-pretty-boy stereotype," namely, that women judged to be nonhomophobic perceived homosexual men as more physically attractive than comparable heterosexual men.

  2. Is There an Own-Race Preference in Attractiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Burke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

  3. Is there an own-race preference in attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Darren; Nolan, Caroline; Hayward, William Gordon; Russell, Robert; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2013-08-15

    Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

  4. Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Conditions on Facial Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Huber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434 to analyze the association between an individual's parental socioeconomic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old, controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  5. Attraction-repulsion coupled and energy conserved universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ti-Pei

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of an accelerating cosmic expansion rate implies that, in addition to the attractive gravity of matter, there exist in our universe some other form of energy (dark energy or cosmological constant) producing a repulsive force. The natural interpretation of dark energy is the vacuum energy. However, the density of vacuum energy expected by the quantum field theory is 120 orders of magnitude larger than what allowed by cosmological observations, which is called the cosmological constant problem and remains one of the most significant unsolved problems in fundamental physics. Here we show that the huge discrepancy between theoretical expectation and observational data can be resolved by assuming that our universe is an attraction-repulsion coupled system with energy conservation, and that the pre-inflation vacuum is in balance between attraction and repulsion (a flat Minkowski spacetime, not de Sitter or anti de Sitter). The attraction-repulsion coupling picture can also easily explain why both kind...

  6. Physical Attractiveness Research. Toward a Developmental Social Psychology of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)

  7. Condensed-matter physics: Attractive electrons from nanoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Takis

    2016-07-01

    Electrons repel each other because they are negatively charged. An experiment now confirms a fifty-year-old theory that electrons can also attract one another as a result of repulsion from other electrons. See Letter p.395

  8. Managing Innovation Contests: Challenges of Attraction and Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to better understand how to manage IT-based innovation contests by taking into account challenges associated with the attraction and facilitation of participants. Attraction aims for drawing on people to the innovation contest so that they join the competition and later on hand in capable solutions. Facilitation strives for supporting participants during the course of the innovation contest so that they feel comfortable with the contest and come up with qualit...

  9. Attractive and repulsive quantum forces from dimensionality of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder;

    2002-01-01

    Two particles of identical mass attract and repel each other even when there exist no classical external forces and their average relative momentum vanishes. This quantum force depends crucially on the number of dimensions of space.......Two particles of identical mass attract and repel each other even when there exist no classical external forces and their average relative momentum vanishes. This quantum force depends crucially on the number of dimensions of space....

  10. Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Graziano, William G.; VanderDrift, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black) in two  college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative). Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were given artificial peer evaluation data (positive, negative, or none) before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a seri...

  11. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  12. Dietary effects on cuticular hydrocarbons and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Y Fedina

    Full Text Available Dietary composition is known to have profound effects on many aspects of animal physiology, including lifespan, general health, and reproductive potential. We have previously shown that aging and insulin signaling significantly influence the composition and sexual attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs, some of which are known to be sex pheromones. Because diet is intimately linked to aging and to the activity of nutrient-sensing pathways, we asked how diet affects female CHCs and attractiveness. Here we report consistent and significant effects of diet composition on female CHC profiles across ages, with dietary yeast and sugar driving CHC changes in opposite directions. Surprisingly, however, we found no evidence that these changes affect female attractiveness. Multivariate comparisons among responses of CHC profiles to diet, aging, and insulin signaling suggest that diet may alter the levels of some CHCs in a way that results in profiles that are more attractive while simultaneously altering other CHCs in a way that makes them less attractive. For example, changes in short-chain CHCs induced by a high-yeast diet phenocopy changes caused by aging and by decreased insulin signaling, both of which result in less attractive females. On the other hand, changes in long-chain CHCs in response to the same diet result in levels that are comparable to those observed in attractive young females and females with increased insulin signaling. The effects of a high-sugar diet tend in the opposite direction, as levels of short-chain CHCs resemble those in attractive females with increased insulin signaling and changes in long-chain CHCs are similar to those caused by decreased insulin signaling. Together, these data suggest that diet-dependent changes in female CHCs may be sending conflicting messages to males.

  13. Cyclones and attractive streaming generated by acoustical vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2014-01-01

    Acoustical and optical vortices have attracted large interest due to their ability in capturing and manipulating particles with the use of the radiation pressure. Here we show that acoustical vortices can also induce axial vortical flow reminiscent of cyclones whose topology can be controlled by adjusting the properties of the acoustical beam. In confined geometry, the phase singularity enables generating attractive streaming with a flow directed toward the transducer. This opens perspectives for contact-less vortical flow control.

  14. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  15. A facial attractiveness account of gender asymmetries in interracial marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the US and UK, more Black men are married to White women than vice versa and there are more White men married to Asian women than vice versa. Models of interracial marriage, based on the exchange of racial status for other capital, cannot explain these asymmetries. A new explanation is offered based on the relative perceived facial attractiveness of the different race-by-gender groups. METHOD AND FINDINGS: This explanation was tested using a survey of perceived facial attractiveness. This found that Black males are perceived as more attractive than White or East Asian males whereas among females, it is the East Asians that are perceived as most attractive on average. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating these attractiveness patterns into the model of marriage decisions produces asymmetries in interracial marriage similar to those in the observed data in terms of direction and relative size. This model does not require differences in status between races nor different strategies based on gender. Predictions are also generated regarding the relative attractiveness of those engaging in interracial marriage.

  16. Attractive Flicker--Guiding Attention in Dynamic Narrative Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Manuela; Le Muzic, Mathieu; Bernhard, Matthias; Purgathofer, Werner; Viola, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Focus+context techniques provide visual guidance in visualizations by giving strong visual prominence to elements of interest while the context is suppressed. However, finding a visual feature to enhance for the focus to pop out from its context in a large dynamic scene, while leading to minimal visual deformation and subjective disturbance, is challenging. This paper proposes Attractive Flicker, a novel technique for visual guidance in dynamic narrative visualizations. We first show that flicker is a strong visual attractor in the entire visual field, without distorting, suppressing, or adding any scene elements. The novel aspect of our Attractive Flicker technique is that it consists of two signal stages: The first "orientation stage" is a short but intensive flicker stimulus to attract the attention to elements of interest. Subsequently, the intensive flicker is reduced to a minimally disturbing luminance oscillation ("engagement stage") as visual support to keep track of the focus elements. To find a good trade-off between attraction effectiveness and subjective annoyance caused by flicker, we conducted two perceptual studies to find suitable signal parameters. We showcase Attractive Flicker with the parameters obtained from the perceptual statistics in a study of molecular interactions. With Attractive Flicker, users were able to easily follow the narrative of the visualization on a large display, while the flickering of focus elements was not disturbing when observing the context.

  17. The Attraction Effect Modulates Reward Prediction Errors and Intertemporal Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Hotaling, Jared M; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2017-01-11

    Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle. We first demonstrate that intertemporal decision making is prone to the attraction effect in humans. In an independent group of participants, we then investigated how this affects the neural and behavioral valuation of outcomes using a novel intertemporal lottery task and fMRI. Participants' behavioral responses (i.e., satisfaction ratings) were modulated systematically by the attraction effect and this modulation was correlated across participants with the respective change of the RPE signal in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, we show that, because exponential and hyperbolic discounting models are unable to account for the attraction effect, recently proposed sequential sampling models might be more appropriate to describe intertemporal choices. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the attraction effect modulates subjective valuation even in the absence of choice. The findings also challenge the prospect of using neuroscientific methods to measure utility in a context-free manner and have important implications for theories of reinforcement learning and delay discounting.

  18. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  19. Beer Consumption Increases Human Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Elguero, Eric; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Costantini, Carlo; Thomas, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations) as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector) before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested) or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes). Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight) and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours). The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures. PMID:20209056

  20. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  1. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  2. Human nonindependent mate choice: is model female attractiveness everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakirtzis, Antonios; Roberts, S Craig

    2012-05-06

    Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners ('model females') into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive) model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits) by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  3. I find you more attractive … after (prefrontal cortex) stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Chiara; Lega, Carlotta; Tamietto, Marco; Nadal, Marcos; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2015-06-01

    Facial attractiveness seems to be perceived immediately. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the appraisal of facial attractiveness is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical regions, mainly encompassing the reward circuit, but also including prefrontal cortices. The prefrontal cortex is involved in high-level processes, so how does its activity relate to beauty appreciation? To shed light on this, we asked male and female participants to evaluate the attractiveness of faces of the same and other sex prior and after transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We found that increasing excitability via anodal tDCS in the right but not in the left DLPFC increased perceived attractiveness of the faces, irrespective of the sex of the faces or the sex of the viewers. Identical stimulation over the same site did not affect estimation of other facial characteristics, such as age, thereby suggesting that the effects of anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC might be selective for facial attractiveness, and might not generalize to decisions concerning other facial attributes. Overall, our data suggest that the right DLPFC plays a causal role in explicit judgment of facial attractiveness. The mechanisms mediating such effect are discussed.

  4. Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Latinus, Marianne; Bruckert, Laetitia; Rouger, Julien; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Social interactions involve more than "just" language. As important is a more primitive nonlinguistic mode of communication acting in parallel with linguistic processes and driving our decisions to a much higher degree than is generally suspected. Amongst the "honest signals" that influence our behavior is perceived vocal attractiveness. Not only does vocal attractiveness reflect important biological characteristics of the speaker, it also influences our social perceptions according to the "what sounds beautiful is good" phenomenon. Despite the widespread influence of vocal attractiveness on social interactions revealed by behavioral studies, its neural underpinnings are yet unknown. We measured brain activity while participants listened to a series of vocal sounds ("ah") and performed an unrelated task. We found that voice-sensitive auditory and inferior frontal regions were strongly correlated with implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness. While the involvement of auditory areas reflected the processing of acoustic contributors to vocal attractiveness ("distance to mean" and spectrotemporal regularity), activity in inferior prefrontal regions (traditionally involved in speech processes) reflected the overall perceived attractiveness of the voices despite their lack of linguistic content. These results suggest the strong influence of hidden nonlinguistic aspects of communication signals on cerebral activity and provide an objective measure of this influence.

  5. Beer consumption increases human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes. Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours. The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures.

  6. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  7. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  8. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  9. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  10. Does computer-synthesized speech manifest personality? Experimental tests of recognition, similarity-attraction, and consistency-attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, C; Lee, K M

    2001-09-01

    Would people exhibit similarity-attraction and consistency-attraction toward unambiguously computer-generated speech even when personality is clearly not relevant? In Experiment 1, participants (extrovert or introvert) heard a synthesized voice (extrovert or introvert) on a book-buying Web site. Participants accurately recognized personality cues in text to speech and showed similarity-attraction in their evaluation of the computer voice, the book reviews, and the reviewer. Experiment 2, in a Web auction context, added personality of the text to the previous design. The results replicated Experiment 1 and demonstrated consistency (voice and text personality)-attraction. To maximize liking and trust, designers should set parameters, for example, words per minute or frequency range, that create a personality that is consistent with the user and the content being presented.

  11. Identification and field evaluation of fermentation volatiles from wine and vinegar that mediate attraction of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Adams, Todd; Rogg, Helmuth; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that olfactory cues from damaged and fermented fruits play important roles in resource recognition of polyphagous spotted wing Drosophila flies (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). They are attracted to fermented sweet materials, such as decomposing fruits but also wines and vinegars, and to ubiquitous fermentation volatiles, such as acetic acid and ethanol. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two-choice laboratory bioassays, and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from wine and vinegar that are involved in SWD attraction. In addition to acetic acid and ethanol, consistent EAD responses were obtained for 13 volatile wine compounds and seven volatile vinegar compounds, with all of the vinegar EAD-active compounds also present in wine. In a field trapping experiment, the 9-component vinegar blend and 15-component wine blend were similarly attractive when compared to an acetic acid plus ethanol mixture, but were not as attractive as the wine plus vinegar mixture. In two-choice laboratory bioassays, 7 EAD-active compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, and ethyl sorbate), when added singly to the mixture at the same concentrations tested in the field, decreased the attraction of SWD to the mixture of acetic acid and ethanol. The blends composed of the remaining EAD-active chemicals, an 8-component wine blend [acetic acid + ethanol + acetoin + grape butyrate + methionol + isoamyl lactate + 2-phenylethanol + diethyl succinate] and a 5-component vinegar blend [acetic acid + ethanol + acetoin + grape butyrate + 2-phenylethanol] were more attractive than the acetic acid plus ethanol mixture, and as attractive as the wine plus vinegar mixture in both laboratory assays and the field trapping experiment. These results indicate that these

  12. Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-11-01

    Pseudacteon tricuspis, Pseudacteon obtusus and Pseudacteon curvatus are three species of parasitic phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae), which have been introduced as classical biological control agents of imported, Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the southern USA. Previous studies demonstrated the behavioral response of P. tricuspis to the venom alkaloids and alarm pheromone of the fire ant, S. invicta. In the present study, we compared the responses of P. tricuspis, P. obtusus and P. curvatus to Solenopsis invicta alarm pheromone, venom alkaloids, or a mixture of both chemicals in four-choice olfactometer bioassays. The main hypothesis tested was that the fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract Pseudacteon phorid flies. Both sexes of all three Pseudacteon species were attracted to low doses of the fire ant alarm pheromone or venom alkaloids (i.e. 1 ant worker equivalent) alone. However, the flies were significantly more attracted to a mixture of both chemicals (i.e., 1:1 mixture of alarm pheromone+alkaloids) than to either chemical. The results suggest an additive rather than a synergistic effect of combining both chemicals. Comparing the fly species, P. tricuspis showed relatively greater attraction to cis alkaloids, whereas the alkaloid mixture (cis+trans) was preferred by P. obtusus and P. curvatus. In general, no key sexual differences were recorded, although females of P. tricuspis and P. obtusus showed slightly higher response than conspecific males to lower doses of the alarm pheromone. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed, and a host location model is proposed for parasitic phorid flies involving the use of fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids as long range and short range attractants, respectively.

  13. FACTORS DETERMINING THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Avtsinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.In the article we can see relevance of the research aimed at creating a favorable investment climate in the country and its regions, as a necessary condition for solving the problems of modernization of industrial production, the introduction of scientific and technological progress in all spheres of public life, the implementation of large-scale social and productive programs. In the study we justify the theoretical principles and reveal the essence of the relationship concepts: investment climate, investment attractiveness and investment activity. It is proved that the investment attractiveness should be considered as a sign of factorial and important component of the investment climate in the region, and investment activity as a sign score. In the study we can see a wide range of factors shaping favorable conditions for investment activities. The author focuses on the importance of non-traditional factors shaping the investment attractiveness of such as reducing the time to connect to power grid, information communication, improvement of tax reporting procedures, clarity of customs work, the introduction of regulations for obtaining permits for construction of facilities and reducing the number of required documents. This article analyzes of the indices and the key factors of investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region, which attract investment, exceeding the national average. The main ones are the development of new industrial parks with good transport, engineering, business infrastructure. Investors in the region have favorable conditions to carry on business on the prepared sites with painted communications, junctions, allowing them to reduce production costs, while correspondingly increasing the investment attractiveness of the area. Success of the attracting investment in the Voronezh region is largely due to the introduction standard of the executive bodies of state power, including 15 documents designed to make the

  14. Gender Agreement Attraction in Russian: Production and Comprehension Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slioussar, Natalia; Malko, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Agreement attraction errors (such as the number error in the example "The key to the cabinets are rusty") have been the object of many studies in the last 20 years. So far, almost all production experiments and all comprehension experiments looked at binary features (primarily at number in Germanic, Romance, and some other languages, in several cases at gender in Romance languages). Among other things, it was noted that both in production and in comprehension, attraction effects are much stronger for some feature combinations than for the others: they can be observed in the sentences with singular heads and plural dependent nouns (e.g.,"The key to the cabinets…"), but not in the sentences with plural heads and singular dependent nouns (e.g., "The keys to the cabinet…"). Almost all proposed explanations of this asymmetry appeal to feature markedness, but existing findings do not allow teasing different approaches to markedness apart. We report the results of four experiments (one on production and three on comprehension) studying subject-verb gender agreement in Russian, a language with three genders. Firstly, we found attraction effects both in production and in comprehension, but, unlike in the case of number agreement, they were not parallel (in production, feminine gender triggered strongest effects, while neuter triggered weakest effects, while in comprehension, masculine triggered weakest effects). Secondly, in the comprehension experiments attraction was observed for all dependent noun genders, but only for a subset of head noun genders. This goes against the traditional assumption that the features of the dependent noun are crucial for attraction, showing the features of the head are more important. We demonstrate that this approach can be extended to previous findings on attraction and that there exists other evidence for it. In total, these findings let us reconsider the question which properties of features are crucial for agreement attraction in

  15. Moving attractive virtual agent improves interpersonal coordination stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong; Salesse, Robin N; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Schmidt, Richard C; Marin, Ludovic; Bardy, Benoît G

    2015-06-01

    Interpersonal motor coordination is influenced not only by biomechanical factors such as coordination pattern, oscillating frequency, and individual differences, but also by psychosocial factor such as likability and social competences. Based on the social stereotype of "what is beautiful is good", the present study aimed at investigating whether people coordinate differently with physically attractive people compared to less attractive people. 34 participants were engaged in an interpersonal coordination task with different looking (virtual) agents while performing at the same time a reaction time task. Results showed that participants had more stable motor coordination with the moving attractive than with the less attractive agent, and that the difference in motor coordination could not be interpreted by a specific attention allocation strategy. Our findings provide the evidence that physical attractiveness genuinely affects how people interact with another person, and that the temporal-spatial coordinated movement varies with the partner's psychosocial characteristics. The study broadens the perspective of exploring the effect of additional psychosocial factors on social motor coordination.

  16. Ontogeny of collective behavior reveals a simple attraction rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Robert C; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2017-02-13

    The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method to better discriminate among interaction rules, we propose to follow the slow birth of a rule of interaction during animal development. Specifically, we followed the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and found that larvae turn toward each other from 7 days postfertilization and increase the intensity of interactions until 3 weeks. This developmental dataset allows testing the parameter-free predictions of a simple rule in which animals attract each other part of the time, with attraction defined as turning toward another animal chosen at random. This rule makes each individual likely move to a high density of conspecifics, and moving groups naturally emerge. Development of attraction strength corresponds to an increase in the time spent in attraction behavior. Adults were found to follow the same attraction rule, suggesting a potential significance for adults of other species.

  17. An ERP study on decisions between attractive females and money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianmin; Wang, Yujiao; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the neural processes of decision-makings between attractive females and money, we recorded 18 male participants' brain event-related potentials (ERPs) when they performed a novel task of deciding between viewing an attractive female's fuzzy picture in clear and gaining a certain amount of money. Two types of attractive females were included: sexy females and beautiful females. Several new electrophysiological discoveries were obtained as following. First, the beautiful females vs. money task (task B) elicited a larger positive ERP deflection (P2) than the sexy females vs. money task (task S) between 290 and 340 ms, and this probably related to the perception matching process between a visual input and an internal representation or expectation. Second, task S evoked greater negative ERP waves (N2) than task B during the time window of 340-390 ms, and this might relate to response conflict and cognitive monitoring for impulsive tendency. Third, the ERP positivity in task S was larger than task B in the time interval of 550-1000 ms, reflecting that sexy female images may have higher decision value for males than beautiful female images. Fourth, compared with choosing to gain money, choosing to view an attractive female evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) during the same time window, possibly because attractive females are more direct and evolutionarily earlier rewards for males than money amounts.

  18. Ontogeny of collective behavior reveals a simple attraction rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Robert C.; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

    2017-01-01

    The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method to better discriminate among interaction rules, we propose to follow the slow birth of a rule of interaction during animal development. Specifically, we followed the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and found that larvae turn toward each other from 7 days postfertilization and increase the intensity of interactions until 3 weeks. This developmental dataset allows testing the parameter-free predictions of a simple rule in which animals attract each other part of the time, with attraction defined as turning toward another animal chosen at random. This rule makes each individual likely move to a high density of conspecifics, and moving groups naturally emerge. Development of attraction strength corresponds to an increase in the time spent in attraction behavior. Adults were found to follow the same attraction rule, suggesting a potential significance for adults of other species. PMID:28193864

  19. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  20. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  1. A Comparative Study on Different Baits Used to Attract House Fly in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available House flies are commonly found at homes and businesses in Malaysia. Many kinds of baits are used to attract and trap these flies either by mechanical or chemical means. But all these baits are not capable of attracting flies equally. The main goal of this study is to find out the best bait that can attract house fly effectively. Two baits made in abroad and four baits made in Malaysia were selected for conducting this study because these baits are commonly used in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out by using six selected baits in food industry, fish market and poultry farm in the east coast of Malaysia. Data were collected from the field experiments continuously for six days and analysed to determine the best bait that trap the house flies very effectively. Data analysis results show that the Chinese Electronic Fly Catcher bait is the best one for trapping house flies effectively compared to other baits. Further investigation is still underway to find the volatile compound used for this Chinese Electronic Fly Catcher bait, which will help to generate new bait with the same effect.

  2. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S.

    2011-01-01

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated. PMID:20943694

  3. Olfactory attraction of the hornet Vespa velutina to honeybee colony odors and pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Couto

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen, which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets' hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species.

  4. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-04-22

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated.

  5. Olfactory attraction of the hornet Vespa velutina to honeybee colony odors and pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets' hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species.

  6. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - An Effective and Attractive Analytical Chemical Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Nielsen, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    is subjected to in FI from the point of injection/introduction to the point of detection, which in turn allows suitable on-line pretreatments to be effected. The present paper will - via a number of selected examples - point to some of the potentials at hand, encompassing the use of FI as a suitable vehicle...

  7. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard S. Peperkoorn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (short-term vs. long-term mating. Experiment 1 involved Dutch participants rating a woman in red, white, and black on (sexual attractiveness. Experiment 2 replicated the first experiment with an American sample. In the final experiment, we aimed to replicate a study that did find evidence of a red effect, using a substantially larger sample size. The results from each of the three studies (totaling N = 830 men fail to support the red effect. We discuss the implications of our results and avenues for future research on red effects and attractiveness.

  8. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  9. The physical attractiveness stereotype in a consumer-related situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, H; Kanekar, S

    1994-06-01

    A mixed factorial design was used to examine the physical attractiveness stereotype in the context of consumer behavior, with physical attractiveness and clothing elegance as between-subjects variables and type of consumer product as a within-subject variable. Female graduate students in India were shown photographs of a young female model and were asked to indicate the quality of four consumer products that the model was likely to choose. Product quality was rated higher for the attractive model than for the plain (nonattractive) model, but the difference was significant only for beauty products. Product quality was rated higher for the elegantly dressed model than for the model who was not elegantly dressed, irrespective of product type.

  10. "Physical attractiveness stereotype" and the attribution of homosexuality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, J H; Francis, P L

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated whether subjects would perceive male and female faces as homosexual based upon facial attractiveness while statistically controlling for facial masculinity/femininity. Also of interest was the extent to which the subjects' gender and attitudes toward homosexuality would influence their perceptions. Eighty undergraduates indicated how likely they thought it was that six male and six female faces were homosexual. The targets were also rated on attractiveness and masculinity/femininity. The present sample also completed the Index of Homophobia, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Attitude Toward Women Scale, a conservatism scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The subjects assigned higher homosexuality ratings to the unattractive males and females compared to their attractive counterparts. Gender of subject and attitudes toward homosexuality did not significantly affect evaluations.

  11. Liquid 4He Adsorbed Films on Very Attractive Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek

    Adsorbed films of liquid 4He are analized, in the framework of Density Functional Theories (DF). In these systems, when the substrate becomes increasingly attractive, the thin films of 4He approaches the quasi-bidimensional limit. We study this strongly attractive substrate regime with two DF, the Orsay-Trento (OT) and a recent Hybrid proposal (Hyb), focusing in the energy behavior. It is showed that OT does not reproduce the correct limiting energy curve, and it implies that this functional could not provide reliable results for very strongly attractive substrates like Graphite (Gr). In other hand, with the Hyb DF, the correct energy behavior is found for the adsorption energy of 4He on Gr. These results show that OT should not be applied to quasi 2D (confinement) situations, and that Hyb DF provides a much more realistic description.

  12. Liquid 4He Adsorbed Films on Very Attractive Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek

    2006-09-01

    Adsorbed films of liquid 4He are analized, in the framework of Density Functional Theories (DF). In these systems, when the substrate becomes increasingly attractive, the thin films of 4He approaches the quasi-bidimensional limit. We study this strongly attractive substrate regime with two DF, the Orsay-Trento (OT) and a recent Hybrid proposal (Hyb), focusing in the energy behavior. It is showed that OT does not reproduce the correct limiting energy curve, and it implies that this functional could not provide reliable results for very strongly attractive substrates like Graphite (Gr). In other hand, with the Hyb DF, the correct energy behavior is found for the adsorption energy of 4He on Gr. These results show that OT should not be applied to quasi 2D (confinement) situations, and that Hyb DF provides a much more realistic description.

  13. A covalent attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG FangFang; WANG Yi; WANG BingQiang; WANG YinFeng; MA Fang; Li ZhiRu

    2009-01-01

    The optimized structure of the tetrathiafulvalence radical-cation dimer (TTF·~+-TTF·~+) with all-real frequencies is obtained at MP2/6-311G level,which exhibits the attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+.The new attraction interaction is a 20-center-2-electron intermolecular covalent π/π bonding with a telescope shape.The covalent π/π bonding has the bonding energy of about-21 kcal·mol~(-1) and is concealed by the Coulombic repulsion between two TTF·~+ cations.This intermolecular covalent attraction also influences the structure of the TTF·~+ subunit,I.e.,its molecular plane is bent by an angle θ=5.6°.This work provides new knowledge on intermolecular interaction.

  14. A covalent attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The optimized structure of the tetrathiafulvalence radical-cation dimer(TTF·+-TTF·+) with all-real frequencies is obtained at MP2/6-311G level,which exhibits the attraction between two molecular cation TTF·+.The new attraction interaction is a 20-center-2-electron intermolecular covalent π /π bonding with a telescope shape.The covalent π /π bonding has the bonding energy of about -21 kcal·mol-1 and is concealed by the Coulombic repulsion between two TTF·+ cations.This intermolecular covalent attraction also influences the structure of the TTF·+ subunit,i.e.,its molecular plane is bent by an angle θ=5.6°.This work provides new knowledge on intermolecular interaction.

  15. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  16. Thermodynamic curvature for attractive and repulsive intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Helge-Otmar; Mausbach, Peter; Ruppeiner, George

    2013-09-01

    The thermodynamic curvature scalar R for the Lennard-Jones system is evaluated in phase space, including vapor, liquid, and solid state. We paid special attention to the investigation of R along vapor-liquid, liquid-solid, and vapor-solid equilibria. Because R is a measure of interaction strength, we traced out the line R=0 dividing the phase space into regions with effectively attractive (R0) interactions. Furthermore, we analyzed the dependence of R on the strength of attraction applying a perturbation ansatz proposed by Weeks-Chandler-Anderson. Our results show clearly a transition from R>0 (for poorly repulsive interaction) to R<0 when loading attraction in the intermolecular potential.

  17. GDNF mediates glioblastoma-induced microglia attraction but not astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Min-Chi; Wolf, Susanne A; Respondek, Dorota; Matyash, Vitali; Pohlmann, Andreas; Waiczies, Sonia; Waiczies, Helmar; Niendorf, Thoralf; Synowitz, Michael; Glass, Rainer; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    High-grade gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their malignancy is promoted by the complex crosstalk between different cell types in the central nervous system. Microglia/brain macrophages infiltrate high-grade gliomas and contribute to their progression. To identify factors that mediate the attraction of microglia/macrophages to malignant brain tumors, we established a glioma cell encapsulation model that was applied in vivo. Mouse GL261 glioma cell line and human high-grade glioma cells were seeded into hollow fibers (HF) that allow the passage of soluble molecules but not cells. The glioma cell containing HF were implanted into one brain hemisphere and simultaneously HF with non-transformed fibroblasts (controls) were introduced into the contralateral hemisphere. Implanted mouse and human glioma- but not fibroblast-containing HF attracted microglia and up-regulated immunoreactivity for GFAP, which is a marker of astrogliosis. In this study, we identified GDNF as an important factor for microglial attraction: (1) GL261 and human glioma cells secret GDNF, (2) reduced GDNF production by siRNA in GL261 in mouse glioma cells diminished attraction of microglia, (3) over-expression of GDNF in fibroblasts promoted microglia attraction in our HF assay. In vitro migration assays also showed that GDNF is a strong chemoattractant for microglia. While GDNF release from human or mouse glioma had a profound effect on microglial attraction, the glioma-induced astrogliosis was not affected. Finally, we could show that injection of GL261 mouse glioma cells with GDNF knockdown by shRNA into mouse brains resulted in reduced tumor expansion and improved survival as compared to injection of control cells.

  18. Reducing the maladaptive attractiveness of solar panels to polarotactic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Kriska, György; Seres, István; Robertson, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    Human-made objects (e.g., buildings with glass surfaces) can reflect horizontally polarized light so strongly that they appear to aquatic insects to be bodies of water. Insects that lay eggs in water are especially attracted to such structures because these insects use horizontal polarization of light off bodies of water to find egg-laying sites. Thus, these sources of polarized light can become ecological traps associated with reproductive failure and mortality in organisms that are attracted to them and by extension with rapid population declines or collapse. Solar panels are a new source of polarized light pollution. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of different solar panels and in multiple-choice experiments in the field we tested their attractiveness to mayflies, caddis flies, dolichopodids, and tabanids. At the Brewster angle, solar panels polarized reflected light almost completely (degree of polarization d ≈ 100%) and substantially exceeded typical polarization values for water (d ≈ 30-70%). Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Trichoptera), dolichopodid dipterans, and tabanid flies (Tabanidae) were the most attracted to solar panels and exhibited oviposition behavior above solar panels more often than above surfaces with lower degrees of polarization (including water), but in general they avoided solar cells with nonpolarizing white borders and white grates. The highly and horizontally polarizing surfaces that had nonpolarizing, white cell borders were 10- to 26-fold less attractive to insects than the same panels without white partitions. Although solar panels can act as ecological traps, fragmenting their solar-active area does lessen their attractiveness to polarotactic insects. The design of solar panels and collectors and their placement relative to aquatic habitats will likely affect populations of aquatic insects that use polarized light as a behavioral cue.

  19. On Translation of Tourist Attractions of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程珂

    2015-01-01

    Tourism develops and improves quickly as the more communication with foreign countries. Seas of tourists from different backgrounds and cultures come to China for sightseeing. So the translation of tourist attractions is vital and essential. The qualities of translation of tourist attractions will make different impressions on tourists. Based on the current situation of scenic spots translation in Gansu Province, this thesis tries to analyze the existing problems on translation of the names from the persepective of functionalist theory, then some suggestions are proposed on how to revise and correct them.

  20. On Translation of Tourist Attractions of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程珂

    2015-01-01

    Tourism develops and improves quickly as the mor communication with foreign countries. Seas of tourists from different backgrounds and cultures come to China for sightseeing So the translation of tourist attractions is vital and essential. Th qualities of translation of tourist attractions will make differen impressions on tourists. Based on the current situation of sceni spots translation in Gansu Province, this thesis tries to analyz the existing problems on translation of the names from th persepective of functionalist theory, then some suggestions ar proposed on how to revise and correct them.

  1. Stability analysis of polarization attraction in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Turitsyn, K S

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear cross-polarization interaction among two intense counterpropagating beams in a span of lossless randomly birefringent telecom optical fiber may lead to the attraction an initially polarization scrambled signal towards wave with a well-defined state of polarization at the fiber output. By exploiting exact analytical solutions of the nonlinear polarization coupling process we carry out a linear stability study which reveals that temporally stable stationary solutions are only obtained whenever the output signal polarization is nearly orthogonal to the input pump polarization. Moreover, we predict that polarization attraction is acting in full strength whenever equally intense signal and pump waves are used.

  2. Hidden attraction the history and mystery of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit L

    1993-01-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion or as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction, Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nom

  3. Supplementation of male pheromone on rock substrates attracts female rock lizards to the territories of males: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals produce elaborated sexual signals to attract mates, among them are common chemical sexual signals (pheromones with an attracting function. Lizards produce chemical secretions for scent marking that may have a role in sexual selection. In the laboratory, female rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni prefer the scent of males with more ergosterol in their femoral secretions. However, it is not known whether the scent-marks of male rock lizards may actually attract females to male territories in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the field, we added ergosterol to rocks inside the territories of male lizards, and found that this manipulation resulted in increased relative densities of females in these territories. Furthermore, a higher number of females were observed associated to males in manipulated plots, which probably increased mating opportunities for males in these areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These and previous laboratory results suggest that female rock lizards may select to settle in home ranges based on the characteristics of scent-marks from conspecific males. Therefore, male rock lizards might attract more females and obtain more matings by increasing the proportion of ergosterol when scent-marking their territories. However, previous studies suggest that the allocation of ergosterol to secretions may be costly and only high quality males could afford it, thus, allowing the evolution of scent-marks as an honest sexual display.

  4. Relative attraction of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi to local flowering plants in the Dead Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Schlein, Yosef

    2011-03-01

    Sugar is the main source of energy for the daily activities of sand flies. Considering its importance, there is surprisingly little information on sugar meal specific sources and sand fly attraction to plants, particularly in the field. In this study, we first needed to develop an effective sand fly trap that would be suitable for mass screening of potentially attractive flowering plants. Next, we used this trap to screen a total of 56 different flowering plant species and five plant species soiled with different types of honeydew. The plant baited traps together caught 21,978 P. papatasi. Out of the 56 types of flowering plants which were tested, 13 were shown to bait significantly more female sand flies, and 11 baited more male sand flies than the control. Based on an attraction index, the top three attractive plants in this study were the flowering plants Ochradenus baccatus, Prosopis farcta, and Tamirix nilotica. We believe that plants and phyto-chemicals have untapped potentials to attract sand flies. These could be used for control and, in combination with simple glue traps, as an alternative for existing monitoring systems.

  5. Attractive forces study in macromolecules and critical systems; Etude des forces attractives dans les macromolecules et les systemes critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninckx-Sans, A.

    1995-07-10

    The attractive forces effect is particularly interesting at the proximity of a critical point. In a liquid system, there are two kinds of attractive forces in presence : the forces bound to the solution volume and those generated by the presence of the solution surface or by a solution interface. In the first case, the attractive forces are the more important as the system is in a critical field. For this study, the selected example is a polymer solution in a two solvents mixture. A formulation in terms of way integrals as part of statistical physics has lead us to find again some known results on the polymer chain conformation in the presence of two solvents (collapse of the polymer on itself) far from the critical point and to extend these results to the critical field. In the case of attractive forces created by the surface in some critical systems (polymer of infinite size in solution and binary mixture near the de mixture point), the adsorption profile created by the attraction of one specie by the surface, follows a scale law. The optical methods usually used for the study of these systems do not give characteristic sign of concentration profile in power law. In the case where the interaction potential between radiation and matter is attractive, the reflectivity gives a separate mark of the existence of the scale law in the form of a resonance. After some theoretical forecasts, the author has used this method on the binary mixture methanol-cyclohexane in order to reveal experimentally a reflectivity pseudo-discontinuity and then the existence of the power law in the critical adsorption profile. (O.L.). 69 refs., 60 tabs.

  6. Attracted to power: challenge/threat and promotion/prevention focus differentially predict the attractiveness of group power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Annika; Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Depending on their motivation, individuals prefer different group contexts for social interactions. The present research sought to provide more insight into this relationship. More specifically, we tested how challenge/threat and a promotion/prevention focus predict attraction to groups with high- or low-power. As such, we examined differential outcomes of threat and prevention focus as well as challenge and promotion focus that have often been regarded as closely related. According to regulatory focus, individuals should prefer groups that they expect to "feel right" for them to join: Low-power groups should be more attractive in a prevention (than a promotion) focus, as these groups suggest security-oriented strategies, which fit a prevention focus. High-power groups should be more attractive in a promotion (rather than a prevention) focus, as these groups are associated with promotion strategies fitting a promotion focus (Sassenberg et al., 2007). In contrast, under threat (vs. challenge), groups that allow individuals to restore their (perceived) lack of control should be preferred: Low-power groups should be less attractive under threat (than challenge) because they provide low resources which threatened individuals already perceive as insufficient and high-power groups might be more attractive under threat (than under challenge), because their high resources allow individuals to restore control. Two experiments (N = 140) supported these predictions. The attractiveness of a group often depends on the motivation to engage in what fits (i.e., prefer a group that feels right in the light of one's regulatory focus). However, under threat the striving to restore control (i.e., prefer a group allowing them to change the status quo under threat vs. challenge) overrides the fit effect, which may in turn guide individuals' behavior in social interactions.

  7. Scaling of foreign attractiveness for countries and states

    CERN Document Server

    Bojic, Iva; Ratti, Carlo; Sobolevsky, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    People's behavior on online social networks, which store geo-tagged information showing where people were or are at the moment, can provide information about their offline life as well. In this paper we present one possible research direction that can be taken using Flickr dataset of publicly available geo-tagged media objects (e.g., photographs, videos). Namely, our focus is on investigating attractiveness of countries or smaller large-scale composite regions (e.g., US states) for foreign visitors where attractiveness is defined as the absolute number of media objects taken in a certain state or country by its foreign visitors compared to its population size. We also consider it together with attractiveness of the destination for the international migration, measured through publicly available dataset provided by United Nations. By having those two datasets, we are able to look at attractiveness from two different perspectives: short-term and long-term one. As our previous study showed that city attractivene...

  8. Attracting and Retaining Teachers: A Question of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Karin; Alliata, Roberta; Benninghoff, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Attracting and retaining competent teachers is a key concern when it comes to managing the supply and demand for teachers. This article examines the motivation that prompts people to enter or leave the teaching profession with the aim of identifying a decision framework for defining teacher policies. The results are based on the teacher workforce…

  9. Ammonia as a component of fruit fly attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Ana...

  10. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in northern Florida, revealed that linalool was synergistic in attractiveness with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to the migratory moth velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). This noctuid was the most common species collected from traps w...

  11. Physical Attractiveness and Health: Comment on Weeden and Sabini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Moller, Anders P.; Manning, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary behavioral biology suggests that certain characteristics of the human face and body are important for mate preferences and are therefore subject to sexual selection. J. Weeden and J. Sabini identify a number of weaknesses in the association between traits' attractiveness and health. In contrast, the authors argue that (a) studies on…

  12. Probing the basins of attraction of a recurrent neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Heerema; W.A. van Leeuwen

    2000-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the weights $w_{ij}(b)$ of the connections of a recurrent neural network are found by taking explicitly into account basins of attraction, the size of which is characterized by a basin parameter $b$. It is shown that a network with $b \

  13. The use of flowering plants to attract Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    New approaches to vector surveillance and control are being evaluated at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. One approach is to use flowering plants. Mosquitoes of both sexes are attracted to nectar producing plants. These plants generate mixture...

  14. On the attractive plasma-charge system in 2-d

    CERN Document Server

    Caprino, Silvia; Miot, Evelyne; Pulvirenti, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We study a positively charged Vlasov-Poisson plasma in which N negative point charges are immersed. The attractiveness of the system forces us to consider a possibly unbounded plasma density near the charges. We prove the existence of a global in time solution, assuming a suitable initial distribution of the velocities of the plasma particles. Uniqueness remains unsolved.

  15. The influence of planetary attractions on the solar tachocline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callebaut, D.K.; de Jager, C.; Duhau, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a physical analysis of the occasionally forwarded hypothesis that solar variability, as shown in the various photospheric and outer solar layer activities, might be due to the Newtonian attraction by the planets. We calculate the planetary forces exerted on the tachocline and thereby not

  16. Contrasting effects of nanoparticle-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Slaven; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been experimentally found to either promote or inhibit amyloid aggregation of proteins, but the molecular mechanisms for such complex behaviors remain unknown. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the effects of varying the strength of nonspecific NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation of a model protein, the amyloid-beta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, with increasing NP-peptide attraction, amyloid aggregation on the NP surface was initially promoted due to increased local protein concentration on the surface and destabilization of the folded state. However, further increase of NP-peptide attraction decreased the stability of amyloid fibrils and reduced their lateral diffusion on the NP surface necessary for peptide conformational changes and self-association, thus prohibiting amyloid aggregation. Moreover, we found that the relative concentration between protein and NPs also played an important role in amyloid aggregation. With a high NP/protein ratio, NPs that intrinsically promote protein aggregation may display an inhibitive effect by depleting the proteins in solution while having a low concentration of the proteins on each NP's surface. Our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study offers a molecular mechanism for delineating the contrasting and seemingly conflicting effects of NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation and highlights the potential of tailoring anti-aggregation nanomedicine against amyloid diseases.

  17. Similarity Attracts: An Analysis of Recruitment Decisions in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebken, Heinke

    2010-01-01

    The finding and the recruiting of scientists have been a long-standing issue in higher education. Due to the dearth of reliable evidence on scholarly potential at an early stage of a scientist's career, the hiring department often has to look for alternative assessment criteria. Drawing on the similarity-attraction theory, it is hypothesized that…

  18. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  19. Riddled Basins of Attraction for Synchronized Type-I Intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancher, Martin; Nordahn, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1998-01-01

    Chaotic mortion resticted to an invariant subspace of total phase space may be associated with basins of attraction that are riddled with holes belonging to the basin of another limiting state. We study the emergence of such basins of two coupled one-dimensional maps, each exhibiting type...

  20. The Attraction of Adjunct Faculty to Rural Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Hara Dracon

    2010-01-01

    As rural community colleges face mounting fiscal pressure, the ability to attract adjunct faculty members to support the institutional mission becomes increasingly important. Although the professional literature documents differences between rural, suburban, and urban community colleges, the effect of this institutional diversity on the role and…

  1. Attraction of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) to colored light

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most devasting disease of citrus, huanglongbing (HLB), is spread by the insect vector the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). Although ACP are known to respond to visual cues, previous studies have not documented the specific wavelengths of light attractive to ACP. The objectives of this study were to...

  2. Is visual attention automatically attracted to one's own name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, C; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Houmann, K J;

    1997-01-01

    Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (tar......, visual attention was not automatically attracted by the subject's own name....

  3. Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity: Implications for Stereotyping and Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Cookie White; Langlois, Judith H.

    1980-01-01

    In response to color slides of second grade children, 131 university students rated the children's physical attractiveness. Data suggest that the societal stereotype of black Americans was present in the evaluation of black children by black adults. Some indication of ethnocentrism among Anglo and Mexican-American adults was found. (Author/RH)

  4. Effects of Certain Counselor Behaviors on Perceived Expertness and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects and relative contribution of three counselor behaviors (nonverbal behavior, jargon, and attire) on perceived expertise and attractiveness. Results revealed that all three independent variables significantly affected the two rated dimensions. Nonverbal behavior accounted for most of the variance and differentially affected ratings…

  5. Accounting and evaluation of investment attractiveness of enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Vandrikova

    2014-01-01

    Accounting and evaluation of investment привлекательности предприятий The article is devoted to the development of theoretical and methodological principles of accounting and analytical support for evaluation of investment attractiveness predpriyatiya.

  6. To the problem of attraction of horror films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusak K. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to very interesting problem – problem of attraction of horror films. The authors disclose the reasons of appeal of horror films from the different viewpoints: viewpoint of physiology, viewpoint of Kierkegaard’s philosophy of fear, viewpoint of psychoanalytic theory and viewpoint of the philosophy of postmodernism.

  7. SYSTEM OF ATTRACTING INVESTMENTS IN THE KALUGA REGION ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Kostin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main conditions and factors which allowed regional authorities to create an effective system of the attraction of foreign investments. Besides, the author notes the disadvantages of regional authorities’ investment policy and proves the need of their removal.

  8. Physical Attractiveness, Dating Behavior, and Implications for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Constance Lizotte; Reever, Joy Bennett

    1979-01-01

    Examined which of two sociological theories of dating preference was more powerful in predicting women's actual dating frequency. The theories tested were Waller's theory, which emphasizes physical attractiveness, and Blood's theory, which emphasizes personality. Evidence supported Waller's theory. Discussion and implications for women and…

  9. Children's Physical Attractiveness and Sex as Determinants of Adult Punitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.

    1974-01-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of a child's physical attractiveness and sex as potential elicitors of differential adult punitiveness. Assessed were the reactions of 40 women and 44 men. Results reveal differences in men's and women's reactions and suggest differences in their orientation towards children's task behavior. (Author/SDH)

  10. Sexual Attraction and Romantic Love: Forgotten Variables in Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses lack of attention in marriage therapy literature to romantic love and sexual attraction. Notes that few guidelines are available to therapists concerning how to deal with love as an issue in therapy. Presents model based on assumption that marriage problems are emotional in nature and that success of marital therapists depends upon skill…

  11. Do Less Regulated Markets Attract Lower Quality Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    , the delisting and valuation pattern is the same across markets, whereas AIM listed firms raise relatively more capital. Thus, rather than catering to low quality firms seeking to conceal their type, the AIM market attracts small firms that - due to size - face disproportional regulatory costs, but are otherwise...

  12. QUANTUM SIZE EFFECTS IN THE ATTRACTIVE HUBBARD-MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BORMANN, D; SCHNEIDER, T; FRICK, M

    1992-01-01

    We investigate superconducting pair correlations in the attractive Hubbard model on a finite square lattice. Our aim is to understand the pronounced size dependence which they display in the weak and intermediate coupling regimes. These size effects originate from the electronic shell structure of f

  13. Sexual attraction and inter-sexual dominance among virtual agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.; Moss, S.; Davidsson, P.

    2001-01-01

    In many group-living primates, males are dominant over females, but despite this dominance, they allow females access to resources during the period when females are sexually attractive - but only then and not otherwise. Conventionally, such male 'courtesy' is explained as a special strategy to gain

  14. Female appearance: facial and bodily attractiveness as shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATRIN SCHAEFER

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Human physical attractiveness is supposed to reflect developmental stability (i.e. the ability of individuals to maintain stable development of their morphology under a given environmental condition and physiological status. Hence, evolutionary psychologists have suggested that appearance may not only reveal so called ‘honest signals’ but even comprise a single ornament of mate value. However, it is still a matter of debate which physical features affect the ratings of female beauty, and whether these features are truly associated with aspects of developmental and physiological status. Here we present morphometric data of images of faces and bodies from 92 women together with ratings of attractiveness by 60 men. A total of 101 somatometric landmarks were digitized as two-dimensional coordinates from three views: facial, front and back full-body view. These image sets were analyzed separately by means of geometric morphometric methodology (GMM. Attractiveness ratings of the face and body were significantly associated with both (i the amount of fluctuating asymmetry (as a measure of developmental stability, and (ii specific localized shape differences in regions of known estrogen sensitivity. The results support the notion that ratings of women’s physical attractiveness are indeed based on indicators of developmental stability and physiological status.

  15. Interpersonal Attraction and Machiavellianism: A Study of Roommate Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Marc; Thew, Karen

    The study attempts to test hypotheses derived from the model of interpersonal attraction suggested by Kerckhoff and Davis, who investigated the issue of need complementarity versus similarity in their longitudinal research upon couples who were engaged or otherwise seriously attached and who proposed that homogamy in social attributes is…

  16. Innovation: Attracting and Retaining the Best of the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    with the new market environment and global economy . It must attract industries for which DoD is at best one of a number of potential market...specialists, Uber car services vs. the highly regulated taxi industry, and the already mentioned Netflix DVDs vs. Blockbuster Video, and then Netflix DVDs vs

  17. Simulation of the Investment Attractiveness of Science in a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Tarasyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the variable and disproportionate funding of science in the Russian economy. The paper is focused on the analysis of the Russian financial flows into scientific research and development. The paper explains the dynamics of the main investment flows trends into research and development, highlights the causes of financial flows variable dynamics directed to the high-tech industry. In the work, the investment situation in the Russian market was compared with the foreign experience. The genesis of the optimal financial distribution problems showed the need to develop a dynamic model with the built-in differential equations to forecast the behavioral dynamics of investment flows. We selected the statistical indicators, which have a significant impact on the dynamics of investment flows directed into science. To assess the dynamics of investment flows, we have developed a methodology, which provides a cumulative assessment of the territory investment attractiveness. The multifactor integral estimation allows to describe a data array, reflecting the accumulation of investment attractiveness over time depending on the dynamics of the resultant socio-economic proportional indexes. Due to the accumulation of a data array over time using a differential equation, it is possible to obtain a forecast of the volume of the territory investment attractiveness. The amount of the projected investment flows depends directly on the amount of the investment attractiveness accumulated for the previous step of model’s time. The integrated assessment of the investment attractiveness of the scientific sector in the region allows to reveal the investors preference of the regions with a high concentration of research institutions and higher education institutes.

  18. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  19. RESEARCH NOTE WCA repulsive and attractive contributions to the thermodynamic properties at the vapour-liquid equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; Mulero, A.; Faundez, C. A.

    The Lennard-Jones attractive and repulsive contributions of intermolecular forces (as separated in the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) theory) to the pressure and chemical potential of coexisting vapour and liquid phases are obtained by using an equation of state recently proposed by us. Some comments are given about the computer simulation results obtained by Plackov and Sadus (1997, Fluid Phase Equilib., 134, 77) using the McQuarrie-Katz separation of the intermolecular potential.

  20. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  1. Dissipative relativistic standard map: Periodic attractors and basins of attraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Boon Leong [Monash University, School of Engineering, Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: lan.boon.leong@eng.monash.edu.my; Yapp, Clarence [Monash University, School of Engineering, Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-09-15

    The dissipative relativistic standard map, introduced by Ciubotariu et al. [Ciubotariu C, Badelita L, Stancu V. Chaos in dissipative relativistic standard maps. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1253-67.], is further studied numerically for small damping in the resonant case. We find that the attractors are all periodic; their basins of attraction have fractal boundaries and are closely interwoven. The number of attractors increases with decreasing damping. For a very small damping, there are thousands of periodic attractors, comprising mostly of the lowest-period attractors of period one or two; the basin of attraction of these lowest-period attractors is significantly larger compared to the basins of the higher-period attractors.

  2. Improving self-esteem by improving physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, G L

    1997-01-01

    Many characteristics comprise a person's personality: achievement orientation, interest to be sociable, aggressiveness, need for order, disposition, and so on. One of the most important personality characteristics in every person's life is self-esteem, which can be defined in terms of cognitive generalizations derived from past experiences. Since people are not isolated from their environment, a person's experiences impact his or her self-esteem. Since a person's physical attractiveness is known to be a major factor in his or her experiences, it is logical (as well as empirically documented) to be a substantial influence on self-esteem. The research shows that improving a physical trait improves attitude, personality, and self-esteem. Likewise, improving physical attractiveness improves interpersonal interactions. These more positive interactions are internalized intrapersonally (within a person), with direct, corresponding impact on the person's self-esteem.

  3. Experimental Evidence for the Attraction of Matter by Electromagnetic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lidgren, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We present measurement results demonstrating that a conducting lead sphere exposed to electromagnetic (e/m) waves in the infrared (IR) regime, is attracted by e/m waves. The result may seem surprising and against conventional wisdom that electromagnetic wave forcing should lead to a repulsive force. Nonetheless, all our experiments show that the attractive force can be determined quantitatively, and that they are reproducible. Our experiment setup is a Cavendish torsion-balance experiment with lead spheres, one of the spheres intermittently irradiated by IR light. Because the Cavendish experiment is well known, simple, and readily available, the results can be easily verified or falsified. However, to avoid Bernoulli and other external forcing effects, the entire experimental setup should be placed in a vacuum chamber. In our case the experiments were performed at \\approx 4 \\cdot 10^-7 mbar. One of the 20 g lead spheres was intermittently irradiated by infrared radiation from a lamp covered by an aluminium fo...

  4. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar HA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

  5. Oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Lihe

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system. The convective part of this system changes its type when crossing a parabola in the phase space. The oscillatory nature of the traveling wave comes from the fact that one far-field state is in the elliptic region and another in the hyperbolic region. Such traveling wave solutions are shown to be linearly unstable. Detailed construction of some traveling wave solutions is presented.

  6. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    between treatment and observation period (Paverage daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight...... and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area...

  7. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction. In......, the frequency bias point, and the distance between the fixed end of the cantilever and the sample. These points of instability can result in disturbances during image acquisition on hard elastic surfaces. ©1997 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone.

  9. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating app...

  10. SIMPLE FLUID IN AN ATTRACTIVE, DISORDERED POLYDISPERSE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Patsahan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the replica Ornstein-Zernike (ROZ equations is applied to the study of the structural properties of a Lennard-Jones fluid confined in an attractive polydisperse disordered matrix. The ROZ equations in combination with the orthogonal polynomial expansions for the correlation functions are used. The radial distribution functions are calculated for the adsorbed fluid at different temperatures. The effect of matrix polydispersity on the excess internal energy is considered in our study as well.

  11. Cross-channel effects of vocal and physical attractiveness and their implications for interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, M; Miyake, K; Hodgins, H S

    1991-04-01

    Judges' ratings of senders' vocal attractiveness from face-plus-voice (F+V) cues were influenced by senders' physical attractiveness, and ratings of senders' physical attractiveness from F+V cues were influenced by senders' vocal attractiveness. This occurred even when judges were warned not to pay attention to face when rating vocal attractiveness and not to pay attention to voice when rating physical attractiveness. Instructions to judge attractiveness without being told which channel to attend to resulted in ratings influenced by both vocal and physical attractiveness of senders. Because of cross-channel effects, F+V attractiveness ratings should be more highly related to F+V personality impressions than attractiveness ratings based on only face or only voice. The results supported this hypothesis. Implications of cross-channel effects for research on the attractiveness stereotype were discussed.

  12. Preliminary Evidence that the Limbal Ring Influences Facial Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Peshek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbal ring of the eye appears as a dark annulus where the iris meets the sclera. Both width and opacity of the limbal ring are influenced by iris pigmentation and optical properties of the region. With age the limbal ring becomes less prominent, making it a probabilistic indicator of youth and health. This raises the question: Are judgments of facial attractiveness sensitive to this signal in a potentially adaptive way? Here we show that the answer is yes. For male and female observers, both male and female faces with a dark and distinct limbal ring are rated as more attractive than otherwise identical faces with no limbal ring. This result is observed not just for upright faces but also for inverted faces, suggesting that the limbal ring is processed primarily as a local feature rather than as a configural feature in the analysis of facial beauty. We also discuss directions for future research that can clarify the role of the limbal ring in the visual perception of facial attractiveness.

  13. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Carney, Dana R

    2016-04-12

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate.

  14. USING BRANDING TO ATTRACT, RECRUIT, AND RETAIN TALENTED STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this environment in continuous changing it is hard for organizations toattract and maintain the best candidates. The organizations use manymethods to recruit and hire, but now it is time to use the organization’s brandto attract talents the organization would like. This article will define theemployer brand as the organization’s image, as an exceptional place to workin the minds of the current employees as well as potential candidates, clients,customers, and stakeholders. The case study is made in six largeorganizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and describes how to usethe organization’s brand to attract, retain, and engage the people it needs. Imade a survey and the data collected I putted them in a model of analyzeand can be applied to any organization which wants to find out if it is usingcorrectly its strong powers to attract and retain the best candidates. Theemployer brand is the value proposition that organization conveys itsemployees and the external labor market. Great organizations create such astrong brand that it draws the talent to them rather than having to spendsignificant time and money on selling the organization to the talent market.Many benefits in the recruiting world are provided by a strong employmentbrand.

  15. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来文; 李椿萱

    2001-01-01

    A general theory of Van der Waals forces developed by Lifshitz based on quantum electrodynamics theory is applied in the range Rλ0 (where the Casimir effects may be neglected) to construct Van der Waals attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules in rarefied media in order that the effective attractive potential between the like-molecules (including the repeat units) is offered. A closed form solution for the integral formulation of the attractive potential between like-particles is first obtained based on certain assumptions made in this work. On the basis of the theory of electric polarization, the derived expression in terms of bulk properties is then compared with the well-known London formula, the former differs from the latter only by the factor (4)/(π)or (4)/(π)(ε∞+2)/(3)2. The validity of the effective potential can be verified by testing cases composed of several types of dielectric materials. The computed results are presented in this paper, and comparisons with the results computed by London dispersion formula, as well as the recommended values in virtue of the experimental and theoretical techniques, are also presented. The effective potential of polyethylene is also computed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model, and it is found that the computed well depth fall within a reasonable range of accuracy.

  16. Redness Enhances Perceived Aggression, Dominance and Attractiveness in Men's Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a range of non-human primate, bird and fish species, the intensity of red coloration in males is associated with social dominance, testosterone levels and mate selection. In humans too, skin redness is associated with health, but it is not known whether – as in non-human species – it is also associated with dominance and links to attractiveness have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we allow female participants to manipulate the CIELab a* value (red-green axis of skin to maximize the perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness of photographs of men's faces, and make two findings. First, participants increased a* (increasing redness to enhance each attribute, suggesting that facial redness is perceived as conveying similar information about a male's qualities in humans as it does in non-human species. Second, there were significant differences between trial types: the highest levels of red were associated with aggression, an intermediate level with dominance, and the least with attractiveness. These differences may reflect a trade-off between the benefits of selecting a healthy, dominant partner and the negative consequences of aggression.

  17. Redness enhances perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness in men's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Oldham, Francesca H; Perrett, David I; Barton, Robert A

    2012-08-17

    In a range of non-human primate, bird and fish species, the intensity of red coloration in males is associated with social dominance, testosterone levels and mate selection. In humans too, skin redness is associated with health, but it is not known whether--as in non-human species--it is also associated with dominance and links to attractiveness have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we allow female participants to manipulate the CIELab a* value (red-green axis) of skin to maximize the perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness of photographs of men's faces, and make two findings. First, participants increased a* (increasing redness) to enhance each attribute, suggesting that facial redness is perceived as conveying similar information about a male's qualities in humans as it does in non-human species. Second, there were significant differences between trial types: the highest levels of red were associated with aggression, an intermediate level with dominance, and the least with attractiveness. These differences may reflect a trade-off between the benefits of selecting a healthy, dominant partner and the negative consequences of aggression.

  18. Cuelure but not zingerone make the sex pheromone of male Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae: Diptera) more attractive to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more

  19. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p greywater after two days of storage with reductions of 62% and 55%, respectively. A significant (p greywater after seven days of storage.

  20. Synthetic grape volatiles attract mated Lobesia botrana females in laboratory and field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    In laboratory experiments, we identified and quantified volatiles emitted by inflorescences and berries of two grape varieties (Trebbiano and Sangiovese) and examined the effects of the volatiles on oviposition by the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana. Compared to Trebbiano, Sangiovese is relatively more susceptible to L. botrana infestations under natural conditions. Chemical and electrophysiological analysis indicated only quantitative differences between the volatiles released by the two varieties. In a dual-choice oviposition bioassay based only on volatile cues, females did not show any preference between the two varieties. The six major components of the odor profiles that were GC-EAD-active to female antennae included: limonene, 4,8-dimethyl-1,(E)-3,7-nonatriene, (+/-)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and methyl salicylate. At the beginning of the berry touch phenological stage, their proportions were about 10:0.6:0.4:0.5:0.9:0.6 in Trebbiano and 10:1:0.4:1.5:0.4:0.3 in Sangiovese. A six-component synthetic lure (with the proportion 10:1:1:1:1:1, which approximated the ratio of components released by both varieties) was used in further laboratory oviposition bioassays. Depending on its dosage, the synthetic lure either attracted or repelled oviposition. L. botrana females laid significantly more eggs in the presence of either the grape bunches or the synthetic lure at the attractive dosage. In a release-capture experiment conducted in a field cage that covered two grapevine rows, the synthetic lure was more attractive than a grape cluster or a blank control, and it stimulated oviposition on the vegetation near the lure. The results indicate that L. botrana uses olfactory cues to select oviposition sites and that an artificial lure, containing the major volatiles released by two grape varieties, may be useful in monitoring female activity in the field.

  1. Chemical communication: a jewel sheds light on signal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-05-06

    When others show sexy tails or sing elaborate songs, many animals use the language of chemistry to attract potential mates. A study provides insights into the evolutionary conundrum of how new chemical signals can evolve in an established communication system.

  2. Fatal attraction phenomenon in humans: cat odour attractiveness increased for toxoplasma-infected men while decreased for infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes in olfactory functions have been searched for in them. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-four Toxoplasma-infected and 134 noninfected students rated the odour of urine samples from cat, horse, tiger, brown hyena and dog for intensity and pleasantness. The raters were blind to their infection status and identity of the samples. No signs of changed sensitivity of olfaction were observed. However, we found a strong, gender dependent effect of toxoplasmosis on the pleasantness attributed to cat urine odour (p = 0.0025. Infected men rated this odour as more pleasant than did the noninfected men, while infected women rated the same odour as less pleasant than did noninfected women. Toxoplasmosis did not affect how subjects rated the pleasantness of any other animal species' urine odour; however, a non-significant trend in the same directions was observed for hyena urine. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of the effects of toxoplasmosis on the odour pleasantness score attributed to large cats would suggest that the amino acid felinine could be responsible for the fatal attraction phenomenon. Our results also raise the possibility that the odour-specific threshold deficits observed in schizophrenia patients could be caused by increased prevalence of Toxoplasma-infected subjects in this population rather than by schizophrenia itself. The trend observed with the hyena urine sample suggests that this carnivore, and other representatives of the Feliformia suborder, should be studied

  3. 40 CFR 503.15 - Operational standards-pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vector attraction reduction. 503.15 Section 503.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 503.15 Operational standards—pathogens and vector attraction reduction. (a) Pathogens—sewage sludge... reclamation site. (c) Vector attraction reduction—sewage sludge. (1) One of the vector attraction...

  4. Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Mattias; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2009-08-07

    Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

  5. Ants are less attracted to the extrafloral nectar of plants with symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godschalx, Adrienne L; Schädler, Martin; Trisel, Julie A; Balkan, Mehmet A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Plants simultaneously maintain mutualistic relationships with different partners that are connected through the same host, but do not interact directly. One or more participating mutualists may alter their host's phenotype, resulting in a shift in the host's ecological interactions with all other mutualists involved. Understanding the functional interplay of mutualists associated with the same host remains an important challenge in biology. Here, we show belowground nitrogen-fixing rhizobia on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) alter their host plant's defensive mutualism with aboveground ants. We induced extrafloral nectar (EFN), an indirect defense acting through ant attraction. We also measured various nutritive and defensive plant traits, biomass, and counted ants on rhizobial and rhizobia-free plants. Rhizobia increased plant protein as well as cyanogenesis, a direct chemical defense against herbivores, but decreased EFN. Ants were significantly more attracted to rhizobia-free plants, and our structural equation model shows a strong link between rhizobia and reduced EFN as well as between EFN and ants: the sole path to ant recruitment. The rhizobia-mediated effects on simultaneously expressed defensive plant traits indicate rhizobia can have significant bottom-up effects on higher trophic levels. Our results show belowground symbionts play a critical and underestimated role in determining aboveground mutualistic interactions.

  6. Ovulatory shifts in women's attractions to primary partners and other men: further evidence of the importance of primary partner sexual attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Larson

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented shifts in women's attractions to their romantic partner and to men other than their partner across the ovulation cycle, contingent on the degree to which her partner displays hypothesized indicators of high-fitness genes. The current study set out to replicate and extend this finding. Forty-one couples in which the woman was naturally cycling participated. Female partners reported their feelings of in-pair attraction and extra-pair attraction on two occasions, once on a low-fertility day of the cycle and once on a high-fertility day of the cycle just prior to ovulation. Ovulation was confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests. We collected two measures of male partner sexual attractiveness. First, the women in the study rated their partner's sexual attractiveness. Second, we photographed the partners and had the photos independently rated for attractiveness. Shifts in women's in-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by women's ratings of partner sexual attractiveness, such that the less sexually attractive women rated their partner, the less in-pair attraction they reported at high fertility compared with low fertility (partial r = .37, p(dir = .01. Shifts in women's extra-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by third-party ratings of partner attractiveness, such that the less attractive the partner was, the more extra-pair attraction women reported at high relative to low fertility (partial r = -.33, p(dir = .03. In line with previous findings, we found support for the hypothesis that the degree to which a woman's romantic partner displays indicators of high-fitness genes affects women's attractions to their own partner and other men at high fertility.

  7. Genetic variation in plant volatile emission does not result in differential attraction of natural enemies in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Hunter, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission by plants may serve as an adaptive plant defense by attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. For plant VOC emission to evolve as an adaptive defense, plants must show genetic variability for the trait. To date, such variability has been investigated primarily in agricultural systems, yet relatively little is known about genetic variation in VOCs emitted by natural populations of native plants. Here, we investigate intraspecific variation in constitutive and herbivore-induced plant VOC emission using the native common milkweed plant (Asclepias syriaca) and its monarch caterpillar herbivore (Danaus plexippus) in complementary field and common garden greenhouse experiments. In addition, we used a common garden field experiment to gauge natural enemy attraction to milkweed VOCs induced by monarch damage. We found evidence of genetic variation in the total constitutive and induced concentrations of VOCs and the composition of VOC blends emitted by milkweed plants. However, all milkweed genotypes responded similarly to induction by monarchs in terms of their relative change in VOC concentration and blend. Natural enemies attacked decoy caterpillars more frequently on damaged than on undamaged milkweed, and natural enemy visitation was associated with higher total VOC concentrations and with VOC blend. Thus, we present evidence that induced VOCs emitted by milkweed may function as a defense against herbivores. However, plant genotypes were equally attractive to natural enemies. Although milkweed genotypes diverge phenotypically in their VOC concentrations and blends, they converge into similar phenotypes with regard to magnitude of induction and enemy attraction.

  8. Shielded attractive shell model again: resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reščič, J.; Kalyuzhnyi, Y. V.; Cummings, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    The approach developed earlier to describe the dimerizing shielded attractive shell (SAS) primitive model of chemical association due to Cummings and Stell is generalized and extended to include a description of a polymerizing SAS model. Our extension is based on the combination of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (RTPT-CF) associating potential and self consistent scheme, which takes into account the changes in the system free volume due to association. Theoretical results for thermodynamical properties of the model at different bonding length, density and temperature are compared against newly generated computer simulation results. The theory gives very accurate predictions for the model with bonding length L * from the range 0  <  L *  <  0.6 at all values of the density and temperature studied, including the limit of infinitely large temperature.

  9. 3-pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti Liguori, Pablo; Zerba, Eduardo; Alzogaray, Raul A; Gonzalez Audino, Paola

    2008-11-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus mutatus) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is an ambrosia beetle that is native to South America. It attacks only standing live trees and causes severe stem breakage and death in commercial poplar (Populus) plantations. Previous work showed that male M. mutatus emits a sex pheromone composed mainly of (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. We collected male volatile emissions during the hours of maximum emergence by using a specific polar microextraction phase; analyzed the extract by GC-MS; and tested the biological activity of selected compounds in the extract with a walking behavioral assay. Female M. mutatus emerged primarily between 7 and 11 h. In the chemical analyses of volatiles, a third compound, 3-pentanol, was identified in a small percentage of samples. Walking behavioral bioassays with video image analysis showed that at the doses tested, 3-pentanol elicited an attractive response from females.

  10. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  11. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  12. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  13. Laboratory studies of Aedes aegypti (L.) attraction to ketones, sulfides and primary chloroalkanes tested alone and in combination with l-lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of female Aedes aegypti to single compounds and binary compositions comprised of L-lactic acid and an additional saturated compound from a set of ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes was studied using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. These chemical classes were studied because o...

  14. GLOBAL ATTRACTIVITY IN A DELAY LOGISTIC DIFFERENCE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouYinggao

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium 1 of the delay logistic difference equation △yn=pnyn(1-yr(n)),n=0,1,2,……,(*) where {Pn}is a sequence of positive real mumbers,{τ(n)}is a nondecreasing sequence of integers,τ(n)

  15. Regions of Attraction for Hybrid Limit Cycles of Walking Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, Ian R; Levashov, Michael; Tedrake, Russ

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of recent research in region-of-attraction analysis for nonlinear hybrid limit cycles. Three example systems are analyzed in detail: the van der Pol oscillator, the "rimless wheel", and the "compass gait", the latter two being simplified models of underactuated walking robots. The method used involves decomposition of the dynamics about the target cycle into tangential and transverse components, and a search for a Lyapunov function in the transverse dynamics using sum-of-squares analysis (semidefinite programming). Each example illuminates different aspects of the procedure, including optimization of transversal surfaces, the handling of impact maps, optimization of the Lyapunov function, and orbitally-stabilizing control design.

  16. Attracting orthodontic patients via the Internet: A 20-year evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Greg

    2015-12-01

    A generation ago, attracting new patients to an orthodontic practice was often done simply by cultivating a few good referral sources. General dentists, including some who might have provided orthodontic treatment out of necessity, were generally glad to have a trusted specialist they could recommend to their patients. Although general dentists remain an important source of new patients today, many consumers now turn to the Internet for help selecting their own specialists. As orthodontists face more competition from various sources, successful clinicians will make it easy for search engines--and patients--to find their Web sites on the Internet.

  17. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous soil nematode, lives in a complex environment that requires chemical communication for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied...

  18. Hermit crab (Decapoda, Anomura attraction to dead gastropod baits in an infralittoral algae bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez C. B. Pezzuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs use gastropod shells as shelter and are adapted to follow chemical cues released from tissues of dead or injured gastropods as a way to find new and more adequate shells. The species composition, crab size, shell types adequacy and physical condition were compared between attracted individuals and crabs collected in previous samples. The previous sampling was carried out in five areas before each experiment. Then, five baits of crushed gastropods in nylon net bags were installed in these areas. Three samples were taken at 30min intervals, capturing all crabs within a circle of 60cm diameter. Attraction of hermit crabs was tested for four different gastropod baits to verify specificity of the chemical cues. Clibanarius antillensis, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae were collected in the study area. Pagurus brevidactylus, the smallest species, turned out to be more attracted than the 2 other species. The results showed that attracted crabs utilized more gastropod shell types than that collected in previous samples, however shell utilization pattern did not differ between them. Attracted animals were slightly smaller (shield length than those collected in the previous samples but did not present significant differences in shell adequacy and condition. The four experimental baits attracted the crabs in similar ways not indicating a specific response from the crabs. The fact that attracted animals were smaller suggested that the attraction to dead gastropods might enable the acquisition of a new and larger shell and, consequently, chains of shell exchange between the attracted crabs.Ermitões utilizam conchas de gastrópodes para abrigo. Conchas novas e mais adequadas podem ser encontradas pelos ermitões pois estes são atraídos por substâncias químicas liberadas pelos tecidos de gastrópodes feridos ou mortos. A adequação, condição e tipo das conchas e a composição de espécies e o tamanho dos ermitões foram

  19. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  20. Lipid membrane-mediated attraction between curvature inducing objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; Vahid, Afshin; Šarić, Anđela; Idema, Timon; Heinrich, Doris; Kraft, Daniela J.

    2016-09-01

    The interplay of membrane proteins is vital for many biological processes, such as cellular transport, cell division, and signal transduction between nerve cells. Theoretical considerations have led to the idea that the membrane itself mediates protein self-organization in these processes through minimization of membrane curvature energy. Here, we present a combined experimental and numerical study in which we quantify these interactions directly for the first time. In our experimental model system we control the deformation of a lipid membrane by adhering colloidal particles. Using confocal microscopy, we establish that these membrane deformations cause an attractive interaction force leading to reversible binding. The attraction extends over 2.5 times the particle diameter and has a strength of three times the thermal energy (‑3.3 kBT). Coarse-grained Monte-Carlo simulations of the system are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and prove that the measured interaction is independent of length scale. Our combined experimental and numerical results reveal membrane curvature as a common physical origin for interactions between any membrane-deforming objects, from nanometre-sized proteins to micrometre-sized particles.

  1. An employer brand predictive model for talent attraction and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In an ever shrinking global talent pool organisations use employer brand to attract and retain talent, however, in the absence of theoretical pointers, many organisations are losing out on a powerful business tool by not developing or maintaining their employer brand correctly. Research purpose: This study explores the current state of knowledge about employer brand and identifies the various employer brand building blocks which are conceptually integrated in a predictive model.Motivation for the study: The need for scientific progress though the accurate representation of a set of employer brand phenomena and propositions, which can be empirically tested, motivated this study.Research design, approach and method: This study was nonempirical in approach and searched for linkages between theoretical concepts by making use of relevant contextual data. Theoretical propositions which explain the identified linkages were developed for purpose of further empirical research.Main findings: Key findings suggested that employer brand is influenced by target group needs, a differentiated Employer Value Proposition (EVP, the people strategy, brand consistency, communication of the employer brand and measurement of Human Resources (HR employer branding efforts.Practical/managerial implications: The predictive model provides corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries a theoretical pointer relative to employer brand which could guide more effective talent attraction and retention decisions.Contribution/value add: This study adds to the small base of research available on employer brand and contributes to both scientific progress as well as an improved practical understanding of factors which influence employer brand.

  2. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  3. Liquid drops attract or repel by the inverted Cheerios effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpitschka, Stefan; Pandey, Anupam; Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Botto, Lorenzo; Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2016-01-01

    Solid particles floating at a liquid interface exhibit a long-ranged attraction mediated by surface tension. In the absence of bulk elasticity, this is the dominant lateral interaction of mechanical origin. Here, we show that an analogous long-range interaction occurs between adjacent droplets on solid substrates, which crucially relies on a combination of capillarity and bulk elasticity. We experimentally observe the interaction between droplets on soft gels and provide a theoretical framework that quantitatively predicts the interaction force between the droplets. Remarkably, we find that, although on thick substrates the interaction is purely attractive and leads to drop–drop coalescence, for relatively thin substrates a short-range repulsion occurs, which prevents the two drops from coming into direct contact. This versatile interaction is the liquid-on-solid analog of the “Cheerios effect.” The effect will strongly influence the condensation and coarsening of drops on soft polymer films, and has potential implications for colloidal assembly and mechanobiology. PMID:27298348

  4. Neuronal basis of innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schneider

    Full Text Available The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine - the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline - in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b. Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse, the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system.

  5. Hidden attraction the history and mystery of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit L

    1996-01-01

    Long one of nature''s most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion or as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction, Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe, traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the first discovery of magnets in Greece, to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. The book begins with the early debunking of superstitions by Peter Peregrinus (Pierre de Maricourt), whom Roger Bacon hailed as one of the world''s first experimental scientists (Perigrinus held that "experi...

  6. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  7. Shear-induced solidification of athermal systems with weak attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Liu, Hao; Xu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    We find that unjammed packings of frictionless particles with rather weak attraction can always be driven into solidlike states by shear. The structure of shear-driven solids evolves continuously with packing fraction from gel-like to jamminglike, but is almost independent of the shear stress. In contrast, both the density of vibrational states (DOVS) and force network evolve progressively with the shear stress. There exists a packing fraction independent shear stress σc, at which the shear-driven solids are isostatic and have a flattened DOVS. Solidlike states induced by a shear stress greater than σc possess properties of marginally jammed solids and are thus strictly defined shear jammed states. Below σc, shear-driven solids with rather different structures are all under isostaticity and share common features in the DOVS and force network. Our study leads to a jamming phase diagram for weakly attractive particles, which reveals the significance of the shear stress in determining properties of shear-driven solids and the connections and distinctions between jamminglike and gel-like states.

  8. Hydrodynamic interactions of sheets vs filaments: Synchronization, attraction, and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sarah D.; Fauci, Lisa J.

    2015-12-01

    The synchronization of nearby sperm flagella as they swim in a viscous fluid was observed nearly a century ago. In the early 1950s, in an effort to shed light on this intriguing phenomenon, Taylor initiated the mathematical analysis of the fluid dynamics of microorganism motility. Since then, models have investigated sperm hydrodynamics where the flagellum is treated as a waving sheet (2D) or as a slender waving filament (3D). Here, we study the interactions of two finite length, flexible filaments confined to a plane in a 3D fluid and compare these to the interactions of the analogous pair of finite, flexible sheets in a 2D fluid. Within our computational framework using regularized Stokeslets, this comparison is easily achieved by choosing either the 2D or 3D regularized kernel to compute fluid velocities induced by the actuated structures. We find, as expected, that two flagella swimming with a symmetric beatform will synchronize (phase-lock) on a fast time scale and attract towards each other on a longer time scale in both 2D and 3D. For a symmetric beatform, synchronization occurs faster in 2D than 3D for sufficiently stiff swimmers. In 3D, a greater enhancement in efficiency and swimming velocity is observed for attracted swimmers relative to the 2D case. We also demonstrate the tendency of two asymmetrically beating filaments in a 3D fluid to align — in tandem — exhibiting an efficiency boost for the duration of their sustained alignment.

  9. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  10. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  11. When do we need attractive-repulsive intermolecular potentials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The role of attractive-repulsive interactions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations is studied by comparing with traditional purely repulsive interactions. The larger collision cross section of the long-range LJ potential is shown to result in a higher collision frequency and hence a lower mean free path, by at least a factor of two, for given conditions. This results in a faster relaxation to equilibrium as is shown by comparing the fourth and sixth moments of the molecular velocity distribution obtained using 0-D DSMC simulations. A 1-D Fourier-Couette flow with a large temperature and velocity difference between the walls is used to show that matching transport properties will result in identical solutions using both LJPA and VSS models in the near-continuum regime. However, flows in the transitional regime with Knudsen number, Kn ∼ 0.5 show a dependence on the intermolecular potential in spite of matching the viscosity coefficient due to differences in the collision frequency. Attractive-repulsive potentials should be used when both transport coefficients and collision frequencies should be matched.

  12. Quantum Effects of Uniform Bose Atomic Gases with Weak Attraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ze

    2011-01-01

    @@ We find that uniform Bose atomic gases with weak attraction can undergo a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS)condensation below a critical temperature.In the BCS condensation state,bare atoms with opposite wave vectors are bound into pairs,and unpaired bare atoms are transformed into a new kind of quasi-particles,i.e.the dressed atoms.The atom-pair system is a condensate or a superfluid and the dressed-atom system is a normal fluid.The critical temperature and the effective mass of dressed atoms are derived analytically.The transition from the BCS condensation state to the normal state is a first-order phase transition.%We find that uniform Bose atomic gases with weak attraction can undergo a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)condensation below a critical temperature. In the BCS condensation state, bare atoms with opposite wave vectors are bound into pairs, and unpaired bare atoms are transformed into a new kind of quasi-particles, i.e. the dressed atoms. The atom-pair system is a condensate or a superfluid and the dressed-atom system is a normal fluid. The critical temperature and the effective mass of dressed atoms are derived analytically. The transition from the BCS condensation state to the normal state is a first-order phase transition.

  13. Attraction to and learning from social cues in fruitfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2013-09-22

    We examined the use of social information in fruitfly larvae, which represent an ideal model system owing to their robust learning abilities, small number of neurons and well-studied neurogenetics. Focal larvae showed attraction to the distinct odour emanating from food occupied by other larvae. In controlled learning experiments, focal larvae preferred novel odours previously paired with food occupied by other larvae over novel odours previously paired with unoccupied food. When we gave groups of larvae a choice between food patches differing in quality, more larvae aggregated on the higher-quality food, suggesting that attraction to and learning about cues associated with other larvae can be beneficial. Furthermore, larvae were more likely to find the best available food patch in trials when that food patch was occupied by other larvae than in trials when that food patch was unoccupied. Our data suggest, however, that the benefits from joining others may be at least partially offset by the fitness costs of increased competition, because larvae reared in isolation did as well as or better than larvae reared in groups on three key fitness parameters: developmental rate, survival rate and adult dry body mass. Our work establishes fruitfly larvae as a highly tractable model species for further research on the mechanisms that modulate behaviour and learning in a social context.

  14. The Law of Attraction in Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the law of attraction in human‐human interaction, this paper examines the effects of a robot’s personality and a human’s personality in various human‐robot interactions. This study was conducted using robots that were programmed to mimic both extroverted and introverted personality types, as well as humans who were classified as having introverted, extroverted or intermediate personality types. Using a 3 x 2 between‐ subjects experiment with 120 participants, the results indicated that participants who interacted with a similar personality robot were more comfortable than those who engaged with a different personality robot. Yet, the evaluation of social presence presented an opposing result. Both the implications and limitations of the present study, as well as guidelines for future research, are discussed.

  15. Is Asian Currency Unit Attractive to East Asian Economies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Fan He

    2007-01-01

    Pegging the RMB exchange rate to the Asian currency unit (ACU) has not, at least in the short term, been proved a better solution than pegging to the US dollar or pegging to a G-3 (US$, Japaneseyen and euro) currency basket. Although the Asian currency unit can help Asian economies to keep the relative price of regional currencies stable, the cost of joining a formal regional monetary cooperation is the relinquishment of the autonomy of their domestic policies. Asian monetary cooperation needs to provide more potential benefits if it is to attract Asian economies. We argue that Asian monetary cooperation should be designed to solve the problem of regional trade imbalance, and regional exchange rate policy coordination should be adopted as the first step towards exchange rate cooperation.

  16. Using a Managerial Analogy for Making Mathematics More Attractive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Hvorecký

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, Mathematics is among the least popular school subjects. Educators are spending a lot of time in searching methods that could change this unfortunate situation. The author, a lecturer at a School of Management, discusses the issue as a managerial problem.First, the popularity of mathematics is analyzed as a marketing problem. Marketing theories recommend increasing the market choice as a way of attracting more customers. Our first goal is therefore to expand the variety of problems. To do so, we consider Knowledge Management concepts to demonstrate an imbalance between tacit and explicit knowledge in traditional courses. Currently used educational methodologies favour the latter one. Examples of the approaches that might increase learners’ tacit knowledge are our second goal.

  17. Activities to Attract Girls to Physics in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Araste, Afshin Mohseni; Fadaei, Azita Seied

    2009-04-01

    In Iran there is no difference between boys' and girls' activities in scientific works; however, they study separately at schools until they reach the university level. Before going to university, students think engineering and medical science are better than the other sciences for earning enough money to support their lives. But after the entrance exam for universities most of the girls choose basic sciences based on their test results. Creative methods of teaching physics at the elementary and secondary levels, such as "Dominos in Physics" and "Physics in Nature," and understanding physics through real-life examples and animation are important for attracting students to further studies and careers in physics. Participating in international physics competitions and holding national tournaments and university open houses in physics is also very helpful. Studying physics can improve students' abilities and also help them to imagine, decide, think, and live better.

  18. Aggregation of frictional particles due to capillary attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Berhanu, Michael; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Capillary attraction between identical millimeter sized spheres floating at a liquid-air interface and the resulting aggregation is investigated at low Reynolds number. We show that the measured capillary forces between two spheres as a function of distance can be described by expressions obtained using the Nicolson approximation at low Bond numbers for far greater particle sizes than previously assumed. We find that viscous hydrodynamics interactions between the spheres needs to be included to describe the dynamics close to contact. We then consider the aggregates formed when a third sphere is added after the initial two spheres are already in contact. In this case, we find that linear superposition of capillary forces describes the observed approach qualitatively but not quantitatively. Further, we observe an angular dependence of the structure due to a rapid decrease of capillary force with distance of separation which has a tendency to align the particles before contact. When the three particles come in c...

  19. Swallowed magnets and batteries: a dangerous but not unexpected attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Warwick Jonathan; Vaughan, Elizabeth Mary; McHoney, Merrill; McCabe, Amanda Jayne

    2013-04-10

    An 18-month-old boy was witnessed swallowing a cluster of five magnetic toy balls. He was coincidentally noted on plain x-rays to have also recently swallowed a watch battery and a small screw. Initial outpatient management with serial review and x-rays was unsuccessful, and delayed inpatient surgical care by 9 days. Although the child never manifested features of systemic or gastrointestinal upset, emergency laparotomy confirmed a resultant jejunocolic fistula. This case demonstrates how clinical assessment of children who have swallowed magnets separately from each other can be falsely reassuring, and highlights the potential dangers of outpatient management. We recommend children who have swallowed separately >1 magnetic objects (or >1 objects capable of magnetic attraction) be managed as inpatients with active observation and timely foreign body removal.

  20. The Physics of Attraction and Repulsion: Magnetism and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakotte, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    The development of new materials with improved magnetic properties completely changed the modern world in the past decades. Recent progress is predominantly due to a better understanding of magnetism that has gone far beyond compass needles rotating in a magnetic field and bar magnets attracting or repelling each other. New magnetic materials are used to build smaller and smaller read/write heads and hard disks with increased storage capacity, developments that are responsible the revolution in the computer industry. Another example is the field of magnetic levitation that became feasible for commercial applications with the discovery of new superconducting materials, and a prototype train is under development in Japan. In medicine, the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an alternative to other (destructive) radiation techniques.

  1. Attractive interaction between ions inside a quantum plasma structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    We construct the model of a quantum spherically symmetric plasma structure based on radial oscillations of ions. We suppose that ions are involved in ion-acoustic waves. We find the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for an ion moving in the self-consistent oscillatory potential of an ion-acoustic wave. The system of ions is secondly quantized and its ground state is constructed. Then we consider the interaction between ions by the exchange of an acoustic wave. It is shown that this interaction can be attractive. We describe the formation of pairs of ions inside a plasma structure and demonstrate that such a plasmoid can exist in dense astrophysical medium. The application of our results for terrestrial plasmas is also discussed.

  2. Self-attraction effect and correction on three absolute gravimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Biolcati, Emanuele; Germak, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The perturbations of the gravitational field due to the mass distribution of an absolute gravimeter have been studied. The so called Self Attraction Effect (SAE) is crucial for the measurement accuracy, especially for the International Comparisons, and for the uncertainty budget evaluation. Three instruments have been analysed: MPG-2, FG5-238 and IMPG-02. The SAE has been calculated using a numerical method based on FEM simulation. The observed effect has been treated as an additional vertical gravity gradient. The correction (SAC) to be applied to the computed g value has been associated with the specific height level, where the measurement result is typically reported. The magnitude of the obtained corrections is of order 1E-8 m/s2.

  3. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar, E-mail: shankar@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Multiphase Flow Research, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  4. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuhan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q.

    2017-02-01

    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications.

  5. Basins of Attraction for Various Steffensen-Type Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Cordero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical behavior of different Steffensen-type methods is analyzed. We check the chaotic behaviors alongside the convergence radii (understood as the wideness of the basin of attraction needed by Steffensen-type methods, that is, derivative-free iteration functions, to converge to a root and compare the results using different numerical tests. We will conclude that the convergence radii (and the stability of Steffensen-type methods are improved by increasing the convergence order. The computer programming package MATHEMATICA provides a powerful but easy environment for all aspects of numerics. This paper puts on show one of the application of this computer algebra system in finding fixed points of iteration functions.

  6. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2015-04-01

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff's law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  7. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, KyuHan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q.

    2017-01-01

    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications. PMID:28145435

  8. Escape from attracting sets in randomly perturbed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Christian S; Grebogi, Celso; de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2010-10-01

    The dynamics of escape from an attractive state due to random perturbations is of central interest to many areas in science. Previous studies of escape in chaotic systems have rather focused on the case of unbounded noise, usually assumed to have Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we address the problem of escape induced by bounded noise. We show that the dynamics of escape from an attractor's basin is equivalent to that of a closed system with an appropriately chosen "hole." Using this equivalence, we show that there is a minimum noise amplitude above which escape takes place, and we derive analytical expressions for the scaling of the escape rate with noise amplitude near the escape transition. We verify our analytical predictions through numerical simulations of two well-known two-dimensional maps with noise.

  9. Exploring the chemotatic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world and the bacteria causes millions of gastroenteritis cases each year. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism....... Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract of chickens are found to be colonized by C. jejuni, and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this particular environment by chemotaxis. From the full genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 several chemotactic proteins...... function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis will be held at characterizing the colonization of mucus layers....

  10. Global attractivity in delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.-H. [Department of Mathematics, National Central University, Jhongli City 32001, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: 93241006@cc.ncu.edu.tw; Yang, S.-Y. [Department of Mathematics, National Central University, Jhongli City 32001, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: syyang@math.ncu.edu.tw

    2009-02-28

    In this paper, we investigate the global attractivity of Cohen-Grossberg neural network models with connection time delays for both discrete and distributed cases via the Lyapunov functional method. Without assuming the monotonicity and differentiability of activation functions and the symmetry of connection matrix, we establish three new sufficient conditions for the global exponential stability of a unique equilibrium for the delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural network no matter whether the connection time delay is of discrete type or distributed type. In particular, all the three new criteria are independent of time delays and do not include one another. To demonstrate the differences and features of the new stability criteria, several examples are discussed to compare the present results with the existing ones.

  11. Skyrmions with Attractive Interactions in an Ultrathin Magnetic Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Levente; Deák, András; Simon, Eszter; Yanes, Rocio; Udvardi, László; Szunyogh, László; Nowak, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    We determined the parameters of a classical spin Hamiltonian describing an Fe monolayer on Pd(111) surface with a Pt1 -xIrx alloy overlayer from ab initio calculations. While the ground state of the system is ferromagnetic for x =0.00 , it becomes a spin spiral state as Ir is intermixed into the overlayer. Although the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is present in the system, we will demonstrate that the frustrated isotropic exchange interactions play a prominent role in creating the spin spiral state, and these frustrated couplings lead to an attractive interaction between Skyrmions at short distances. Using spin dynamics simulations, we show that under these conditions the individual Skyrmions form clusters, and that these clusters remain stable at finite temperature.

  12. Is your EPL attractive? Classification of publications through download dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, Olesya; Holovatch, Yurij

    2014-01-01

    Although no substitutes for peer review, metrics and altmetrics are increasingly used to estimate the value of academic papers. Metrics are based on citation counts and altmetrics on social media impact. Each approach has well documented advantages and drawbacks. Here we consider a third approach, based on download dynamics. Applied to "Europhysics Letters" (EPL) papers, we find that the journal is characterised by fast accumulation of downloads during the first couple of months after publication, followed by a slower rate thereafter. This behaviour can be modelled, so that the long-time download patterns for the journal can be predicted. We also find that individual papers can be classified in various ways. A small proportion (2%) display intense bursts of download activity, possibly following an extended period of unremarkable behaviour (so-called "sleeping beauties"). About 17% of papers have an especially high degree of attractiveness, which distinguishes them from the typical volumes of downloads which c...

  13. Attractiveness Evaluation of Investment in Wind Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Rudzkis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Last decade as prices of fossil energy resources were almost constantly going upwards, increasing flow of investments is directed to renewable energy resources. Development and application of green energy became one of priority objectives in many countries. While in the context of wind energy production Lithuania lags behind the EU average, its potential of wind energy usage has great perspective. In this article using random processes, cost-benefit and financial analysis, attractiveness of investment in wind energy projects is examined. Given the stochastic nature of wind energy and by looking into investment profitableness and risk factors, effectiveness of wind turbine is evaluated. Analysis showed that wind energy projects could be considered as having high profit-to-risk factor and should generate significant interest of investment community.

  14. Tourism attractions: Key elements of tourism resource base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that theory of tourism lags behind increased tourism practice. In order to decrease such gap, theoretical work in tourism must be intensified and permanently reconsidered in future period. Consequently, it is necessary to pay attention to complex analysis and explicit interpretation of important notions that are integral parts of tourism practice, as well as objects of scientific investigations. The subject of this paper is analysis of complex structure of tourism resource base. Specially are focused two relevant tourism notions - tourist resources and tourist attractions (tourist motives. Analysis of their meaning, interrelationship and differences is made, relying on basic tourismological principles and critical review of contemporary experts opinions in this domain. Correct interpretation, setting the correlation and distinction between tourism relevant notions, at the same time require great responsibility and duty of tourismologists, tourism geographers, economists and other experts in the field of tourism to contribute to strengthening of tourism theory, adequately influencing on growing tourism practice.

  15. Laboratory Studies of Aedes aegypti Attraction to Ketones, Sulfides, and Primary Chloroalkanes Tested Alone and in Combination with L-Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L; Allan, Sandra A; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-03-01

    The attraction of female Aedes aegypti to single compounds and binary compositions containing L-lactic acid and an additional saturated compound from a set of ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes was studied using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. These chemical classes were studied because of their structural relation to acetone, dimethyl disulfide, and dichloromethane, which have all been reported to synergize attraction to L-lactic acid. Human odors, carbon dioxide, and the binary mixture of L-lactic acid and CO₂served as controls for comparison of attraction responses produced by the binary mixtures. All tested mixtures that contained chloroalkanes attracted mosquitoes at synergistic levels, as did L-lactic acid and CO₂. Synergism was less frequent in mixtures of L-lactic acid with sulfides and ketones; in the case of ketones, synergistic attraction was observed only for L-lactic acid combined with acetone or butanone. Suppression or inhibition of attraction response was observed for combinations that contained ketones of C7-C12 molecular chain length (optimum in the C8-C10 range). This inhibition effect is similar to that observed previously for specific ranges of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and alcohols.

  16. BUCHAREST AS A CITY BRAND: HOW TO ATTRACT RUSSIAN TOURISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina OCHKOVSKAYA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the attractiveness of Bucharest and its perception by Russian tourists as well as to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the city and define the idea for positioning statement for this place. Bucharest has a deep history and cultural heritage that are highly appreciated by tourists seeking cultural tourism. Moreover, Bucharest had the nickname of "Little Paris" which implied the beauty of the city. Our study focuses mainly on the target audience of Russian people who appreciate cultural heritage. According to the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat, the number of Russians who visited Romania as tourists increased by 73% in the first quarter of 2015 (http://russtd.com/destinations/eastern-europe-loses-almost-half-russian-tourists-year. This increase is a positive sign as it means that Romania and Bucharest are becoming more and more attractive for Russian tourists. Tourists can bring many benefits to the place, both economic and social. In turn, new places with heritage can enrich tourists with new knowledge and broaden their erudition. The study allows us to understand the perception of Bucharest by Russian tourists and single out the key elements of the city of Bucharest. The key elements of the city of Bucharest are rooted in cultural heritage and authenticity, including different styles of architecture, Orthodox churches, classical and folk music, outstanding musicians and food. Bucharest might thus be offered the positioning as a mysterious authentic city revealing the coexistence of different times.To some extent this paper contributes to the understanding of the image of Bucharest in Russian tourists’ eyes, their associations and fears. It gives some insights into factors that make Russians choose touristic destinations. In addition, some ideas for the city positioning, logos and slogans can derive from this paper. The study can be useful for touristic agencies or for the Ministry

  17. Water anomalous thermodynamics, attraction, repulsion, and hydrophobic hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2016-04-01

    A model composed of van der Waals-like and hydrogen bonding contributions that simulates the low-temperature anomalous thermodynamics of pure water while exhibiting a second, liquid-liquid critical point [P. H. Poole et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1632 (1994)] is extended to dilute solutions of nonionic species. Critical lines emanating from such second critical point are calculated. While one infers that the smallness of the water molecule may be a relevant factor for those critical lines to move towards experimentally accessible regions, attention is mainly focused on the picture our model draws for the hydration thermodynamics of purely hydrophobic and amphiphilic non-electrolyte solutes. We first focus on differentiating solvation at constant volume from the corresponding isobaric process. Both processes provide the same viewpoint for the low solubility of hydrophobic solutes: it originates from the combination of weak solute-solvent attractive interactions and the specific excluded-volume effects associated with the small molecular size of water. However, a sharp distinction is found when exploring the temperature dependence of hydration phenomena since, in contrast to the situation for the constant-V process, the properties of pure water play a crucial role at isobaric conditions. Specifically, the solubility minimum as well as enthalpy and entropy convergence phenomena, exclusively ascribed to isobaric solvation, are closely related to water's density maximum. Furthermore, the behavior of the partial molecular volume and the partial molecular isobaric heat capacity highlights the interplay between water anomalies, attraction, and repulsion. The overall picture presented here is supported by experimental observations, simulations, and previous theoretical results.

  18. Attractive Hubbard model with disorder and the generalized Anderson theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchinskii, E. Z., E-mail: kuchinsk@iep.uran.ru; Kuleeva, N. A., E-mail: strigina@iep.uran.ru; Sadovskii, M. V., E-mail: sadovski@iep.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Electrophysics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    Using the generalized DMFT+Σ approach, we study the influence of disorder on single-particle properties of the normal phase and the superconducting transition temperature in the attractive Hubbard model. A wide range of attractive potentials U is studied, from the weak coupling region, where both the instability of the normal phase and superconductivity are well described by the BCS model, to the strong-coupling region, where the superconducting transition is due to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs, formed at temperatures much higher than the superconducting transition temperature. We study two typical models of the conduction band with semi-elliptic and flat densities of states, respectively appropriate for three-dimensional and two-dimensional systems. For the semi-elliptic density of states, the disorder influence on all single-particle properties (e.g., density of states) is universal for an arbitrary strength of electronic correlations and disorder and is due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band. In the case of a flat density of states, universality is absent in the general case, but still the disorder influence is mainly due to band widening, and the universal behavior is restored for large enough disorder. Using the combination of DMFT+Σ and Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink approximations, we study the disorder influence on the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} for a range of characteristic values of U and disorder, including the BCS-BEC crossover region and the limit of strong-coupling. Disorder can either suppress T{sub c} (in the weak-coupling region) or significantly increase T{sub c} (in the strong-coupling region). However, in all cases, the generalized Anderson theorem is valid and all changes of the superconducting critical temperature are essentially due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band.

  19. Attractive interactions among intermediate filaments determine network mechanics in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pawelzyk

    Full Text Available Mechanical and structural properties of K8/K18 and vimentin intermediate filament (IF networks have been investigated using bulk mechanical rheometry and optical microrheology including diffusing wave spectroscopy and multiple particle tracking. A high elastic modulus G0 at low protein concentration c, a weak concentration dependency of G0 (G0 ∼ c(0.5 ± 0.1 and pronounced strain stiffening are found for these systems even without external crossbridgers. Strong attractive interactions among filaments are required to maintain these characteristic mechanical features, which have also been reported for various other IF networks. Filament assembly, the persistence length of the filaments and the network mesh size remain essentially unaffected when a nonionic surfactant is added, but strain stiffening is completely suppressed, G0 drops by orders of magnitude and exhibits a scaling G0 ∼ c(1.9 ± 0.2 in agreement with microrheological measurements and as expected for entangled networks of semi-flexible polymers. Tailless K8Δ/K18ΔT and various other tailless filament networks do not exhibit strain stiffening, but still show high G0 values. Therefore, two binding sites are proposed to exist in IF networks. A weaker one mediated by hydrophobic amino acid clusters in the central rod prevents stretched filaments between adjacent cross-links from thermal equilibration and thus provides the high G0 values. Another strong one facilitating strain stiffening is located in the tail domain with its high fraction of hydrophobic amino acid sequences. Strain stiffening is less pronounced for vimentin than for K8/K18 due to electrostatic repulsion forces partly compensating the strong attraction at filament contact points.

  20. Malaria infected mosquitoes express enhanced attraction to human odor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate C Smallegange

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that some pathogens manipulate the behaviour of their mosquito hosts to enhance pathogen transmission. However, it is unknown whether this phenomenon exists in the interaction of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum--one of the most important interactions in the context of humanity, with malaria causing over 200 million human cases and over 770 thousand deaths each year. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that infection with P. falciparum causes alterations in behavioural responses to host-derived olfactory stimuli in host-seeking female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. In behavioural experiments we showed that P. falciparum-infected An. gambiae mosquitoes were significantly more attracted to human odors than uninfected mosquitoes. Both P. falciparum-infected and uninfected mosquitoes landed significantly more on a substrate emanating human skin odor compared to a clean substrate. However, significantly more infected mosquitoes landed and probed on a substrate emanating human skin odor than uninfected mosquitoes. This is the first demonstration of a change of An. gambiae behaviour in response to olfactory stimuli caused by infection with P. falciparum. The results of our study provide vital information that could be used to provide better predictions of how malaria is transmitted from human being to human being by An. gambiae s.s. females. Additionally, it highlights the urgent need to investigate this interaction further to determine the olfactory mechanisms that underlie the differential behavioural responses. In doing so, new attractive compounds could be identified which could be used to develop improved mosquito traps for surveillance or trapping programmes that may even specifically target P. falciparum-infected An. gambiae s.s. females.

  1. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds.

  2. Fixed Points for Stochastic Open Chemical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, V A

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we give a short review of the hierarchy of stochastic models, related to physical chemistry. In the basement of this hierarchy there are two models --- stochastic chemical kinetics and the Kac model for Boltzman equation. Classical chemical kinetics and chemical thermodynamics are obtained as some scaling limits in the models, introduced below. In the second part of this paper we specify some simple class of open chemical reaction systems, where one can still prove the existence of attracting fixed points. For example, Michaelis\\tire Menten kinetics belongs to this class. At the end we present a simplest possible model of the biological network. It is a network of networks (of closed chemical reaction systems, called compartments), so that the only source of nonreversibility is the matter exchange (transport) with the environment and between the compartments. Keywords: chemical kinetics, chemical thermodynamics, Kac model, mathematical biology

  3. Meeting your match: How attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavio

  4. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance.

  5. The Influence of Communicative Competence on Perceived Task, Social and Physical Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Robert L.; Kelly, Lynne

    1988-01-01

    Examines whether communicative competence influences perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness. Results indicated that communicative competence accounted for 17 percent, 14 percent and 8 percent of the variance in perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness, respectively. (MM)

  6. On global attraction to stationary states for wave equations with concentrated nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylova, E.

    2016-01-01

    The global attraction to stationary states is established for solutions to 3D wave equations with concentrated nonlinearities: each finite energy solution converges as $t\\to\\pm\\infty$ to stationary states. The attraction is caused by nonlinear energy radiation.

  7. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  8. The Relationships between Symmetry and Attractiveness and Mating Relevant Decisions and Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Joel Wade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory based research shows that attractiveness is based on biological correlates that index appropriate estrogen and testosterone levels. Symmetry affects or plays a role in the perception of many of these correlates of attractiveness. Additionally, since attractiveness affects infidelity perception and reactions, sexual satisfaction, and personality perception, symmetry also affects these areas. This paper reviews the literature on symmetry showing how symmetry affects: the correlates of attractiveness, sexual satisfaction, personality, and infidelity perceptions and reactions.

  9. Hair length, facial attractiveness, personality attribution: A multiple fitness model of hairdressing

    OpenAIRE

    Bereczkei, Tamas; Mesko, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Multiple Fitness Model states that attractiveness varies across multiple dimensions, with each feature representing a different aspect of mate value. In the present study, male raters judged the attractiveness of young females with neotenous and mature facial features, with various hair lengths. Results revealed that the physical appearance of long-haired women was rated high, regardless of their facial attractiveness being valued high or low. Women rated as most attractive were those whose f...

  10. Timescales in creep and yielding of attractive gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Vincent; Divoux, Thibaut; Taberlet, Nicolas; Manneville, Sébastien

    2014-03-14

    The stress-induced yielding scenario of colloidal gels is investigated under rough boundary conditions by means of rheometry coupled with local velocity measurements. Under an applied shear stress σ, the fluidization of gels made of attractive carbon black particles dispersed in a mineral oil is shown to involve a previously unreported shear rate response γ dot above(t) characterized by two well-defined and separated timescales τc and τf. First γ dot above decreases as a weak power law strongly reminiscent of the primary creep observed in numerous crystalline and amorphous solids, coined the "Andrade creep". We show that the bulk deformation remains homogeneous at the micron scale, which demonstrates that whether plastic events take place or whether any shear transformation zone exists, such phenomena occur at a smaller scale. As a key result of this paper, the duration τc of this creep regime decreases as a power law of the viscous stress, defined as the difference between the applied stress and the yield stress σc, i.e. τc ∼ (σ - σc)(-β), with β = 2-3 depending on the gel concentration. The end of this first regime is marked by a jump of the shear rate by several orders of magnitude, while the gel slowly slides as a solid block experiencing strong wall slip at both walls, despite rough boundary conditions. Finally, a second sudden increase of the shear rate is concomitant with the full fluidization of the material which ends up being homogeneously sheared. The corresponding fluidization time τf robustly follows an exponential decay with the applied shear stress, i.e. τf = τ0 exp(-σ/σ0), as already reported for smooth boundary conditions. Varying the gel concentration C in a systematic fashion shows that the parameter σ0 and the yield stress σc exhibit similar power-law dependences with C. Finally, we highlight a few features that are common to attractive colloidal gels and to solid materials by discussing our results in the framework of

  11. Learning at Eco-Attractions: Exploring the Bifurcation of Nature and Culture through Experiential Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ria Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores informal environmental education (EE) experiences at eco-attractions. A consortium of three UK-based environmental charities designed an eco-attraction-based EE program aiming to inspire responses to environmental change. Over six months, educators at six eco-attractions delivered this two-day program to 430 young people.…

  12. 40 CFR 503.25 - Operational standards-pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vector attraction reduction. 503.25 Section 503.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 503.25 Operational standards—pathogens and vector attraction reduction. (a) Pathogens—sewage sludge... active sewage sludge unit, unless the vector attraction reduction requirement in § 503.33(b)(11) is...

  13. Attraction in the Field: What We Need to Acknowledge and Implications for Research and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, Liz; Barringer, Mandi; Colyer, Timothy; Guittar, Nicholas; Hecht, Jaime; Rayburn, Rachel L.; Swart, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Physical or sexual attraction plays an important role in shaping a wide range of relationships and in myriad ways. Our primary interest here is in how attraction shapes the qualitative research experience. Close examination of popular sociological ethnographies found that attractiveness is used as a descriptor, and almost always in a distancing…

  14. A Model for Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Bose-Einstein Condensate with Attractive Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ke-Zhu; TAN Wei-Han

    2000-01-01

    Based on the numerical wave function solutions of neutral atoms with attractive interaction in a harmonic trap, we propose an exactly solvable model for macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose condensate with attractive interaction. We calculate the rate of macroscopic quantum tunneling from a metastable condensate state to the collapse state and analyze the stability of the attractive Bose-Einstein condensation.

  15. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  16. Attractiveness and Leader Style: Evaluations of Male and Female Leaders by Male and Female Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopasakis, Maria; Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Previous research has suggested that men are stereotypically believed to be better leaders than women; that more physically attractive people are evaluated more positively than less attractive people; and that men and women use different leadership styles. This study examined the interactions of sex, leader style, and physical attractiveness on…

  17. 33 CFR 83.36 - Signals to attract attention (Rule 36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signals to attract attention... SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.36 Signals to attract attention (Rule 36). If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel, any vessel may make light or...

  18. Supervisor Attraction as a Function of Level of Supervisor Skillfulness and Supervisees' Perceived Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Larry Ronald; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This laboratory analogue investigated the effects of supervisor skillfulness and supervisor-supervisee attitude similarity on the attraction of the supervisee to the supervisor. Results showed a main effect of supervisor skillfulness on attraction but did not show attraction to vary as a function of supervisor-supervisee attitude similarity.…

  19. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  20. Attraction of undulatory swimmers, such as nematodes, to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2014-11-01

    Nematodes play a significant role in the ecosystem; agriculture; human, animal, and plant disease; and medical research. The interactions between nematodes and surfaces may play an important role in nematodes' life cycle and ability to invade a host. We studied the effect of a surface on the dynamics of low-Reynolds number, undulating swimmers such as Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans -both wild type and touch-insensitive. The experiments demonstrated that swimmers located far from a surface selected randomly their direction of motion. In contrast, surface-proximate swimmers rotated towards, collided with, and swam along the surface for considerable time intervals, periodically contacting the surface with their anterior. Likewise, swimmers in a swarm were present at higher concentrations close to the surface. Both resistive force theory-based calculations and symmetry arguments predict that short range hydrodynamic torque, resulting from the interaction between the swimmer-induced flow field and the surface, rotate the swimmer towards the surface. We conclude that the surface attraction and following results from the interplay between short-range hydrodynamic and steric forces and is genotype-independent. The work was supported, in part, by NIH NIA 5R03AG042690-02 and NBIC NSF NSEC DMR08-32802.

  1. The nonverbal basis of attraction: flirtation, courtship, and seduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D B

    1978-11-01

    According to a familiar phrase, the "language" of love is universal. Recent ethological studies of nonlinguistic communication in courtship using facial expression, gesture, posture, distance, paralanguage, and gaze have begun to establish that a universal, culture-free, nonverbal sign system may exist (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1975), which is available to all persons for negotiating sexual relationships. The nonverbal mode, more powerful than the verbal for expressing such fundamental contingencies in social relationships as liking, disliking, superiority, timidity, fear and so on, appears to be rooted firmly in man's zoological heritage (Bateson, 1966, 1968). Paralleling a vertebrate-wide plan, human courtship expressivity often relies on nonverbal signs of submissiveness (meekness, harmlessness) and affiliation (willingness to form a social bond). Adoption of a submissive-affiliative social pose enables a person to convey an engaging, nonthreatening image that tends to attract potential mates. This report explores several conspicuous nonlinguistic cues that appear to be used widely in contexts of flirtation, courtship, and seduction. The expressive units are discussed from the standpoint of their occurence in five phases of courtship, and are illustrated by four cases.

  2. Glass and percolation transitions in dense attractive micellar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, F.; Beneduci, R.; Gambadauro, P.; Lombardo, D.; Chen, S. H.

    2001-12-01

    In this work, we study a copolymer-micellar system characterized by clustering processes due to a short-range attractive interaction. This originates a percolation process and a new type of kinetic glass transition. We have studied these intriguing dynamical situations by means of an extensive set of light scattering and viscoelasticity experiments. Obtained data, in both the phenomena, are accounted for by considering in a proper way fractal clustering processes and the related scaling concepts. Near the percolation line the main role in the system structure and dynamics is played by the cluster's partial screening of hydrodynamic interaction, that behaves, on approaching the percolation threshold, dramatic effects on the rheological properties and on the density decay relaxations. The ergodic-nonergodic transition line (glass transition) is studied in terms of the intermediate scattering functions (ISF) in the frame of the mode coupling theory. The measured ISF gives evidence of a logarithmic decay on the density fluctuation followed by a power law behavior. This latter phenomenon is the signature of a high-order glass transition of the A3 type (cusp-like singularity).

  3. Percolation and Critical Phenomena of AN Attractive Micellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, F.; Chen, S. H.; Gambadauro, P.; Lombardo, D.; Faraone, A.; Tartaglia, P.

    In this work we study an attractive micellar system for which the percolation curve terminates near the critical point. We have studied such an intriguing situation by means of scattering (elastic and dynamical) and viscoelasticity experiments. Obtained data are accounted by considering in a proper way the fractal clustering processes typical of percolating systems and the related scaling concepts. We observe that the main role in the system structure and dynamics it is played by the cluster's partial screening of hydrodynamic interaction. This behaves on approaching the percolation threshold dramatic effects on the system rheological properties and on the density decay relaxations. The measured correlation functions assume a stretched exponential form and the system becomes strongly viscoelastic. The overall behavior of the measured dynamical and structural parameters indicates, that in the present micellar system, the clustering process originates dilute, poly-disperse and swelling structures. Finally, this originates an interesting situation observed in the present experiment. As it has been previously, proposed by A. Coniglio et al., percolation clusters can be considered to be "Ising clusters" with the same properties as the Fisher's critical droplets. Therefore at the critical point the percolation connectedness length (ξp) can be assumed as the diverging correlation length (ξp ≡ ξ) and the mean cluster size diverges as the susceptibility.

  4. Leading a multigenerational workforce: strategies for attracting and retaining millennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Terrence F; Sedrak, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, leaders in healthcare have noticed an increase in generational tension among employees, most often focused on the attitudes and behaviors of the arriving millennials (generation Y). While these employee relations issues were a nuisance, they rarely rose to the level of a priority demanding leadership intervention. Some leaders, in fact, hoped that the issues would resolve themselves as these young employees settled in and learned that they had to demonstrate new behaviors to be successful in the workplace. Most organizations adopted this wait-and-see attitude. Not so today. As the boomer generation has begun its exodus from the workplace, organizations are increasingly looking at the millennials as not a problem but a solution to the workplace manpower transition that is under way. Our problem is that we don't yet know how best to lead such a diverse, multigenerational workforce. This article examines the generational topic and provides advice concerning a variety of changes that leaders may implement to advance their organization's ability to attract and to retain the millennials.

  5. BANKS IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES AS ONE OF MOST ATTRACTIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to analyze the banking sector in transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and identify bank’s potential as an investment in the globalized environment. The primary hypothesis is that banking sector is one of the most attractive investment areas in transition countries. In the comparison with financial systems of G7 and other growth countries, the financial industry in transition countries shows significant potential for future growth and development. Operating as universal bank with acquired position in financial supervisory bodies banks can easy control and slows down growth and development of nonbanking financial institutions. They are not overly involved in risky operations of securitization and were not so much exposed to the recent crisis. Analysis of the banking sector in transition countries has been made on available sources of secondary data and comparable quantities. Comparable quantities are analyzed with descriptive statistics, starting from the general characteristics of the region and individual countries, through macroeconomic indicator analysis to analysis of assorted indicators of banking sector which have dominant influence on prospective cash flows and risk, i.e key components of bank’s value as an investment.

  6. How attractive can Cultural Landscapes be for Generation Y?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivett Sziva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic significance of Generation Y has been improving. The members of this segment are the so called Internet aboriginals, those who have high needs regarding technological solutions in their ordinary life and on their trips as well. Further on, they have greater focus on their special interests, the authenticity and the so called edutainment activities during their travels. Creating the best experiences fitting their needs is rather challenging. According to the propositions, cultural sites and landscapes must change their traditional perspectives regarding raising awareness and interpretation so as to catch the Generation Y and open up for technology, mobile applications, location-based services, interactive solutions and exciting interpretation. The main aim of the paper is to give a valid picture of the special needs of Generation Y to support the better understanding of their lifestyle and travel needs. Further on, the newest technological solutions are described in the area of online sales and communication, and interpretation tools could be useful for cultural landscapes. Finally, based on the results of a quantitative survey, recommendations are given for the two Hungarian cultural landscape, Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape and Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape so as to improve their attractiveness for Generation Y, by developing their online and mobile presence and interpretation through the newest technological solutions.

  7. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes.

  8. Global Attractivity of an Integrodifferential Model of Mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient conditions are obtained for the global attractivity of the following integrodifferential model of mutualism: dN1(t/dt=r1N1(t[((K1+α1∫0∞J2(sN2(t-sds‍/(1+∫0∞J2(sN2(t-sds‍-N1(t], dN2(t/dt=r2N2(t[((K2+α2∫0∞J1(sN1(t-sds‍/(1+∫0∞J1(sN1(t-sds‍-N2(t], where ri,Ki, and αi, i=1,2, are all positive constants. Consider αi>Ki, i=1,2. Consider   Ji∈C([0,+∞,[0,+∞ and ∫0∞‍Ji(sds=1, i=1,2. Our result shows that conditions which ensure the permanence of the system are enough to ensure the global stability of the system. The result not only improves but also complements some existing ones.

  9. Adsorption of comb copolymers on weakly attractive solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striolo, A.; Jayaraman, A.; Genzer, J.; Hall, C. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this work continuum and lattice Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to study the adsorption of linear and comb polymers on flat surfaces. Selected polymer segments, located at the tips of the side chains in comb polymers or equally spaced along the linear polymers, are attracted to each other and to the surface via square-well potentials. The rest of the polymer segments are modeled as tangent hard spheres in the continuum model and as self-avoiding random walks in the lattice model. Results are presented in terms of segment-density profiles, distribution functions, and radii of gyration of the adsorbed polymers. At infinite dilution the presence of short side chains promotes the adsorption of polymers favoring both a decrease in the depletion-layer thickness and a spreading of the polymer molecule on the surface. The presence of long side chains favors the adsorption of polymers on the surface, but does not permit the spreading of the polymers. At finite concentration linear polymers and comb polymers with long side chains readily adsorb on the solid surface, while comb polymers with short side chains are unlikely to adsorb. The simple models of comb copolymers with short side chains used here show properties similar to those of associating polymers and of globular proteins in aqueous solutions, and can be used as a first approximation to investigate the mechanism of adsorption of proteins onto hydrophobic surfaces.

  10. Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

    Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

  11. Salary is not enough to attract and retain the best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations face the challenge of attracting and retaining talented staff. In some instances, a reference to the existence of a war for talent is made. It is that way that the retention of workers has stopped being managed, exclusively, with the offer of good salaries. This paper explores, in a first instance, the theoretical framework that describes the principal tools of talent retention that companies develop, and that are considered as part of the total remuneration that workers receive: economic compensations, recognition, career plans and staff development, feedback, personal and professional life balance, social network and team making, proper relationship with superiors and organizational climate life. Later, the results that were obtained from interviews with ten of the best companies to work for in Peru, according to the Great Place to Work Institute ranking in 2007, on retaining talent tools that they implement are shown. Finally, conclusions on the case studies are presented.

  12. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  13. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. Role of attractive forces in determining the equilibrium structure and dynamics of simple liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2015-01-01

    condensed fluids, even the attractive forces outside the FCS play a role. The changes in the distribution caused by neglecting the attractive forces, lead to a too high pressure. The weak long-range attractions damp the dynamics and the diffusion of the particles in gas-, super critical fluid- and in liquid......Molecular Dynamics simulations of a Lennard-Jones system with different range of attraction show that the attractive forces modify the radial distribution of the particles. For condensed liquids only, the forces within the the first coordination shell (FCS) are important, but for gases and moderate...

  15. The Model of Information Support for Management of Investment Attractiveness of Machine-Building Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernetska Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of the definition of “information support”, identifies basic approaches to the interpretation of this economic category. The main purpose of information support for management of enterprise investment attractiveness is determined. The key components of information support for management of enterprise investment attractiveness are studied. The main types of automated information systems for management of the investment attractiveness of enterprises are identified and characterized. The basic computer programs for assessing the level of investment attractiveness of enterprises are considered. A model of information support for management of investment attractiveness of machine-building enterprises is developed.

  16. Presenting and describing the System Model for Evaluating International Market Attractiveness Using for Afghan Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHOLAMALI TABARSA

    2013-08-01

    The importance and need for systematically evaluating and selecting potential foreign markets has been stressed by many researchers, and several models for selecting international markets had been prescribed. But, current model do not pass the test of reality, because they are not adapted with exporter decision making process and they are not consider important aspect of reality. Then, in this paper, we introduce a comprehensive international market attractiveness model that has four steps: demand attractiveness, attainment attractiveness, adaptation attractiveness and competition attractiveness. At last, according to tested model, a systematic support model is developed and is expected to introduce a new approach for Afghan exporters based on the upcoming suggestions.

  17. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  18. A Chemo Attractant in Onion Root Exudates Recognized by Ditylenchus dipsaci in Laboratory Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Y; Burrows, P M; Bar-Eyal, M

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative bioassay that translates preferences of axenically cultured and field population of Ditylenchus dipsaci, observed in vitro, into relative attractiveness of sterile root exudates preparations and their components is described. Onion (Allium cepa cv. White Lisbon) root exudates (ORE) are consistently and significantly much more attractive than the buffer control in all these assays. Exudates from oat cv. Lodi, mustard cv. Albatross and tomato cv. Rehovot 13 are significantly more attractive than the buffer but less attractive than ORE; Arabidopsis sp. cv. Landsberg erecta, oil seed rape cv. Cetes and wheat cv. Bet Hashita are as attractive as the buffer, but canary grass and clover exudates are less attractive than the buffer and, therefore, are classified as repellent. No significant differences in relative attractiveness were detected among exudates from other two cultivars of onion (Texas Grano 502 and Granex Hybrid) and one cultivar of leek (Large American Flag), but exudates from one onion (cv. Evergreen Long White Bunching) and one leek (cv. Broad London) were less attractive than ORE. Relative attractiveness is linear in relation to dilution exponent and therefore log-linear in relation to ORE concentration. Host (onion) penetration study reveals that penetration preferences by D. dipsaci follow the same pattern as those predicted by relative attractiveness coefficients estimated in the bio-assays. Preliminary characterization of the chemo attractant from ORE, using the behavioral bioassay, demonstrated that it was stable to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, nonvolatile and water soluble with a molecular mass <700 kDa.

  19. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  20. Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, S S

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of women in modern societies use facial cosmetics, which modify facial cues to attractiveness. However, the size of this increase remains unclear--how much more attractive are individuals after an application of cosmetics? Here, we utilised a 'new statistics' approach, calculating the effect size of cosmetics on attractiveness using a within-subjects design, and compared this with the effect size due to identity--that is, the inherent differences in attractiveness between people. Women were photographed with and without cosmetics, and these images were rated for attractiveness by a second group of participants. The proportion of variance in attractiveness explained by identity was much greater than the variance within models due to cosmetics. This result was unchanged after statistically controlling for the perceived amount of cosmetics that each model used. Although cosmetics increase attractiveness, the effect is small, and the benefits of cosmetics may be inflated in everyday thinking.

  1. Beauty at the ballot box: disease threats predict preferences for physically attractive leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Why does beauty win out at the ballot box? Some researchers have posited that it occurs because people ascribe generally positive characteristics to physically attractive candidates. We propose an alternative explanation-that leadership preferences are related to functional disease-avoidance mechanisms. Because physical attractiveness is a cue to health, people concerned with disease should especially prefer physically attractive leaders. Using real-world voting data and laboratory-based experiments, we found support for this relationship. In congressional districts with elevated disease threats, physically attractive candidates are more likely to be elected (Study 1). Experimentally activating disease concerns leads people to especially value physical attractiveness in leaders (Study 2) and prefer more physically attractive political candidates (Study 3). In a final study, we demonstrated that these findings are related to leadership preferences, specifically, rather than preferences for physically attractive group members more generally (Study 4). Together, these findings highlight the nuanced and functional nature of leadership preferences.

  2. On the importance of cognitive evaluation as a determinant of interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S

    2004-05-01

    Three studies examined a model of attraction in which the cognitive evaluation of the target individual was the primary determinant of interpersonal attraction. In Study 1, the cognitive evaluation of the target individual mediated the influence of attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction. In Study 2, a path analysis revealed significant indirect effects of (a) similarity on cognitive evaluation via the valence of information implied by attitudes and (b) the valence of information implied by attitudes on attraction via cognitive evaluation of the target. Study 3 provided empirical and theoretical support for the uniqueness of interpersonal attraction from cognitive evaluation. The implications of these data for existing attraction theory are discussed, and a new model of interpersonal attraction is described.

  3. Molecular theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, M I; Asthagiri, D; Tan, L; Pratt, L R

    2015-01-01

    We consider the local molecular field (LMF) theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions. The principal result of LMF theory is outlined, then tested by obtaining radial distribution functions (rdfs) for Ar atoms in water, with and without attractive interactions distinguished by the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) separation. Change from purely repulsive atomic solute interactions to include realistic attractive interactions substantially \\emph{diminishes} the strength of hydrophobic bonds. Since attractions make a big contribution to hydrophobic interactions, Pratt-Chandler theory, which did not include attractions, should not be simply comparable to computer simulation results with general physical interactions, including attractions. The rdfs permit evaluation of osmotic second virial coefficients $B_2$. Those $B_2$ are consistent with the conclusion that incorporation of attractive interactions leads to more positive (repulsive) values. In all cases here, $B_2$ becomes mor...

  4. Chemical Dynamics at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.; Berrah, N.; Fadley, C.; Moore, C.B.; Neumark, D.M.; Ng, C.Y.; Ruscic, B.; Smith, N.V.; Suits, A.G.; Wodtke, A.M.

    1999-02-02

    A day-long retreat was held January 15, 1999 to chart the future directions for chemical dynamics studies at the Advanced Light Source. This represents an important period for the Chemical Dynamics Beamline, as the hardware is well-developed, most of the initial experimental objectives have been realized and the mission is now to identify the future scientific priorities for the beamline and attract users of the highest caliber. To this end, we have developed a detailed scientific program for the near term; identified and prioritized the long range scientific opportunities, identified essential new hardware, and outlined an aggressive outreach program to involve the chemical physics community.

  5. Contributions of dental colour to the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez-Polo, C; Santos, J A; Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Albaladejo, A

    2014-10-01

    Dental appearance may play a key role on the way we develop a first impression of another person. To test whether relatively minor changes in the lightness of tooth colour would influence the perceived social appeal (social, intellectual, psychological and relational abilities) of an unknown male and unknown female, this cross-sectional study was performed on 555 Spanish adults. The two major independent variables related to the photograph were tooth lightness (computer-derived), divided into three levels that included lightened teeth, natural teeth and darkened teeth, and the gender of the observed face. Moreover, six independent variables related to the observer were assessed (age, gender, educational level, place of residence, frequency of brushing and self-reported health status). The dependent variables were scored on five-point Likert scales designed to quantify four domains (social, intellectual, psychological and relationship competences) of the Social Appeal Scale (SAS). Tooth lightness influences the perception of social appeal in all dimensions, as darkened smiles received significantly poorer scores than natural-colour smiles, but these were also worse than lightened smiles. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of social appeal was tooth lightness, and for each increment in lightness (from darkened to lightened smiles), the odds ratio (OR) of positive values being perceived increased significantly in all items (from 2·3 in Popularity to 6·9 in Happiness). A perceptible change in dental lightness is the strongest factor associated with the dental attractiveness stereotype, affecting significantly the 12 traits assessed, but mainly the Happiness, Social Relations and Academic Performance.

  6. Statistical regularities attract attention when task-relevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eAlamia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention seems essential for learning the statistical regularities in our environment, a process known as statistical learning. However, how attention is allocated when exploring a novel visual scene whose statistical structure is unknown remains unclear. In order to address this question, we investigated visual attention allocation during a task in which we manipulated the conditional probability of occurrence of colored stimuli, unbeknown to the subjects. Participants were instructed to detect a target colored dot among two dots moving along separate circular paths. We evaluated implicit statistical learning, i.e. the effect of color predictability on reaction times (RT, and recorded eye position concurrently. Attention allocation was indexed by comparing the Mahalanobis distance between the position, velocity and acceleration of the eyes and the 2 colored dots.We found that learning the conditional probabilities occurred very early during the course of the experiment as shown by the fact that, starting already from the first block, predictable stimuli were detected with shorter RT than unpredictable ones. In terms of attentional allocation, we found that the predictive stimulus attracted gaze only when it was informative about the occurrence of the target but not when it predicted the occurrence of a task-irrelevant stimulus. This suggests that attention allocation was influenced by regularities only when they were instrumental in performing the task. Moreover, we found that the attentional bias towards task-relevant predictive stimuli occurred at a very early stage of learning, concomitantly with the first effects of learning on RT.In conclusion, these results show that statistical regularities capture visual attention only after a few occurrences, provided these regularities are instrumental to perform the task.

  7. Collective Signal Processing in Cluster Chemotaxis: Roles of Adaptation, Amplification, and Co-attraction in Collective Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camley, Brian A; Zimmermann, Juliane; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-07-01

    Single eukaryotic cells commonly sense and follow chemical gradients, performing chemotaxis. Recent experiments and theories, however, show that even when single cells do not chemotax, clusters of cells may, if their interactions are regulated by the chemoattractant. We study this general mechanism of "collective guidance" computationally with models that integrate stochastic dynamics for individual cells with biochemical reactions within the cells, and diffusion of chemical signals between the cells. We show that if clusters of cells use the well-known local excitation, global inhibition (LEGI) mechanism to sense chemoattractant gradients, the speed of the cell cluster becomes non-monotonic in the cluster's size-clusters either larger or smaller than an optimal size will have lower speed. We argue that the cell cluster speed is a crucial readout of how the cluster processes chemotactic signals; both amplification and adaptation will alter the behavior of cluster speed as a function of size. We also show that, contrary to the assumptions of earlier theories, collective guidance does not require persistent cell-cell contacts and strong short range adhesion. If cell-cell adhesion is absent, and the cluster cohesion is instead provided by a co-attraction mechanism, e.g. chemotaxis toward a secreted molecule, collective guidance may still function. However, new behaviors, such as cluster rotation, may also appear in this case. Co-attraction and adaptation allow for collective guidance that is robust to varying chemoattractant concentrations while not requiring strong cell-cell adhesion.

  8. Differential attraction of parasitoids in relation to specificity of kairomones from herbivores and their by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumera Afsheen; Xia Wang; Ran Li; Chuan-Shu Zhu; Yong-Gen Lou

    2008-01-01

    Infochemicals are used by foraging parasitoids in the host selection process from habitat preference until host recognition. Kairomones from the herbivore host plays a vital role in the attraction of parasitoids, particularly in the micro-habitat. Parasitoids are specifically attracted to their respective herbivore species even when different herbivores are present on the same plant. Chemicals emitted from different stages of host (eggs, larvae,pupae, adult), host by-products (e.g., frass, exuviae, mandibular gland secretions, defense secretions etc.), or intra-specific infocbemicals (pheromones) can be main signals for the parasitoids. Parasitoids can differentiate between host and non-host, between different hosts and host stages by perceiving specific volatile and contact kairomones from the host itself,host along with its by-product, by-products alone or intra-specific infochemicals; of which frass (by-product) and intra-specific infochemicals are the most reported ones. Adult and larval parasitoids have been reported to be attracted to kairomones of their target stage or byproduct of their host. Pupal parasitoids have been found to utilize kairomones from the preceding host stage while egg parasitoids are known to exploit a variety of host infochemicals,for example, either from eggs themselves or other non-target host stages, especially adults and adult-related by-products. The kairomonal chemicals identified so far include various groups, but mainly hydrocarbons. A high degree of host specificity and host acceptance is important for the parasitoids as any mistake may result in the loss of fitness.

  9. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  10. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be

  11. Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20 century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Physical attractiveness has been associated with mating behavior, but its role in reproductive success of contemporary humans has received surprisingly little attention. In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1244 women, 997 men born between 1937 and 1940) we examined whether attractiveness assessed from photographs taken at age ~18 predicted the number of biological children at age 53-56. In women, attractiveness predicted higher reproductive success in a nonlinear fashion, so that attractive (second highest quartile) women had 16% and very attractive (highest quartile) women 6% more children than their less attractive counterparts. In men, there was a threshold effect so that men in the lowest attractiveness quartile had 13% fewer children than others who did not differ from each other in the average number of children. These associations were partly but not completely accounted for by attractive participants' increased marriage probability. A linear regression analysis indicated relatively weak directional selection gradient for attractiveness (β=0.06 in women, β=0.07 in men). These findings indicate that physical attractiveness may be associated with reproductive success in humans living in industrialized settings.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of lactic acid on attraction of Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    The role of lactic acid was evaluated for attraction of Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tarsalis, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory using a dual-port olfactometer. When lactic acid was combined with chicken odor, attraction was increased for Cx. quinquefasciatus compared to chicken odor alone but not for Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti. Lactic acid combined with hand odor did not change attraction of Cx. tarsalis and Ae. aegypti but decreased attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The addition of lactic acid to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. Use of commercial lactic acid baits with CO(2) resulted in a similar trend except for Cx. nigripalpus which showed no difference. A blend of lactic acid, acetone, and dimethyl disulfide was attractive to Ae. aegypti (63.4%) but elicited low responses by all Culex spp. (1.3-26.8%). Addition of the blend to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. The mixture of compounds plus CO(2) was as attractive as a hand for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti.

  13. Study on the optimum pheromone release rate for attraction of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; Alfaro, Cristina; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Zarzo, Manuel; Primo, Jaime

    2009-06-01

    Traditional chemical control against Chilo suppressalis Walker is currently being replaced in Spain by new methods based on pheromones. A key step to improve the efficacy of these methods is the determination of the optimum pheromone release rate, which is still uncertain for this pest. In this work, the pheromone release profile and the field performance of a new mesoporous dispenser was compared with a standard commercial dispenser. For this purpose, pheromone loads were extracted from field-aged dispensers and quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. In addition, a field trial was carried out with traps baited with one, two, or three mesoporous dispensers per trap, as well as with traps containing one standard dispenser. We found that the highest number of field catches did not correspond to the highest pheromone emission rate, which suggests a repellent effect of the insect if the emission is excessive. The results suggest that the attractant activity was maximized by emitting approximately 34 microg/d. The efficacy of the mesoporous dispenser and its possible improvements are discussed.

  14. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  15. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars to attractive and repellent plant volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacem eRharrabe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Lepidoptera, the behavior of caterpillars to plant odors is poorly known. However, caterpillars are equipped with a reduced number of olfactory sensilla (3 on the antenna and 4-5 on the maxillary palps which they can use to make fine discrimination between complex plant odors. In this work, we characterized behavioral responses of Spodoptera littoralis larvae to 11 odorants found in plants using binary choices in a Petri dish assay. In this assay, 1-hexanol, hexanal and cis-jasmone elicited a dose-dependent attraction, camphene and eugenol were repellent, while the response to other odorants were less marked. We recorded the electrophysiological responses to 5 of these odors from olfactory neurons of sensillum B2 of the antenna. Several neurons from this sensillum responded to each of the chemicals tested by an increase of their firing activity on top of a high background activity, suggesting that olfactory neurons of caterpillars is broadly tuned to a range of odorants rather than being specialized to a few molecules.

  16. Field classes: key to involve and attract students to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Cardoso, Irene Maria; da Silva Lopes, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Soil genesis is a subject taught to students of Agrarian Sciences and Geography at the Federal University of Viçosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Each semester 200 to 250 students inscribe for it. It is organized as the first 60 hours course on soils for 1st and 2nd year's students. The course has a distinct pedagogical approach, which is based on Paulo Freire's education principles, known as socio constructivism. In such approach, learning environments and materials are prepared to stimulate dialogues and exchange of knowledge between students themselves, strengthening that their role is crucial to their own learning. During the course, students have different types of practical classes: indoors, in a class room or at the Earth Sciences museum and outdoors, in the field. In the class room they have the opportunity to handle materials -minerals, rocks, soils and maps-, follow demonstrations and perform small experiments. The classes given in the museum intend a broadening of the subjects approached in theoretical and practical classes. In the field classes the students are organized in small groups with the task to investigate soil formation by observation and description of geology, landscape, land use, soil expositions and some of the soil properties. Attracting students to soils involves looking at meanings and perceptions related to soils they bring with themselves and follow this up to sensitize and create awareness about their importance. With this aim, it is also included, as part of the evaluation, a final voluntary presentation that many of the students do. The presentation can be a song, a poem, a sketch or whatever they propose and create. Many of the presentations bring topics related to the new perception about soils they get during the semester and to ideas or questions raised in the field classes. A survey with the students showed that field classes are by far the preferred classes and they are considered more dynamic. Since students have less and less

  17. Fish attraction to artificial reefs not always harmful: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A; Lowry, Michael B; Suthers, Iain M

    2015-10-01

    The debate on whether artificial reefs produce new fish or simply attract existing fish biomass continues due to the difficulty in distinguishing these processes, and there remains considerable doubt as to whether artificial reefs are a harmful form of habitat modification. The harm typically associated with attraction is that fish will be easier to harvest due to the existing biomass aggregating at a newly deployed reef. This outcome of fish attraction has not progressed past an anecdotal form, however, and is always perceived as a harmful process. We present a numerical model that simulates the effect that a redistributed fish biomass, due to an artificial reef, has on fishing catch per unit effort (CPUE). This model can be used to identify the scenarios (in terms of reef, fish, and harvest characteristics) that pose the most risk of exploitation due to fish attraction. The properties of this model were compared to the long-standing predictions by Bohnsack (1989) on the factors that increase the risk or the harm of attraction. Simulations revealed that attraction is not always harmful because it does not always increase maximum fish density. Rather, attraction sometimes disperses existing fish biomass making them harder to catch. Some attraction can be ideal, with CPUE lowest when attraction leads to an equal distribution of biomass between natural and artificial reefs. Simulations also showed that the outcomes from attraction depend on the characteristics of the target fish species, such that transient or pelagic species are often at more risk of harmful attraction than resident species. Our findings generally agree with Bohnsack's predictions, although we recommend distinguishing "mobility" and "fidelity" when identifying species most at risk from attraction, as these traits had great influence on patterns of harvest of attracted fish biomass.

  18. Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the astonishing diversity of orchid pollination systems, sexual deception is one of the most stunning. An example is the genus Ophrys, where plants attract male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes) are often the key signal for this chemical mimicry. Here we investigate the evolution of these key compounds within Orchidinae by mapping their production in flowers of selected species onto their estimated phylogeny. RESULTS:...

  19. Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Within the astonishing diversity of orchid pollination systems, sexual deception is one of the most stunning. An example is the genus Ophrys, where plants attract male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes) are often the key signal for this chemical mimicry. Here we investigate the evolution of these key compounds within Orchidinae by mapping their production in flowers of selected species onto their estimated phylogeny. ...

  20. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Laiwen

    2001-01-01

    [1]London, F., The general theory of molecular forces, Trans. Faraday Soc., 937, 33: 8.[2]Lifshitz, E. M., The theory of molecular attractive forces between solids, Sov. Phys., JETP, 956, 2: 73, and references therein.[3]Dzyaloshinski, I. E., Lifshitz, E. M., Pitaeveskiǐ, L. P., The general theory of van der Waals forces, Adv. Phys., 96, 0: 65.[4]Linder, B., Reaction-field techniques and their applications to intermolecular forces, Adv. Chem. Phys., 967, 2: 225.[5]McLachlan, A. D., Retarded dispersion forces in dielectrics at finite temperature, Proc. Roy. Soc., 963, A274: 80.[6]Israelachvili, J. N., The calculations of van der Waals dispersion forces between macroscopic bodies, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 972, A33: 38.[7]Nir, S., van der Waals interactions between surfaces of biological interest, Prog. Surf. Sci., 976, 8: .[8]van Oss, C. J., Interfacial Lifshitz-van der Waals and polar interactions in macroscopic systems, Chem. Rev., 988, 88: 927.[9]Rytov, S. M., Kravtsov, Y. A., Tatarskii, V. I., Principles of Statistical Radiophysics 3: Elements of Random Fields, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 989, 09—73.[10]Rytov, S. M., Correlation theory of electric fluctuations and thermal radiation, in Advances in Physical Sciences, State Publishing House for Theoretical and Technical Literature (eds. Blokhintsev D. I., Veksler, V. I, Konobeevskii, S. T. et al.), Moscow, 95Vol. 63, Part II: 89—92.[11]Israelachvili, J. N., Van der Waals forces in biological systems, Q. Rev. Biophys., 974, 6: 34.[12]Lifshitz, E. M., Pitaeveskiǐ, L. P., Statistical Physics: part 2——Theory of the Condensed State. 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 980. 34—359.[13]Lifshitz, E. M., Theory of molecular attraction force between condensed bodies, in Perspectives in Theoretical Physics: the Collected Papers of E. M., (ed. Pitaeveskiǐ L P), Lifshitz-Oxford: Pergamon Press, 9933—37.[14]Nir, S., Adams, S., Rein, R., Determination of dielectric

  1. Love at second sight: Sequential dependence of facial attractiveness in an on-line dating paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Van der Burg, Erik; Alais, David

    2016-03-17

    Millions of people use online dating sites each day, scanning through streams of face images in search of an attractive mate. Face images, like most visual stimuli, undergo processes whereby the current percept is altered by exposure to previous visual input. Recent studies using rapid sequences of faces have found that perception of face identity is biased towards recently seen faces, promoting identity-invariance over time, and this has been extended to perceived face attractiveness. In this paper we adapt the rapid sequence task to ask a question about mate selection pertinent in the digital age. We designed a binary task mimicking the selection interface currently popular in online dating websites in which observers typically make binary decisions (attractive or unattractive) about each face in a sequence of unfamiliar faces. Our findings show that binary attractiveness decisions are not independent: we are more likely to rate a face as attractive when the preceding face was attractive than when it was unattractive.

  2. In the Eye of the Betrothed: Perceptual Downgrading of Attractive Alternative Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shana; Trope, Yaacov; Balcetis, Emily

    2016-07-01

    People in monogamous relationships can experience a conflict when they interact with an attractive individual. They may have a desire to romantically pursue the new person, while wanting to be faithful to their partner. How do people manage the threat that attractive alternatives present to their relationship goals? We suggest that one way people defend their relationships against attractive individuals is by perceiving the individual as less attractive. In two studies, using a novel visual matching paradigm, we found support for a perceptual downgrading effect. People in relationships perceived threatening attractive individuals as less attractive than did single participants. The effect was exacerbated among participants who were highly satisfied with their current relationships. The studies provide evidence for a perceptual bias that emerges to protect long-term goals. We discuss the findings within the context of a broader theory of motivated perception in the service of self-control.

  3. Exploiting attractiveness in persuasion: senders' implicit theories about receivers' processing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Kutzner, Florian; Fiedler, Klaus; Freytag, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests a positive correlation between physical attractiveness and the expectation of positive outcomes in social interactions, such as successful persuasion. However, prominent persuasion theories do not imply a general advantage of attractive senders. Instead, the persuasion success should vary with the receivers' processing motivation and processing capacity. Focusing on the perspective of the sender, the authors elaborate on lay theories about how attractiveness affects persuasion success. They propose that lay theories (a) match scientific models in that they also comprise the interaction of senders' attractiveness and receivers' processing characteristics, (b) guide laypersons' anticipation of persuasion success, and (c) translate into strategic behavior. They show that anticipated persuasion success depends on the interplay of perceived attractiveness and expectations about receivers' processing motivation (Experiment 1 and 2). Further experiments show that laypersons strategically attempt to exploit attractiveness in that they approach situations (Experiment 3) and persons (Experiment 4) that promise persuasion success.

  4. A two-dimensional model for the study of interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S

    2014-02-01

    We describe a model for understanding interpersonal attraction in which attraction can be understood as a product of the initial evaluations we make about others. The model posits that targets are evaluated on two basic dimensions, capacity and willingness, such that affective and behavioral attraction result from evaluations of (a) a target's capacity to facilitate the perceiver's goals/needs and (b) a target's potential willingness to facilitate those goals/needs. The plausibility of the two-dimensional model of attraction is evaluated vis-à-vis the extant literature on various attraction phenomena including the reciprocity of liking effect, pratfall effect, matching hypothesis, arousal effects, and similarity effect. We conclude that considerable evidence across a wide range of phenomena supports the idea that interpersonal attraction is principally determined by inferences about the target's capacity and willingness.

  5. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  6. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  7. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  8. Valosin-containing protein/p97 interacts with sperm-activating and sperm-attracting factor (SAAF) in the ascidian egg and modulates sperm-attracting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Eri; Konno, Aru; Inaba, Kazuo; Oishi, Tohru; Murata, Michio; Yoshida, Manabu

    2008-10-01

    Sperm chemotaxis toward an egg is observed in many animals, and the control of sperm-attracting activity is thought to play an important role in ensuring fertilization. However, the mechanism underlying the release of a sperm attractant from an egg is still obscure. In this study, we examined the systems involved in the release of sperm-activating and sperm-attracting factor (SAAF), which is the sperm attractant of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Here, we show that the egg acquires sperm-attracting activity after germinal vesicle breakdown. Further, since the cytoplasmic extracts of immature oocytes exhibit no sperm-attracting activity, the SAAF in oocytes may be activated after germinal vesicle breakdown. We found 13 SAAF-binding proteins in an egg plasma membrane extract and identified five proteins by proteomic analysis: valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97, proteasome alpha 2 subunit, MGC97756 protein, proteasome subunit Y, and beta-tubulin. In particular, the interaction between VCP/p97 and SAAF was confirmed by a pull-down assay. VCP/p97 is initially localized in the germinal vesicle, and during oocyte maturation, it shifts to the endoplasmic reticulum in the cortical regions. Thus, VCP/p97 is a potential modulator of SAAF release from the egg.

  9. Finite-Time Attractivity for Diagonally Dominant Systems with Off-Diagonal Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Doan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a notion of attractivity for delay equations which are defined on bounded time intervals. Our main result shows that linear delay equations are finite-time attractive, provided that the delay is only in the coupling terms between different components, and the system is diagonally dominant. We apply this result to a nonlinear Lotka-Volterra system and show that the delay is harmless and does not destroy finite-time attractivity.

  10. Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure™) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect

  11. How Beauty Determines Gaze! Facial Attractiveness and Gaze Duration in Images of Real World Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Leder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces.

  12. How Beauty Determines Gaze! Facial Attractiveness and Gaze Duration in Images of Real World Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Goller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces. PMID:27698984

  13. Light attraction in endangered procellariiform birds: Reduction by shielding upward radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.R.; Sincock, J.L.; Hailman, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Autumnal attraction to man-made lighting causes heavy mortality in fledgling Hawaiian seabirds: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli), dark-rumped petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), and band-rumpted storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro). These threatened, endangered and rare species (respectively) approach and circle lights on their first flight from mountain nesting colonies on the island of Kauai to the sea. Lights of the largest resort were shielded to prevent upward radiation on alternate nights during 2 fledgling seasons. Shielding decreased attraction by nearly 40%. Most attraction occurred 1-4 h after sunset. Full moon dramatically decreased attraction, a phenomenon that has both theoretical and management implications.

  14. The time-course of feature interference in agreement comprehension: Multiple mechanisms and asymmetrical attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Darren; Nicol, Janet; Brehm, Laurel

    2014-10-01

    Attraction interference in language comprehension and production may be as a result of common or different processes. In the present paper, we investigate attraction interference during language comprehension, focusing on the contexts in which interference arises and the time-course of these effects. Using evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and sentence judgment times, we show that agreement attraction in comprehension is best explained as morphosyntactic interference during memory retrieval. This stands in contrast to attraction as a message-level process involving the representation of the subject NP's number features, which is a strong contributor to attraction in production. We thus argue that the cognitive antecedents of agreement attraction in comprehension are non-identical with those of attraction in production, and moreover, that attraction in comprehension is primarily a consequence of similarity-based interference in cue-based memory retrieval processes. We suggest that mechanisms responsible for attraction during language comprehension are a subset of those involved in language production.

  15. Beauty is in the 'we' of the beholder: greater agreement on facial attractiveness among close relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Russell, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research on facial attractiveness has focused primarily on elucidating universal factors to which all raters respond consistently. However, recent work has shown that there is also substantial disagreement between raters, highlighting the importance of determining how attractiveness preferences vary among different individuals. We conducted a typical attractiveness ratings study, but took the unusual step of recruiting pairs of subjects who were spouses, siblings, or close friends. The agreement between pairs of affiliated friends, siblings, and spouses was significantly greater than between pairs of strangers drawn from the same race and culture, providing evidence that facial-attractiveness preferences are socially organized.

  16. Beauty in a smile: the role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, J; Winston, J; Critchley, H; Perrett, D; Burt, D M; Dolan, R J

    2003-01-01

    The attractiveness of a face is a highly salient social signal, influencing mate choice and other social judgements. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain regions that respond to attractive faces which manifested either a neutral or mildly happy face expression. Attractive faces produced activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in representing stimulus-reward value. Responses in this region were further enhanced by a smiling facial expression, suggesting that the reward value of an attractive face as indexed by medial OFC activity is modulated by a perceiver directed smile.

  17. Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte; Herbison, Peter

    2003-04-01

    There is a continuing debate about the importance of social versus biological factors in the expression of same-sex attraction. Investigation of prevalence, continuities, and changes over time among young adults growing up in a country with a relatively accepting climate to homosexuality is likely to illuminate this debate. Analyses were therefore undertaken of self-reported same-sex attraction at age 21 and 26, in a cohort of about 1000 people born in 1972/3 in one New Zealand city. Participants were also asked about same-sex behaviour and attitudes to same-sex relationships. By age 26, 10.7% of men and 24.5% of women reported being attracted to their own sex at some time. This dropped to 5.6% of men and 16.4% of women who reported some current same-sex attraction. Current attraction predominantly to their own sex or equally to both sexes (major attraction) was reported by 1.6% of men and 2.1% of women. Occasional same-sex attraction, but not major attraction, was more common among the most educated. Between age 21 and 26, slightly more men moved away from an exclusive heterosexual attraction (1.9% of all men) than moved towards it (1.0%), while for women, many more moved away (9.5%) than towards (1.3%) exclusive heterosexual attraction. These findings show that much same-sex attraction is not exclusive and is unstable in early adulthood, especially among women. The proportion of women reporting some same-sex attraction in New Zealand is high compared both to men, and to women in the UK and US. These observations, along with the variation with education, are consistent with a large role for the social environment in the acknowledgement of same-sex attraction. The smaller group with major same-sex attraction, which changed less over time, and did not differ by education, is consistent with a basic biological dimension to sexual attraction. Overall these findings argue against any single explanation for homosexual attraction.

  18. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  19. "Shades of beauty": examining the relationship of skin color to perceptions of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research project was to investigate the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness. Previous research suggested that skin color plays an important role in how we perceive an individual's physical attractiveness. The current study was conducted to determine how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. In this study, 79 subjects were asked to evaluate images of potential endorsers to be used in an upcoming advertising campaign. The images were those of females of varying skin tones. Data were then collected and analyzed to determine whether skin tone and level of skin color can in fact influence the physical attractiveness stereotype.

  20. Human physique and sexual attractiveness: sexual preferences of men and women in Bakossiland, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Dixson, Alan F; Morgan, Bethan; Anderson, Matthew J

    2007-06-01

    Men and women living in a rural community in Bakossiland, Cameroon were asked to rate the attractiveness of images of male or female figures manipulated to vary in somatotype, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), secondary sexual traits, and other features. In Study 1, women rated mesomorphic (muscular) and average male somatotypes as most attractive, followed by ectomorphic (slim) and endomorphic (heavily built) figures. In Study 2, amount and distribution of masculine trunk (chest and abdominal) hair was altered progressively in a series of front-posed male figures. A significant preference for one of these images was found, but the most hirsute figure was not judged as most attractive. Study 3 assessed attractiveness of front-posed male figures which varied only in length of the non-erect penis. Extremes of penile size (smallest and largest of five images) were rated as significantly less attractive than three intermediate sizes. In Study 4, Bakossi men rated the attractiveness of back-posed female images varying in WHR (from 0.5-1.0). The 0.8 WHR figure was rated markedly more attractive than others. Study 5 rated the attractiveness of female skin color. Men expressed no consistent preference for either lighter or darker female figures. These results are the first of their kind reported for a Central African community and provide a useful cross-cultural perspective to published accounts on sexual selection, human morphology and attractiveness in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere.