WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical alarm cues

  1. Mianserin affects alarm reaction to conspecific chemical alarm cues in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2017-02-01

    In this study, I show that mianserin, a chemical with serotonin and adrenoceptor antagonist activities, increases fish vulnerability to a potential predator threat, when prey fish must deal with this threat based on conspecific chemical alarm cues. For that, I evaluated whether mianserin, diluted in the water, influences the behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to conspecific skin extract (chemical alarm cues). I found that, while mianserin did not abolished antipredator responses, this drug mitigates some components of this defensive reaction. Thus, a potential decrease in serotonin and adrenergic activities reduces the ability of dealing with predators when perceiving conspecific chemical alarm cues.

  2. Keeping eyes peeled: guppies exposed to chemical alarm cue are more responsive to ambiguous visual cues

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Jessica Frances

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information received from the visual and chemical senses is qualitatively different. For prey species in aquatic environments, visual cues are spatially and temporally reliable but risky as the prey and predator must often be in close proximity. Chemical cues, by contrast, can be distorted by currents or linger and thus provide less reliable spatial and temporal information, but can be detected from a safe distance. Chemical cues are therefore often the first detected and may provide...

  3. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  4. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  5. Sink or swim: a test of tadpole behavioral responses to predator cues and potential alarm pheromones from skin secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Nino; Gehrer, Lukas; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2012-11-01

    Chemical signaling is a vital mode of communication for most organisms, including larval amphibians. However, few studies have determined the identity or source of chemical compounds signaling amphibian defensive behaviors, in particular, whether alarm pheromones can be actively secreted from tadpoles signaling danger to conspecifics. Here we exposed tadpoles of the common toad Bufo bufo and common frog Rana temporaria to known cues signaling predation risk and to potential alarm pheromones. In both species, an immediate reduction in swimming activity extending over an hour was caused by chemical cues from the predator Aeshna cyanea (dragonfly larvae) that had been feeding on conspecific tadpoles. However, B. bufo tadpoles did not detectably alter their behavior upon exposure to potential alarm pheromones, neither to their own skin secretions, nor to the abundant predator-defense peptide bradykinin. Thus, chemicals signaling active predation had a stronger effect than general alarm secretions of other common toad tadpoles. This species may invest in a defensive strategy alternative to communication by alarm pheromones, given that Bufonidae are toxic to some predators and not known to produce defensive skin peptides. Comparative behavioral physiology of amphibian alarm responses may elucidate functional trade-offs in pheromone production and the evolution of chemical communication.

  6. Alarm cue induces an antipredator morphological defense in juvenile Nicaragua cichlids Hypsophrys nicaraguensis

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    Maria E. ABATE, Andrew G. ENG, Les KAUFMAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory cues that indicate predation risk elicit a number of defensive behaviors in fishes, but whether they are sufficient to also induce morphological defenses has received little attention. Cichlids are characterized by a high level of morphological plasticity during development, and the few species that have been tested do exhibit defensive behaviors when exposed to alarm cues released from the damaged skin of conspecifics. We utilized young juvenile Nicaragua cichlids Hypsophrys nicaraguensis to test if the perception of predation risk from alarm cue (conspecific skin extract alone induces an increased relative body depth which is a defense against gape-limited predators. After two weeks of exposure, siblings that were exposed to conspecific alarm cue increased their relative body depth nearly double the amount of those exposed to distilled water (control and zebrafish Danio rerio alarm cue. We repeated our measurements over the last two weeks (12 and 14 of cue exposure when the fish were late-stage juveniles to test if the rate of increase was sustained; there were no differences in final dimensions between the three treatments. Our results show that 1 the Nicaraguan cichlid has an innate response to conspecific alarm cue which is not a generalized response to an injured fish, and 2 this innate recognition ultimately results in developing a deeper body at a stage of the life history where predation risk is high [Current Zoology 56 (1: 36–42 2010].

  7. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  8. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  9. Determining sensitive stages for learning to detect predators in larval bronzed frogs: Importance of alarm cues in learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuradha Batabyal; Sachin M Gosavi; Narahari P Gramapurohit

    2014-09-01

    Successful survival and reproduction of prey organisms depend on their ability to detect their potential predators accurately and respond effectively with suitable defences. Predator detection can be innate or can be acquired through learning.We studied prey–predator interactions in the larval bronzed frogs (Sylvirana temporalis), which have the innate ability to detect certain predators. We conducted a series of experiments to determine if the larval S. temporalis rely solely on innate predator detection mechanisms or can also learn to use more specific cues such as conspecific alarm cues for the purpose. The results of our study clearly indicate that larval S. temporalis use both innate and learned mechanisms for predator detection. Predator-naïve tadpoles could detect kairomones alone as a potential threat and responded by reducing activity, suggesting an innate predator detection mechanism. Surprisingly, predator-naïve tadpoles failed to detect conspecific alarm cues as a potential threat, but learned to do so through experience. After acquiring the ability to detect conspecific alarm cues, they could associate novel predator cues with conspecific alarm cues. Further, post feeding stages of larval S. temporalis are sensitive for learning to detect conspecific alarm cues to label novel predators.

  10. Human gender differences in the perception of conspecific alarm chemosensory cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca R Radulescu

    Full Text Available It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei. When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether gender differences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals, we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender.

  11. Aphid alarm pheromone as a cue for ants to locate aphid partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J Verheggen

    Full Text Available The mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural enemies. While aphid predators and parasitoids actively forage for oviposition sites by using aphid semiochemicals, scouts of aphid-tending ant species would also benefit from locating honeydew resources by orienting toward aphid pheromone sources. The present study aims to provide additional information on the use of Aphis fabae alarm pheromone, i.e. (E-β-farnesene (EβF, by ant scouts. The perception and behavioral impact of EβF on Lasius niger were investigated using electroantennography and two bio-assays measuring their attraction and orientation towards aphid semiochemicals. Pronounced electrical depolarizations were observed from L. niger scout antennae to stimulations of A. fabae alarm pheromone, while other sesquiterpenes elicited weak or no responses. L. niger scouts were significantly attracted toward EβF in a four-arm olfactometer, as well as in an two-choice bioassay. These laboratory results suggest for the first time that low amounts of aphid alarm pheromone can be used by L. niger scouts as a cue indicating the presence of aphid colonies and could therefore mediate the aphid-ant partnership in the field.

  12. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  13. Coordinated sensor cueing for chemical plume detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nathan J.; Jensenius, Andrea M.; Watkins, Adam S.; Hawthorne, R. Chad; Stepnitz, Brian J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes an organic data fusion and sensor cueing approach for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) sensors. The Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN) uses a hardware component referred to as the JWARN Component Interface Device (JCID). The Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center has developed a small footprint and open architecture solution for the JCID capability called JCID-on-a-Chip (JoaC). The JoaC program aims to reduce the cost and complexity of the JCID by shrinking the necessary functionality down to a small single board computer. This effort focused on development of a fusion and cueing algorithm organic to the JoaC hardware. By embedding this capability in the JoaC, sensors have the ability to receive and process cues from other sensors without the use of a complex and costly centralized infrastructure. Additionally, the JoaC software is hardware agnostic, as evidenced by its drop-in inclusion in two different system-on-a-chip platforms including Windows CE and LINUX environments. In this effort, a partnership between JPM-CA, JHU/APL, and the Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), the authors implemented and demonstrated a new algorithm for cooperative detection and localization of a chemical agent plume. This experiment used a pair of mobile Joint Services Lightweight Standoff Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) units which were controlled by fusion and cueing algorithms hosted on a JoaC. The algorithms embedded in the JoaC enabled the two sensor systems to perform cross cueing and cooperatively form a higher fidelity estimate of chemical releases by combining sensor readings. Additionally, each JSLSCAD had the ability to focus its search on smaller regions than those required by a single sensor system by using the cross cue information from the other sensor.

  14. Effects from Spatial Cues on Detectability of Alarm Signals in Car Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Naoki; Li, Junfeng; Iwaya, Yukio; Unoki, Masashi; Akagi, Masato

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial to correctly detect alarm signals in noise conditions, for instance, especially in car environments. However, alarm signals are possibly masked by noises from engine, friction between tires and road, etc., in car environments. To design the alarm signals that can be easily detected,it is necessary to first understand the perceptual characteristics of alarm signals in noisy environments. In this paper, the masked thresholds of alarm signals in the presence of car noise were measu...

  15. A semelparous fish continues upstream migration when exposed to alarm cue, but adjusts movement speed and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhring, Thomas M; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Hume, John B.; Wagner, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged sea lamprey 65 m from the shore of Lake Michigan or 287 m upstream in Carp Lake River and used antennas to detect their movements in the river. As the breeding season progressed, sea lamprey initiated upstream movement earlier and were more likely to enter the river. Sea lamprey that began the night in Lake Michigan entered Carp Lake River at higher rates and accelerated upstream when exposed to high concentrations of alarm cue, consistent with animals attempting to minimize time spent in risky areas. Sea lampreys that began the night in the river delayed upstream movement when exposed to alarm cue, consistent with animals sheltering and gathering information about a source of risk. We attribute this context-specific reaction to alarm cue to differences in perceived vulnerability to predation in sheltered positions in the river versus exposed positions in the lake. Once in the river, the vast majority of sea lamprey moved upstream independent of alarm cue or Julian date. Although life-history-induced time and energy budgets place rigid constraints on the direction of migration, sea lamprey attend to predation risk by modifying movement timing and speed.

  16. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  17. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode.

  18. Effects of predator chemical cues and behavioral biorhythms on foraging activity of terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerz, J C; Panebianco, N L; Madison, D M

    2001-07-01

    Red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, show a variety of alarm responses to chemical cues from eastern garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis. We measured the foraging activity of red-backed salamanders exposed to water soiled by a garter snake (fed P. cinereus) or to unsoiled water. Salamanders exposed to snake-soiled water showed less foraging activity than salamanders exposed to unsoiled water; therefore, predators could have nonlethal effects on salamander populations. Our results also show additional factors influenced salamander foraging activity. Salamander foraging activity and responsiveness to chemical cues do not appear to have been affected by sex or food deprivation. Salamander foraging activity does appear to have been influenced by activity biorhythms. Foraging activity of animals in both treatments showed a bimodal periodicity that is consistent with natural activity patterns controlled by internal biorhythms. Exposure to snake-soiled water significantly reduced foraging activity during periods of peak foraging activity, but had a subtler effect on foraging activity during natural lulls in activity. We suggest that both activity biorhythms and exposure to chemical cues are important factors affecting salamander foraging behavior.

  19. Blood cues induce antipredator behavior in Nile tilapia conspecifics.

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    Rodrigo Egydio Barreto

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that the fish Nile tilapia displays an antipredator response to chemical cues present in the blood of conspecifics. This is the first report of alarm response induced by blood-borne chemical cues in fish. There is a body of evidence showing that chemical cues from epidermal 'club' cells elicit an alarm reaction in fish. However, the chemical cues of these 'club' cells are restricted to certain species of fish. Thus, as a parsimonious explanation, we assume that an alarm response to blood cues is a generalized response among animals because it occurs in mammals, birds and protostomian animals. Moreover, our results suggest that researchers must use caution when studying chemically induced alarm reactions because it is difficult to separate club cell cues from traces of blood.

  20. Stream grazers determine their crawling direction on the basis of chemical and particulate microalgal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Izumi; Doi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between herbivore behavior and cues from producers. We used stream grazer Glossosoma larvae and determined their crawling direction in relation to chemical and visual cues from microalgae. The experimental treatments included control (no cue), particulate (chemical and particulate cues), and dissolved (chemical cue) cues from microalgae. The experimental water samples were randomly placed into either arm of a Y-shaped channel, and the crawling direction of the grazers was determined. Although the grazers crawled toward the arm containing either particulate or dissolved cues, they preferred the arm with particulate cues. This suggested that grazers responded well to both particulate (i.e., drifting algal cells) and chemical (algal smell) cues, and that particulate cues were more important for foraging. In natural habitats, grazers detect cues from producers and change their behaviors to maintain a balance between top-down and bottom-up cues.

  1. Homing orientation in salamanders: A mechanism involving chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description is given of experiments made to determine the senses and chemical cues used by salamanders for homing orientation. Sensory impairment and cue manipulative techniques were used in the investigation. All experiments were carried out at night. Results show that sense impaired animals did not home as readily as those who were blind but retained their sensory mechanism. This fact suggests that the olfactory mechanism is necessary for homing in the salamander. It was determined that after the impaired salamander regenerated its sensory mechanism it too returned home. It was concluded that homing ability in salamanders is direction independent, distant dependent, and vision independent.

  2. Wolbachia-Free Heteropterans Do Not Produce Defensive Chemicals or Alarm Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X; Venable, Gabriela X; Saeidi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    The true bugs, or heteropterans, are known for their widespread production of anti-predator chemicals and alarm pheromones in scent glands, a derived trait that constitutes one of the defining characters of the suborder Heteroptera and a potential novel trait that contributed to their diversification. We investigated whether symbiotic bacteria could be involved in the formation of these chemicals using Thasus neocalifornicus, a coreid bug that produces semiochemicals frequently found in other bugs. Using DNA phylogenetic methodology and experiments using antibiotics coupled with molecular techniques, we identified Wolbachia as the microorganism infecting the scent glands of this bug. Decreasing the level of Wobachia infection using antibiotics was correlated with a diminution of heteropteran production of defensive compounds and alarm pheromones, suggesting that this symbiotic bacterium might be implicated in the formation of chemicals.

  3. Marine chemical ecology: chemical signals and cues structure marine populations, communities, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

  4. Smelling danger - alarm cue responses in the polychaete Nereis (Hediste diversicolor (Muller, 1776 to potential fish predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elisa Schaum

    Full Text Available The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus. Number of emergences, emergence duration and distance from burrow entrance are all significantly reduced during exposure to flounder conditioned seawater and flounder mucous spiked seawater above a threshold with no evidence of behavioural habituation. Mucous from bottom-dwelling juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa and pelagic adult herring (Clupea harengus elicit similar responses, suggesting that the behavioural reactions are species independent. The data implies that H. diversicolor must have well developed chemosensory mechanisms for predator detection and is consequently able to effectively minimize risk.

  5. Smelling Danger – Alarm Cue Responses in the Polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (Müller, 1776) to Potential Fish Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C. Elisa; Batty, Robert; Last, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus). Number of emergences, emergence duration and distance from burrow entrance are all significantly reduced during exposure to flounder conditioned seawater and flounder mucous spiked seawater above a threshold with no evidence of behavioural habituation. Mucous from bottom-dwelling juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and pelagic adult herring (Clupea harengus) elicit similar responses, suggesting that the behavioural reactions are species independent. The data implies that H. diversicolor must have well developed chemosensory mechanisms for predator detection and is consequently able to effectively minimize risk. PMID:24155953

  6. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

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    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  7. Behavioral responses of zebrafish depend on the type of threatening chemical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana Cristina V; Gusso, Darlan; Koakoski, Gessi; Oliveira, Thiago A; Marqueze, Alessandra; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-12-01

    In fish, defensive reactions are induced by different chemical cues that emanate from sense-related stresses [physical, chemical, and visual (visual contact with predator)] or food stresses (acute fasting and chronic food restriction). Using a shuttle box with a two-chamber unmixed laminar flow that allowed fish to remain or flee from a chemical cue, we showed that the avoidance response depended on the type of the chemical cue. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) retreated from water conditioned with chemical cues released by chemically or physically stressed fish and acutely fasted fish, but not from water with cues from fish experiencing visual contact with predatory fish or fish suffering from chronic food restriction. Our data reinforced the hypothesis that fish use a combination of information and the context of the situation to determine their evasion strategy.

  8. Alarm Pheromone Composition and Behavioral Activity in Fungus-Growing Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Victoria C; Butterfield, Thomas; Drijfhout, Falko; Tasman, Kiah; Hughes, William O H

    2017-03-01

    Chemical communication is a dominant method of communication throughout the animal kingdom and can be especially important in group-living animals in which communicating threats, either from predation or other dangers, can have large impacts on group survival. Social insects, in particular, have evolved a number of pheromonal compounds specifically to signal alarm. There is predicted to be little selection for interspecific variation in alarm cues because individuals may benefit from recognizing interspecific as well as conspecific cues and, consequently, alarm cues are not normally thought to be used for species or nestmate recognition. Here, we examine the composition of the alarm pheromones of seven species of fungus-growing ants (Attini), including both basal and derived species and examine the behavioral responses to alarm pheromone of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants, the sister genus to the highly studied Atta leaf-cutting ants. We find surprisingly high interspecific variation in alarm pheromone composition across the attine phylogeny. Interestingly, the active component of the alarm pheromone was different between the two leaf-cutting ant genera. Furthermore, in contrast to previous studies on Atta, we found no differences among morphological castes in their responses to alarm pheromone in Acromyrmex but we did find differences in responses among putative age classes. The results suggest that the evolution of alarm communication and signaling within social insect clades can be unexpectedly complex and that further work is warranted to understand whether the evolution of different alarm pheromone compounds is adaptive.

  9. Chemical alarm and defence in the oribatid mite Collohmannia gigantea (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspotnig, Günther

    2006-01-01

    The multicomponent oil gland secretion of Collohmannia gigantea, a middle-derivative mixonomatan oribatid mite, is demonstrated to possess alarm pheromonal and allomonal properties. Four components of the secretion, namely the monoterpenes neryl formate, neral, geranial and the aromatic 2-hydroxy- 6-methyl-benzaldehyde (2,6-HMBD), showed moderate to strong alarm pheromonal activity in adult mites. Naturally elicited response is due to neral (about 50% of the secretion) and probably 2,6-HMBD (only 5% of the secretion, but strong alarm pheromonal activity). This is the second report of an alarm pheromone in Oribatida. Tridecane and pentadecane (=the hydrocarbon fraction of the secretion) did not evoke evident behavioural reactions, and most likely serve as solvents and spreading agents for the pheromonal-active components. Alarm reactions were characterized by a short recognition phase (waving movements with legs I), followed by shrinking back and panic escape from the scent source. In addition, all six components of the oil gland secretion, including the hydrocarbons, exhibited strong allomonal properties against a model oribatid predator, the scydmaenid beetle, Euconnus (Tetramelus) oblongus. Considering the widespread semiochemical properties of oil gland secretions in astigmatid mites (=a highly derivative oribatid group), these results furnish evidence for a phylogenetically early origin of defensive and communicative roles of oil gland secretions in oribatids. These roles include alarm communication, defence and the production of anti-fungal compounds.

  10. The effect of physical and chemical cues on hepatocellular function and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatef, Shimaa A; Ohi, Akihiko; Nabatame, Toshihide; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2014-03-11

    Physical topographical features and/or chemical stimuli to the extracellular matrix (ECM) provide essential cues that manipulate cell functions. From the physical point of view, contoured nanostructures are very important for cell behavior in general, and for cellular functions. From the chemical point of view, ECM proteins containing an RGD sequence are known to alter cell functions. In this study, the influence of integrated physical and chemical cues on a liver cell line (HepG2) was investigated. To mimic the physical cues provided by the ECM, amorphous TiO2 nanogratings with specific dimensional and geometrical characteristics (nanogratings 90 nm wide and 150 nm apart) were fabricated. To mimic the chemical cues provided by the ECM, the TiO2 inorganic film was modified by immobilization of the RGD motif. The hepatic cell line morphological and functional changes induced by simultaneously combining these diversified cues were investigated, including cellular alignment and the expression of different functional proteins. The combination of nanopatterns and surface modification with RGD induced cellular alignment and expression of functional proteins, indicating that physical and chemical cues are important factors for optimizing hepatocyte function.

  11. Anemonefishes rely on visual and chemical cues to correctly identify conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nicole K.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2017-09-01

    Organisms rely on sensory cues to interpret their environment and make important life-history decisions. Accurate recognition is of particular importance in diverse reef environments. Most evidence on the use of sensory cues focuses on those used in predator avoidance or habitat recognition, with little information on their role in conspecific recognition. Yet conspecific recognition is essential for life-history decisions including settlement, mate choice, and dominance interactions. Using a sensory manipulated tank and a two-chamber choice flume, anemonefish conspecific response was measured in the presence and absence of chemical and/or visual cues. Experiments were then repeated in the presence or absence of two heterospecific species to evaluate whether a heterospecific fish altered the conspecific response. Anemonefishes responded to both the visual and chemical cues of conspecifics, but relied on the combination of the two cues to recognize conspecifics inside the sensory manipulated tank. These results contrast previous studies focusing on predator detection where anemonefishes were found to compensate for the loss of one sensory cue (chemical) by utilizing a second cue (visual). This lack of sensory compensation may impact the ability of anemonefishes to acclimate to changing reef environments in the future.

  12. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla B Toth

    Full Text Available The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next

  13. Parasite Lost: Chemical and Visual Cues Used by Pseudacteon in Search of Azteca instabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Philpott, Stacy M; Moreira, Rayane F

    2011-05-01

    An undescribed species of phorid fly (genus: Pseudacteon) parasitizes the ant Azteca instabilis F Smith, by first locating these ants through the use of both chemical and visual cues. Experiments were performed in Chiapas, Mexico to examine a) the anatomical source of phorid attractants, b) the specific chemicals produced that attract phorids, and c) the nature of the visual cues used by phorids to locate the ants. We determined that phorid-attracting chemicals were present within the dorsal section of the abdomen, the location of the pygidial gland. Further experiments indicate that a pygidial gland compound, 1-acetyl-2-methylcyclopentane, is at least partially responsible for attracting phorid flies to their host. Finally, although visual cues such as movement were important for host location, size and color of objects did not influence the frequency with which phorids attacked moving targets.

  14. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  15. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J.SAVIOLA; David CHISZAR; Stephen P.MACKESSY

    2012-01-01

    Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake.Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake) takes different prey at different life stages,and neonates typically prey on ectotherms,while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms.We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed,and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age.To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred,we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate,20 subadult,and 20 adult (average SVL=280.9,552,789.5 mm,respectively) wild-caught C.v.viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard,Sceloporus undulatus,and house gecko,Hemidactylusfrenatus),two endotherms (deer mouse,Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse,Mus musculus),and water controls were used.Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey,S.undulatus,than to all other chemical cues; however,the response to this lizard's chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes.Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S.undulatus and P.maniculatus than to all other treatments,and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P.maniculatus than to all other chemical cues.In addition,all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M.musculus and H.frenatus).This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C.v.viridis diet.Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition,we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid snakes.

  16. Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger. PMID:23487748

  17. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  18. The herbicide atrazine induces hyperactivity and compromises tadpole detection of predator chemical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrsam, Mackenzie; Knutie, Sarah A; Rohr, Jason R

    2016-09-01

    The ability to detect chemical cues is often critical for freshwater organisms to avoid predation and find food and mates. In particular, reduced activity and avoidance of chemical cues signaling predation risk are generally adaptive behaviors that reduce prey encounter rates with predators. The present study examined the effects of the common herbicide atrazine on the ability of Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) tadpoles to detect and respond to chemical cues from larval dragonfly (Libellulidae sp.) predators. Tadpoles exposed to an estimated environmental concentration of atrazine (calculated using US Environmental Protection Agency software; measured concentration, 178 μg/L) were significantly hyperactive relative to those exposed to solvent control. In addition, control tadpoles significantly avoided predator chemical cues, but tadpoles exposed to atrazine did not. These results are consistent with previous studies that have demonstrated that ecologically relevant concentrations of atrazine can induce hyperactivity and impair the olfactory abilities of other freshwater vertebrates. The authors call for additional studies examining the role of chemical contaminants in disrupting chemical communication and the quantification of subsequent impacts on the fitness and population dynamics of wildlife. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2239-2244. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Alarm Safety and Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendall R; Hagadorn, James I; Sink, David W

    2017-09-01

    Clinical alarm systems have received significant attention in recent years following warnings from hospital accrediting and health care technology organizations regarding patient harm caused by unsafe practices. Alarm desensitization or fatigue from frequent, false, or unnecessary alarms, has led to serious events and even patient deaths. Other concerns include settings inappropriate to patient population or condition, inadequate staff training, and improper use or disabling. Research on human factors in alarm response and of functionality of medical devices will help clinicians develop appropriate policies, practices, and device settings for clinical alarms in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predators marked with chemical cues from one prey have increased attack success on another prey species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, R.; Broufas, G.; de Jong, P.; Aguilar-Fenollosa, E.; Revynthi, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    1. To reduce the risk of being eaten by predators, prey alter their morphology or behaviour. This response can be tuned to the current danger if chemical or other cues associated with predators inform the prey about the risks involved. 2. It is well known that various prey species discriminate

  1. Significance of chemical recognition cues is context dependent in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, N.; Guerrieri, F.J.; d'Ettorre, P.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of group members is of fundamental importance in social animals, allowing individuals to protect resources against intruders and parasites, as well as ensuring social cohesion within the group. In ants and other social insects, social recognition relies on multicomponent chemical...... been suggested that associative learning might play a role in nestmate recognition. We investigated whether Camponotus aethiops ants can associate a complete cuticular hydrocarbon profile, consisting of about 40 compounds, with a food reward and whether the new association, developed in an appetitive...... context, affects aggression against non-nestmates carrying the hydrocarbon profile associated with food. Individual ant workers were able to associate the non-nestmate chemical profile with food. However, conditioned ants were still aggressive when encountering a non-nestmate carrying the odour profile...

  2. Responses of Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to chemical cues of prey presented in soluble and volatile forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, A C; Laberge, F

    2013-04-10

    Terrestrial salamanders are able to detect prey items using chemical cues, but the nature of the cues involved is uncertain. This study aimed to tease apart the roles of the soluble and volatile components of prey cues detected by Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus), assuming the likelihood that these different components are respectively detected by the vomeronasal (accessory) and main olfactory organs. Wild-caught salamanders were exposed to control or soluble and volatile cricket cues in two different behavioural assays conducted in the laboratory. The first series of assays focused on localized presentation of soluble cues on the substrate, and the second on point sources of volatile cues delivered through plastic tubes. Room temperature was varied across experiments. Salamanders increased chemoinvestigation of the substrate via nosetapping when soluble prey cues were distributed non-uniformly on the substrate. In the warmer of two temperatures tested, salamanders additionally showed a spatial preference for location of soluble cue deposition. Attraction to a point source of volatile cues was not evident when examining the responses of salamanders grouped together; however, investigation of the volatile point source was significantly correlated with side preference only when both soluble cues and a volatile point source were present. The latter suggests that a subset of salamanders were attracted to the point source of volatile cues in the presence of soluble cues on the substrate. This study indicates that soluble prey cues alone are sufficient to trigger salamander foraging behaviour, and that temperature influences this foraging response. It supports the notion that the vomeronasal system plays an important role in prey detection, but suggests that volatile cues are also investigated by some salamanders when soluble prey cues have been detected.

  3. The relative importance of prey-borne and predator-borne chemical cues for inducible antipredator responses in tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Frommen, Joachim G; Penn, Dustin J; Van Buskirk, Josh

    2015-11-01

    Chemical cues that evoke anti-predator developmental changes have received considerable attention, but it is not known to what extent prey use information from the smell of predators and from cues released through digestion. We conducted an experiment to determine the importance of various types of cues for the adjustment of anti-predator defences. We exposed tadpoles (common frog, Rana temporaria) to water originating from predators (caged dragonfly larvae, Aeshna cyanea) that were fed different types and quantities of prey outside of tadpole-rearing containers. Variation among treatments in the magnitude of morphological and behavioural responses was highly consistent. Our results demonstrate that tadpoles can assess the threat posed by predators through digestion-released, prey-borne cues and continually released predator-borne cues. These cues may play an important role in the fine-tuning of anti-predator responses and significantly affect the outcome of interactions between predators and prey in aquatic ecosystems. There has been much confusion regards terminology used in the literature, and therefore we also propose a more precise and consistent binomial nomenclature based on the timing of chemical cue release (stress-, attack-, capture-, digestion- or continually released cues) and the origin of cues (prey-borne or predator-borne cues). We hope that this new nomenclature will improve comparisons among studies on this topic.

  4. Orientation of larval and juvenile horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus to visual cues: Effects of chemical odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. MEDINA, Richard A. TANKERSLEY

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus have long served as models for the study of vision in marine arthropods. Yet, little is known about the ability of early life history stages to detect and respond to visual cues. We examined the visually directed movements of larvae and first stage juveniles to horizons containing dark visual targets of different sizes. The study tested the hypotheses that (1 larval and juvenile crabs can detect and respond to visual targets and (2 the direction of orientation varies with the presence of chemical cues associated with settlement habitats. Orientation of larval and juvenile crabs to rectangles subtending angles from 30-330o was tested in a circular arena containing water that either lacked estuarine chemical cues (offshore water or contained odors from aquatic vegetation or known predators. In the absence of chemical odors, larvae oriented toward and juveniles moved away from dark horizons subtending angles > 60°. When placed in water containing chemical odors from potential nursery habitats, including the seagrasses Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme, crabs reversed their direction of orientation relative to their responses in offshore water. Odors from two known predators, the mummichug Fundulus grandis and blue crab Callinectes sapidus, had no affect on the orientation of larvae. Yet, juveniles responded to both odors by moving toward the visual target. Results support the hypothesis that the visual orientation of larval and juvenile horseshoe crabs changes upon exposure to habitat and predator cues and that the direction of the response undergoes an ontogenetic shift following metamorphosis [Current Zoology 56 (5: 618–633, 2010].

  5. Possible environmental chemical cues affecting behaviour of the mangrove gastropod Cerithidea decollata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Anna Marta

    2017-03-01

    The Indo-West Pacific mangrove gastropod Cerithidea decollata feeds on the ground at low tide and climbs the trees (Avicennia marina) two hours before the arrival of water, settling well above the level that the incoming tide will reach at high tide (from 0 to 80 cm, depending on the tidal phase). In addition, it has been shown that these snails climb twice as high when translocated to lower shore sites (dominated by Rhizophora mucronata), where C. decollata is missing and the high water can reach 1.6 m instead of about 80 cm as within the snail home environment. The study assesses the possible role of chemical cues in the afore-mentioned behaviours. The hypothesis that snails may foresee the periodical tide level variation thanks to airborne chemical cues, possibly released by trees or sediments, has been rejected. On the other hand, airborne chemical cues released by R. mucronata may play a role in inducing snails translocated to low shore sites to climb much higher than control, allowing them to avoid submersion.

  6. The mandible opening response: quantifying aggression elicited by chemical cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Social insects have evolved efficient recognition systems guaranteeing social cohesion and protection from enemies. To defend their territories and threaten non-nestmate intruders, ants open their mandibles as a first aggressive display. Albeit chemical cues play a major role in discrimination......) was recorded as the aggressive response. In all assayed species, MOR significantly differed among stimuli, being weakest towards nestmate odour and strongest towards odours originating from ants of a different genus. We thus introduce here a new procedure suitable for studying the chemical basis of aggression...

  7. Long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not alter activity levels of a coral reef fish in response to predator chemical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Josefin; Amcoff, Mirjam; Mateos-González, Fernando; Raby, Graham D; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Clark, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta). Commencing at ~3-20 days post-hatch, juvenile damselfish were exposed to present-day CO2 levels (~420 μatm) or to levels forecasted for the year 2100 (~1000 μatm) for 3 months of their development. Thereafter, we assessed routine activity before and after injections of seawater (sham injection, control) or seawater-containing predator chemical cues. There was no effect of CO2 treatment on routine activity levels before or after the injections. All fish decreased their swimming activity following the predator cue injection but not following the sham injection, regardless of CO2 treatment. Our results corroborate findings from a growing number of studies reporting limited or no behavioral responses of fishes to elevated CO2. Alarmingly, it has been reported that levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) forecasted for the year 2100 cause coral reef fishes to be attracted to the chemical cues of predators. However, most studies have exposed the fish to CO2 for very short periods before behavioral testing. Using long-term acclimation to elevated CO2 and automated tracking software, we found that fish exposed to elevated CO2 showed the same behavioral patterns as control fish exposed to present-day CO2 levels. Specifically, activity levels were the same between groups, and fish acclimated to elevated CO2 decreased their swimming

  8. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the rhythms......, a familiar relationship with the alarming sounds in the ward, enabling her to focus later more on the visit with the relative. The article discusses the proposed design strategy behind this solution and the potentiality for its use in hospital environments in general....

  9. Alarm fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Sue

    2012-09-01

    The number of false high alarms in the hospital setting remains a serious problem. False alarms have desensitized care providers and, at times, have led to dire consequences for patients. Efforts by both industry and clinicians are beginning to address this situation in collaborative approaches. Research is needed to establish an evidence base around issues such as which patients need to be monitored, and what the threshold settings and delay settings should be on devices. Initial and ongoing education needs to be considered for any new medical device, and be included in the hospital's annual budget. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...... of the body and the environment in conjunction with our internalised perception of the habituated background. By actively controlling the sounds built into Kidkit, the child can habituate them through a process of synchronising them with her own bodily rhythms. Hereby the child can establish, in advance...

  11. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  12. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, H Christoph; Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Harraca, Vincent; Knudsen, Jette T; Wallin, Erika A; Hedenström, Erik; Ryne, Camilla

    2011-03-30

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  13. Female sea lamprey shift orientation toward a conspecific chemical cue to escape a sensory trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    The sensory trap model of signal evolution hypothesizes that signalers adapt to exploit a cue used by the receiver in another context. Although exploitation of receiver biases can result in conflict between the sexes, deceptive signaling systems that are mutually beneficial drive the evolution of stable communication systems. However, female responses in the nonsexual and sexual contexts may become uncoupled if costs are associated with exhibiting a similar response to a trait in both contexts. Male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) signal with a mating pheromone, 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), which may be a match to a juvenile cue used by females during migration. Upstream movement of migratory lampreys is partially guided by 3kPZS, but females only move toward 3kPZS with proximal accuracy during spawning. Here, we use in-stream behavioral assays paired with gonad histology to document the transition of female preference for juvenile- and male-released 3kPZS that coincides with the functional shift of 3kPZS as a migratory cue to a mating pheromone. Females became increasingly biased toward the source of synthesized 3kPZS as their maturation progressed into the reproductive phase, at which point, a preference for juvenile odor (also containing 3kPZS naturally) ceased to exist. Uncoupling of female responses during migration and spawning makes the 3kPZS communication system a reliable means of synchronizing mate search. The present study offers a rare example of a transition in female responses to a chemical cue between nonsexual and sexual contexts, provides insights into the origins of stable communication signaling systems.

  14. An evaluation of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    American Eel Anguilla rostrata abundance has declined in recent decades, in part because sexually maturing, silver-stage adults, outmigrating from freshwater to oceanic spawning grounds, encounter migratory blockades or perish when passing through active hydroelectric turbines. To help improve downstream passage effectiveness and increase survival rates, the role of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration was investigated using a new type of bioassay. Inside a laboratory flume, downstream-swimming eels were exposed to both live (putative attractant) and dead (putative repellent) conspecific washings to determine whether their trajectory of downstream movement, level of activity, or time spent inside targeted areas of the arena changed after exposure. Silver eels were not attracted to or repulsed by either odor, as none of five scoring metrics indicated a behavioral response. Results did not support the hypothesis that conspecific chemical cueing is a mechanism for downstream migration coordination or danger avoidance; however responses may not have been readily apparent in this type of assay. Fisheries managers may opt to focus future research on more feasible restoration efforts using alternate experimental designs to remedy this ecological issue.

  15. Discrimination of conspecific sex and reproductive condition using chemical cues in axolotls ( Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D; McGuire, J M; Majchrzak, A L; Ziobro, J M; Eisthen, H L

    2004-05-01

    Chemosensory cues play an important role in the daily lives of salamanders, mediating foraging, conspecific recognition, and territorial advertising. We investigated the behavioral effects of conspecific whole-body odorants in axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum, a salamander species that is fully aquatic. We found that males increased general activity when exposed to female odorants, but that activity levels in females were not affected by conspecific odorants. Although males showed no difference in courtship displays across testing conditions, females performed courtship displays only in response to male odorants. We also found that electro-olfactogram responses from the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia were larger in response to whole-body odorants from the opposite sex than from the same sex. In males, odorants from gravid and recently spawned females evoked different electro-olfactogram responses at some locations in the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia; in general, however, few consistent differences between the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia were observed. Finally, post hoc analyses indicate that experience with opposite-sex conspecifics affects some behavioral and electrophysiological responses. Overall, our data indicate that chemical cues from conspecifics affect general activity and courtship behavior in axolotls, and that both the olfactory and vomeronasal systems may be involved in discriminating the sex and reproductive condition of conspecifics.

  16. Foraging and ingestive behaviors of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in response to chemical stimulus cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Alistair D M

    2015-02-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, display a number of behaviors that suggest these animals can locate food from afar, as well as identify and discriminate between food items. However, their intractably large size and relative rarity in the field has so far prevented direct studies of their behavior and sensory capability. A small population of aquarium-held whale sharks facilitated direct studies of behavior in response to chemical stimulus plumes. Whale sharks were exposed to plumes composed of either homogenized krill or simple aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is associated with krill aggregations and is used by several pelagic species as a food-finding stimulus. Whale sharks exhibited pronounced ingestive and search behaviors when exposed to both types of stimuli, compared to control trials. Ingestive behaviors included open mouth swimming and active surface feeding (gulping). These behaviors were stronger and more prevalent in response to krill homogenate plumes than to DMS plumes. Both chemical stimuli also increased visitation rate, and krill homogenate plumes additionally affected swimming speed. Whale sharks use chemosensory cues of multiple types to locate and identify palatable food, suggesting that chemical stimuli can help direct long-range movements and allow discrimination of different food items. There appears to be a hierarchy of responses: krill metabolites directly associated with food produced more frequent and intense feeding responses relative to DMS, which is indirectly associated with krill. DMS is used to find food by a number of pelagic species and may be an important signaling molecule in pelagic food webs.

  17. Behavioural responses of Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles (Anura: Leptodactylidae to fish chemical cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarabotti, Pablo A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de muchas especies de anfibios viven en ambientes con vegetación y de aguas turbias, donde la visibilidad es muy limitada. En estos ambientes, la utilización de señales químicas para la detección de depredadores podría ser más confiable que la utilización de señales visuales. Las larvas de Odontophrynus americanus habitan en las lagunas del valle aluvial del río Paraná Medio, Argentina, donde normalmente se dan condiciones de baja visibilidad. La hipótesis de este trabajo fue que los renacuajos de esta especie pueden detectar a los depredadores y responder subsecuentemente con conducta antipredador ante la percepción de señales químicas de los depredadores. En el presente trabajo se llevaron a cabo tres experimentos de laboratorio para evaluar si los renacuajos de O. americanus responden conductualmente al estímulo químico del pez Astyanax fasciatus. Las respuestas conductuales fueron evaluadas observando cambios en actividad, utilización de refugio y distribución espacial de los renacuajos. En presencia del estímulo químico del pez, los renacuajos redujeron su actividad en un 27%, incrementaron cinco veces la utilización de refugios, pero no exhibieron una respuesta de elusión espacial al estímulo del depredador. Las respuestas conductuales de los renacuajos de esta especie podrían reducir las probabilidades de encuentro y ataque por parte de los depredadores. Many amphibian larvae live in turbid and vegetated habitats with very limited visibility. In these habitats, the use of chemical cues for predator detection may be more reliable than visual ones. Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles inhabit floodplain ponds of the middle Paraná River, Argentina, where they frequently encounter low visibility conditions. We hypothesize that tadpoles of this species can detect predators and subsequently respond with antipredator behaviour by means of chemical cues from predators. In the present work, we ran three separate

  18. Encoding physico-chemical cues in synthetic hydrogels by triple helix assembly of collagen mimetic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Patrick

    The ECM is a complex natural system evolved to promote proliferation and differentiation of cells during tissue development. In order to create synthetic biomaterials for studying cell-scaffold interactions and ultimately for engineering tissues, scientists strive to recapitulate many characteristics of ECM by developing hydrogels that contain mechanical cues and biochemical signals such as adhesion moieties and cell growth factors. While synthetic hydrogels bypass limitations of naturally-derived materials (e.g. transfer of pathogens), nature provides inspiration to enhance the functionality of synthetic hydrogels through biomimetic approaches. The collagen triple helix is the basis for the supramolecular structure of collagen in the ECM, and its adaptation in collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) has provided hybridization mechanisms that can be employed in the formation and functionalization of synthetic hydrogels. The aim of this dissertation is to develop novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels that employ CMP triple helix assembly as a non-covalent yet target-specific tool to encode physical and chemical cues into the hydrogel with spatial control. We demonstrate that multi-arm PEG functionalized with CMPs form hydrogels supported by physical crosslinks mediated by CMP triple helix. Particle tracking microrheology shows that these physical crosslinks are sensitive to temperature as well as addition of exogenous CMPs that can disrupt crosslinks by competing for triple helix formation. This physical crosslink disruption enables the modulation of bulk hydrogel elasticity and the introduction of local stiffness gradients in PEG-CMP hydrogels. We also present photopolymerized PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels displaying CMPs that can be further conjugated to CMPs with bioactive moieties via triple helix hybridization. Encoding these hydrogels with cell-adhesive CMPs induces cell spreading and proliferation. We further demonstrate generation of gradients and

  19. Multi-Modal Homing in Sea Turtles: Modeling Dual Use of Geomagnetic and Chemical Cues in Island-Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Courtney S; Putman, Nathan F; Ernst, David A; Kurth, Jessica A; Lohmann, Catherine M F; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles' foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1) initiate a search strategy; or (2) follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands.

  20. Multi-modal homing in sea turtles: modeling dual use of geomagnetic and chemical cues in island-finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Endres

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles' foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1 initiate a search strategy; or (2 follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands.

  1. Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.

  2. Anthropogenic chemical cues can alter the swimming behaviour of juvenile stages of a temperate fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Cotgrove, Lucy; Smee, Sarah Louise; Simón-Otegui, David; Hinz, Hilmar; Grau, Amalia; Palmer, Miquel; Catalán, Ignacio A

    2017-04-01

    Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress. Studies on early stages of fishes have observed responses to coastal chemical cues for the selection or avoidance of habitats. However, the potential interferences of human impacts on these signals are largely unknown. A choice chamber was used to determine water type preference and behaviour in naïve settled juvenile gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), a temperate species of commercial interest. Fish were tested individually for behavioural changes with respect to water types from potential beneficial habitats, such as seawater with extract of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, anthropogenically influenced habitats such as water extracted from a commercial and recreational harbour and seawater mixed with sunscreen at concentrations observed in coastal waters. Using a Bayesian approach, we investigated a) water type preference; b) mean speed; and c) variance in the movement (as an indicator of burst swimming activity, or "sprint" behaviour) as behavioural descriptors with respect to water type. Fish spent similar percentage of time in treatment and control water types. However, movement descriptors showed that fish in sunscreen water moved slower (98.43% probability of being slower) and performed fewer sprints (90.1% probability of having less burst in speed) compared to control water. Less evident increases in sprints were observed in harbour

  3. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  4. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  5. Medical device alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Matthias; Görges, Matthias; Fried, Roland; Such, Olaf; Wrede, Christian; Imhoff, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The high number of false positive alarms has long been known to be a serious problem in critical care medicine - yet it remains unresolved. At the same time, threats to patient safety due to missing or suppressed alarms are being reported. The purpose of this paper is to present results from a workshop titled "Too many alarms? Too few alarms?" organized by the Section Patient Monitoring and the Workgroup Alarms of the German Association of Biomedical Engineering of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies. The current situation regarding alarms and their problems in intensive care, such as lack of clinical relevance, alarm fatigue, workload increases due to clinically irrelevant alarms, usability problems in alarm systems, problems with manuals and training, and missing alarms due to operator error are outlined, followed by a discussion of solutions and strategies to improve the current situation. Finally, the need for more research and development, focusing on signal quality considerations, networking of medical devices at the bedside, diagnostic alarms and predictive warnings, usability of alarm systems, education of healthcare providers, creation of annotated clinical databases for testing, standardization efforts, and patient monitoring in the regular ward, are called for.

  6. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Jitka; Flematti, Gavin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1), in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses. Methods Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii) and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum). Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype. Findings and Conclusions Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications. PMID:27536995

  7. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Guerra Bustios, Patricia; Schal, Coby

    2010-12-30

    In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs). In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya) using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.

  8. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs. In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.

  9. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  10. Chemical Cues Influence Pupation Behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in Nature and in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramí, Marcial; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Del Pino, Francisco; Ferveur, Jean-Francois; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Our goal was to understand the role of these substances in the selection of pupation sites in the two species that cohabit within decaying prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica). In these breeding sites, larvae of D. simulans and D. buzzatii detect larvae of the other species changing their pupation site preferences. Larvae of the two species pupated in the part of the fruit containing no or few heterospecifics, and spent a longer time in/on spots marked by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics. In contrast, larvae of the two species reared in isolation from conspecifics pupated randomly over the substrate and spent a similar amount of time on spots marked by conspecifics and by heterospecifics. Our results indicate that early chemically-based experience with conspecific larvae is critical for the selection of the pupation sites in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, and that pupation site preferences of Drosophila larvae depend on species-specific chemical cues. These preferences can be modulate by the presence of larvae of the same or another species. PMID:22737236

  11. Chemical cues influence pupation behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in nature and in the laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Beltramí

    Full Text Available In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Our goal was to understand the role of these substances in the selection of pupation sites in the two species that cohabit within decaying prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica. In these breeding sites, larvae of D. simulans and D. buzzatii detect larvae of the other species changing their pupation site preferences. Larvae of the two species pupated in the part of the fruit containing no or few heterospecifics, and spent a longer time in/on spots marked by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics. In contrast, larvae of the two species reared in isolation from conspecifics pupated randomly over the substrate and spent a similar amount of time on spots marked by conspecifics and by heterospecifics. Our results indicate that early chemically-based experience with conspecific larvae is critical for the selection of the pupation sites in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, and that pupation site preferences of Drosophila larvae depend on species-specific chemical cues. These preferences can be modulate by the presence of larvae of the same or another species.

  12. Chemical cues influence pupation behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in nature and in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramí, Marcial; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Del Pino, Francisco; Ferveur, Jean-Francois; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Our goal was to understand the role of these substances in the selection of pupation sites in the two species that cohabit within decaying prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica). In these breeding sites, larvae of D. simulans and D. buzzatii detect larvae of the other species changing their pupation site preferences. Larvae of the two species pupated in the part of the fruit containing no or few heterospecifics, and spent a longer time in/on spots marked by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics. In contrast, larvae of the two species reared in isolation from conspecifics pupated randomly over the substrate and spent a similar amount of time on spots marked by conspecifics and by heterospecifics. Our results indicate that early chemically-based experience with conspecific larvae is critical for the selection of the pupation sites in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, and that pupation site preferences of Drosophila larvae depend on species-specific chemical cues. These preferences can be modulate by the presence of larvae of the same or another species.

  13. Following of conspecific and avoidance of predator chemical cues by pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J

    1989-03-01

    The ability of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) to follow or avoid the chemical trails of conspecifics and a king snake (Lampropeltis getulus) on paper substrates was investigated inY-maze experiments. Hatchlings entered the arm with the adult conspecific trail and avoided the arm containing the king snake trail at a frequency much greater than that due to chance. The data support the hypotheses that pine snakes follow the chemical trails of adult conspecifics and avoid the chemical trails of a predator.

  14. Effect of chemical cues on the foraging and tunneling behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood rot fungi can cause directional tunneling, aggregation behavior and increased wood consumption by subterranean termites. Because vanillin and guaiacol are byproducts of lignin degradation, these chemicals were tested as potential attractants to Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formo...

  15. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses.

  16. Medical audible alarms: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  17. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL......: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...

  18. Smart smoke alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  19. Strong differences in chemical recognition cues between two closely related species of ants from the genus Lasius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W R; Witte, V

    2011-11-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are increasingly recognized as important to insects and are used for constructing taxonomies. However, multiple parameters affect the expression of CHCs besides a genetic component. We propose that selection may act differently on the expression of CHCs, depending on the evolutionary context. To explore the influence of selection, the CHCs of two closely related ant species, Lasius niger and Lasius platythorax, were studied in a multidisciplinary approach. We characterized (i) CHCs and (ii) niches (through baiting, activity observations and foraging analysis). The species were distinct in both measures, although to a varying degree. Although they showed moderate niche partitioning along diet and environmental preferences, chemical differences were unexpectedly pronounced. This may be explained by divergent selection on mate recognition cues or by other influences on CHCs. Such striking chemical differences among closely related species may not be the rule and suggest that taxonomies based on CHCs should be interpreted cautiously; though, they remain useful tools for differentiating among cryptic species. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings.

  1. The problem of alarm fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Up to 99 percent of alarms sounding on hospital units are false alarms signaling no real danger to patients. These false alarms can lead to alarm fatigue and alarm burden, and may divert health care providers' attention away from significant alarms heralding actual or impending harm. As the health care environment continues to become more dependent upon technological monitoring devices used for patient care, nurses must become aware of the possibility and consequences of alarm fatigue and ways to prevent it from negatively affecting their practice, as well as the possible consequences for patient care. © 2013 AWHONN.

  2. Chemical ecology of astigmatid mites LXXXVII. S-(+)-isopiperitenone: re-identification of the alarm pheromone as the female sex pheromone in Tyrophagus similis (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruno, Gorou; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral analysis revealed that S-(+)-isopiperitenone [(S)-3-methyl-6-isopropenyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one], previously identified as an alarm pheromone, is also the female sex pheromone of Tyrophagus similis (Astigmata: Acaridae), showing maximum male attraction at a dose of 0.1 female equivalent. Although the antipode, R-(-)-isopiperitenone, was not detectable in the mite extract, this synthetic optical isomer (80% e.e.) also induced activity at a dose of 100 ng, a response indicative of S-(+)-isopiperitenone being the active compound. The average content was determined to be 38.5 ng per female and 19.8 ng per male. This is the first example of an astigmatid mite species possessing a compound that functions as an alarm as well as a sex pheromone.

  3. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok Min; Kim, Hwasoon; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue.

  4. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  5. Facultative slave-making ants Formica sanguinea label their slaves with own recognition cues instead of employing the strategy of chemical mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2017-01-01

    Slave-making ant species use the host workforce to ensure normal colony functioning. Slaves are robbed as pupae from their natal nest and after eclosion, assume the parasite colony as their own. A possible factor promoting the successful integration of slaves into a foreign colony is congruence with the slave-makers in terms of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are known to play the role of recognition cues in social insects. Such an adaptation is observed in the obligate slave-making ant species, which are chemically adjusted to their slaves. To date, however, no reports have been available on facultative slave-making species, which represent an earlier stage of the evolution of slavery. Such an example is Formica sanguinea, which exploit F. fusca colonies as their main source of a slave workforce. Our results show that F. sanguinea ants have a distinct cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which contains compounds not present in free-living F. fusca ants from potential target nests. Moreover, enslaved F. fusca ants acquire hydrocarbons from their slave-making nestmates to such an extent that they become chemically differentiated from free-living, conspecific ants. Our study shows that F. sanguinea ants promote their own recognition cues in their slaves, rather than employing the strategy of chemical mimicry. Possible reasons why F. sanguinea is not chemically well adjusted to its main host species are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polarizing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  7. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  8. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    essential dynamic parameters when designing atmospheres. This research is based on the development of the novel research artefact Kidkit, designed for children, who are going to meet a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries in a Neuro–Intensive Care Unit. Sounds from hospital equipment have important...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  9. Assessment of Clinical Alarms Influencing Nurses' Perceptions of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Emalie M; Costanzo, Cindy L

    Excessive clinical alarms have inundated health care for years. Multiple governing bodies, organizations, and facilities have deemed alarm management a priority. Alarm management is a multifaceted problem that affects all health care organizations and clinical staff, especially those in critical care units. Ultimately, the lack of knowledge regarding nurses' perceptions to alarm management and alarm fatigue creates patient safety chiasms. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to understand nurses' perceptions of alarm fatigue (utilizing the Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee Survey) while implementing interventions that improve patient safety. The design of this qualitative study is an electronically distributed survey to 31 nurses who work in critical care. The Healthcare Technology Foundation clinical alarms survey has 36 questions with various answering strategies distributed (with permission) via e-mail access by BlueQ through Creighton University. Twenty-six respondents (n = 26) completed the survey, with 42% being intensive care unit nurses and 58% being progressive care unit nurses. The majority of nurses (n = 23, 88%) agreed that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care (n = 25, 96%). A lack of standardized method was noted to alarm management and parameter changes. Multiple patterns emerged that initiated the need for further examination and improvement. Following the survey, themes emerged, and changes were implemented including the following: an alarm management policy was created, tools were provided to staff for easy usage, staff were educated using hands-on practice at an annual training summit, and sustainability was created through continuation of alarm management assessment and improvement.

  10. Alarm management a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill R

    2011-01-01

    In this second edition, Alarm Management: A Comprehensive Guide, various problems of alarm systems are covered with precise guidance on how they come about and how to effectively correct them. It is written by individuals with vast experience in the different plants, processes, and environments requiring effective alarm management. The second edition is filled with good examples and explanations of procedures, with practical lists and tips on how one should proceed. It is based on hundreds of successful projects.

  11. Alarm Fatigue: A Concept Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia West; Patricia Abbott

    2014-01-01

    .... [...]it is the hope of these authors that an enhanced understanding of alarm fatigue can contribute to future collaborative multidisciplinary research efforts and continued policy progression to create...

  12. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  13. Structural complexity of chemical recognition cues affects the perception of group membership in the ants Linephithema humile and Aphaenogaster cockerelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael J; Gordon, Deborah M

    2007-03-01

    Hydrocarbon profiles on the cuticle of social insects act as multi-component recognition cues used to identify membership in a species, a colony or, within colonies, cues about its reproductive status or task group. To examine the role of structural complexity in ant hydrocarbon recognition cues, we studied the species recognition response of two ant species, Linepithema humile and Aphaenogaster cockerelli, and the recognition of conspecifics by L. humile. The cuticular hydrocarbons of ants are composed of molecules of varying chain lengths from three structural classes, n-alkanes, methyl-branched alkanes and n-alkenes. We employed species recognition bioassays that measured the aggressive response of both species of ants to mixtures of hydrocarbon classes, single structural classes of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, methyl-branched alkanes and n-alkenes), and controls. The results showed that a combination of at least two hydrocarbon structural classes was necessary to elicit an aggressive species recognition response. Moreover, no single class of hydrocarbons was more important than the others in eliciting a response. Similarly, in the recognition of conspecifics, Linepithema humile did not respond to a mixture of n-alkane cuticular hydrocarbons presented alone, but supplementation of nestmate hydrocarbon profiles with the n-alkanes did elicit high levels of aggression. Thus both L. humile and A. cockerelli required mixtures of hydrocarbons of different structural classes to recognize species and colony membership. It appears that information on species and colony membership is not in isolated components of the profile, but instead in the mixture of structural classes found in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles.

  14. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  15. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized.

  16. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety.

  17. Tests for attraction to prey and predator avoidance by chemical cues in spiders of the beech forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetter, Melissa B.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiders leave draglines, faeces and other secretions behind when traveling through their microhabitat. The presence of these secretions may unintentionally inform other animals, prey as well as predators, about a recent and possible current predation risk or food availability. For a wolf spider, other spiders including smaller conspecifics, form a substantial part of their prey, and larger wolf spiders, again including conspecifics, are potential predators. We tested two hypotheses: that large wolf spiders may locate patches of potential spider prey through the presence of silk threads and/or other secretions; and that prey spiders may use secretions from large wolf spiders to avoid patches with high predation risk. We used large (subadult or adult Pardosa saltans to provide predator cues and mixed dwarf spiders or small (juvenile P. saltans to provide prey cues. Subadult wolf spiders were significantly attracted to litter contaminated by dwarf spiders or small conspecifics after 6 hours but no longer after 24 hours. In contrast, neither dwarf spiders nor small P. saltans showed significant avoidance of substrate contaminated by adult P. saltans. However, small P. saltans showed different activity patterns on the two substrates. The results indicate that wolf spiders are able to increase the efficiency of foraging by searching preferentially in patches with the presence of intraguild prey. The lack of a clear patch selection response of the prey in spite of a modified activity pattern may possibly be associated with the vertical stratification of the beech litter habitat: the reduced volume of spaces in the deeper layers could make downward rather than horizontal movement a fast and safe tactic against a large predator that cannot enter these spaces.

  18. Use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey: Potential directions for population management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, I.; Brown, G.E.; Bergstedt, R.A.; McDonald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sea lamprey invaded the Great Lakes in the early 20th century and caused an abrupt decline in the population densities of several native fish species. The integrated management of this invasive species is composed of chemical (lampricide) applications, low-head barrier dams, adult trapping and sterile male release. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of control methods alternative to lampricide applications. We propose as an alternative-control method the use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey population management. Based on the available evidence at this time, we suggest that injury-released chemical alarm cues show promise as repellents for sea lamprey and further research should be directed at determining whether sea lamprey show an avoidance response to these types of chemosensory cues. From a management perspective, these chemosensory cues could be used to restrict sea lamprey access to spawning grounds. Repellents could also be used together with attractants like sex pheromones to manipulate sea lamprey behavior, similar to the "push-pull" strategies utilized with insect pests. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. A description of nurses' decision-making in managing electrocardiographic monitor alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarian, Priscilla K; Carrier, Natalie; Cohen, Rachel; Schram, Haley; Shiromani, Samara

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cues and factors that nurses use in their decision-making when responding to clinical alarms. Alarms are designed to be very sensitive, and as a result, they are not very specific. Lack of adherence to the practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings has been observed, resulting in overuse of the electrocardiographic monitoring. Monitoring without consideration of clinical indicators uses scarce healthcare resources and may even produce untoward circumstances because of alarm fatigue. With so many false alarms, alarm fatigue represents a symptom of a larger problem. It cannot be fixed until all of the factors that contribute to its existence have been examined. This was a qualitative descriptive study. This study was conducted at an academic medical centre located in the Northeast United States. Eight participants were enrolled using purposive sampling. Nurses were observed for two three-hour periods. Following each observation, the nurse was interviewed using the critical decision method to describe the cognitive processes related to the alarm activities. Qualitative data from the conducted interviews were analysed via an a priori framework founded in the critical decision method. This study reveals information, experience, guidance and decision-making as the four prominent categories contributing to nurses' decision-making in relation to alarm management. Managing technology was a category not identified a priori that emerged in the data analysis. Nurses revealed a breadth of information needed to adequately identify and interpret monitor alarms, and how they used that information to put the alarms into the particular context of an individual patient's situations. Understanding the cues and factors nurses use when responding to cardiac alarms will guide the development of learning experiences and inform policies to guide practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Alarming increase in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  1. Chemical Cues Influence Pupation Behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in Nature and in the Laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcial Beltramí; María Cristina Medina-Muñoz; Francisco Del Pino; Jean-Francois Ferveur; Raúl Godoy-Herrera

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecifi...

  2. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication.

  3. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  4. Interactions with combined chemical cues inform harvester ant foragers' decisions to leave the nest in search of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael J; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Social insect colonies operate without central control or any global assessment of what needs to be done by workers. Colony organization arises from the responses of individuals to local cues. Red harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) regulate foraging using interactions between returning and outgoing foragers. The rate at which foragers return with seeds, a measure of food availability, sets the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest on foraging trips. We used mimics to test whether outgoing foragers inside the nest respond to the odor of food, oleic acid, the odor of the forager itself, cuticular hydrocarbons, or a combination of both with increased foraging activity. We compared foraging activity, the rate at which foragers passed a line on a trail, before and after the addition of mimics. The combination of both odors, those of food and of foragers, is required to stimulate foraging. The addition of blank mimics, mimics coated with food odor alone, or mimics coated with forager odor alone did not increase foraging activity. We compared the rates at which foragers inside the nest interacted with other ants, blank mimics, and mimics coated with a combination of food and forager odor. Foragers inside the nest interacted more with mimics coated with combined forager/seed odors than with blank mimics, and these interactions had the same effect as those with other foragers. Outgoing foragers inside the nest entrance are stimulated to leave the nest in search of food by interacting with foragers returning with seeds. By using the combined odors of forager cuticular hydrocarbons and of seeds, the colony captures precise information, on the timescale of seconds, about the current availability of food.

  5. Interactions with combined chemical cues inform harvester ant foragers' decisions to leave the nest in search of food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Greene

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies operate without central control or any global assessment of what needs to be done by workers. Colony organization arises from the responses of individuals to local cues. Red harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus regulate foraging using interactions between returning and outgoing foragers. The rate at which foragers return with seeds, a measure of food availability, sets the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest on foraging trips. We used mimics to test whether outgoing foragers inside the nest respond to the odor of food, oleic acid, the odor of the forager itself, cuticular hydrocarbons, or a combination of both with increased foraging activity. We compared foraging activity, the rate at which foragers passed a line on a trail, before and after the addition of mimics. The combination of both odors, those of food and of foragers, is required to stimulate foraging. The addition of blank mimics, mimics coated with food odor alone, or mimics coated with forager odor alone did not increase foraging activity. We compared the rates at which foragers inside the nest interacted with other ants, blank mimics, and mimics coated with a combination of food and forager odor. Foragers inside the nest interacted more with mimics coated with combined forager/seed odors than with blank mimics, and these interactions had the same effect as those with other foragers. Outgoing foragers inside the nest entrance are stimulated to leave the nest in search of food by interacting with foragers returning with seeds. By using the combined odors of forager cuticular hydrocarbons and of seeds, the colony captures precise information, on the timescale of seconds, about the current availability of food.

  6. Response to prey chemical cues by hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus): Effects of incubation temperature and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J

    1991-06-01

    The ability of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) to select and follow or avoid chemical odors of prey (mice,Mus musculus) on a shavings and paper substrate was investigated in Y-maze experiments, as a function of incubation temperature and experience. Incubation temperature affected behavior in the maze, and the maze choices of naive snakes, but not of snakes that had already eaten a mouse. The data indicate that snakes that have eaten, preferentially enter the arm bearing chemical stimuli from mice, whereas those that have not eaten show no preference.

  7. CERN Alarms Data Management: State And Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Zaharieva, Z

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive.The article will cover...

  8. Alarm fatigue: impacts on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Keith J; Hueske-Kraus, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Electronic medical devices are an integral part of patient care. As new devices are introduced, the number of alarms to which a healthcare professional may be exposed may be as high as 1000 alarms per shift. The US Food and Drug Administration has reported over 500 alarm-related patient deaths in five years. The Joint Commission, recognizing the clinical significance of alarm fatigue, has made clinical alarm management a National Patient Safety Goal. Potential solutions to alarm fatigue include technical, organizational, and educational interventions. Selecting only the right monitors (i.e., avoiding overmonitoring), judicious selection of alarm limits, and multimodal alarms can all reduce the number of nuisance alarms to which a healthcare worker is exposed. Alarm fatigue can jeopardize safety, but some clinical solutions such as setting appropriate thresholds and avoiding overmonitoring are available.

  9. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

    2010-02-01

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone.

  11. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results.

  12. Systematic Review of Physiologic Monitor Alarm Characteristics and Pragmatic Interventions to Reduce Alarm Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Goel, Veena V; Ely, Elizabeth; Stave, Christopher D; Stemler, Shannon; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P

    2016-02-01

    Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety. To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue. Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: (1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, (2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and (3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency. We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates. Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. Although studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes. Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  13. False alarm reduction during landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

    2007-04-01

    Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

  14. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  15. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II...

  16. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  17. Monitor alarm fatigue: standardizing use of physiological monitors and decreasing nuisance alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelly Creighton; Cvach, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Reliance on physiological monitors to continuously "watch" patients and to alert the nurse when a serious rhythm problem occurs is standard practice on monitored units. Alarms are intended to alert clinicians to deviations from a predetermined "normal" status. However, alarm fatigue may occur when the sheer number of monitor alarms overwhelms clinicians, possibly leading to alarms being disabled, silenced, or ignored. Excessive numbers of monitor alarms and fear that nurses have become desensitized to these alarms was the impetus for a unit-based quality improvement project. Small tests of change to improve alarm management were conducted on a medical progressive care unit. The types and frequency of monitor alarms in the unit were assessed. Nurses were trained to individualize patients' alarm parameter limits and levels. Monitor software was modified to promote audibility of critical alarms. Critical monitor alarms were reduced 43% from baseline data. The reduction of alarms could be attributed to adjustment of monitor alarm defaults, careful assessment and customization of monitor alarm parameter limits and levels, and implementation of an interdisciplinary monitor policy. Although alarms are important and sometimes life-saving, they can compromise patients' safety if ignored. This unit-based quality improvement initiative was beneficial as a starting point for revamping alarm management throughout the institution.

  18. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  19. African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Soltis

    Full Text Available The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets. Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The "Samburu alarm rumble" is acoustically distinct from the previously described "bee alarm rumble." The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats.

  20. African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph; King, Lucy E; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The "Samburu alarm rumble" is acoustically distinct from the previously described "bee alarm rumble." The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats.

  1. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  2. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  4. What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. But what really happens t these products in the ocean, and how do they affect the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, A.

    2016-12-01

    What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from entanglement and ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. Our society is trying to take action by purchasing and using materials that claim to be biodegradable. But how long do these materials take to degrade in ocean water and do they actually change the water composition? Answering these questions will determine if one should invest in these materials as an alternative to plastic.

  5. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  6. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  7. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  9. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.207 Warning alarms. (a) The...

  10. TMACS test procedure TP001: Alarm management. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the Alarm Management requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are: real-time alarming on high and low level and discrete alarms, equipment alarms, dead-band filtering, alarm display color coding, alarm acknowledgement, and alarm logging.

  11. Alarm Fatigue: Use of an Evidence-Based Alarm Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmell, Jacob W; Coke, Lola; Catinella, Rachel; Hosford, Tracy; Majeski, Amy

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of an evidence-based alarm management strategy on patient safety. An alarm management program reduced alarms up to 30%. Evaluation of patients on continuous cardiac monitoring showed a 3.5% decrease in census. This alarm management strategy has the potential to save $136 500 and 841 hours of registered nurses' time per year. No patient harm occurred during the 2-year project.

  12. Knowledge Discovery from Communication Network Alarm Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The technique of Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD) to learn valuable knowledge hidden in network alarm databases is introduced. To get such knowledge, we propose an efficient method based on sliding windows (named as Slidwin) to discover different episode rules from time sequential alarm data. The experimental results show that given different thresholds parameters, large amount of different rules could be discovered quickly.

  13. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  14. Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

    2014-10-01

    Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination.

  15. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  16. Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-06-07

    Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities.

  17. Novel approach to cardiac alarm management on telemetry units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Deborah A; Covelle, Patricia M; Piepenbrink, James C; Villanova, Karen L; Cuneo, Charlotte L; Awtry, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    General medical-surgical units struggle with how best to use cardiac monitor alarms to alert nursing staff to important abnormal heart rates (HRs) and rhythms while limiting inappropriate and unnecessary alarms that may undermine both patient safety and quality of care. When alarms are more often false than true, the nursing staff's sense of urgency in responding to alarms is diminished. In this syndrome of "clinical alarm fatigue," the simple burden of alarms desensitizes caregivers to alarms. Noise levels associated with frequent alarms may also heighten patient anxiety and disrupt their perception of a healing environment. Alarm fatigue experienced by nurses and patients is a significant problem and innovative solutions are needed. The purpose of this quality improvement study was to determine variables that would safely reduce noncritical telemetry and monitor alarms on a general medical-surgical unit where standard manufacturer defaults contributed to excessive audible alarms. Mining of alarm data and direct observations of staff's response to alarms were used to identify the self-reset warning alarms for bradycardia, tachycardia, and HR limits as the largest contributors of audible alarms. In this quality improvement study, the alarms for bradycardia, tachycardia, and HR limits were changed to "crisis," requiring nursing staff to view and act on the alarm each time it sounded. The limits for HR were HR low 45 bpm and HR high 130 bpm. An overall 89% reduction in total mean weekly audible alarms was achieved on the pilot unit (t = 8.84; P monitoring events, and the incidence of code blues decreased by 50%. Alarms with self-reset capabilities may result in an excess number of audible alarms and clinical alarm fatigue. By eliminating self-resetting alarms, the volume of audible alarms and associated clinical alarm fatigue can be significantly reduced without requiring additional resources or technology or compromising patient safety and lead to improvement in

  18. Synthetic predator cues impair immune function and make the biological pesticide Bti more lethal for vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Lin; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-03-01

    The control of vector mosquitoes is one of the biggest challenges facing humankind with the use of chemical pesticides often leading to environmental impact and the evolution of resistance. Although to a lesser extent, this also holds for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), the most widely used biological pesticide to control mosquito populations. This raises the need for the development of integrated pest management strategies that allow the reduction of Bti concentrations without loss of the mosquito control efficiency. To this end, we tested in a laboratory experiment the combined effects of larval exposure to a sublethal Bti concentration and predation risk cues on life history and physiology of larval and adult Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Besides natural predator kairomones and prey alarm cues, we also tested synthetic kairomones of Notonecta predators. Neither Bti nor predation risk cues affected mortality, yet when both stressors were combined mortality increased on average by 133% compared to the treatment with only predation risk cues. This synergistic interaction was also present when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. This was further reflected in changes of the composite index of population performance, which suggested lowered per capita growth rates in mosquitoes exposed to Bti but only when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. Furthermore, predation risk cues shortened larval development time, reduced mass at metamorphosis in males, and had an immunosuppressive effect in larval and adult mosquitoes which may affect the mosquito vector competence. We provide the first demonstration that synthetic kairomones may generate similar effects on prey as natural kairomones. The identified immunosuppressive effect of synthetic kairomones and the novel lethal synergism type between a biological pesticide and synthetic predator kairomones provide an important proof of principle illustrating the potential of this combination for integrated

  19. There Is a Need for Alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the alarm system planning process and provides examples of approaches that have worked for school districts. Explains system elements, monitoring, the bidding process, and the importance of staff training. (MLF)

  20. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  2. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  4. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  5. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mixture causing actuation of the alarm is taken. (2) If the alarm has a positive displacement mixture pump... mixture causing actuation of the alarm is taken. (3) If the alarm has a positive displacement mixture pump... centrifugal mixture pump or is not equipped with a mixture pump, the mixture flow rate is reduced to...

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  7. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  8. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.

  9. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Behavioral alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To investigate the efficacy of alarm treatment in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis and relate treatment success to age and type of clinical support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 32 weeks, 84 children and adolescents received alarm treatment together with weekly psychological support sessions for individual families or groups of 5 to 10 families. RESULTS: 71% of the participants achieved success, defined as 14 consecutive dry nights. The result was similar for children and adolescents and for individual or group support. The time until success was shorter for participants missing fewer support sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Alarm treatment was effective for the present sample, regardless of age or type of support. Missing a higher number of support sessions, which may reflect low motivation for treatment, increased the risk of failure.

  11. Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

  12. A statistical approach to identify candidate cues for nestmate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle; Pontieri, Luigi; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2014-01-01

    on its cuticle. In this study we use previous results of this species to searchfor nestmate recognition cues (NMR cues) in two other species of ants, Camponotusaethiops, and Monomorium pharaonis. Employing chemical distances and observedaggression between colonies, we first ask which type of data...

  13. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...

  14. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... in discourse-pragmatically felicitous contexts. Our results extend previous findings of preschoolers’ sensitivity to discourse-contextual cues in sentence comprehension (Hurewitz, 2001; Song & Fisher, 2005) to the basic task of assigning agent and patient roles....

  15. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets.

  16. A revival of the alarm system: Making the alarm list useful during incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, J. E.; Oehman, B.; Calzada, A. [GoalArt, Scheelevaegen 17, 223 70 Lund (Sweden); Nihlwing, C.; Jokstad, H.; Kristianssen, L. I.; Kvalem, J. [IFE, OS alle 13, 1777 Halden (Norway); Lind, M. [Oested-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    In control rooms there are often problems with information overload, which means that the operators may receive more information than they are able to interpret. The most serious information overload occurs in two types of situations. The first is when the operating state of the plant changes, which often gives raise to a shower of alarms and events. Such an alarm shower is expected, but can be dangerous, because it may hide other alarms originating from unrelated faults. The second problem occurs when a fault causes several consequential faults, leading to a so-called alarm cascade. Because the alarms seldom arrive in correct time order, it can be very difficult to analyze such a cascade, and the information overload occurs in exactly the moment when a potentially dangerous situation starts. In an ongoing project, GoalArt and IFE are cooperating in testing and evaluating GoalArt's methods for alarm reduction and root cause analysis. The testing comprises two specific algorithms, root cause analysis and state-based alarm priority. The GoalArt system has been integrated with the HAMBO simulator so that operators can evaluate the algorithms on-line. (authors)

  17. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  18. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Reduces Alarm Signaling in Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullis, Antoine; Fassotte, Bérénice; Sarles, Landry; Lognay, Georges; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Bartram, Stefan; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-02-01

    Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations might impact pheromonal communication in insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response. We reared two strains of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations over several generations. We found that an increase in CO2 concentration reduced the production (i.e., individual content) and emission (released under predation events) of Eβf. While no difference in Eβf neuronal perception was observed, we found that an increase in CO2 strongly reduced the escape behavior expressed by an aphid colony following exposure to natural doses of alarm pheromone. In conclusion, our results confirm that changes to greenhouse gases impact chemical communication in the pea aphid, and could potentially have a cascade effect on interactions with higher trophic levels.

  19. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS General... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table...

  20. Stand-alone tsunami alarm equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Akio; Hayashi, Yutaka; Miyaoka, Kazuki; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshitaka; Catalán, Patricio A.; Zelaya, Cecilia; Riquelme Vasquez, Felipe; Sanchez-Olavarria, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    One of the quickest means of tsunami evacuation is transfer to higher ground soon after strong and long ground shaking. Ground shaking itself is a good initiator of the evacuation from disastrous tsunami. Longer period seismic waves are considered to be more correlated with the earthquake magnitude. We investigated the possible application of this to tsunami hazard alarm using single-site ground motion observation. Information from the mass media is sometimes unavailable due to power failure soon after a large earthquake. Even when an official alarm is available, multiple information sources of tsunami alert would help people become aware of the coming risk of a tsunami. Thus, a device that indicates risk of a tsunami without requiring other data would be helpful to those who should evacuate. Since the sensitivity of a low-cost MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer is sufficient for this purpose, tsunami alarm equipment for home use may be easily realized. Amplitude of long-period (20 s cutoff) displacement was proposed as the threshold for the alarm based on empirical relationships among magnitude, tsunami height, hypocentral distance, and peak ground displacement of seismic waves. Application of this method to recent major earthquakes indicated that such equipment could effectively alert people to the possibility of tsunami.

  1. TMACS Test Procedure TP001: Alarm Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-05-31

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Alarm management functions.

  2. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  3. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held one week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  4. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  5. Perspectives on use of personal alarms by older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Johnston

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kylie Johnston1, Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Michele Sutherland21International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide; 2Falls Prevention Unit, Department of Health, Government of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground: Personal alarms are proposed as a reliable mechanism for older people to obtain assistance after falling. However, little is known about how older people feel about owning and using personal alarms.Aim: This paper reports on experiences of independently living older people, who have recently fallen, regarding alarm use and their independence.Method: Volunteers older than 65 years who had sustained a fall in the previous six months were sought via community invitations. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to gain information about their fall and their perspectives on personal alarm use. Interviews were content-analyzed to identify key concepts and themes.Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted. Twenty callers owned personal alarms. Four subgroups of older fallers were identified; the first group used personal alarms effectively and were advocates for their benefits, the second group owned an alarm but did not use it effectively, the third group did not own alarms mostly because of cost, although were receptive to an alarm should one be provided, and the fourth group did not have an alarm and would not use it even if it was provided.Discussion: Personal alarms produce positive experiences when used effectively by the right people. The cost of personal alarms prohibits some older fallers from being effective alarm users. However, other elderly fallers remain unwilling to consider alarm use even if one was provided. In view of their cost, personal alarms should be targeted to people who will benefit most. ­Alternative strategies should be considered when alarms are unlikely to be used appropriately.Keywords: personal alarm devices, falls, older people, patient perspective

  6. A Community Hospital's Evaluation of Alarm Management Safety Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnat-Thoma, Emma; Shah, Kayuri

    2016-12-01

    The Joint Commission's 2014 National Patient Safety Goals required hospitals to evaluate alarm safety in 2014-2015 and implement alarm safety policies. The aim of this study was to assess common alarm management safety factors in our 187-bed community hospital. Two weeks' worth of IV pump report data was evaluated to characterize 33 IV pump alarm types. Hospital and IV pump noise was measured, and an alarm management nurse survey was conducted. There were 8731 total IV pump alarms/alerts (24-hour mean, 623.6) across 6 units. The 2-minute idle alarm accounted for 32.4% of all total IV alarms/alerts, suggestive of high levels of nurse multitasking and nurse work interruptions. IV pump volumes contributed to overall hospital noise. Survey data identified patient units and alarm safety practices needing additional support. Characterization of IV pump alarms/alerts is an emerging area of scientific inquiry. Findings indicate the need for organizations to evaluate alarm burden and alarm management safety practices to reduce alarm fatigue risks.

  7. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds) at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and ventricular bradycardia) as true or false. Total monitoring time for each patient was measured, and the number of false alarms per hour was calculated for these six alarm types. Medical records were examined to acquire data on patient characteristics. A total of 461 unique patients (mean age =60±17 years) were enrolled, generating a total of 2,558,760 alarms, including all levels of arrhythmia, parameter, and technical alarms. There were 48,404 hours of patient monitoring time, and an average overall alarm rate of 52 alarms/hour. Investigators annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms; 11,345 (89.5%) were determined to be false. Two hundred and fifty patients (54%) generated at least one of the six annotated alarm types. Two patients generated 6,940 arrhythmia alarms (55%). The number of false alarms per monitored hour for patients' annotated arrhythmia alarms ranged from 0.0 to 7.7, and the duration of these false alarms per hour ranged from 0.0 to 158.8 seconds. Patient characteristics were compared in relation to 1) the

  8. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds) at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and ventricular bradycardia) as true or false. Total monitoring time for each patient was measured, and the number of false alarms per hour was calculated for these six alarm types. Medical records were examined to acquire data on patient characteristics. Results A total of 461 unique patients (mean age =60±17 years) were enrolled, generating a total of 2,558,760 alarms, including all levels of arrhythmia, parameter, and technical alarms. There were 48,404 hours of patient monitoring time, and an average overall alarm rate of 52 alarms/hour. Investigators annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms; 11,345 (89.5%) were determined to be false. Two hundred and fifty patients (54%) generated at least one of the six annotated alarm types. Two patients generated 6,940 arrhythmia alarms (55%). The number of false alarms per monitored hour for patients’ annotated arrhythmia alarms ranged from 0.0 to 7.7, and the duration of these false alarms per hour ranged from 0.0 to 158.8 seconds. Patient

  9. Cues and expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of European languages have undergone a change from object-verb to verb-object order. We focus on the change in English and Icelandic, showing that while the structural change was the same, it took place at different times and different ways in the two languages, triggered by different E-language changes. As seen from the English viewpoint, low-level facts of inflection morphology may express the relevant cue for parameters, and so the loss of inflection may lead to a grammar change. This analysis does not carry over to Icelandic, as the loss of OV there took place despite rich case morphology. We aim to show how this can be explained within a cue-style approach, arguing for a universal set of cues. However, the relevant cue may be expressed differently among languages: While it may have been expressed through morphology in English, it as expressed through information structure in Icelandic. In both cases, external effects led to fewer expressions of the relevant (universal cue and a grammar change took place.

  10. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoško, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  11. Biophysical Cueing and Vascular Endothelial Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Wood

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human vascular endothelial cells (VEC line the vessels of the body and are critical for the maintenance of vessel integrity and trafficking of biochemical cues. They are fundamental structural elements and are central to the signaling environment. Alterations in the normal functioning of the VEC population are associated with a number of vascular disorders among which are some of the leading causes of death in both the United States and abroad. VECs attach to their underlying stromal elements through a specialization of the extracellular matrix, the basement membrane. The basement membrane provides signaling cues to the VEC through its chemical constituents, by serving as a reservoir for cytoactive factors and through its intrinsic biophysical properties. This specialized matrix is composed of a topographically rich 3D felt-like network of fibers and pores on the nano (1–100 nm and submicron (100–1,000 nm size scale. The basement membrane provides biophysical cues to the overlying VECs through its intrinsic topography as well as through its local compliance (relative stiffness. These biophysical cues modulate VEC adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and the cytoskeletal signaling network of the individual cells. This review focuses on the impact of biophysical cues on VEC behaviors and demonstrates the need for their consideration in future vascular studies and the design of improved prosthetics.

  12. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  14. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem.

  15. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.201 Sensing and alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  17. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that each installed autopilot unit without automatic manual override has an audible and visual alarm, which...

  18. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  19. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  20. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  1. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  2. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  3. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  4. Research and implementation of intelligent alarm transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haobo long; XiaolingTian

    2015-01-01

    To design and implement a inteligent alarm transceiver, the sensor, such as temperature, voltage, video check. is used in transceiver. Then it analyses real-time acquisition data of sensor, if the transceiver is not working normaly, and the results are sent to the host computer. And the latter send fault information to user by mobile phone. During this period, without artificial participation, to achieve the purpose of inteligent warning. it can improve the maintenance efficiency of transceiver.

  5. Composition: Cue Wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance...

  6. Smart alarms from medical devices in the OR and ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Michael; Kuhls, Silvia; Gather, Ursula; Fried, Roland

    2009-03-01

    Alarms in medical devices are a matter of concern in critical and perioperative care. The high rate of false alarms is not only a nuisance for patients and caregivers, but can also compromise patient safety and effectiveness of care. The development of alarm systems has lagged behind the technological advances of medical devices over the last 20 years. From a clinical perspective, major improvements in alarm algorithms are urgently needed. This review gives an overview of the current clinical situation and the underlying problems, and discusses different methods from statistics and computational science and their potential for clinical application. Some examples of the application of new alarm algorithms to clinical data are presented.

  7. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security. PMID:25591100

  8. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Bridi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue.METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds.RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons; that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour.CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.

  9. Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-11-01

    Pseudacteon tricuspis, Pseudacteon obtusus and Pseudacteon curvatus are three species of parasitic phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae), which have been introduced as classical biological control agents of imported, Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the southern USA. Previous studies demonstrated the behavioral response of P. tricuspis to the venom alkaloids and alarm pheromone of the fire ant, S. invicta. In the present study, we compared the responses of P. tricuspis, P. obtusus and P. curvatus to Solenopsis invicta alarm pheromone, venom alkaloids, or a mixture of both chemicals in four-choice olfactometer bioassays. The main hypothesis tested was that the fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract Pseudacteon phorid flies. Both sexes of all three Pseudacteon species were attracted to low doses of the fire ant alarm pheromone or venom alkaloids (i.e. 1 ant worker equivalent) alone. However, the flies were significantly more attracted to a mixture of both chemicals (i.e., 1:1 mixture of alarm pheromone+alkaloids) than to either chemical. The results suggest an additive rather than a synergistic effect of combining both chemicals. Comparing the fly species, P. tricuspis showed relatively greater attraction to cis alkaloids, whereas the alkaloid mixture (cis+trans) was preferred by P. obtusus and P. curvatus. In general, no key sexual differences were recorded, although females of P. tricuspis and P. obtusus showed slightly higher response than conspecific males to lower doses of the alarm pheromone. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed, and a host location model is proposed for parasitic phorid flies involving the use of fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids as long range and short range attractants, respectively.

  10. The implications of probability matching for clinician response to vital sign alarms: a theoretical study of alarm fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James M

    2015-01-01

    Alarm fatigue has been recognised as a significant health technology safety risk. 'Probability matching', in which clinicians respond to the alarm at a rate identical to the perceived reliability of the alarm, has been postulated as a model to explain alarm fatigue. In this article, we quantitatively explore the implications of probability matching for systolic blood pressure alarms. We find that probability matching could have a profound effect on clinician response to the alarm, with a response rate of only 8.6% when the alarm threshold is 90 mm Hg and the optimal threshold for a systolic blood pressure alarm would only be 77 mm Hg. We use the mathematical framework to assess a mitigation strategy when clinicians have a limit to the capacity to respond. We find that a tiered alarm in which clinicians receive information on the severity of vital sign perturbation significantly improves the opportunity to rescue patients. Practitioner Summary: Using a theoretical model, we predict that probability matching, a postulated model of clinician behaviour, can result in a profound decrease in clinician response to alarms for decreased blood pressure. A mitigating strategy is to create alarms that convey information on the degree of vital sign perturbation.

  11. Sunrise alarm clock for the hearing impaired - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follum, James D; Catchpole, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    The Sunrise Alarm Clock is a device designed to be more effective than standard alarm clocks and more pleasant than specialty devices in waking the hearing impaired. This is accomplished with the inclusion of visual, physical, and audio alarms. The visual alarm stimulus is created by manipulating the light output of a bedside lamp to mimic the sunrise. This is achieved by varying the duty cycle of a pulse width modulated signal supplied through a standard three-prong receptacle located on the side of the alarm clock. Physical alarms are in the form of wristbands containing vibrating motors. Finally, audio alarms are provided with both volume and pitch control to match the user’s specific needs. The entire system is designed with two users in mind by providing two independently controlled receptacles, wristbands, and audio systems. At the conclusion of development, a nearly fully functional prototype has been produced. The prototype’s audio and physical alarm system along with one visual alarm are fully functional. Shortcomings include poor timekeeping accuracy and problems clearly displaying the time. Even so, this development in sleep technology is capable of performing its task and waking its user with all three alarm systems.

  12. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  13. The Impact of Reduced Pulse Oximetry Use on Alarm Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schondelmeyer, Amanda C; Brady, Patrick W; Sucharew, Heidi; Huang, Guixia; Hofacer, Kelsey E; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Concerns about alarm fatigue prompted The Joint Commission to issue a Sentinel Event Alert urging hospitals to minimize alarms. We previously conducted a quality improvement project on a single unit that reduced time on continuous pulse oximetry, a common source of physiologic monitor alarms, for patients with wheezing (ie, asthma and bronchiolitis, wheezing-associated respiratory infections). To study the impact of our improvement work on overall physiologic monitor alarm frequency for these patients. This was a retrospective cohort study at a freestanding children's hospital over an 8-week period. We compared alarm count, including respiratory, cardiac, and pulse oximetry alarms, for patients admitted to the intervention unit with the alarm count for similar patients on a control unit by using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate differences in alarm count between the units, adjusting for age, medical comorbidity, and length of stay. There were 101 patients on the intervention unit and 46 patients on the control unit. The percentage of patients with medical comorbidities was significantly higher on the intervention unit (P=.01). Median alarm count per day for patients on the intervention unit was lower; however, this difference was not statistically significant (71 vs 76 alarms per patient-day, P=.29). The multivariable model estimated a nonsignificant 6.4-count decrease in alarms for patients on the intervention unit. Reducing continuous pulse oximetry use alone may not make substantial reductions in overall alarm counts. Even on our intervention unit, alarm burden remained quite high. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. General methods for alarm reduction; Larmsanering med generella metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund, Jonas; Bergquist, Tord; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2003-10-01

    The information in the control rooms has increased due to the technological advances in process control. Large industries produce large data quantities, where some information is unnecessary or even incorrect. The operator needs support from an advanced and well-adjusted alarm system to be able to separate a real event from a minor disturbance. The alarms must be of assistance and not a nuisance. An enhanced alarm situation qualifies an increased efficiency with fewer production disturbances and an improved safety. Yet, it is still unusual that actions are taken to improve the situation. An alarm cleanup with general methods can shortly be described as taking advantage of the control systems built-in functions, the possibility to modify or create function blocks and fine-tune the settings in the alarm system. In this project, we make use of an intelligent software, Alarm Cleanup Toolbox, that simulate different signal processing methods and tries to find improved settings on all the signals in the process. This is a fast and cost-efficient way to improve the overall alarm situation, and lays a foundation for more advanced alarm systems. An alarm cleanup has been carried out at Flintraennan district heating plant in Malmoe, where various signal processing methods has been implemented in a parallel alarm system. This made it possible to compare the two systems under the same conditions. The result is very promising, and shows that a lot of improvements can be achieved with very little effort. An analysis of the alarm system at Vattenreningen (the water purification process) at Heleneholmsverket in Malmoe has been carried out. Alarm Cleanup Toolbox has, besides suggesting improved settings, also found logical errors in the alarm system. Here, no implementation was carried out and therefore the results are analytical, but they validate the efficiency of the general methods. The project has shown that an alarm cleanup with general methods is cost-efficient, and that the

  15. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O' Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  16. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  17. An investigation of training strategies to improve alarm reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James P; Chancey, Eric T

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have suggested that operator training may improve operator reactions; however, researchers have not documented this for alarm reactions. The goal of this research was to train participants to react to alarms using sensor activity patterns. In Experiment 1, 80 undergraduates monitored a simulated security screen while completing a primary word search task. They received spatial, temporal, single sensor, or no training to respond to alarms of differing reliability levels. Analyses revealed more appropriate and quicker reactions when participants were trained and when the alarms were reliable. In Experiment 2, 56 participants practiced time estimation by simple repetition, performance feedback, or performance feedback and temporal subdivision. They then reacted to alarms based on elapsed time between sensor activity and alarm onset. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants did not benefit differentially from temporal interval training, focusing instead on advertised system reliability. Researchers should replicate these findings with realistic tasks and real-world complex task operators.

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  19. [How Much Alarm Can the Human Being Tolerate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Benedikt; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2017-07-01

    Due to growing technisation of intensive care the number of devices with integrated alarm systems is steadily increasing. However, most of the sounding alarms are false alarms causing high levels of frustration, aggression and inappropriate behaviour amongst the medical personnel. All this jeopardises patient care. The high number of alarms also disturb the patients interrupting their sleep and provokes anxiety, and also increases the already high noise level in intensive care units and the operating theatre alike. In the interest of the medical staff and our patients, we should reduce the high frequency of false alarms by using modern alarm algorithms techniques, lower both noise exposure and stress load with the help of modern individualized alarm systems and by increasing awareness on the dangers of alarm fatigue through training and by using individualized patient-related alarm limits. Despite economic challenges hospitals and intensive care units should optimize staffing, thereby lowering the risk to patients and improving employee satisfaction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

    2002-05-01

    Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

  1. Aplikasi Sensor Cahaya Untuk Alarm Anti Pencuri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Shoman Muzaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kasus pencurian di rumah kosong yang ditinggal pergi oleh pemiliknya belakangan ini marak terjadi. Berangkat dari pemikiran ini penulis mencoba merancang alarm yang dapat mendeteksi pergerakan seseorang saat rumah dalam kondisi kosong, ditinggalkan oleh pemiliknya. Alat ini mempunyai prinsip kerja yaitu mendeteksi bayangan seseorang yang melewati titik tertentu. Perancangan dan pembuatan perangkat ini menggunakan sensor cahaya berupa LASER dan LDR yang dirangkai dengan transistor sebagai saklar otomatis serta LED dan telepon rumah untuk melakukan panggilan kepada nomor telepon pemilik rumah. Komponen yang dipakai dalam pembuatan perangkat ini antara lain IC LM7805, LASER pointer, resistor, transistor BC108, LED, relay dan telepon rumah. Perancangan dan pembuatan alat menggunakan software multisim 10.1 sebagai simulator rangkaian, dan software eagle 5.1.1 untuk mendesain jalur rangkaian pada papan PCB. Saat cahaya LASER tidak sampai ke LDR karena terhalang oleh sesuatu, maka rangkaian output yang berupa indikator LED dan panggilan dari telepon rumah akan aktif

  2. Kidkit guides children into alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    on the development and evaluation of Kidkit, which is interactive furniture designed for young children who are going to visit a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries for the first time. Kidkit empowers the child to engage and be present by shaping Middle Ground Experiences in the hospital ward environment...... that is full of intimidating medical equipment and alarms. The evaluation results indicate collective rewards gained when children succeed in Embodied Habituation. Finally, the paper discusses how Middle Ground Experiences inevitably establish grounds for how we design for spatial experiences within......This paper presents the concept of Embodied Habituation as an architectural approach to designing contextualized technologies. It does so by identifying Middle Ground Experiences acknowledging how spaces are inhabited with ambiguous qualities that affect people emotionally. The research is based...

  3. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  4. Cue reactivity towards shopping cues in female participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.

  5. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  6. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients.

  7. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... locations: (i) To protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are encouraged to locate the alarm in the living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20... when a home is equipped or designed for future installation of a roof-mounted evaporative cooler...

  9. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  10. Advanced Alarm Systems: Revision of Guidance and Its Technical Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Pressurized Water Reactor (Westinghouse) APWR Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (Mitsubishi) ARP alarm response procedure CAMLS CANDU Annunciation Message...List System CANDU Canadian Deuterium Uranium CE Combustion Engineering CPIAS Critical Parameter Indication and Alarm System CRT cathode ray tube ...bulletins and information notices; inspection and investigative reports; licensee event reports; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC

  11. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...

  12. A correlation consistency based multivariate alarm thresholds optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huihui; Liu, Feifei; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2016-11-01

    Different alarm thresholds could generate different alarm data, resulting in different correlations. A new multivariate alarm thresholds optimization methodology based on the correlation consistency between process data and alarm data is proposed in this paper. The interpretative structural modeling is adopted to select the key variables. For the key variables, the correlation coefficients of process data are calculated by the Pearson correlation analysis, while the correlation coefficients of alarm data are calculated by kernel density estimation. To ensure the correlation consistency, the objective function is established as the sum of the absolute differences between these two types of correlations. The optimal thresholds are obtained using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Case study of Tennessee Eastman process is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  13. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    CERN Document Server

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  14. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  15. A New Fuzzy Clustering-Ranking Algorithm and Its Application in Process Alarm Management%一种新的模糊聚类-分级算法及其在流程报警管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱群雄; 耿志强

    2005-01-01

    Overmany alarms of modern chemical process give the operators many difficulties to decision and diagnosis. In order to ensure safe production and process operating, management and optimization of alarm information are challenge work that must be confronted. A new process alarm management method based on fuzzy clusteringranking algorithm is proposed. The fuzzy clustering algorithm is used to cluster rationally the process variables,and difference driving decision algorithm ranks different clusters and process parameters in every cluster. The alarm signal of higher rank is handled preferentially to manage effectively alarms and avoid blind operation. The validity of proposed algorithm and solution is verified by the practical application of ethylene cracking furnace system. It is an effective and dependable alarm management method to improve operating safety in industrial process.

  16. Social Odors: Alarm Pheromones and Social Buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I describe 2 types of olfactory communication in rats, which appear to arouse anxiety and relief, respectively. In alarm pheromonal communication, rats release 4-methylpentanal and hexanal from their perianal region when they are stressed. These molecules activate the anxiety circuit, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, when 4-methylpentanal and hexanal are simultaneously detected by the vomeronasal system and the main olfactory system, respectively. Consequently, recipient rats show a variety of anxiety responses, depending on the threatening stimuli. In appeasing olfactory communication, non-stressed rats release an appeasing olfactory signal, which is detected by the main olfactory system of other rats. When detected, this olfactory signal suppresses activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala and, as a result, ameliorates stress responses elicited by an auditory conditioned stimulus during social buffering phenomenon. Because social buffering appears to be based on affinity and attachment to accompanying animals, the appeasing olfactory signal may arouse relief in rats. A definition of social buffering is also proposed as we still have no set definition for the term social buffering yet.

  17. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-11

    Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors' parameters. Nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses' attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed great variation among nurses in terms of changing

  18. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs.

  19. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  20. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity.

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  3. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  4. Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G

    2003-01-01

    Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity.

  5. Interventions for promoting smoke alarm ownership and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, C; Higgins, J P

    2001-01-01

    Residential fires caused at least 67 deaths and 2,500 non-fatal injuries to children aged 0-16 in the United Kingdom in 1998. Smoke alarm ownership is associated with a reduced risk of residential fire death. We evaluated interventions to promote residential smoke alarms, to assess their effect on smoke alarm ownership, smoke alarm function, fires and burns and other fire-related injuries. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Injuries Group database, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLIT, CINAHL, ERIC, Dissertation Abstracts, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, ISTP, FIREDOC and LRC. Conference proceedings, published case studies, and bibliographies were systematically searched, and investigators and relevant organisations were contacted, to identify trials. Randomised, quasi-randomised or nonrandomised controlled trials completed or published after 1969 evaluating an intervention to promote residential smoke alarms. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We identified 26 trials, of which 13 were randomised. Overall, counselling and educational interventions had only a modest effect on the likelihood of owning an alarm (OR=1.26; 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.82) or having a functional alarm (OR=1.19; 0.85 to 1.66). Counselling as part of primary care child health surveillance had greater effects on ownership (OR=1.96; 1.03 to 3.72) and function (OR=1.72; 0.78 to 3.80). Results were sensitive to trial quality, however, and effects on fire-related injuries were not reported. In two non randomised trials, direct provision of free alarms significantly increased functioning alarms and reduced fire-related injuries. Media and community education showed little benefit in non randomised trials. Counselling as part of child health surveillance may increase smoke alarm ownership and function, but its effects on injuries are unevaluated. Community smoke alarm give-away programmes apparently reduce fire-related injuries, but these

  6. Effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis cues on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpole activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine F. Buttermore

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the changes in activity of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles exposed to combinations of visual, chemical, and mechanical cues of the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis. We also examined whether the responses of the tadpoles to the predator cues were influenced by the short-term accumulation of chemical cues in the experimental container. In our experiment, the activity of wood frog (L. sylvaticus tadpoles was not affected by the presence of various cues from mosquitofish. Our experiment demonstrated that the repeated use of trial water can influence the activity level of tadpoles, regardless of the predator cue treatment used. Tadpoles in the first trial tended to be less active than tadpoles in subsequent trials. This effect does not appear to be mediated by the accumulation of predator cues since there was no significant interaction term. Our results suggest that short-term accumulation of predator chemical cues do not affect the behavior of wood frog tadpoles: however, our results suggest that the repeated use of the same water in consecutive trials may affect tadpole behavior, perhaps through the accumulation of conspecific chemical cues.

  7. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  8. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  9. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  10. Distribution of combustible gas alarm based on embedded Ethernet technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xi-bo; ZHANG Jun-jie; WANG Yang

    2008-01-01

    One kind of combustible gas alarms based on industrial Ethernet was designed to prevent the gas leakage in industrial production sites. The alarm adopted the high performance microprocessor LPC2214 as the main chip. The embedded operating system μC/OS-Ⅱ and TCP/IP protocol stack ulP running on LPC2214 con-stitute a development platform of application of the combustible gas alarm. The test shows that it can automati-cally and continuously detect combustible gas in industrial production sites in several positions;it can give out sound-light alarm and take protective measures immediately against the gas leakage ; and it can send the detected data to PC through the Etheruet interface to realize the remote detection. The designed project provides a refer-ence to design industrial devices based on industrial Ethernet.

  11. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patricia R Harris,1,2 Jessica K Zègre-Hemsey,3,4 Daniel Schindler,5 Yong Bai,6 Michele M Pelter,2,7 Xiao Hu2,8 1Department of Nursing, School of Health and Natural Sciences, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, 5Intensive Care Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Sutter Eden Medical Center, Castro Valley, 6Hu Research Laboratory, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 7ECG Monitoring Research Lab, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, 8Physiological Nursing and Neurological Surgery, Affiliate Faculty of Institute for Computational Health Sciences Core Faculty UCB/UCSF Joint Bio-Engineering Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods: This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and

  12. Male rats respond to their own alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure.

  13. A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance.

  14. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  15. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P

    2015-01-01

    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  16. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  17. A nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Yousefinya, Amirhossein; Zand, Farid; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Fararooei, Mohammad

    2016-11-15

    Alarm fatigue can adversely affect nurses' efficiency and concentration on their tasks, which is a threat to patients' safety. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric accuracy of an alarm fatigue questionnaire for nurses. This study was conducted in two stages: in stage one, in order to establish the different aspects of the concept of alarm fatigue, the researchers reviewed the available literature-articles and books-on alarm fatigue, and then consulted several experts in a meeting to define alarm fatigue and develop statements for the questionnaire. In stage two, after the final draft had been approved, the validity of the instrument was measured using the two methods of face validity (the quantitative and qualitative approaches) and content validity (the qualitative and quantitative approaches). Test-retest, Cronbach's alpha, and Principal Component Analysis were used for item reduction and reliability analysis. Based on the results of stage one, the researchers extracted 30 statements based on a 5-point Likert scale. In stage two, after the face and content validity of the questionnaire had been established, 19 statements were left in the instrument. Based on factor loadings of the items and "alpha if item deleted" and after the second round of consultation with the expert panel, six items were removed from the scale. The test of the reliability of nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire based on the internal homogeneity and retest methods yielded the following results: test-retest correlation coefficient = 0.99; Guttman split-half correlation coefficient = 0.79; Cronbach's alpha = 0.91. Regarding the importance of recognizing alarm fatigue in nurses, there is need for an instrument to measure the phenomenon. The results of the study show that the developed questionnaire is valid and reliable enough for measuring alarm fatigue in nurses.

  18. Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

  19. Dead ant walking: a myrmecophilous beetle predator uses parasitoid host location cues to selectively prey on parasitized ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2016-08-17

    Myrmecophiles (i.e. organisms that associate with ants) use a variety of ecological niches and employ different strategies to survive encounters with ants. Because ants are typically excellent defenders, myrmecophiles may choose moments of weakness to take advantage of their ant associates. This hypothesis was studied in the rove beetle, Myrmedonota xipe, which associates with Azteca sericeasur ants in the presence of parasitoid flies. A combination of laboratory and field experiments show that M. xipe beetles selectively locate and prey upon parasitized ants. These parasitized ants are less aggressive towards beetles than healthy ants, allowing beetles to eat the parasitized ants alive without interruption. Moreover, behavioural assays and chemical analysis reveal that M. xipe are attracted to the ant's alarm pheromone, the same secretion used by the phorid fly parasitoids in host location. This strategy allows beetles access to an abundant but otherwise inaccessible resource, as A. sericeasur ants are typically highly aggressive. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a predator sharing cues with a parasitoid to gain access to an otherwise unavailable prey item. Furthermore, this work highlights the importance of studying ant-myrmecophile interactions beyond just their pairwise context.

  20. Odour cues from suitors' nests determine mating success in a fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that 'extrinsic' chemical cues in the males' nests could also have a significant...

  1. Data-Driven Implementation of Alarm Reduction Interventions in a Cardiovascular Surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sharon H; Doyle, Peter A; Sapirstein, Adam; Cvach, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Alarm fatigue in the ICU setting has been well documented in the literature. The ICU's high-intensity environment requires staff's vigilant attention, and distraction from false and non-actionable alarms pulls staff away from important tasks, creates dissatisfaction, and is a potential patient safety risk if alarms are missed or ignored. This project was intended to improve patient safety by optimizing alarm systems in a cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit (CVSICU). Specific aims were to examine nurses' attitudes toward clinical alarm signals, assess nurses' ability to discriminate audible alarm signals, and implement a bundled set of best practices for monitor alarm reduction without undermining patient safety. CVSICU nurses completed an alarm perception survey and participated in alarm discriminability testing. Nurse survey data and baseline monitor alarm data were used to select targeted alarm reduction interventions, which were progressively phased in. Monitor alarm data and cardiorespiratory event data were trended over one year. Five of the most frequent CVSICU monitor alarm types-pulse oximetry, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry sensor, and ventricular tachycardia > 2-were targeted. After implementation, there was a 61% reduction in average alarms per monitored bed and a downward trend in cardiorespiratory events. To reduce alarm fatigue it is important to decrease alarm burden through targeted interventions. Methods to reduce non-actionable alarms include adding short delays to allow alarm self-correction, adjusting default alarm threshold limits, providing alarm notification through a secondary device, and teaching staff to optimize alarm settings for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons, to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive projection neurons are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system.

  3. Attributions of cancer 'alarm' symptoms in a community sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina L Whitaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attribution of early cancer symptoms to a non-serious cause may lead to longer diagnostic intervals. We investigated attributions of potential cancer 'alarm' and non-alarm symptoms experienced in everyday life in a community sample of adults, without mention of a cancer context. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to 4858 adults (≥50 years old, no cancer diagnosis through primary care, asking about symptom experiences in the past 3 months. The word cancer was not mentioned. Target 'alarm' symptoms, publicised by Cancer Research UK, were embedded in a longer symptom list. For each symptom experienced, respondents were asked for their attribution ('what do you think caused it', concern about seriousness ('not at all' to 'extremely', and help-seeking ('did you contact a doctor about it': Yes/No. RESULTS: The response rate was 35% (n = 1724. Over half the respondents (915/1724; 53% had experienced an 'alarm' symptom, and 20 (2% cited cancer as a possible cause. Cancer attributions were highest for 'unexplained lump'; 7% (6/87. Cancer attributions were lowest for 'unexplained weight loss' (0/47. A higher proportion (375/1638; 23% were concerned their symptom might be 'serious', ranging from 12% (13/112 for change in a mole to 41% (100/247 for unexplained pain. Just over half had contacted their doctor about their symptom (59%, although this varied by symptom. Alarm symptoms were appraised as more serious than non-alarm symptoms, and were more likely to trigger help-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with retrospective reports from cancer patients, 'alarm' symptoms experienced in daily life were rarely attributed to cancer. These results have implications for understanding how people appraise and act on symptoms that could be early warning signs of cancer.

  4. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets.

  5. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  6. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  7. Alarm reduction with correlation analysis; Larmsanering genom korrelationsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Tord; Ahnlund, Jonas; Johansson, Bjoern; Gaardman, Lennart; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2004-09-01

    This project's main interest is to improve the overall alarm situation in the control rooms. By doing so, the operators working environment is less overstrained, which simplifies the decision-making. According to a study of the British refinery industry, the operators make wrong decisions in four times out of ten due to badly tuned alarm systems, with heavy expenses as a result. Furthermore, a more efficiently alarm handling is estimated to decrease the production loss with between three and eight percent. This sounds, according to Swedish standards, maybe a bit extreme, but there is no doubt about the benefits of having a well-tuned alarm system. This project can be seen as an extension of 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' (VARMEFORSK--835), where the process improvements were the result of suggestions tailored for every signal. Here, instead causal dependences in the process are examined. A method for this, specially designed to fit process signals, has been developed. It is called MLPC (Multiple Local Property Correlation) and could be seen as an unprejudiced way of increase the information value in the process. There are a number of ways to make use of the additional process understanding a correlation analysis provides. In the report some are mentioned, foremost aiming to improve the alarm situation for operators. Signals from two heating plants have been analyzed with MLPC. In simulations, with the use of the result from these analyses as a base, a large number of alarms have been successfully suppressed. The results have been studied by personal with process knowledge, and they are very positive to the use of MLPC and they express many benefits by the clarification of process relations. It was established in 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' that low pass filter are superior to mean value filter and time delay when trying to suppress alarms. As a result, a module for signal processing has been developed. The main purpose is

  8. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-01

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms.

  9. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  10. 可燃气体报警器原理及其应用研究%Research and Application of Combustible Gas Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏一峰; 黄武

    2013-01-01

    可燃气体报警器就是气体泄漏检测报警仪器。如果工业环境中可燃或有毒气体泄漏,当气体报警器检测到气体浓度达到爆炸或中毒报警器设置的临界点时,可燃气体报警器就会发出报警信号,以提醒工作采取安全措施。可燃气体报警器被广泛用于名类化工厂、液化气站、油库等易发生可燃气体泄漏的场所,对这些场所进行实时监测,保障了该类场所的安全工作环境。%Combustible gas alarm is gas leakage detection and alarm instrument. If the combustible industrial environment or poisonous gas leak, when gas alarm detect gas concentration reaches the explosion or poisoning critical point of alarm settings, flammable gas alarm will be issued a warning signal,to remind the work safety measures. Combustible gas alarm is widely used in the name of chemical plant, gas stations, oil depots and other easily combustible gas leakage location, real-time monitoring of these places, the kind of place safe working environment.

  11. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are known to cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, not all CMEs will trigger geomagnetic storms, even if they are heading towards the Earth. In this study, front side halo CMEs with speed larger than 500 km/s have been identified from the SOHO LASCO catalogue....... A subset of these halo CMEs did not cause a geomagnetic storm the following four days and have therefore been considered as false alarms. The properties of these events are investigated and discussed here. Their statistics are compared to the geo-effective CMEs. The ability to identify potential false...... alarms is considered as an important factor when forecasting geomagnetic storms. It would therefore be very helpful if there were a signature in the solar data that could indicate that a CME is a false alarm. The strength and position of associated flares have been considered as possible candidates...

  12. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.;

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are known to cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, not all CMEs will trigger geomagnetic storms, even if they are heading towards the Earth. In this study, front side halo CMEs with speed larger than 500 km/s have been identified from the SOHO LASCO catalogue....... A subset of these halo CMEs did not cause a geomagnetic storm the following four days and have therefore been considered as false alarms. The properties of these events are investigated and discussed here. Their statistics are compared to the geo-effective CMEs. The ability to identify potential false...... alarms is considered as an important factor when forecasting geomagnetic storms. It would therefore be very helpful if there were a signature in the solar data that could indicate that a CME is a false alarm. The strength and position of associated flares have been considered as possible candidates...

  13. Implementation of alarm system for vibration monitoring of KOMAC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For operating 100 MeV linac, Devices have to be operated in certain order. Thus malfunction of a device cause damage to linac and related devices. To protect linac, machine protect system (MPS) has been developed. The MPS protects the components by monitoring hardwired signals. When values of operating parameters go beyond or below limit, alarm will be generated and interlock system which stops related devices in certain sequence will run. Other factor, giving damage to linac is disaster. A strong vibration such as earthquake causes malfunction of devices and damage to linac. Against disaster, the monitoring system based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) was implemented. Configuration and Implementation of the monitoring system are presented and some preliminary results are reported. KOMAC implemented alarm system for a strong vibration and fire. Alarm is generated in unusual situation. Coping rapidly with situation, damages for Linac and related devices can be reduced.

  14. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-03-16

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses' perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation's (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (Palarms and poor usability of the cardiac monitors. A lack of standardized approaches exists in changing patients' electrodes and individualizing parameters. Around 60% of nurses indicated they received insufficient training on bedside and central cardiac monitors. A correlation also showed the need for training

  15. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  16. Optimal assessment of multiple cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, TW; Johnstone, RA

    2003-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts from mate choice to foraging, animals are required to discriminate between alternative options on the basis of multiple cues. How should they best assess such complex multicomponent stimuli? Here, we construct a model to investigate this problem, focusing on a simple case

  17. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  18. Optimal cue integration in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, Antoine; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2015-10-07

    In situations with redundant or competing sensory information, humans have been shown to perform cue integration, weighting different cues according to their certainty in a quantifiably optimal manner. Ants have been shown to merge the directional information available from their path integration (PI) and visual memory, but as yet it is not clear that they do so in a way that reflects the relative certainty of the cues. In this study, we manipulate the variance of the PI home vector by allowing ants (Cataglyphis velox) to run different distances and testing their directional choice when the PI vector direction is put in competition with visual memory. Ants show progressively stronger weighting of their PI direction as PI length increases. The weighting is quantitatively predicted by modelling the expected directional variance of home vectors of different lengths and assuming optimal cue integration. However, a subsequent experiment suggests ants may not actually compute an internal estimate of the PI certainty, but are using the PI home vector length as a proxy. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Alarm Fatigue vs User Expectations Regarding Context-Aware Alarm Handling in Hospital Environments Using CallMeSmart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvoll, Terje; Arntsen, Harald; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Surveys and research show that mobile communication systems in hospital settings are old and cause frequent interruptions. In the quest to remedy this, an Android based communication system called CallMeSmart tries to encapsulate most of the frequent communication into one hand held device focusing on reducing interruptions and at the same time make the workday easier for healthcare workers. The objective of CallMeSmart is to use context-awareness techniques to automatically monitor the availability of physicians' and nurses', and use this information to prevent or route phone calls, text messages, pages and alarms that would otherwise compromise patient care. In this paper, we present the results from interviewing nurses on alarm fatigue and their expectations regarding context-aware alarm handling using CallMeSmart.

  20. Association between exposure to nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms and response time in a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Lin, Richard; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Paine, Christine W; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Localio, A Russell; Keren, Ron

    2015-06-01

    Alarm fatigue is reported to be a major threat to patient safety, yet little empirical data support its existence in the hospital. To determine if nurses exposed to high rates of nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms respond more slowly to subsequent alarms that could represent life-threatening conditions. Observational study using video. Freestanding children's hospital. Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients requiring inotropic support and/or mechanical ventilation, and medical ward patients. None. Actionable alarms were defined as correctly identifying physiologic status and warranting clinical intervention or consultation. We measured response time to alarms occurring while there were no clinicians in the patient's room. We evaluated the association between the number of nonactionable alarms the patient had in the preceding 120 minutes (categorized as 0-29, 30-79, or 80+ alarms) and response time to subsequent alarms in the same patient using a log-rank test that accounts for within-nurse clustering. We observed 36 nurses for 210 hours with 5070 alarms; 87.1% of PICU and 99.0% of ward clinical alarms were nonactionable. Kaplan-Meier plots showed incremental increases in response time as the number of nonactionable alarms in the preceding 120 minutes increased (log-rank test stratified by nurse P alarms were nonactionable, and response time increased as nonactionable alarm exposure increased. Alarm fatigue could explain these findings. Future studies should evaluate the simultaneous influence of workload and other factors that can impact response time. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  1. Effects of Spatial Cueing on Representational Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L.; Kumar, Anuradha Mohan; Carp, Charlotte L.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of a spatial cue on representational momentum were examined. If a cue was present during or after target motion and indicated the location at which the target would vanish or had vanished, forward displacement of that target decreased. The decrease in forward displacement was larger when cues were present after target motion than when cues…

  2. When Symbolic Spatial Cues Go before Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the effect of spatial cueing on number processing. Participants performed a parity judgment task. However, shortly before the target number, a cue (arrow pointing to left, arrow pointing to right or a cross) was centrally presented. In Experiment 1, in which responses were lateralized, the cue direction modulated the interaction…

  3. Cue salience influences the use of height cues in reorientation in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Mahdi, Nuha; Paul, Breanne; Spetch, Marcia L

    2016-07-01

    Although orienting ability has been examined with numerous types of cues, most research has focused only on cues from the horizontal plane. The current study investigated pigeons' use of wall height, a vertical cue, in an open-field task and compared it with their use of horizontal cues. Pigeons were trained to locate food in 2 diagonal corners of a rectangular enclosure with 2 opposite high walls as height cues. Before each trial, pigeons were rotated to disorient them. In training, pigeons could use either the horizontal cues from the rectangular enclosure or the height information from the walls to locate the food. In testing, the apparatus was modified to provide (a) horizontal cues only, (b) height cues only, and (c) both height and horizontal cues in conflict. In Experiment 1 the lower and high walls, respectively, were 40 and 80 cm, whereas in Experiment 2 they were made more perceptually salient by shortening them to 20 and 40 cm. Pigeons accurately located the goal corners with horizontal cues alone in both experiments, but they searched accurately with height cues alone only in Experiment 2. When the height cues conflicted with horizontal cues, pigeons preferred the horizontal cues over the height cues in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2, suggesting that perceptual salience influences the relative weighting of cues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Balancing the Tension Between Hyperoxia Prevention and Alarm Fatigue in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketko, Anastasia K; Martin, Craig M; Nemshak, Michelle A; Niedner, Matthew; Vartanian, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    After the implementation of narrowed oxygen saturation alarms, alarm frequency increased in the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital NICU which could have a negative impact on patient safety. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations issued a Sentinel Event Alert for hospitals in 2013 to improve alarm safety, resulting in a 2014 National Patient Safety Goal requiring institutional policies and procedures to be in place to manage alarms. A multidisciplinary improvement team developed an alarm management bundle applying strategies to decrease alarm frequency, which included evaluating existing strategies and developing patient care-based and systems-based interventions. The total number of delivered and detected saturation alarms and high saturation alarms and the total time spent within a targeted saturation range were quantitatively tracked. Nursing morale was assessed qualitatively. SpO2 alarms per monitored patient-day increased from 78 to 105 after the narrowing of alarm limits. Modification of the high saturation alarm algorithm substantially decreased the delivery and escalation of high pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) alarms. During a pilot period, using histogram technology to individually customize alarm limits resulted in increased time spent within the targeted saturation range and fewer alarms per day. Qualitatively, nurses reported improved satisfaction when not assigned >1 infant with frequent alarms, as identified by an alarm frequency tool. Alarm fatigue may detrimentally affect patient care and safety. Alarm management strategies should coincide with oxygen management within a NICU, especially in single-patient-bed units. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  6. False Alarm Probability Estimation for Compressive Sensing Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper false alarm probability (FAP) estimation of a radar using Compressive Sensing (CS) in the frequency domain is investigated. Compressive Sensing is a recently proposed technique which allows reconstruction of sparse signal from sub-Nyquist rate measurements. The estimation of the FAP is

  7. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  8. Alarm management in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Helio; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For sure Alarm Management is not a new issue. EEMUA 191 has been around since 1999 and everyone has received visits from consultants in this area. Besides this regulators have requested that operators have a policy for it. However there are few papers showing actual pipeline operator experience in alarm management. In this paper we present the work developed in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center since 2006, where we operate 5509 km of crude oil and refined products pipelines. Since the beginning of the centralized operation in 2002, alarm management has been a concern but a systematic approach has been taken since 2006. Initially we will make a brief revision of the literature and show trends for regulations. Then we will show the tools and the approach we have taken. Finally, the further developments we see. The point that we want to discuss is that, it has been very difficult to implement the system in a linear way and we believe that companies that have huge legacy systems, the same probably will occur. Putting in simple words, our main conclusion is: Implementing an Alarm Management policy produces good results however probably sometimes is better not to follow strictly the traditional steps. (author)

  9. A team-based approach to reducing cardiac monitor alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoy, Christopher E; Davies, Stella M; Flesch, Laura; Hayward, Melissa; Koons, Connie; Coleman, Kristen; Jacobs, Jodi; McKenna, Lori Ann; Olomajeye, Alero; Olson, Chad; Powers, Jessica; Shoemaker, Kimberly; Jodele, Sonata; Alessandrini, Evaline; Weiss, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Excessive cardiac monitor alarms lead to desensitization and alarm fatigue. We created and implemented a standardized cardiac monitor care process (CMCP) on a 24-bed pediatric bone marrow transplant unit. The aim of this project was to decrease monitor alarms through the use of team-based standardized care and processes. Using small tests of change, we developed and implemented a standardized CMCP that included: (1) a process for initial ordering of monitor parameters based on age-appropriate standards; (2) pain-free daily replacement of electrodes; (3) daily individualized assessment of cardiac monitor parameters; and (4) a reliable method for appropriate discontinuation of monitor. The Model for Improvement was used to design, test, and implement changes. The changes that were implemented after testing and adaptation were: family/patient engagement in the CMCP; creation of a monitor care log to address parameters, lead changes, and discontinuation; development of a pain-free process for electrode removal; and customized monitor delay and customized threshold parameters. From January to November 2013, percent compliance with each of the 4 components of the CMCP increased. Overall compliance with the CMCP increased from a median of 38% to 95%. During this time, the median number of alarms per patient-day decreased from 180 to 40. Implementation of the standardized CMCP resulted in a significant decrease in cardiac monitor alarms per patient day. We recommend a team-based approach to monitor care, including individualized assessment of monitor parameters, daily lead change, and proper discontinuation of the monitors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Economic evaluation of smoke alarm distribution methods in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Bishai, David; Perry, Elise; Shields, Wendy; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses costs and potential lives saved from a door-to-door smoke alarm distribution programme using data from a programme run by the Baltimore City Fire Department in 2010-2011. We evaluate the impact of a standard home visit programme and an enhanced home visit programme that includes having community health workers provide advance notice, promote the programme, and accompany fire department personnel on the day of the home visit, compared with each other and with an option of not having a home visit programme (control). Study data show that the home visit programme increased by 10% the number of homes that went from having no working alarm to having any working alarm, and the enhanced programme added an additional 1% to the number of homes protected. We use published reports on the relative risk of death in homes with and without a working smoke alarm to show that the standard programme would save an additional 0.24 lives per 10,000 homes over 10 years, compared with control areas and the enhanced home visit programme saved an additional 0.07 lives compared with the standard programme. The incremental cost of each life saved for the standard programme compared with control was $28,252 per death averted and $284,501per additional death averted for the enhanced compared with the standard. Following the US guidelines for the value of a life, both programmes are cost effective, however, the standard programme may offer a better value in terms of dollars per death averted. The study also highlights the need for better data on the benefits of current smoke alarm recommendations and their impact on injury, death and property damage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Telemetry Monitor Watchers Reduce Bedside Nurses' Exposure to Alarms by Intercepting a High Number of Nonactionable Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, Sonali; Chen, Stephanie; Clayton, Elaine; Accurso, Anthony; Zakaria, Sammy

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac telemetry, designed to monitor hospitalized patients with active cardiac conditions, is highly utilized outside the intensive care unit but is also resource-intensive and produces many nonactionable alarms. In a hospital setting in which dedicated monitor watchers are set up to be the first responders to system-generated alerts, we conducted a retrospective study of the alerts produced over a continuous 2-month period to evaluate how many were intercepted before nurse notification for being nonactionable, and how many resulted in code team activations. Over the 2-month period, the system generated 20,775 alerts (5.1/patient-day, on average), of which 87% were intercepted by monitor watchers. None of the alerts for asystole, ventricular fibrillation, or ventricular tachycardia resulted in a code team activation. Our results highlight the high burden of alerts, the large majority of which are nonactionable, as well as the role of monitor watchers in decreasing the alarm burden on nurses. Measures are needed to decrease telemetry-related alerts in order to reduce alarm-related harms, such as alarm fatigue. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:447-449. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. "Turn it off!": diabetes device alarm fatigue considerations for the present and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Joseph P; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a "patient safety first" perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc H; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Schindler, Daniel; Boyle, Noel G; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Patient monitors in modern hospitals have become ubiquitous but they generate an excessive number of false alarms causing alarm fatigue. Our previous work showed that combinations of frequently co-occurring monitor alarms, called SuperAlarm patterns, were capable of predicting in-hospital code blue events at a lower alarm frequency. In the present study, we extend the conceptual domain of a SuperAlarm to incorporate laboratory test results along with monitor alarms so as to build an integrated data set to mine SuperAlarm patterns. We propose two approaches to integrate monitor alarms with laboratory test results and use a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm to find SuperAlarm patterns. Under an acceptable false positive rate FPRmax, optimal parameters including the minimum support threshold and the length of time window for the algorithm to find the combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results are determined based on a 10-fold cross-validation set. SuperAlarm candidates are generated under these optimal parameters. The final SuperAlarm patterns are obtained by further removing the candidates with false positive rate>FPRmax. The performance of SuperAlarm patterns are assessed using an independent test data set. First, we calculate the sensitivity with respect to prediction window and the sensitivity with respect to lead time. Second, we calculate the false SuperAlarm ratio (ratio of the hourly number of SuperAlarm triggers for control patients to that of the monitor alarms, or that of regular monitor alarms plus laboratory test results if the SuperAlarm patterns contain laboratory test results) and the work-up to detection ratio, WDR (ratio of the number of patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns to that of code blue patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns). The experiment results demonstrate that when varying FPRmax between 0.02 and 0.15, the SuperAlarm patterns composed of monitor alarms along with the last two laboratory test results

  14. Earthworms Use Odor Cues to Locate and Feed on Microorganisms in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Zirbes; Mark Mescher; Véronique Vrancken; Jean-Paul Wathelet; Verheggen, François J.; Philippe Thonart; Eric Haubruge

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably u...

  15. A Fiber-Optical Intrusion Alarm System Based on Quasi-Distributed Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Jiang; Yun-Jiang Rao; De-Hong Zeng

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optical intrusion alarm system based on quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is demonstrated in this paper. The algorithms of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet packet characteristic entropy are adopted to determine the intrusion location. The intrusion alarm software based on the Labview is developed, and it is also proved by the experiments. The results show that such a fiber-optical intrusion alarm system can offer the automatic intrusion alarm in real-time.

  16. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R

    2012-03-01

    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  17. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-04-22

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated.

  18. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S.

    2011-01-01

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated. PMID:20943694

  19. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. 62.25... Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. (a) General. Minimum instrumentation and alarms required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table 62.35-50. (b) Instrumentation Location....

  20. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm...

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems § 113.25-8 Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each... alarm signal. (e) Each system must have one or more branch circuit distribution panels for each zone... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system...

  2. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  3. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Optimal go/no-go ratios to maximize false alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; Sutherland, Steven C; McCoy, Anthony W

    2017-06-29

    Despite the ubiquity of go/no-go tasks in the study of behavioral inhibition, there is a lack of evidence regarding the impact of key design characteristics, including the go/no-go ratio, intertrial interval, and number of types of go stimuli, on the production of different response classes of central interest. In the present study we sought to empirically determine the optimal conditions to maximize the production of a rare outcome of considerable interest to researchers: false alarms. As predicted, the shortest intertrial intervals (450 ms), intermediate go/no-go ratios (2:1 to 4:1), and the use of multiple types of go stimuli produced the greatest numbers of false alarms. These results are placed within the context of behavioral changes during learning.

  5. On preserving robustness-false alarm tradeoff in media hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Zhu, X.; Yuan, J.; Chang, E.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses one of the important issues in generating a robust media hash. Robustness of a media hashing algorithm is primarily determined by three factors, (1) robustness-false alarm tradeoff achieved by the chosen feature representation, (2) accuracy of the bit extraction step and (3) the distance measure used to measure similarity (dissimilarity) between two hashes. The robustness-false alarm tradeoff in feature space is measured by a similarity (dissimilarity) measure and it defines a limit on the performance of the hashing algorithm. The distance measure used to compute the distance between the hashes determines how far this tradeoff in the feature space is preserved through the bit extraction step. Hence the bit extraction step is crucial, in defining the robustness of a hashing algorithm. Although this is recognized as an important requirement by all, to our knowledge there is no work in the existing literature that elucidates the effcacy of their algorithm based on their effectiveness in improving this tradeoff compared to other methods. This paper specifically demonstrates the kind of robustness false alarm tradeoff achieved by existing methods and proposes a method for hashing that clearly improves this tradeoff.

  6. User image mismatch in anaesthesia alarms: a cognitive systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Karen E; Bergström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering are used to better understand the human-machine interaction manifesting in the use of anaesthesia alarms. The hypothesis is that the design of the machine incorporates built-in assumptions of the user that are discrepant with the anaesthesiologist's self-assessment, creating 'user image mismatch'. Mismatch was interpreted by focusing on the 'user image' as described from the perspectives of both machine and user. The machine-embedded image was interpreted through document analysis. The user-described image was interpreted through user (anaesthesiologist) interviews. Finally, an analysis was conducted in which the machine-embedded and user-described images were contrasted to identify user image mismatch. It is concluded that analysing user image mismatch expands the focus of attention towards macro-elements in the interaction between man and machine. User image mismatch is interpreted to arise from complexity of algorithm design and incongruity between alarm design and tenets of anaesthesia practice. Cognitive system engineering principles are applied to enhance the understanding of the interaction between anaesthesiologist and alarm. The 'user image' is interpreted and contrasted from the perspectives of machine as well as the user. Apparent machine-user mismatch is explored pertaining to specific design features.

  7. Surface Flow from Visual Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Benjamin,; Letouzey, Antoine; Boyer, Edmond; Franco, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we study the estimation of dense, instantaneous 3D motion fields over a non-rigidly moving surface observed by multi-camera systems. The motivation arises from multi-camera applications that require motion information, for arbitrary subjects, in order to perform tasks such as surface tracking or segmentation. To this aim, we present a novel framework that allows to efficiently compute dense 3D displacement fields using low level visual cues and geometric con...

  8. Reduction of clinically irrelevant alarms in patient monitoring by adaptive time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Felix; Goepfert, Matthias S; Franz, Frank; Laule, David; Reiter, Beate; Goetz, Alwin E; Reuter, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    The problem of high rates of false alarms in patient monitoring in anesthesiology and intensive care medicine is well known but remains unsolved. False alarms desensitize the medical staff, leading to ignored true alarms and reduced quality of patient care. A database of intra-operative monitoring data was analyzed to find characteristic alarm patterns. The original data were re-evaluated to find relevant events and to rate the severity of these events. Based on this analysis an adaptive time delay was developed that individually delays the alarms depending on the grade of threshold deviation. The conventional threshold algorithm led to 4893 alarms. 3515 (71.84 %) of these alarms were annotated as clinically irrelevant. In total 81.0 % of all clinically irrelevant alarms were caused by only mild and/or brief threshold violations. We implemented the new algorithm for selected parameters. These parameters equipped with adaptive validation delays led to 1729 alarms. 931 (53.85 %) alarms were annotated as clinically irrelevant. 632 alarms indicated the 645 clinically relevant events. The positive predictive value of occurring alarms improved from 28.16 % (conventional algorithm) to 46.15 % (new algorithm). 13 events were missed. The false positive alarm reduction rate of the algorithm ranged from 33 to 86.75 %. The overall reduction was 73.51 %. The implementation of this algorithm may be able to suppress a large percentage of false alarms. The effect of this approach has not been demonstrated but shows promise for reducing alarm fatigue. Its safety needs to be proven in a prospective study.

  9. Increasing smoke alarm operability through theory-based health education: a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Bergen, Gwen; Ballesteros, Michael F; Bhattacharya, Soma; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Sheppard, Monique S

    2015-01-01

    Background Although working smoke alarms halve deaths in residential fires, many households do not keep alarms operational. We tested whether theory-based education increases alarm operability. Methods Randomised multiarm trial, with a single arm randomly selected for use each day, in low-income neighbourhoods in Maryland, USA. Intervention arms: (1) Full Education combining a health belief module with a social-cognitive theory module that provided hands-on practice installing alarm batteries and using the alarm’s hush button; (2) Hands-on Practice social-cognitive module supplemented by typical fire department education; (3) Current Norm receiving typical fire department education only. Four hundred and thirty-six homes recruited through churches or by knocking on doors in 2005–2008. Followup visits checked alarm operability in 370 homes (85%) 1–3.5 years after installation. Main outcome measures: number of homes with working alarms defined as alarms with working batteries or hard-wired and number of working alarms per home. Regressions controlled for alarm status preintervention; demographics and beliefs about fire risks and alarm effectiveness. Results Homes in the Full Education and Practice arms were more likely to have a functioning smoke alarm at follow-up (OR=2.77, 95% CI 1.09 to 7.03) and had an average of 0.32 more working alarms per home (95% CI 0.09 to 0.56). Working alarms per home rose 16%. Full Education and Practice had similar effectiveness (p=0.97 on both outcome measures). Conclusions Without exceeding typical fire department installation time, installers can achieve greater smoke alarm operability. Hands-on practice is key. Two years after installation, for every three homes that received hands-on practice, one had an additional working alarm. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00139126. PMID:25165090

  10. An Evidence-Based Approach to Reducing Cardiac Telemetry Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Ekta; Mankoo, Jaspreet; Kerr, Charles

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that between 80% and 99% of alarms in the clinical areas are in actionable alarms (Gross, Dahl, & Nielson). Alarm management is one of the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals (2014) because sentinel events have directly been linked to the devices generating these alarms. At an acute care facility in Boston, a multidisciplinary team consisting of Nursing, Biomedical Engineers, Patient Safety and Providers was formed to conduct a pilot study on the state of telemetry alarms on a surgical floor. An evidence-based approach was taken utilizing Philips Real-time data exporter alarms tracking software to capture all telemetry alarms during a 43-day time span. Likewise, noise meters were placed near telemetry alarm speakers to track decibel levels within the aforementioned timeframe for 21 days. Analysis of the data showed that clinically insignificant Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC) alarms accounted for more than 40% of all alarms in the unit within the time span, while also contributing to an average noise level of 58.49 dB. In response to the data, the interdisciplinary team approved to permanently default the settings for PAIR PVC, MULTIFORM PVC, and RUN PVC alarms to off. The results showed a 54% decrease in the rate of alarms per bed per day, and an average noise reduction of 2.3 dB between the two selected noise measurement areas. Organizing a multidisciplinary team provides an effective framework toward analyzing and addressing cardiac telemetry alarm fatigue. Looking at quantitative datasets for clinical care areas through various lenses helps identify opportunities for improvement in regards to highlighting alarms that are not actionable. Pilot changes to alarm parameters can be tested for their environmental impact in the care area. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  12. Thin Layer Sensory Cues Affect Antarctic Krill Swimming Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, A. C.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    A Bickley jet (laminar, planar free jet) is employed in a recirculating flume system to replicate thin shear and phytoplankton layers for krill behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical and free shear layers, respectively, ensuring a close match to in situ hydrodynamic and biochemical conditions. Path kinematics from digitized trajectories of free-swimming Euphausia superba examine the effects of hydrodynamic sensory cues (deformation rate) and bloom level phytoplankton patches (~1000 cells/mL, Tetraselamis spp.) on krill behavior (body orientation, swimming modes and kinematics, path fracticality). Krill morphology is finely tuned for receiving and deciphering both hydrodynamic and chemical information that is vital for basic life processes such as schooling behaviors, predator/prey, and mate interactions. Changes in individual krill behavior in response to ecologically-relevant sensory cues have the potential to produce population-scale phenomena with significant ecological implications. Krill are a vital trophic link between primary producers (phytoplankton) and larger animals (seabirds, whales, fish, penguins, seals) as well as the subjects of a valuable commercial fishery in the Southern Ocean; thus quantifying krill behavioral responses to relevant sensory cues is an important step towards accurately modeling Antarctic ecosystems.

  13. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Health and environment in Eastern Europe: an alarming diagnosis. Sante et environnement a l'Est: un diagnostic alarmant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnefoy, X.

    1993-05-01

    Life-expectancy, infant and maternal mortality rates... the distance between East and West in increasing. Among the explanations: ways of life, systems of health care, socioeconomic situations or even historical fatality. But other factors can be pointed out: polluted air, water and soil - an environment whose deterioration is reason for alarm. International organizations have the job of making a diagnosis prior to any treatment.

  15. Cueing the Virtual Storyteller: Analysis of cue phrase usage in fairy tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, Manon; Theune, Mariët; Busemann, S.

    2007-01-01

    An existing taxonomy of Dutch cue phrases, designed for use in story generation, was validated by analysing cue phrase usage in a corpus of classical fairy tales. The analysis led to some adaptations of the original taxonomy.

  16. Cue Integration With Categories: Weighting Acoustic Cues in Speech Using Unsupervised Learning and Distributional Statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toscano, Joseph C; McMurray, Bob

    2010-01-01

    .... We show that a cue-weighting metric in which cues receive weight as a function of their reliability at distinguishing phonological categories provides a good fit to the perceptual data obtained...

  17. Stress as a Normal Cue in the Symbiotic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Julia A; Ruby, Edward G

    2016-05-01

    All multicellular hosts form associations with groups of microorganisms. These microbial communities can be taxonomically diverse and dynamic, and their persistence is due to robust, and sometimes coevolved, host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Chemical and physical sources of stress are prominently situated in this molecular exchange, as cues for cellular responses in symbiotic microbes. Stress in the symbiotic environment may arise from three sources: host tissues, microbe-induced immune responses, or other microbes in the host environment. The responses of microbes to these stresses can be general or highly specialized, and collectively may contribute to the stability of the symbiotic system. In this review, we highlight recent work that emphasizes the role of stress as a cue in the symbiotic environment of plants and animals.

  18. A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

  19. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  20. Use of olfactory cues by newly metamorphosed wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) during emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Popescu, Viorel D.; Brodie, Bekka S.; Hunter, Malcom L.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile amphibians are capable of long-distance upland movements, yet cues used for orientation during upland movements are poorly understood. We used newly metamorphosed Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate: (1) the existence of innate (i.e., inherited) directionality, and (2) the use of olfactory cues, specifically forested wetland and natal pond cues during emigration. In a circular arena experiment, animals with assumed innate directionality did not orient in the expected direction (suggested by previous studies) when deprived of visual and olfactory cues. This suggests that juvenile Wood Frogs most likely rely on proximate cues for orientation. Animals reared in semi-natural conditions (1500 l cattle tanks) showed a strong avoidance of forested wetland cues in two different experimental settings, although they had not been previously exposed to such cues. This finding is contrary to known habitat use by adult Wood Frogs during summer. Juvenile Wood Frogs were indifferent to the chemical signature of natal pond (cattle tank) water. Our findings suggest that management strategies for forest amphibians should consider key habitat features that potentially influence the orientation of juveniles during emigration movements, as well as adult behavior.

  1. Geographic and Temporal Variation in Moth Chemical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike acoustic and visual communication, chemical communication cues have not been viewed in the background of a chemically noisy habitat. Species with similar chemical cues may not only directly interfere with each other's communication channels, but the presence and abundance of other species may...

  2. Cueing for freezing of gait: a need for 3-dimensional cues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Jeene, P.; Nijkrake, M.J.; Abdo, W.F.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Visual cues can ameliorate freezing of gait, an incapacitating symptom frequently seen in patients with parkinsonism. Here, we describe a patient with severe freezing of gait, who responded well to 3-dimensional cues, but not to 2-dimensional visual cues. We discuss the potential implications of

  3. Cue-switch costs in task-switching: cue priming or control processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A; Houghton, George

    2010-09-01

    In the explicitly cued task-switching paradigm, two cues per task allow separation of costs associated with switching cues from costs of switching tasks. Whilst task-switch costs have become controversial, cue-switch costs are robust. The processes that contribute to cue-switch costs are under-specified in the literature: they could reflect perceptual priming of cue properties, or priming of control processes that form relevant working memory (WM) representations of task demands. Across two experiments we manipulated cue-transparency in an attention-switching design to test the contrasting hypotheses of cue-switch costs, and show that such costs emerge from control processes of establishing relevant WM representations, rather than perceptual priming of the cue itself. When the cues were maximally transparent, cue-switch costs were eradicated. We discuss the results in terms of recent theories of cue encoding, and provide a formal definition of cue-transparency in switching designs and its relation to WM representations that guide task performance.

  4. Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Fabien; Hu, Xiao

    2013-04-01

    Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM.

  5. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  6. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Andrea Lucchi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly,Bactrocera oleae (Rossi),and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management.Augmentative releases ofP.concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success.We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues.Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship.Indeed,the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically.

  7. Male meliponine bees (Scaptotrigona aff. depilis) produce alarm pheromones to which workers respond with fight and males with flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    In highly social hymenopteran societies, males mainly serve reproductive purposes. Semiochemicals enable the different hymenopteran sexes and castes to communicate with each other and to coordinate important functions within colonies. I hereby show that sexual dimorphism in meliponine bees incorporates the alarm and defence communication system. I chemically analysed the mandibular glands of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis using GCMS methods and conducted behavioural experiments in both males and female workers using cephalic and mandibular gland extracts. In addition, behaviour studies with male cephalic extracts were also conducted in Scaptotrigona bipunctata and Partamona cupira. Males and female worker bees showed differences in the content of the mandibular glands, which are responsible for alarm communication in meliponines. Males never attacked but usually fled when confronted with the mandibular gland extract content of other conspecific males or females. Interestingly, however, meliponine males were still able to raise alarm and to induce substantial amounts of aggression at nest entrances, which is different from the much better known and studied honey bees. Potential reasons are briefly discussed.

  8. Chemical Sensory Mechanisms of Insects%昆虫的化学感觉机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄永根; 程家安

    2001-01-01

    Insects possess two kinds of chemical sensory organ,olfactoryorgan and gustatory organ,by which they can perceive chemical cues in the circumstance and subsequently make a series of corresponding behavioral responses.From perceiving chemical cues to making behavioral responses,it involves in information coding,proceeding and integration to chemical cues at various level in insect nerve system.New pest control methods will be developed with the elucidation of insect chemical sensory mechanisms.

  9. Wax On, Wax Off: Nest Soil Facilitates Indirect Transfer of Recognition Cues between Ant Nestmates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nick; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Social animals use recognition cues to discriminate between group members and non-members. These recognition cues may be conceptualized as a label, which is compared to a neural representation of acceptable cue combinations termed the template. In ants and other social insects, the label consists...... of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test...... for another mechanism of cue exchange: indirect transfer of cuticular hydrocarbons via the nest material. Using a combination of chemical analysis and behavioral experiments with Camponotus aethiops ants, we show that nest soil indirectly transfers hydrocarbons between ants and affects recognition behavior...

  10. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  11. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  12. Integration of criticality alarm system at a fuel manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinov, M.; Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element CANFLEX bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37 element fuel over 20 years ago. As the primary fuel supplier to the reactor site that has chosen to utilize this new fuel design, Zircatec has agreed to manufacture and supply this new fuel at their facility in Port Hope, Ontario. Under this agreement, Zircatec is challenged with converting a fuel manufacturing facility to include the processing of enriched uranium. The challenge is to introduce the new concept of criticality control to a facility that traditionally does not have to deal with such a concept. One of the elements of the implementation is the criticality detection and alarm system - CIDAS. Since a criticality could go undetected by human senses, one of the methods of ensuring safety from radiation exposure in the event of a criticality is the installation of a criticality incident detection and alarm system. This early warning device could be the difference between low dose exposure and lethal exposure. This paper describes the challenges that Zircatec has faced with the installation of a criticality incident detection and alarm system. These challenges include determining the needs and requirements, determining appropriate specifications, selecting the right equipment, installing the equipment and training personnel in the operation of the new equipment. (author)

  13. Children's recognition of emotions from vocal cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, D.A.; Panattoni, C.; Happé, F.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this study

  14. Dylan Pritchett, Storyteller. Cue Sheet for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen L. B.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a storytelling performance by Dylan Pritchett, this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. The cue sheet discusses where and why people tell stories, what makes a story good for telling, what makes a…

  15. Cross-Cultural Nonverbal Cue Immersive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Global Assessment Orlando, Florida, 32809 + University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida, 32816 ++ Army Research Institute...technologies incorporating mixed reality training may be used to promote social cooperative learning. 1. INTRODUCTION As a global community...communicated either consciously or unconsciously through various forms of nonverbal cues such as body posture and facial expressions. Nonverbal cues

  16. Perceived predation risk as a function of predator dietary cues in terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray; Jenkins

    1999-01-01

    Prey often avoid predator chemical cues, and in aquatic systems, prey may even appraise predation risk via cues associated with the predator's diet. However, this relationship has not been shown for terrestrial predator-prey systems, where the proximity of predators and prey, and the intensity of predator chemical cues in the environment, may be less than in aquatic systems. In the laboratory, we tested behavioural responses (avoidance, habituation and activity) of terrestrial red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, to chemical cues from garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis, fed either red-backed salamanders or earthworms (Lumbricus spp.). We placed salamanders in arenas lined with paper towels pretreated with snake chemicals, and monitored salamander movements during 120 min. Salamanders avoided substrates preconditioned by earthworm-fed (avoidanceX+/-SE=91.1+/-2.5%, N=25) and salamander-fed (95.2+/-2.5%, N=25) snakes, when tested against untreated substrate (control). Salamanders avoided cues from salamander-fed snakes more strongly (75.2+/-5.5%, N=25) than earthworm-fed snakes when subjected to both treatments simultaneously, implying that salamanders were sensitive to predator diet. Salamanders tended to avoid snake substrate more strongly during the last 60 min of a trial, but activity patterns were similar between salamanders exposed exclusively to control substrate versus those subject to snake cues. In another experiment, salamanders failed to avoid cues from dead conspecifics, suggesting that the stronger avoidance of salamander-fed snakes in the previous experiment was not directly due to chemical cues emitted by predator-killed salamanders. Salamanders also did not discriminate between cues from a salamander-fed snake versus a salamander-fed snake that was recently switched (i.e. <14 days) to an earthworm diet. Our results imply that terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to perceived predation risk via by-products of predator diet, and that snake

  17. Reverse-engineering a detector with false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott; Yu, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Inspired by results from the Break Our Watermarking System (BOWS) contest, we explored techniques to reverse-engineer watermarking algorithms via oracle attacks. We exploit a principle called "superrobustness," which allows a watermarking algorithm to be characterized by its resistance to specific distortions. The generic application of this principle to an oracle attack seeks to find a severe false alarm, or a point on the watermark detection region as far as possible from the watermarked image. For specific types of detection regions, these severe false positives can leak information about the feature space as well as detector parameters. We explore the specific case of detectors using normalized correlation, or correlation coefficient.

  18. Detecting outliers in multivariate data while controlling false alarm rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Achim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlier identification often implies inspecting each z-transformed variable and adding a Mahalanobis D^2. Multiple outliers may mask each other by increasing variance estimates. Caroni and Prescott (1992 proposed a multivariate extension of Rosner’s (1983 technique to circumvent masking, taking sample size into account to keep the false alarm risk below, say, alpha = .05. Simulations studies here compare the single multivariate approach to "multiple-univariate plus multivariate" tests, each at a Bonferroni corrected alpha level, in terms of power at detecting outliers. Results suggest the former is better only up to about 12 variables. Macros in an Excel spreadsheet implement these techniques.

  19. Kin-informative recognition cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E F; Santorelli, Lorenzo A

    2011-01-01

    behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation--social insect colonies--because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have...... found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical...... prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential...

  20. Behavioural implications of alarm mistrust as a function of task workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J P; Dunn, M C

    2000-09-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing primary task and alarm workload on alarm mistrust as reflected by alarm and primary task performances. A total of 126 undergraduate students performed a complex psychomotor task battery three times, with the number of concurrent tasks increasing each time. During their performance, the students were required to react to an alarm system (including visual and auditory components) of questionable reliability. Depending on the group to which participants were assigned, the alarm presentation rate constituted a low-, medium- or high-workload condition. Alarm response data (times, frequencies, accuracies) and primary task data (tracking error) were analyzed to assess performance differences as a function of primary and secondary task workload levels. Results generally supported the hypotheses: increasing primary task and alarm task workload degraded alarm response performance. Also, response frequencies supported earlier research suggesting that participants 'probability match' their response rates to alarm system reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the cry-wolf effect, attention theory and alarm system design.

  1. Signal Quality Analysis of Ambulatory Electrocardiograms to Gate False Myocardial Ischemia Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Mohamed; Quesnel, Patrick X; Chan, Adrian D C; Yang, Homer

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to propose and validate an alarm gating system for a myocardial ischemia monitoring system that uses ambulatory electrocardiogram. The PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation study recommended the selective administration of β blockers to patients at risk of cardiac events following noncardiac surgery. Patients at risk are identified by monitoring ST segment deviations in the electrocardiogram (ECG); however, patients are encouraged to ambulate to improve recovery, which deteriorates the signal quality of the ECG leading to false alarms. The proposed alarm gating system computes a signal quality index (SQI) to quantify the ECG signal quality and rejects alarms with a low SQI. The system was validated by artificially contaminating ECG records with motion artifact records obtained from the long-term ST database and MIT-BIH noise stress test database, respectively. Without alarm gating, the myocardial ischemia monitoring system attained a Precision of 0.31 and a Recall of 0.78. The alarm gating improved the Precision to 0.58 with a reduction of Recall to 0.77. The proposed system successfully gated false alarms with future work exploring the misidentification of fiducial points by myocardial ischemia monitoring systems. The reduction of false alarms due to the proposed system will decrease the incidence of the alarm fatigue condition typically found in clinicians. Alarm fatigue condition was rated as the top patient safety hazard from 2012 to 2015 by the Emergency Care Research Institute.

  2. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Yuval; O'Connor, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU). Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia), were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  3. A NEW INVENTION OF ALARM REMINDER LOCKING (ARL SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.M. Effendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm Reminder Locking (ARL Security System mainly focuses on a door security system, which can install in the door area to increase the security level for home, office room, hostel or other places. This system used Arduino Controller and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM technology, which is the cheapest source to embed the security system to transmit the Short Message Service (SMS alert data. This device integrates three functions that are alarming, reminder and locked for a purpose of safety and connecting via mobile phone to remind the users through SMS. This device has a 3 modes of operation which is the system will be functional when the door is not improperly closed for the first reminder with the buzzer alert. The second mode is automated locked will be activated when users closed the door, but did not lock manually. Intrusion mode will activate while auto locked modes are interrupted without proper access. All this integrated system will provide high security access against intrusion occurrence. This security device will bring a new benefit to the user to consider about the userfriendly application, low power consumption and reasonable cost to install.

  4. The Extracellular Environment's Effect on Cellular Processes: An In Vitro Study of Mechanical and Chemical Cues on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and C17.2 Neural Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Meghan E.

    Stem cells are widely used in the area of tissue engineering. The ability of cells to interact with materials on the nano- and micro- level is important in the success of the biomaterial. It is well-known that cells respond to their micro- and nano-environments through a process termed chemo-mechanotransduction. It is important to establish standard protocols for cellular experiments, as chemical modifications to maintenance environments can alter long-term research results. In this work, the effects of different media compositions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) throughout normal in vitro maintenance are investigated. Changes in RNA regulation, protein expression and proliferation are studied via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunocytochemistry (ICC) and cell counts, respectively. Morphological differences are also observed throughout the experiment. Results of this study illustrate the dynamic response of hMSC maintenance to differences in growth medium and passage number. These experiments highlight the effect growth medium has on in vitro experiments and the need of consistent protocols in hMSC research. A substantial opportunity exists in neuronal research to develop a material platform that allows for both the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells into neurons and the ability to quantify the secretome of neuronal cells. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are fabricated in a two-step anodization procedure where voltage is varied to control the pore size and morphology of the membranes. C17.2 neural stem cells are differentiated on the membranes via serum-withdrawal. Cellular growth is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ICC and qPCR. ImageJ software is used to obtain phenotypic cell counts and neurite outgrowth lengths. Results indicate a highly tunable correlation between AAO nanopore sizes and differentiated cell populations. By selecting AAO membranes with specific pore size ranges, control of neuronal

  5. Action experience changes attention to kinematic cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney eFilippi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-month-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue. To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first x 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue between-subjects design. We show that 13-month-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics.

  6. Cue-Specific Reactivity in Experienced Gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether gambling cue reactivity is cue-specific, 47 scratch-off lottery players and 47 horse race gamblers were presented with video clips of their preferred and non-preferred modes of gambling, and two control stimuli including an exciting car race and a mental stressor task while heart rates, excitement, and urge to gamble were being measured. Heart rates for both groups of gamblers were highest to the mental stressor and did not differ in response to the other three cues. Excite...

  7. Development of Alarm System link Drawing for Operation Support for APR1400 Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.

  8. False alarm rates of three third-generation pulse oximeters in PACU, ICU and IABP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Norbert O; Urankar, Sabine; Kroeber, Steffi

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to determine alarm rates--in particular the frequency of false positive alarms--of three third-generation pulse oximeters in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), the intensive care unit (ICU), and in patients with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP): Nellcor Symphony N-3000, a Masimo IVY 2000, and Agilent Viridia CMS 2000. All alarms were classified into technical/physiological and false/correct. 235 consecutive ASA physical status I-IV patients after surgery were included into the study. In the PACU false positive alarms were rare: CMS n = 60, N-3000 n = 60, Masimo n = 87. Bland-Altman testing discovered only negligible differences of alarm rates and dropout times. Out of a total of 728 alarms 67.3% were classified as false positive in ICU-patients: 97 alarms by CMS, 176 by N-3000 and 218 by Masimo SET. If IABP was present, CMS indicated a significant smaller number of false positive alarms (n = 35, 7.2%) when compared to Masimo SET (n = 188, 38.9%) and N-3000 (n = 229, 47.4%), consecutively the majority of false positive alarms (76.2%) can be rated as a result of the interference of IABP. Unless IABP (and to a considerably smaller extent cardiac arrhythmia) is present the pulse oximeters do not differ significantly regarding sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Study on the principle of intelligent helmet's electric alarm device in transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehao; Peng, Lin; Bao, Xingchuan; Zhu, Liang; Wang, He; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    This thesis made study on the Principle of Intelligent Helmet's Electric Alarm Device in Transmission Line. Based on the simulation analysis of the electric field strength and electric field characteristics of three-phase 10kV transmission line, this thesis put forward the calculation method of the electric alarm distance by developing a calculation model, and then explains proof of the accuracy of intelligent helmet's electric alarm and discusses its theoretical basis. At last, the theoretical analysis' correctness and the measurement's accuracy of the intelligent helmet's electric alarm device is proved by tests.

  10. A novel algorithm for reducing false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Chandan; Sharma, Sonal; Jalali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Alarm fatigue in intensive care units (ICU) is one of the top healthcare issues in the US. False alarms in ICU will decrease the quality of care and staff response time over the alarms. Normally, false alarm will cause desensitization of the clinical staff which leads to warnings and misleading, if the triggered alarm is true. In this study, we have proposed a multi-model ensemble approach to reduce the false alarm rate in monitoring systems. We have used 750 patient records from PhysioNet database. At First arrhythmia based features from electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) features were extracted from the records. Next, the dataset has been separated into two subsets on the basis of available features information. The first dataset (DS1) is the combination of ECG physiological, ABP and PPG features. Their correlation coefficient and p-values criteria have been applied for relevant alarm-wise feature-set selection, and random forest classifier was used for model development and validation. The threshold based approach was used on second dataset (DS2) which is the combination of arrhythmia, ABP and PPG features. The developed ensemble model is able to achieve sensitivity 83.33-100 % (average 95.56 %) being true alarms and suppress false alarms rate 66.67-89% (average 77.25%). The predictability of classifier shows the advantage to deal with unbalanced set of information, therefore overall model performance has reached to 83.96% accuracy.

  11. Predictive combinations of monitor alarms preceding in-hospital code blue events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Sapo, Monica; Nenov, Val; Barry, Tod; Kim, Sunghan; Do, Duc H; Boyle, Noel; Martin, Neil

    2012-10-01

    Bedside monitors are ubiquitous in acute care units of modern healthcare enterprises. However, they have been criticized for generating an excessive number of false positive alarms causing alarm fatigue among care givers and potentially compromising patient safety. We hypothesize that combinations of regular monitor alarms denoted as SuperAlarm set may be more indicative of ongoing patient deteriorations and hence predictive of in-hospital code blue events. The present work develops and assesses an alarm mining approach based on finding frequent combinations of single alarms that are also specific to code blue events to compose a SuperAlarm set. We use 4-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate the influence of four algorithm parameters on the performance of the data mining approach. The results are obtained from millions of monitor alarms from a cohort of 223 adult code blue and 1768 control patients using a multiple 10-fold cross-validation experiment setup. Using the optimal setting of parameters determined in the cross-validation experiment, final SuperAlarm sets are mined from the training data and used on an independent test data set to simulate running a SuperAlarm set against live regular monitor alarms. The ANOVA shows that the content of a SuperAlarm set is influenced by a subset of key algorithm parameters. Simulation of the extracted SuperAlarm set shows that it can predict code blue events one hour ahead with sensitivity between 66.7% and 90.9% while producing false SuperAlarms for control patients that account for between 2.2% and 11.2% of regular monitor alarms depending on user-supplied acceptable false positive rate. We conclude that even though the present work is still preliminary due to the usage of a moderately-sized database to test our hypothesis it represents an effort to develop algorithms to alleviate the alarm fatigue issue in a unique way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-parameter vital sign database to assist in alarm optimization for general care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James; Kanter, Benjamin; Skora, Brooke; McCombie, Scott; Henry, Isaac; McCombie, Devin; Kennedy, Rosemary; Soller, Babs

    2016-12-01

    Continual vital sign assessment on the general care, medical-surgical floor is expected to provide early indication of patient deterioration and increase the effectiveness of rapid response teams. However, there is concern that continual, multi-parameter vital sign monitoring will produce alarm fatigue. The objective of this study was the development of a methodology to help care teams optimize alarm settings. An on-body wireless monitoring system was used to continually assess heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO2 and noninvasive blood pressure in the general ward of ten hospitals between April 1, 2014 and January 19, 2015. These data, 94,575 h for 3430 patients are contained in a large database, accessible with cloud computing tools. Simulation scenarios assessed the total alarm rate as a function of threshold and annunciation delay (s). The total alarm rate of ten alarms/patient/day predicted from the cloud-hosted database was the same as the total alarm rate for a 10 day evaluation (1550 h for 36 patients) in an independent hospital. Plots of vital sign distributions in the cloud-hosted database were similar to other large databases published by different authors. The cloud-hosted database can be used to run simulations for various alarm thresholds and annunciation delays to predict the total alarm burden experienced by nursing staff. This methodology might, in the future, be used to help reduce alarm fatigue without sacrificing the ability to continually monitor all vital signs.

  13. Clinical Trial of an Educational Program to Decrease Monitor Alarms in a Medical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Arian; Collins-Brown, Sandra; Kirkland, Jasmine; Knapp, Meghan; Pressley, Jackie; Higgins, Melinda; McMurtry, James P

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research to identify effective interventions for decreasing nonactionable alarms has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a staff educational program on customizing alarm settings on bedside monitors decreased alarms in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A preintervention, postintervention, nonequivalent group design was used to evaluate an educational program on alarm management in a convenience sample of MICU nurses. A 15-minute session was provided in a 1-week period. The outcome variable (number of alarms for low oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry [SpO2]) was determined from monitor log files adjusted by patient census. Data were collected for 15 days before and after the intervention. χ(2) analysis was used, with P less than .05 considered significant. After 1 week of education, low SpO2 alarms decreased from 502 to 306 alarms per patient monitored per day, a 39% reduction (P alarm settings to patients' clinical condition decreased common monitor alarms by 39%. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Non-specific alarm calls trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaiqing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Jiang

    2016-09-30

    Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0.078 ± 0.014 s and 0.154 ± 0.041 s at frequency ranges of 520-1000 Hz and 690-3920 Hz, respectively. Alarming call duration was positively associated with group size. The alarm calls can trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons; this is a defense way of social animals, and first report among the primates' species. The system of vocal alarm behavior described in this critically endangered species is simple and effective.

  15. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  16. Physiologic monitoring alarm load on medical/surgical floors of a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Brian; Dahl, Deborah; Nielsen, Larry

    2011-01-01

    It has been known to the public that high frequency of false and/or unnecessary alarms from patient monitoring devices causes "alarm fatigue" in critical care. But little is known about the impact to care on the less acute patients located outside the critical care areas, such as the traditional medical/surgical (med/surg) floor. As part of a larger population management study, we initiated continuous physiological monitoring to 79 beds of floor patients in a community hospital. In order to qualify the patient monitoring alarm load for subacute medical and surgical floor patients, we assessed alarm data from April 2009 to January 2010. A standard critical care monitoring system (Philips IntelliVue MP-5 and Telemetry) was installed and set to the default alarm limits. All waveform data available for the patient (typically ECG, RESP, PPG at 125hz 8 bit), all alarm conditions declared by the monitoring system, and 1 minute parameter trend data were saved to disk every 8 hours for all patients. A monitoring care protocol was created to determine whether the patient was monitored via the hardwired bedside or wirelessly via telemetry. Alarms were not announced on the care unit but instead notifications were the responsibility of remote telehealth center personnel. We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of alarms over specific physiologic thresholds (n= 4104 patients) and conducted adjudication of all alarms based on a smaller sampling (n=30 patients). For all patients, the average hours of monitoring per patient were 16.5 hours with a standard deviation (s) of 8.3 hours and a median of 22 hours. The average number of alarms (all severities) per patient was 69.7 (s =90.3, median =28) alarms. When this is adjusted to the duration of monitoring, the average per patient, per day rate was 95.6 (s =124.2, median =34.2) alarms. The adjudicated sample (n=30 patients) resulted in 34% of critical alarms (lethal arrhythmias, extreme high or low heart rate [HR], extreme

  17. Chemosensory responses to chemical and visual stimuli in five species of colubrid snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Saviola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakes utilize chemical and visual stimuli during predation, however the emphasis on these cues and which cues are used to initiate predation varies among species. For example, rattlesnakes using the ambush strategy rely on chemical cues to locate an ambush station, then visual and thermal cues to initiate envenomating strikes, then chemical cues again to track prey. By contrast, many natricine snakes use chemical cues to initiate predation, increasing the rate of tongue flicking regardless of whether visual cues are present. The present study examined the individual and interactive effects of chemical and visual stimuli of prey on the predatory behavior of five snake taxa representing three feeding guilds. Bull snakes (Pituophis catenifer, Eastern Corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus, and Midland Rat snakes (Scotophis spiloides have a diet primarily consisting of mammals; Western Fox snakes (Mintonius vulpina prey primarily on bird eggs; and Common Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula prey equally on mammals and reptiles. Three patterns of response to chemical and visual stimuli of the test prey (Mus musculus were observed. Mammal specialists responded to chemical cues. Fox snakes responded to visual cues, but not to chemical cues. Kingsnakes exhibited increased rates of tongue flicking in response to both chemical and visual stimuli. This study suggests correlations between the evolution of prey preference, foraging ecology and the utilization of chemical or visual stimuli by snakes.

  18. 简述可燃气体报警器的检测和应用%Detection and Application of Combustible Gas Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珂; 黄武; 夏一峰

    2012-01-01

    可燃气体报警器广泛应用于油库、燃气、化工、石油等存在可燃气体的行业,由报警仪与探测器组成,用于检测室内外危险场所的泄露情况,是保证人身安全和安全生产不可或缺的仪器.本文首先介绍了可燃气体报警器的分类及检测对象和可燃气体报警系统,然后详细分析了可燃气体报警器的检测和应用,为进一步研究提供依据.%The combustible gas detector is widely used in oil, gas, chemical and oil industries, and it is composed by the alarm and detector. It is used to detect leaks of inside and outside the hazardous area and is indispensable equipment to ensure personal safety and safety. This article first describes the classification and detection object of combustible gas alarm and alarm system for combustible gases, and makes a detailed analysis of the detection and application of combustible gas alarm, providing the basis for further study.

  19. Sensory cues employed for the acquisition of familiarity-dependent recognition of a shoal of conspecifics by climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, V V; Kasturirangan, Rajesh; Sinha, Anindya

    2015-06-01

    In this study we showed that a freshwater fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is incapable of using chemical communication but employs visual cues to acquire familiarity and distinguish a familiar group of conspecifics from an unfamiliar one. Moreover, the isolation of olfactory signals from visual cues did not affect the recognition and preference for a familiar shoal in this species.

  20. Sensory cues employed for the acquisition of familiarity-dependent recognition of a shoal of conspecifics by climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VV Binoy; Rajesh Kasturirangan; Anindya Sinha

    2015-06-01

    In this study we showed that a freshwater fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is incapable of using chemical communication but employs visual cues to acquire familiarity and distinguish a familiar group of conspecifics from an unfamiliar one. Moreover, the isolation of olfactory signals from visual cues did not affect the recognition and preference for a familiar shoal in this species.

  1. Expected Detection and False Alarm Rates for Transiting Jovian Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, T M

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based searches for transiting Jupiter-sized planets have so far produced few detections of planets, but many of stellar systems with eclipse depths, durations, and orbital periods that resemble those expected from planets. I show that these detection rates are consistent with our present knowledge of binary and multiple-star systems, and of Jovian-mass extrasolar planets. Upcoming space-based searches for transiting Earth-sized planets will be largely unaffected by the sources of false alarms that afflict current ground-based searches, with one exception, namely distant eclipsing binaries whose light is strongly diluted by that of a foreground star. A byproduct of the rate estimation is evidence that the period distribution of extrasolar planets is depressed for periods between 5 and 200 days.

  2. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James L [San Ramon, CA; Lawson, Janice K [Tracy, CA; Aimonetti, William D [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  3. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  4. Development of semiconductor radiation sensors for portable alarm-dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Moon, B. S.; Chung, C. E.; Hong, S. B.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Han, S. H.; Lee, W. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    We studied Semiconductor Radiation Sensors for Portable Alarm-Dosimeter. We calculated response functions for gamma energy 0.021, 0.122, 0.662, 0.835, 1.2 MeV using EGS4 codes. When we measured at various distance from source to detector, the detection efficiency of Si semiconductor detector was better than that of GM tube. The linear absorption coefficients of steel and aluminum plate were measured. These experimental results of the response of detector for intensity of radiation field coincide to the theoretical expectation. The count value of Si detector was changed with changing thickness of steel as changing threshold voltage of discriminator, and the linear absorption coefficient increased with increasing threshold voltage. Radiation detection efficiency shows difference at each threshold voltage condition. This results coincided to the theoretical simulation. 33 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  5. A new fire alarm system for electrical installations

    CERN Document Server

    Pietersen, A H

    1978-01-01

    Fires in electrical installations are considered to develop in four phases - initiation, smouldering, flame formation and heat development. Cables are among the more sensitive components, with working temperatures around 50 degrees C and fire detection at 70 degrees C. Conventional alarms include smoke detectors. The new technique described uses microcapsules containing powder forming a gas of the Freon type after diffusion. A typical microcapsule loses 4% per year and has a natural life of 10 years. Fabrication methods are described. Detection is by gas concentration, with a sensitivity of 1 to 10 ppm, or by acoustic methods with microphones to pick up the sound of fractures. Pressure/temperature characteristics of various types of Freon mixtures commercially available are given in graphical form.

  6. Soft real-time alarm messages for ATLAS TDAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlea, G.; Al Shabibi, A.; Martin, B.; Lehmann Miotto, G.

    2010-05-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ network consists of three separate Ethernet-based networks (Data, Control and Management) with over 2000 end-nodes. The TDAQ system has to be aware of the meaningful network failures and events in order for it to take effective recovery actions. The first stage of the process is implemented with Spectrum, a commercial network management tool. Spectrum detects and registers all network events, then it publishes the information via a CORBA programming interface. A gateway program (called NSG—Network Service Gateway) connects to Spectrum through CORBA and exposes to its clients a Java RMI interface. This interface implements a callback mechanism that allows the clients to subscribe for monitoring "interesting" parts of the network. The last stage of the TDAQ network monitoring tool is implemented in a module named DNC (DAQ to Network Connection), which filters the events that are to be reported to the TDAQ system: it subscribes to the gateway only for the machines that are currently active in the system and it forwards only the alarms that are considered important for the current TDAQ data taking session. The network information is then synthesized and presented in a human-readable format. These messages can be further processed either by the shifter who is in charge, the network expert or the Online Expert System. This article aims to describe the different mechanisms of the chain that transports the network events to the front-end user, as well as the constraints and rules that govern the filtering and the final format of the alarm messages.

  7. Soft real-time alarm messages for ATLAS TDAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darlea, G., E-mail: georgiana.lavinia.darlea@cern.c [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Al Shabibi, A.; Martin, B.; Lehmann Miotto, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-05-21

    The ATLAS TDAQ network consists of three separate Ethernet-based networks (Data, Control and Management) with over 2000 end-nodes. The TDAQ system has to be aware of the meaningful network failures and events in order for it to take effective recovery actions. The first stage of the process is implemented with Spectrum, a commercial network management tool. Spectrum detects and registers all network events, then it publishes the information via a CORBA programming interface. A gateway program (called NSG-Network Service Gateway) connects to Spectrum through CORBA and exposes to its clients a Java RMI interface. This interface implements a callback mechanism that allows the clients to subscribe for monitoring 'interesting' parts of the network. The last stage of the TDAQ network monitoring tool is implemented in a module named DNC (DAQ to Network Connection), which filters the events that are to be reported to the TDAQ system: it subscribes to the gateway only for the machines that are currently active in the system and it forwards only the alarms that are considered important for the current TDAQ data taking session. The network information is then synthesized and presented in a human-readable format. These messages can be further processed either by the shifter who is in charge, the network expert or the Online Expert System. This article aims to describe the different mechanisms of the chain that transports the network events to the front-end user, as well as the constraints and rules that govern the filtering and the final format of the alarm messages.

  8. Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation elicited by subliminal drug cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly A; Franklin, Teresa R; Roberts, David C S; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J; Wetherill, Reagan R; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose

    2014-04-02

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals-could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing-that which occurs outside of awareness-before it evolves into a less manageable state.

  9. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.

  10. Perception of health from facial cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Audrey J.; Holzleitner, Iris J.; Talamas, Sean N.

    2016-01-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  11. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  12. Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS, we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

  13. Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbes, Lara; Mescher, Mark; Vrancken, Véronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, François J; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS), we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

  14. Smelling wrong: hormonal contraception in lemurs alters critical female odour cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Boulet, Marylène; Drea, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Animals, including humans, use olfaction to assess potential social and sexual partners. Although hormones modulate olfactory cues, we know little about whether contraception affects semiochemical signals and, ultimately, mate choice. We examined the effects of a common contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on the olfactory cues of female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and the behavioural response these cues generated in male conspecifics. The genital odorants of contracepted females were dramatically altered, falling well outside the range of normal female variation: MPA decreased the richness and modified the relative abundances of volatile chemicals expressed in labial secretions. Comparisons between treatment groups revealed several indicator compounds that could reliably signal female reproductive status to conspecifics. MPA also changed a female's individual chemical ‘signature’, while minimizing her chemical distinctiveness relative to other contracepted females. Most remarkably, MPA degraded the chemical patterns that encode honest information about genetic constitution, including individual diversity (heterozygosity) and pairwise relatedness to conspecifics. Lastly, males preferentially investigated the odorants of intact over contracepted females, clearly distinguishing those with immediate reproductive potential. By altering the olfactory cues that signal fertility, individuality, genetic quality and relatedness, contraceptives may disrupt intraspecific interactions in primates, including those relevant to kin recognition and mate choice. PMID:20667870

  15. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  16. Cross-modal cueing in audiovisual spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Greenlee, Mark W.; Gondan, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    effects have been reported for endogenous visual cues while exogenous cues seem to be mostly ineffective. In three experiments, we investigated cueing effects on the processing of audiovisual signals. In Experiment 1 we used endogenous cues to investigate their effect on the detection of auditory, visual......Visual processing is most effective at the location of our attentional focus. It has long been known that various spatial cues can direct visuospatial attention and influence the detection of auditory targets. Cross-modal cueing, however, seems to depend on the type of the visual cue: facilitation...... the possibility that cue-target contingencies were responsible for the difference between Experiment 1 and 2. In all experiments we investigated if a response time model can explain the data and tested whether the observed cueing effects were modality-dependent. The results observed with endogenous cues imply...

  17. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henritte A.; Nijman, Ruud G.; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. Aim To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Design and setting Observatio

  18. Design for safety: A new service for alarming and informing the population in case of emergency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    In case of emergencies the population in danger should be alarmed so individuals can take action to get or remain out of danger. For alarming the population the means available are limited. Many countries have outdoor sirens. They operability however is limited since the siren has only one implicit

  19. Ontogeny of Alarm pheromone production in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarm pheromones are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality in social insects. Recently, we identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We continued...

  20. A Computational Pipeline to Improve Clinical Alarms Using a Parallel Computing Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew V.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians, nurses, and other clinical staff rely on alarms from various bedside monitors and sensors to alert when there is a change in the patient's clinical status, typically when urgent intervention is necessary. These alarms are usually embedded directly within the sensor or monitor and lacks the context of the patient's medical history and…

  1. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  2. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  3. Behavioural responses of feral and domestic guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to predators and their cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, William T; Cabrera-Álvarez, María J; Reader, Simon M

    2015-09-01

    Predation is an important factor during adaptation to novel environments, and the feralisation of introduced domestic species often involves responding appropriately to allopatric predators despite a background of domestication and inbreeding. Twenty years ago, domestic guppies were introduced to a semi-natural environment at Burgers' Zoo in the Netherlands, where they have since been exposed to avian predation. We compared predation-linked behaviours in this feral population and in domestic guppies akin to the original founders. We found that both populations responded to a novel predator and to conspecific alarm cues. However, shoaling, an important anti-predator behaviour, was higher among feral guppies both at baseline and when exposed to the novel predator. We did not observe a linked suite of anti-predator behaviours across shoaling, predator inspection, alarm substance sensitivity and boldness, suggesting that these responses may be decoupled from one another depending on local predation regimes. As we compared two populations, we cannot identify the causal factors determining population differences, however, our results do suggest that shoaling is either a particularly consequential anti-predator adaptation or the most labile of the behaviours we tested. Finally, the behavioural adaptability of domestic guppies may help to explain their success as an invasive species.

  4. ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for.

  5. Systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to promote smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, C; Higgins, J P

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of promotion of residential smoke alarms. Electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies were systematically searched, and investigators and organisations were contacted, in order to identify controlled trials evaluating interventions designed to promote residential smoke alarms. The following were assessed: smoke alarm acquisition, ownership, and function; fires; burns; and fire related injuries. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by meta analysis of randomised trials. A total of 26 trials were identified, of which 13 were randomised. Overall, counselling and educational interventions had only a modest effect on the likelihood of owning an alarm (OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87 to 1.81) or having a functional alarm (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.66). Counselling as part of primary care child health surveillance had greater effects on ownership (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.58) and function (OR = 1. 72; 95% CI: 0.78 to 3.78). Results were sensitive to trial quality, however, and effects on fire related injuries were not reported. In two non-randomised trials, direct provision of free alarms significantly increased functioning alarms and reduced fire related injuries. Media and community education showed little benefit in non-randomised trials. Counselling as part of child health surveillance may increase smoke alarm ownership and function, but its effects on injuries are unevaluated. Community smoke alarm give away programmes apparently reduce fire related injuries, but these trials were not randomised and results must be interpreted cautiously. Further efforts to promote smoke alarms in primary care or through give away programmes should be evaluated by adequately designed randomised controlled trials measuring injury outcomes.

  6. Differences in alarm events between disposable and reusable electrocardiography lead wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Murray, Terri; Bena, James F; Slifcak, Ellen; Roach, Joel D; Spence, Jackie; Burkle, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Disposable electrocardiographic lead wires (ECG-LWs) may not be as durable as reusable ones. To examine differences in alarm events between disposable and reusable ECG-LWs. Two cardiac telemetry units were randomized to reusable ECG-LWs, and 2 units alternated between disposable and reusable ECG-LWs for 4 months. A remote monitoring team, blinded to ECG-LW type, assessed frequency and type of alarm events by using total counts and rates per 100 patient days. Event rates were compared by using generalized linear mixed-effect models for differences and noninferiority between wire types. In 1611 patients and 9385.5 patient days of ECG monitoring, patient characteristics were similar between groups. Rates of alarms for no telemetry, leads fail, or leads off were lower in disposable ECG-LWs (adjusted relative risk [95% CI], 0.71 [0.53-0.96]; noninferiority P monitoring (artifact) alarms were significantly noninferior (adjusted relative risk [95% CI]: 0.88, [0.62-1.24], P = .02; superiority P = .44). No between-group differences existed in false or true crisis alarms. Disposable ECG-LWs were noninferior to reusable ECG-LWs for all false-alarm events (N [rate per 100 patient days], disposable 2029 [79.1] vs reusable 6673 [97.9]; adjusted relative risk [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.63-1.06], P = .002; superiority P = .12.) Disposable ECG-LWs with patented push-button design had superior performance in reducing alarms created by no telemetry, leads fail, or leads off and significant noninferiority in all false-alarm rates compared with reusable ECG-LWs. Fewer ECG alarms may save nurses time, decrease alarm fatigue, and improve patient safety. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Cuticular hydrocarbons as potential kin recognition cues in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Bilde, Trine; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    In animal societies, recognition of group members and relatives is an important trait for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior. In eusocial insects, nest mate recognition is based on cuticular hydrocarbons and allows colony members to reject competitors and parasites. The study...... cuticular hydrocarbons candidates for kin recognition cues. Our behavioral assays indicate that spiderlings can discriminate between cuticular cues from kin and nonkin: In a choice set-up, spiderlings more often chose to reside near cuticular chemical extracts of siblings compared with nonsiblings...

  8. Deciphering faces: quantifiable visual cues to weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Vinet; Chen, Jingying; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    Body weight plays a crucial role in mate choice, as weight is related to both attractiveness and health. People are quite accurate at judging weight in faces, but the cues used to make these judgments have not been defined. This study consisted of two parts. First, we wanted to identify quantifiable facial cues that are related to body weight, as defined by body mass index (BMI). Second, we wanted to test whether people use these cues to judge weight. In study 1, we recruited two groups of Caucasian and two groups of African participants, determined their BMI and measured their 2-D facial images for: width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio. All three measures were significantly related to BMI in males, while the width-to-height and cheek-to-jaw-width ratios were significantly related to BMI in females. In study 2, these images were rated for perceived weight by Caucasian observers. We showed that these observers use all three cues to judge weight in African and Caucasian faces of both sexes. These three facial cues, width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio, are therefore not only related to actual weight but provide a basis for perceptual attributes as well.

  9. Enhancing Manual Scan Registration Using Audio Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsoko, T.; Sithole, G.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor mapping and modelling requires that acquired data be processed by editing, fusing, formatting the data, amongst other operations. Currently the manual interaction the user has with the point cloud (data) while processing it is visual. Visual interaction does have limitations, however. One way of dealing with these limitations is to augment audio in point cloud processing. Audio augmentation entails associating points of interest in the point cloud with audio objects. In coarse scan registration, reverberation, intensity and frequency audio cues were exploited to help the user estimate depth and occupancy of space of points of interest. Depth estimations were made reliably well when intensity and frequency were both used as depth cues. Coarse changes of depth could be estimated in this manner. The depth between surfaces can therefore be estimated with the aid of the audio objects. Sound reflections of an audio object provided reliable information of the object surroundings in some instances. For a point/area of interest in the point cloud, these reflections can be used to determine the unseen events around that point/area of interest. Other processing techniques could benefit from this while other information is estimated using other audio cues like binaural cues and Head Related Transfer Functions. These other cues could be used in position estimations of audio objects to aid in problems such as indoor navigation problems.

  10. Word segmentation with universal prosodic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Hauser, Marc D

    2010-09-01

    When listening to speech from one's native language, words seem to be well separated from one another, like beads on a string. When listening to a foreign language, in contrast, words seem almost impossible to extract, as if there was only one bead on the same string. This contrast reveals that there are language-specific cues to segmentation. The puzzle, however, is that infants must be endowed with a language-independent mechanism for segmentation, as they ultimately solve the segmentation problem for any native language. Here, we approach the acquisition problem by asking whether there are language-independent cues to segmentation that might be available to even adult learners who have already acquired a native language. We show that adult learners recognize words in connected speech when only prosodic cues to word-boundaries are given from languages unfamiliar to the participants. In both artificial and natural speech, adult English speakers, with no prior exposure to the test languages, readily recognized words in natural languages with critically different prosodic patterns, including French, Turkish and Hungarian. We suggest that, even though languages differ in their sound structures, they carry universal prosodic characteristics. Further, these language-invariant prosodic cues provide a universally accessible mechanism for finding words in connected speech. These cues may enable infants to start acquiring words in any language even before they are fine-tuned to the sound structure of their native language.

  11. Hormone replacement therapy: real concerns and false alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluming, Avrum Z; Tavris, Carol

    2009-01-01

    From 2002 to 2008, reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) claimed that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) significantly increased the risks of breast cancer development, cardiac events, Alzheimer disease, and stroke. These claims alarmed the public and health professionals alike, causing an almost immediate and sharp decline in the numbers of women receiving HRT. However, the actual data in the published WHI articles reveal that the findings reported in press releases and interviews of the principal investigators were often distorted, oversimplified, or wrong. This review highlights the history of research on HRT, including a timeline of studies that have or have not found a link between HRT and breast cancer; discusses how to distinguish important, robust findings from those that are trivial; closely examines the WHI findings on HRT and breast cancer, most of which are weak or statistically insignificant; reviews the current thinking about possible links of HRT with cardiovascular disease and cognitive functioning; and reports research on the benefits of HRT, notably relief of menopausal symptoms, that affect a woman's quality of life. On these complicated matters, physicians and the public must be cautious about accepting "findings by press release" in determining whether to prescribe or take HRT.

  12. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z. A.; Kwasniok, F.; Boulton, C. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; Turney, C. S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Palaeo-records from China demonstrate that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesized that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem δ18O records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China, spanning the penultimate glacial cycle. We find that although there are increases in both autocorrelation and variance preceding some of the monsoon transitions during this period, it is only immediately prior to the abrupt monsoon shift at the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) that statistically significant increases are detected. To supplement our data analysis, we produce and analyse multiple model simulations that we derive from these data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. However, signals of critical slowing down, which occur on the approach to a bifurcation, are only detectable in the model simulations when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the data set. This raises the possibility that the early warning "alarms" were missed in the speleothem data over the period 224-150 kyr and it was only at the monsoon termination that the change in the system stability was sufficiently slow to detect early warning signals.

  13. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Palaeo-records from China (Cheng et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2008, 2001 demonstrate the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesised that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them (Schewe et al., 2012. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China (Wang et al., 2008, 2001, spanning the penultimate glacial cycle, and in multiple model simulations derived from the data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. We detect critical slowing down prior to an abrupt monsoon shift during the penultimate deglaciation consistent with long-term orbital forcing. However, such signals are only detectable when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the dataset, raising the possibility that the alarm was missed and a similar forcing drove earlier EASM shifts.

  14. “Turn It Off!”: Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  15. Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, S D; Zeilhofer, S; Blüthgen, N; Schmitt, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Insects largely rely on olfactory cues when seeking and judging information on nests, partners, or resources. Bees are known to use volatile compounds-besides visual cues-to find flowers suitable for pollen and nectar collection. Tropical stingless bees additionally collect large amounts of plant resins for nest construction, nest maintenance, nest defense, and to derive chemical constituents for their cuticular profiles. We here demonstrate that stingless bees of Borneo also use olfactory cues to find tree resins. They rely on volatile mono- and sesquiterpenes to locate or recognize known resin sources. Moreover, by modifying resin extracts, we found that stingless bees do not use the entire resin bouquet but relative proportions of several terpenes. In doing so, the bees are able to learn specific tree resin profiles and distinguish between tree species and partly even tree individuals.

  16. Defocus cue and saliency preserving video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Meera Thapar; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh

    2016-11-01

    There are monocular depth cues present in images or videos that aid in depth perception in two-dimensional images or videos. Our objective is to preserve the defocus depth cue present in the videos along with the salient regions during compression application. A method is provided for opportunistic bit allocation during the video compression using visual saliency information comprising both the image features, such as color and contrast, and the defocus-based depth cue. The method is divided into two steps: saliency computation followed by compression. A nonlinear method is used to combine pure and defocus saliency maps to form the final saliency map. Then quantization values are assigned on the basis of these saliency values over a frame. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme yields good results over standard H.264 compression as well as pure and defocus saliency methods.

  17. Consumer attention to product health cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five...... was a 2x2 group mixed design manipulating health claims (absent, present) and taste claims (absent, present). Study 4 was a four-group between-subjects design manipulating food labels (a national organic label, EU organic label, a national keyhole label [indicating product healthfulness], a combination...... of all labels). Results The only elements operating as health cues were the nutrition label and the organic label. The information cues used during purchase evaluation were the product category name and the nutrition label. Results also revealed that the probability a consumer will read the nutrition...

  18. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  19. Attention to health cues on product packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    attention was measured by means of eye-tracking. Task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, and purchase likelihood evaluation) and product (five different yoghurt products) were varied in a mixed within-between subjects design. The free viewing condition served as a baseline against which...... increases or decreases in attention during product healthfulness evaluation and purchase likelihood evaluation were assessed. The analysis revealed that the only element operating as a health cue during product healthfulness evaluation was the nutrition label. The information cues used during purchase...... likelihood evaluation were the name of the product category and the nutrition label. Taken together, the results suggest that the only information element that consumers consistently utilize as a health cue is the nutrition label and that only a limited amount of attention is devoted to read nutrition labels...

  20. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials. PMID:27656692

  1. Alarm pheromone does not modulate 22-kHz calls in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyama, Hiromi; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-15

    Rats are known to emit a series of ultrasonic vocalizations, termed 22-kHz calls, when exposed to distressing stimuli. Pharmacological studies have indicated that anxiety mediates 22-kHz calls in distressed rats. We previously found that exposure to the rat alarm pheromone increases anxiety in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the alarm pheromone would increase 22-kHz calls in pheromone-exposed rats. Accordingly, we tested whether exposure to the alarm pheromone induced 22-kHz calls, as well as whether the alarm pheromone increased 22-kHz calls in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were first fear-conditioned to an auditory and contextual CS. On the following day, the rats were either exposed to the alarm pheromone or a control odor that was released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Then, the rats were re-exposed to the aversive CS. The alarm pheromone neither induced 22-kHz calls nor increased 22-kHz calls in response to the aversive CS. In contrast, the control odor unexpectedly reduced the total number and duration of 22-kHz calls elicited by the aversive CS, as well as the duration of freezing. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone does not affect 22-kHz calls in rats. However, we may have found evidence for an appeasing olfactory signal, released from the neck region of odor-donor rats.

  2. False alarm suppression of multipulsed laser ranging system with Geiger-mode detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Huigang; Xu, Benlian; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Fu, Yadan

    2015-06-10

    The false alarm probability is of great concern when designing and evaluating the performance of a multipulsed laser ranging system with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. In this paper, based on the statistical distribution difference of the arrival time of the echo photons and noise in the time histogram, a false alarm suppression algorithm is presented. According to the data-processing method of the algorithm, the theoretical model of target detection and false alarm probability with a Poisson statistic and the system working at long dead time is established. With typical system design parameters, the target detection probability under different echo intensity and detection number is analyzed, and the influence of four main factors, namely, detection number, echo intensity, noise, and echo position, on the false alarm probability is investigated. The results show that multipulsed detection can improve the target detection probability, and using this developed algorithm, the false alarm probability can be effectively suppressed, to obtain an appropriate false alarm probability; it is suitable that the detection number is selected as 8; and stronger echo intensity, lower noise level, and a more frontal echo position can result in a lower false alarm probability.

  3. Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jennifer K; Barry, James P; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Potts, Donald C; Palumbi, Stephen R; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2017-07-18

    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO2, abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO2. Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

  4. Cooperative warning systems: The impact of false and unnecessary alarms on drivers' compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Kiesel, Andrea; Neukum, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Cooperative warning systems have a great potential to prevent traffic accidents. However, because of their predictive nature, they might also go along with an increased frequency of incorrect alarms that could limit their effectiveness. To better understand the consequences associated with incorrect alarms, a driving simulator study with N=80 drivers was conducted to investigate how situational context and warning urgency jointly influence drivers' compliance with an unreliable advisory warning system (AWS). The participants encountered several critical urban driving situations and were either assisted by a 100% reliable AWS, a 60% reliable AWS that generated false alarms (without obvious reason) or a 60% reliable AWS that generated unnecessary alarms (with plausible reason). A baseline drive without any assistance was also introduced to the study. The warnings were presented either only visually or visual-auditory. In line with previous research, drivers' compliance and effectiveness of the AWS was reduced by false alarms but not by unnecessary alarms. However, this so-called cry wolf effect (Breznitz, 1984) was only found in the visual-auditory condition, whereas there was no effect of warning reliability in the condition with visual AWS. Furthermore, false but not unnecessary alarms caused the participants to rate the AWS less favourably during a follow-up interview. In spite of these negative effects of false alarms, a reduction in the frequency of safety-critical events (SCEs) and an earlier braking onset were evident in all assisted drives compared with that of non-assisted driving, even when the AWS was unreliable. The results may thus lower concerns about the negative consequences of warning drivers unnecessarily about upcoming traffic conflicts if the reasons of these alarms are comprehensible. From a perspective of designing AWS, we recommend to use less urgent warnings to prevent the cry wolf effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CLINICAL VALUE OF ALARM SYMPTOMS IN DIAGNOSIS OF LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bo; LIU Wen-zhong; GE Zhi-zheng; XIAO Shu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of alarm symptoms in diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal diseases. Methods Data of consecutive autochthonous patients referred to the endoscopy center of Renji Hospital during the period of Oct. 2002 to Dec. 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. The prevalence of alarm symptoms in Shanghai patients with colorectal malignancies or other organic or functional lower gastrointestinal diseases was investigated. Results 83 (4. 9% ) cases of colorectal malignancies were found in 1681 patients referred to the center for colonoscopy because of lower gastrointestinal symptoms. All these malignancies were verified to be in the progressive stage. The prevalence of alarm symptoms was 81.9% (68/83). Hematochezia ( OR 4. 1, 95% CI 3.3-5.2, P<0.001) , melena (OR6.4, 95%CI3.7-11.0, P<0.001) and anemia (OR9.6, 95%CI3. 7-25. 0, P<0.001 ) were the most common and specific alarm symptoms. All the patients without alarm symptoms were above the age of 40 years. 264 (15.7%) cases of organic colorectal diseases other than malignancies and 1334 (79.4%) cases with no causal pathology identified were found in 1681 patients, and the prevalence of alarm symptoms in these two groups was 48. 5% (128/264) and 14. 8% (197/1334), respectively. Conclusion Alarm symptoms including hematochezia, melena, and anemia were useful in distinguishing organic from functional colorectal diseases in patients over 40 years old at the onset of symptoms. Furthermore, hematochezia, melena, anemia,severe weight loss, and abdominal mass were helpful in differentiating malignant from non-malignant colorectal diseases. Colonoscopy should be recommended for patients regardless of age with these alarm symptoms, and so do patients above the age of 40 years with no alarm symptoms before the diagnosis of functional diseases are made.

  6. Cognitive Cues are More Compelling than Facial Cues in Determining Adults' Reactions towards Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernández Blasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated the significant influence that both children's facial features (Lorenz, 1943 and children's cognitive expressions (Bjorklund, Hernández Blasi, and Periss, 2010 have on adults' perception of young children. However, until now, these two types of cues have been studied independently. The present study contrasted these two types of cues simultaneously in a group of college students. To this purpose, we designed five experimental conditions (Consistent, Inconsistent, Mature-Face, Immature-Face, and Faces-Only in which we varied the presentation of a series of mature and immature vignettes (including two previously studied types of thinking: natural thinking and supernatural thinking associated with a series of more mature and less mature children's faces. Performance in these conditions was contrasted with data from a Vignettes-Only condition taken from Bjorklund et al. (2010. Results indicated that cognitive cues were more powerful than facial cues in determining adults' perceptions of young children. From an evolutionary developmental perspective, we suggest that facial cues are more relevant to adults during infancy than during the preschool period, when, with the development of spoken language, the verbalized expressions of children's thoughts become the principal cues influencing adults' perceptions, with facial cues playing a more secondary role.

  7. Vowel identification by cochlear implant users: Contributions of duration cues and dynamic spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Gail S; Rogers, Catherine L; Johnson, Lindsay B; Oh, Soo Hee

    2015-07-01

    A recent study from our laboratory assessed vowel identification in cochlear implant (CI) users, using full /dVd/ syllables and partial (center- and edges-only) syllables with duration cues neutralized [Donaldson, Rogers, Cardenas, Russell, and Hanna (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3021-3028]. CI users' poorer performance for partial syllables as compared to full syllables, and for edges-only syllables as compared to center-only syllables, led to the hypotheses (1) that CI users may rely strongly on vowel duration cues; and (2) that CI users have more limited access to dynamic spectral cues than steady-state spectral cues. The present study tested those hypotheses. Ten CI users and ten young normal hearing (YNH) listeners heard full /dVd/ syllables and modified (center- and edges-only) syllables in which vowel duration cues were either preserved or eliminated. The presence of duration cues significantly improved vowel identification scores in four CI users, suggesting a strong reliance on duration cues. Duration effects were absent for the other CI users and the YNH listeners. On average, CI users and YNH listeners demonstrated similar performance for center-only stimuli and edges-only stimuli having the same total duration of vowel information. However, three CI users demonstrated significantly poorer performance for the edges-only stimuli, indicating apparent deficits of dynamic spectral processing.

  8. Alarm Pheromones and Chemical Communication in Nymphs of the Tropical Bed Bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little...

  9. Disentangling attention from action in the emotional spatial cueing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulckhuyse, Manon; Crombez, Geert

    2014-01-01

    In the emotional spatial cueing task, a peripheral cue--either emotional or non-emotional--is presented before target onset. A stronger cue validity effect with an emotional relative to a non-emotional cue (i.e., more efficient responding to validly cued targets relative to invalidly cued targets) is taken as an indication of emotional modulation of attentional processes. However, results from previous emotional spatial cueing studies are not consistent. Some studies find an effect at the validly cued location (shorter reaction times compared to a non-emotional cue), whereas other studies find an effect at the invalidly cued location (longer reaction times compared to a non-emotional cue). In the current paper, we explore which parameters affect emotional modulation of the cue validity effect in the spatial cueing task. Results from five experiments in healthy volunteers led to the conclusion that a threatening spatial cue did not affect attention processes but rather indicate that motor processes are affected. A possible mechanism might be that a strong aversive cue stimulus decreases reaction times by means of stronger action preparation. Consequently, in case of a spatially congruent response with the peripheral cue, a stronger cue validity effect could be obtained due to stronger response priming. The implications for future research are discussed.

  10. Neural mechanisms of cue-approach training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkour, Akram; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Poldrack, Russell A; Schonberg, Tom

    2017-05-01

    Biasing choices may prove a useful way to implement behavior change. Previous work has shown that a simple training task (the cue-approach task), which does not rely on external reinforcement, can robustly influence choice behavior by biasing choice toward items that were targeted during training. In the current study, we replicate previous behavioral findings and explore the neural mechanisms underlying the shift in preferences following cue-approach training. Given recent successes in the development and application of machine learning techniques to task-based fMRI data, which have advanced understanding of the neural substrates of cognition, we sought to leverage the power of these techniques to better understand neural changes during cue-approach training that subsequently led to a shift in choice behavior. Contrary to our expectations, we found that machine learning techniques applied to fMRI data during non-reinforced training were unsuccessful in elucidating the neural mechanism underlying the behavioral effect. However, univariate analyses during training revealed that the relationship between BOLD and choices for Go items increases as training progresses compared to choices of NoGo items primarily in lateral prefrontal cortical areas. This new imaging finding suggests that preferences are shifted via differential engagement of task control networks that interact with value networks during cue-approach training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  12. Exam Question Sequencing Effects and Context Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doris Bitler

    2017-01-01

    Providing two or more versions of multiple-choice exams has long been a popular strategy for reducing the opportunity for students to engage in academic dishonesty. While the results of studies comparing exam scores under different question-order conditions have been inconclusive, the potential importance of contextual cues to aid student recall…

  13. Development of cue integration in human navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Marko; Jones, Peter; Bedford, Rachael; Braddick, Oliver

    2008-05-06

    Mammalian navigation depends both on visual landmarks and on self-generated (e.g., vestibular and proprioceptive) cues that signal the organism's own movement [1-5]. When these conflict, landmarks can either reset estimates of self-motion or be integrated with them [6-9]. We asked how humans combine these information sources and whether children, who use both from a young age [10-12], combine them as adults do. Participants attempted to return an object to its original place in an arena when given either visual landmarks only, nonvisual self-motion information only, or both. Adults, but not 4- to 5-year-olds or 7- to 8-year-olds, reduced their response variance when both information sources were available. In an additional "conflict" condition that measured relative reliance on landmarks and self-motion, we predicted behavior under two models: integration (weighted averaging) of the cues and alternation between them. Adults' behavior was predicted by integration, in which the cues were weighted nearly optimally to reduce variance, whereas children's behavior was predicted by alternation. These results suggest that development of individual spatial-representational systems precedes development of the capacity to combine these within a common reference frame. Humans can integrate spatial cues nearly optimally to navigate, but this ability depends on an extended developmental process.

  14. Cue-specific reactivity in experienced gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Maxson, Julie; Jardin, Bianca

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether gambling cue reactivity is cue-specific, 47 scratch-off lottery players and 47 horse race gamblers were presented with video clips of their preferred and nonpreferred modes of gambling, and two control stimuli including an exciting car race and a mental stressor task while heart rates, excitement, and urge to gamble were being measured. Heart rates for both groups of gamblers were highest to the mental stressor and did not differ in response to the other three cues. Excitement for both groups was highest in response to the action cues (horse race and car chase). Urge to gamble was significantly higher for each group to their preferred mode of gambling. A post hoc exploratory analysis comparing social gamblers (n = 54) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 40) revealed a similar pattern of responses. However, pathological gamblers reported overall significantly higher urges to gamble than social gamblers. As urges have been shown to play a pivotal role in addictive behaviors and relapse, the current findings may have implications for the development of gambling problems and relapse after successful treatment. Copyright 2009 APA

  15. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  16. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we invest

  17. Baby on board: olfactory cues indicate pregnancy and fetal sex in a non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Drea, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory cues play an integral, albeit underappreciated, role in mediating vertebrate social and reproductive behaviour. These cues fluctuate with the signaller's hormonal condition, coincident with and informative about relevant aspects of its reproductive state, such as pubertal onset, change in season and, in females, timing of ovulation. Although pregnancy dramatically alters a female's endocrine profiles, which can be further influenced by fetal sex, the relationship between gestation and olfactory cues is poorly understood. We therefore examined the effects of pregnancy and fetal sex on volatile genital secretions in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a strepsirrhine primate possessing complex olfactory mechanisms of reproductive signalling. While pregnant, dams altered and dampened their expression of volatile chemicals, with compound richness being particularly reduced in dams bearing sons. These changes were comparable in magnitude with other, published chemical differences among lemurs that are salient to conspecifics. Such olfactory ‘signatures’ of pregnancy may help guide social interactions, potentially promoting mother–infant recognition, reducing intragroup conflict or counteracting behavioural mechanisms of paternity confusion; cues that also advertise fetal sex may additionally facilitate differential sex allocation. PMID:25716086

  18. The alarm pheromone in male rats as a unique anxiety model: psychopharmacological evidence using anxiolytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. Thus, we believe that this pheromone may increase anxiety levels in rats. In the current study, we evaluated the predictive validity of this alarm pheromone-induced anxiogenic effect in detail by investigating whether six types of human anxiolytics, each of which has a different mechanism of action, were efficacious in reducing anxiety, using changes in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) as an index. The alarm pheromone-enhanced ASR was not affected by vehicle pretreatment but was dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment with midazolam, phenelzine, propranolol, clonidine, and CP-154,526-although not buspirone. These results may reflect some aspects of the predictive validity of the alarm pheromone-induced anxiety in rats as an animal model of human anxiety.

  19. Real-time Alarm Monitoring System for Detecting Driver Fatigue in Wireless Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a real-time alarm monitoring system that can detect the fatigue driving state through wireless communication. The drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded from occipital electrodes. Seven EEG rhythms with different frequency bands as gamma, hbeta, beta, sigma, alpha, theta and delta waves were extracted. They were simultaneously assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC curves and grey relational analysis to select one as the fatigue feature. The research results showed that the performance of theta wave was the best one. Therefore, theta wave was used as fatigue feature in the following alarm device. The real-time alarm monitoring system based on the result has been developed, once the threshold was settled by using the data of the first ten minutes driving period. The developed system can detect driver fatigue and give alarm to indicate the onset of fatigue automatically.

  20. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...

  1. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...... guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks......: Gynecological alarm symptoms are frequent in the general population, mostly among younger women. Older women reported fewer symptoms, and they often appeared as single symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2.   Combination treatment of monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna with alarm and desmopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

      AIM To retrospectively evaluate the combination treatment with alarm and desmopressin in a population of children with monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna (MNE). MATERIAL AND METHODS 218 children with MNE (age 5-14y) treated in our outpatient clinics were investigated in the present study. All...... children had completed the diagnostic procedures of our center comprising 2-week home recordings, desmopressin titration, uroflowmetry and urinalysis. The latest ICCS standardization was used for characterizations. All children were treated with the enuresis alarm alone or in combination with desmopressin...... complete dryness. We found no differences with regards to age, gender, enuresis frequency, average and maximal voided volumes between children that achieved dryness with alarm or combination of alarm and desmopressin. However, children ending in combination treatment shared significantly higher nocturnal...

  3. Two sympatric species of passerine birds imitate the same raptor calls in alarm contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Chaminda P.; Goodale, Eben; Kotagama, Sarath W.

    2010-01-01

    While some avian mimics appear to select sounds randomly, other species preferentially imitate sounds such as predator calls that are associated with danger. Previous work has shown that the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo ( Dicrurus paradiseus) incorporates predator calls and heterospecific alarm calls into its own species-typical alarm vocalizations. Here, we show that another passerine species, the Sri Lanka Magpie ( Urocissa ornata), which inhabits the same Sri Lankan rainforest, imitates three of the same predator calls that drongos do. For two of these call types, there is evidence that magpies also use them in alarm contexts. Our results support the hypothesis that imitated predator calls can serve as signals of alarm to multiple species.

  4. The (unclear effects of invalid retro-cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eGressmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies with the retro-cue paradigm have shown that validly cueing objects in visual working memory long after encoding can still benefit performance on subsequent change detection tasks. With regard to the effects of invalid cues, the literature is less clear. Some studies reported costs, others did not. We here revisit two recent studies that made interesting suggestions concerning invalid retro-cues: One study suggested that costs only occur for larger set sizes, and another study suggested that inclusion of invalid retro-cues diminishes the retro-cue benefit. New data from one experiment and a reanalysis of published data are provided to address these conclusions. The new data clearly show costs (and benefits that were independent of set size, and the reanalysis suggests no influence of the inclusion of invalid retro-cues on the retro-cue benefit. Thus, previous interpretations may be taken with some caution at present.

  5. Cue-induced craving in patients with cocaine use disorder predicts cognitive control deficits toward cocaine cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Smelson, David; Guevremont, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Cue-induced craving is a clinically important aspect of cocaine addiction influencing ongoing use and sobriety. However, little is known about the relationship between cue-induced craving and cognitive control toward cocaine cues. While studies suggest that cocaine users have an attentional bias toward cocaine cues, the present study extends this research by testing if cocaine use disorder patients (CDPs) can control their eye movements toward cocaine cues and whether their response varied by cue-induced craving intensity. Thirty CDPs underwent a cue exposure procedure to dichotomize them into high and low craving groups followed by a modified antisaccade task in which subjects were asked to control their eye movements toward either a cocaine or neutral drug cue by looking away from the suddenly presented cue. The relationship between breakdowns in cognitive control (as measured by eye errors) and cue-induced craving (changes in self-reported craving following cocaine cue exposure) was investigated. CDPs overall made significantly more errors toward cocaine cues compared to neutral cues, with higher cravers making significantly more errors than lower cravers even though they did not differ significantly in addiction severity, impulsivity, anxiety, or depression levels. Cue-induced craving was the only specific and significant predictor of subsequent errors toward cocaine cues. Cue-induced craving directly and specifically relates to breakdowns of cognitive control toward cocaine cues in CDPs, with higher cravers being more susceptible. Hence, it may be useful identifying high cravers and target treatment toward curbing craving to decrease the likelihood of a subsequent breakdown in control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vibroacoustic Stimulation of the Fetus Using a Conventional Mechanical Alarm Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka; Lechner; Stephan; Pfeiffer

    1998-12-01

    > Objective: For more than 20 years, vibroacoustic stimulation testing (VAST) using an artificial larynx has been used worldwide when fetal heart rate monitoring produced patterns with absent or very low variability. In addition to the artificial larynx many other appliances have been used to stimulate a seemingly dormant fetus, but these have rarely been evaluated properly. In this study we tried to evaluate the use of standard mechanical wind-up alarm clocks for VAST. Methods: VAST with an alarm clock was performed successfully in 80 women with normal pregnancies from 36 weeks to term. It was tested by placing the alarm clock on the maternal abdomen just above the fetal head or on the controlateral side of the maternal abdomen to see whether position made any difference and whether coupling with ultrasound gel applied between the alarm clock and the maternal abdomen would affect the degree of fetal reaction to VAST as expressed in heart rate acceleration. Similarly, the effect of the alarm clock VAST on subjective and objective fetal movement patterns as registered by kineto-cardiotocotraphy (K-CTG) in addition to heart rate patterns was investigated. Results: All fetuses showed heart rate acceleration, an increase in heart variability, and increase in movement patterns in the 6 min after the application of alarm clock VAST. No statistically significant difference was found which would favor a particular placement of the alarm clock on the maternal abdomen or the use of ultrasound coupling gel. When K-CTG was performed, patient-perceived fetal movements as expressed with an event marker showed agreement with the machine-registered movements only when patients could see the tracing during registration and no accordance when the K-CTG was turned toward the wall during registation. Conclusion: In keeping with the ALARA principle a conventional wind-up alarm clock appears to be an inexpensive and effective alternative to the electrolarynx.

  7. User experience network. Erroneous downstream occlusion alarms may disable Smiths Medical CADD-Solis infusion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Due to an issue in manufacturing, downstream occlusion (DSO) sensors in some Smiths Medical CADD-Solis infusion pumps may drift out of calibration, potentially resulting in erroneous alarms that disable the units. Hospitals experiencing the problem should return affected units to Smiths Medical for recalibration (free of charge) and should consider testing all their CADD-Solis pumps during routine maintenance to ensure that they alarm appropriately for downstream occlusions.

  8. Safety vs. privacy: elderly persons' experiences of a mobile safety alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander-Wikman, Anita; Fältholm, Ylva; Gard, Gunvor

    2008-07-01

    The demographic development indicates an increased elderly population in Sweden in the future. One of the greatest challenges for a society with an ageing population is to provide high-quality health and social care. New information and communication technology and services can be used to further improve health care. To enable elderly persons to stay at home as long as possible, various kinds of technology, such as safety alarms, are used at home. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of elderly persons through testing a mobile safety alarm and their reasoning about safety, privacy and mobility. The mobile safety alarm tested was a prototype in development. Five elderly persons with functional limitations and four healthy elderly persons from a pensioner's organisation tested the alarm. The mobile alarm with a drop sensor and a positioning device was tested for 6 weeks. This intervention was evaluated with qualitative interviews, and analysed with latent content analysis. The result showed four main categories: feeling safe, being positioned and supervised, being mobile, and reflecting on new technology. From these categories, the overarching category 'Safety and mobility are more important than privacy' emerged. The mobile safety alarm was perceived to offer an increased opportunity for mobility in terms of being more active and as an aid for self-determination. The fact that the informants were located by means of the positioning device was not experienced as violating privacy as long as they could decide how to use the alarm. It was concluded that this mobile safety alarm was experienced as a tool to be active and mobile. As a way to keep self-determination and empowerment, the individual has to make a 'cost-benefit' analysis where privacy is sacrificed to the benefit of mobility and safety. The participants were actively contributing to the development process.

  9. Comparison of sound propagation and perception of three types of backup alarms with regards to worker safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Vaillancourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology of backup alarms based on the use of a broadband signal has recently gained popularity in many countries. In this study, the performance of this broadband technology is compared to that of a conventional tonal alarm and a multi-tone alarm from a worker-safety standpoint. Field measurements of sound pressure level patterns behind heavy vehicles were performed in real work environments and psychoacoustic measurements (sound detection thresholds, equal loudness, perceived urgency and sound localization were carried out in the laboratory with human subjects. Compared with the conventional tonal alarm, the broadband alarm generates a much more uniform sound field behind vehicles, is easier to localize in space and is judged slighter louder at representative alarm levels. Slight advantages were found with the tonal alarm for sound detection and for perceived urgency at low levels, but these benefits observed in laboratory conditions would not overcome the detrimental effects associated with the large and abrupt variations in sound pressure levels (up to 15-20 dB within short distances observed in the field behind vehicles for this alarm, which are significantly higher than those obtained with the broadband alarm. Performance with the multi-tone alarm generally fell between that of the tonal and broadband alarms on most measures.

  10. "Alarm-corrected" ergonomic armrest use could improve learning curves of novices on robotic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Perez, Manuela; Hossu, Gabriela; Hubert, Nicolas; Perrenot, Cyril; Hubert, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In robotic surgery, the professional ergonomic habit of using an armrest reduces operator fatigue and increases the precision of motion. We designed and validated a pressure surveillance system (PSS) based on force sensors to investigate armrest use. The objective was to evaluate whether adding an alarm to the PSS system could shorten ergonomic training and improve performance. Twenty robot and simulator-naïve participants were recruited and randomized in two groups (A and B). The PSS was installed on a robotic simulator, the dV-Trainer, to detect contact with the armrest. The Group A members completed three tasks on the dV-Trainer without the alarm, making 15 attempts at each task. The Group B members practiced the first two tasks with the alarm and then completed the final tasks without the alarm. The simulator provided an overall score reflecting the trainees' performance. We used the new concept of an "armrest load" score to describe the ergonomic habit of using the armrest. Group B had a significantly higher performance score (p alarm associated with the PSS rectified ergonomic errors and accelerated professional ergonomic habit acquisition. The combination of the PSS and alarm is effective in significantly shortening the learning curve in the robotic training process.

  11. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  12. Detection of Causality between Process Variables Based on Industrial Alarm Data Using Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern industrial processes, it is easier and less expensive to configure alarms by software settings rather than by wiring, which causes the rapid growth of the number of alarms. Moreover, because there exist complex interactions, in particular the causal relationship among different parts in the process, a fault may propagate along propagation pathways once an abnormal situation occurs, which brings great difficulty to operators to identify its root cause immediately and to take proper actions correctly. Therefore, causality detection becomes a very important problem in the context of multivariate alarm analysis and design. Transfer entropy has become an effective and widely-used method to detect causality between different continuous process variables in both linear and nonlinear situations in recent years. However, such conventional methods to detect causality based on transfer entropy are computationally costly. Alternatively, using binary alarm series can be more computational-friendly and more direct because alarm data analysis is straightforward for alarm management in practice. The methodology and implementation issues are discussed in this paper. Illustrated by several case studies, including both numerical cases and simulated industrial cases, the proposed method is demonstrated to be suitable for industrial situations contaminated by noise.

  13. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane CÄSAR, Klaus ZUBERBÜHLER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been

  14. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane C(A)SAR; Klaus ZUBERB(U)HLER

    2012-01-01

    There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller.In some species,there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls,but call sequences and the combinations generated by them.These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation.Until recently,however,most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old Word species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys,which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities.To address this,we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates.Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses.A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances,often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters,while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats.This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians,suggesting an early evolutionary origin.Second,recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types.These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously,notably predator type and location.Since meaningful call sequences have already been described in Old Word primates,we suggest

  15. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2014-03-01

    choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people. Keywords: pathomimia, elderly, psychiatric disorders

  16. Responsiveness of Nigerian Students to Pictorial Depth Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. S.; Seddon, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Three groups of Nigerian high school and college students were tested for response to four pictorial depth cues. Students had more difficulty with cues concerning the relative size of objects and the foreshortening of straight lines than with cues involving overlap of lines and distortion of the angles between lines. (Author/JEG)

  17. Binaural weighting of pinna cues in human sound localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, P.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Human sound localization relies on binaural difference cues for sound-source azimuth and pinna-related spectral shape cues for sound elevation. Although the interaural timing and level difference cues are weighted to produce a percept of sound azimuth, much less is known about binaural mechanisms un

  18. Configural Effect in Multiple-Cue Probability Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Stephen E.; Castellan, N. John, Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In a nonmetric multiple-cue probability learning task involving 2 binary cue dimensions, it was found that Ss can learn to use configural or pattern information (a) when only the configural information is relevant, and in addition to the configural information, one or both of the cue dimensions are relevant. (Author/RK)

  19. Effects of Typographical Cues on Reading and Recall of Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Effects of typographical cues on text memory were investigated in 2 experiments involving 204 college students. Findings demonstrated that effects of typographical cues on memory were mediated by effects on attention during reading. Typographical cues appeared to increase attention only to the signaled content, resulting in better memory. (SLD)

  20. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  1. Evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues in lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Ke; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on a mosaic of complex information to find and evaluate mates. Pheromones, often comprised of multiple components, are considered to be particularly important for species-recognition in many species. While the evolution of species-specific pheromone blends is well-described in many insects, very few vertebrate pheromones have been studied in a macro-evolutionary context. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparison of multi-component male odours that guide reproduction in lampreys. Chemical profiling of sexually mature males from eleven species of lamprey, representing six of ten genera and two of three families, indicated the chemical profiles of sexually mature male odours are partially shared among species. Behavioural assays conducted with four species sympatric in the Laurentian Great Lakes indicated asymmetric female responses to heterospecific odours, where Petromyzon marinus were attracted to male odour collected from all species tested but other species generally preferred only the odour of conspecifics. Electro-olfactogram recordings from P. marinusindicated that although P. marinus exhibited behavioural responses to odours from males of all species, at least some of the compounds that elicited olfactory responses were different in conspecific male odours compared to heterospecific male odours. We conclude that some of the compounds released by sexually mature males are shared among species and elicit olfactory and behavioural responses in P. marinus, and suggest that our results provide evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues among lampreys. Further characterization of the chemical identities of odour components is needed to confirm shared pheromones among species.

  2. Two odorant-binding proteins mediate the behavioural response of aphids to the alarm pheromone (E-ß-farnesene and structural analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests.

  3. Two Odorant-Binding Proteins Mediate the Behavioural Response of Aphids to the Alarm Pheromone (E)-ß-farnesene and Structural Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hui Li; Iovinella, Immacolata; Yang, Shao Xiang; Ling, Yun; Riviello, Lea; Battaglia, Donatella; Falabella, Patrizia; Yang, Xin Ling; Pelosi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E)-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E)-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E)-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. Conclusions Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila) that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests. PMID:22427877

  4. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure.

  5. Alarm systems detect volcanic tremor and earthquake swarms during Redoubt eruption, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    We ran two alarm algorithms on real-time data from Redoubt volcano during the 2009 crisis. The first algorithm was designed to detect escalations in continuous seismicity (tremor). This is implemented within an application called IceWeb which computes reduced displacement, and produces plots of reduced displacement and spectrograms linked to the Alaska Volcano Observatory internal webpage every 10 minutes. Reduced displacement is a measure of the amplitude of volcanic tremor, and is computed by applying a geometrical spreading correction to a displacement seismogram. When the reduced displacement at multiple stations exceeds pre-defined thresholds and there has been a factor of 3 increase in reduced displacement over the previous hour, a tremor alarm is declared. The second algorithm was to designed to detect earthquake swarms. The mean and median event rates are computed every 5 minutes based on the last hour of data from a real-time event catalog. By comparing these with thresholds, three swarm alarm conditions can be declared: a new swarm, an escalation in a swarm, and the end of a swarm. The end of swarm alarm is important as it may mark a transition from swarm to continuous tremor. Alarms from both systems were dispatched using a generic alarm management system which implements a call-down list, allowing observatory scientists to be called in sequence until someone acknowledged the alarm via a confirmation web page. The results of this simple approach are encouraging. The tremor alarm algorithm detected 26 of the 27 explosive eruptions that occurred from 23 March - 4 April. The swarm alarm algorithm detected all five of the main volcanic earthquake swarm episodes which occurred during the Redoubt crisis on 26-27 February, 21-23 March, 26 March, 2-4 April and 3-7 May. The end-of-swarm alarms on 23 March and 4 April were particularly helpful as they were caused by transitions from swarm to tremor shortly preceding explosive eruptions; transitions which were

  6. Cued in: advances and opportunities in freshwater chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Romi L; Lodge, David M

    2002-10-01

    We focus this mini-review on how naturally occurring chemical cues mediate ecological interactions, especially interspecific competition and predation in freshwater communities. Although freshwater chemical ecology lags behind terrestrial and marine chemical ecology, we identify recent progress toward: (1) identifying the chemical composition of cues important in food web interactions, e.g., specific glucosinolates, benzyl succinoates, and lignoids as deterrents to herbivory on freshwater macrophytes; (2) employing a nonreductionist approach that tests for emergent responses to suites of multiple chemical cues, e.g., trade-offs in snail refuge-seeking behavior in the presence of chemical cues from both fish and crayfish; (3) investigating how abiotic forces, such as hydrodynamics, impact chemical communication across a broad spatial and temporal scale, e.g., drift responses of mayfly nymphs to whole-stream additions of trout cue; and (4) quantifying the importance of genetic variability, e.g., how chemical cues change selective pressures of local environments. The questions of interest in freshwater chemical ecology cross taxonomic boundaries; traverse broad spatial and temporal scales; demonstrate nonlinear, unpredictable results; and necessitate a multidisciplinary approach for adequate understanding.

  7. Cleaning MEG artifacts using external cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, I; Abeles, M

    2013-07-15

    Using EEG, ECoG, MEG, and microelectrodes to record brain activity is prone to multiple artifacts. The main power line (mains line), video equipment, mechanical vibrations and activities outside the brain are the most common sources of artifacts. MEG amplitudes are low, and even small artifacts distort recordings. In this study, we show how these artifacts can be efficiently removed by recording external cues during MEG recordings. These external cues are subsequently used to register the precise times or spectra of the artifacts. The results indicate that these procedures preserve both the spectra and the time domain wave-shapes of the neuromagnetic signal, while successfully reducing the contribution of the artifacts to the target signals without reducing the rank of the data.

  8. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Moore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness, and (ii attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.

  9. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.

  10. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  11. Teaching hand-washing with pictorial cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Saloviita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied behavior analysis has been shown to be an effective means to teach daily living skills to individuals with intellectual disability. In the present study pictorial cues based on task analysis, system of least prompts, and social reinforcement were used to teach a man with mild intellectual disability to wash his hands correctly. An ABAB reversal design was used with follow-up after two weeks. The results show a rapid increase in hand-washing skills.

  12. Pilot Cueing Synergies for Degraded Visual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following people for their contributions to this project. Without the assistance of...condition is termed brownout. Recent empirical evidence indicates there is a potential benefit to supplementing visual displays and symbology with tactile...compatibility, benefit , or conflict when used in DVE. Methods Eight test pilots evaluated aural and tactile cueing configurations in combination

  13. Habitat selection, facilitation, and biotic settlement cues affect distribution and performance of coral recruits in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nichole

    2010-07-01

    Habitat selection can determine the distribution and performance of individuals if the precision with which sites are chosen corresponds with exposure to risks or resources. Contrastingly, facilitation can allow persistence of individuals arriving by chance and potentially maladapted to local abiotic conditions. For marine organisms, selection of a permanent attachment site at the end of their larval stage or the presence of a facilitator can be a critical determinant of recruitment success. In coral reef ecosystems, it is well known that settling planula larvae of reef-building corals use coarse environmental cues (i.e., light) for habitat selection. Although laboratory studies suggest that larvae can also use precise biotic cues produced by crustose coralline algae (CCA) to select attachment sites, the ecological consequences of biotic cues for corals are poorly understood in situ. In a field experiment exploring the relative importance of biotic cues and variability in habitat quality to recruitment of hard corals, pocilloporid and acroporid corals recruited more frequently to one species of CCA, Titanoderma prototypum, and significantly less so to other species of CCA; these results are consistent with laboratory assays from other studies. The provision of the biotic cue accurately predicted coral recruitment rates across habitats of varying quality. At the scale of CCA, corals attached to the "preferred" CCA experienced increased survivorship while recruits attached elsewhere had lower colony growth and survivorship. For reef-building corals, the behavioral selection of habitat using chemical cues both reduces the risk of incidental mortality and indicates the presence of a facilitator.

  14. Heat, sight and scent: multiple cues influence foraging site selection by an ambush-foraging snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo DU, Jonathan K. WEBB, Richard SHINE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most mobile organisms respond to multiple cues when selecting habitat types, and laboratory experiments that manipulate only single cues may fail to reveal the true complexity of habitat-selection behaviour. In south-eastern Australia, broad-headed snakes Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae lie in wait under sun-warmed rocks to ambush velvet geckos Oedura leseuerii (Gekkonidae. Previous laboratory work has shown that both the geckos and the snakes actively select hotter rather than colder rocks, and that the snakes actively select rocks scented by geckos. We manipulated rock temperature and the presence of two types of cues from geckos (chemical and visual information to clarify the causal basis for foraging site selection by the juveniles of this snake. When given a choice between cold lizard-scented rocks and hot unscented rocks, our captive snakes gave a higher priority to lizard scent than to temperature. The snakes also selected shelter-sites that provided visual as well as scent cues from lizards, rather than shelter-sites with scent cues alone. Thus, although broad-headed snakes show a direct preference for hotter rather than colder rocks in the laboratory, their choice of foraging site in the field may also be influenced by the presence of scent cues from prey. Our laboratory results suggest that habitat selection by broad-headed snakes may be more complex than has been suggested by previous single-factor laboratory trials[Current Zoology 55(4: 266–271, 2009].

  15. Smoking Cues, Argument Strength, and Perceived Effectiveness of Antismoking PSAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Joseph. N.; Lerman, Caryn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The study examines the effectiveness of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) among adult smokers as a function of smoking cues and the argument strength of the PSAs. Consistent with the previous cue-reactivity studies, smoking cues are defined as one of the following visual scenes: (a) objects associated with smoking, (b) holding or handling cigarettes, and (c) actual smoking behaviors. Argument strength indicates smoker's judgments of perceived strength and persuasiveness of the arguments extracted from the PSAs. Methods: Data were collected through a web-based experiment of a random sample of general population of smokers (n = 566 adults aged 19 years or older). Each participant was shown 4 PSAs randomly selected from a set of 60. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling to assess the effects of smoking cues and argument strength. Effectiveness measures include perceived persuasiveness, transportation, valenced thought, negative emotion, and smoking-related thoughts. Results: Argument strength is a significant predictor of outcome variables. Although there were no significant main effects of smoking cues on any outcome variables, smoking cues were found to interact with argument strength such that the association between argument strength and outcome variables became weaker for PSAs in the smoking cue condition compared with those in the no-cue condition. Conclusions: The interaction between smoking cues and argument strength suggests that smoking cues in antismoking PSAs undermine a significant part of what makes PSAs effective—their arguments against smoking. In designing antismoking messages, the inclusion of smoking cues should be weighed carefully. PMID:21330273

  16. Use of explicit memory cues following parietal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Ian G; Jaeger, Antonio; Studer, Bettina; Simons, Jon S

    2012-11-01

    The putative role of the lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory has recently become a topic of considerable debate, owing primarily to its consistent activation for studied materials during functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of recognition. Here we examined the performance of patients with parietal lobe lesions using an explicit memory cueing task in which probabilistic cues ("Likely Old" or "Likely New"; 75% validity) preceded the majority of verbal recognition memory probes. Without cues, patients and control participants did not differ in accuracy. However, group differences emerged during the "Likely New" cue condition with controls responding more accurately than parietal patients when these cues were valid (preceding new materials) and trending towards less accuracy when these cues were invalid (preceding old materials). Both effects suggest insufficient integration of external cues into memory judgments on the part of the parietal patients whose cued performance largely resembled performance in the complete absence of cues. Comparison of the parietal patients to a patient group with frontal lobe lesions suggested the pattern was specific to parietal and adjacent area lesions. Overall, the data indicate that parietal lobe patients fail to appropriately incorporate external cues of novelty into recognition attributions. This finding supports a role for the lateral parietal lobe in the adaptive biasing of memory judgments through the integration of external cues and internal memory evidence. We outline the importance of such adaptive biasing through consideration of basic signal detection predictions regarding maximum possible accuracy with and without informative environmental cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  18. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Shutts

    Full Text Available Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity. Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

  19. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L; Dornbusch, Leah A; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R

    2016-01-01

    Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

  20. Visual cues in ice hockey goaltending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, J H; Fiorito, P

    1979-03-01

    The effect of both the availability and the quality of visual cues preceding stick-puck contact was investigated for an ice hockey goaltending task. Thirty-four young (15.8 years) goaltenders observed filmed sequences of a hockey player approaching the net and directing a shot to one of the four corners. The film sequences were edited so that 2, 4 or 8 images were occluded prior to the impact of the stick with the puck, reflecting durations of 1/12, 1/6, 1/3 of a second, respectively. The subjects' performances for both the wrist and the slap shot were measured as well as the level of response confidence in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The results indicated that performance precision was aided by the increased availability of pre-shot visual cues. It was also evident that the wrist shot provided more cues for the goaltender than did the slap shot. Performances were found to be superior in the horizontal as compared to the vertical plane. In all dimensions, the subjects' perceptions of their success closely followed the actual performance patterns. It appeared that information that could facilitate anticipation in this goaltending task was both available and useable during the period that precedes the shot.

  1. Reduction of false arrhythmia alarms using signal selection and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerikäinen, Linda M; Vanschoren, Joaquin; Rooijakkers, Michael J; Vullings, Rik; Aarts, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that classifies whether a generated cardiac arrhythmia alarm is true or false. The large number of false alarms in intensive care is a severe issue. The noise peaks caused by alarms can be high and in a noisy environment nurses can experience stress and fatigue. In addition, patient safety is compromised because reaction time of the caregivers to true alarms is reduced. The data for the algorithm development consisted of records of electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure, and photoplethysmogram signals in which an alarm for either asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or flutter, or ventricular tachycardia occurs. First, heart beats are extracted from every signal. Next, the algorithm selects the most reliable signal pair from the available signals by comparing how well the detected beats match between different signals based on [Formula: see text]-score and selecting the best match. From the selected signal pair, arrhythmia specific features, such as heart rate features and signal purity index are computed for the alarm classification. The classification is performed with five separate Random Forest models. In addition, information on the local noise level of the selected ECG lead is added to the classification. The algorithm was trained and evaluated with the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 data set. In the test set the overall true positive rates were 93 and 95% and true negative rates 80 and 83%, respectively for events with no information and events with information after the alarm. The overall challenge scores were 77.39 and 81.58.

  2. [Implementation of an automatic alarms system for early detection of patients with severe sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, José María; Judez, Diego; Tirado, Gabriel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa; Dorado, Paloma; Ezpeleta, Ana; Marrón, Rafael; Gargallo, Begoña; Herranz, Clara

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of a software tool integrated into the medical electronic history at the time of emergency triage. The aim was the early detection of patients with severe sepsis, and the potential impact of this software tool on reducing the mortality rate in patients treated. The study consisted of two comparative samples. Patient selection was performed retrospectively into two groups using ICD-9 codes from the hospital and emergency department discharge reports. The codes were 038.9, 995.9 and 995.92 for sepsis, and 785.52 for severe sepsis and septic shock. The sample called «alarms» consisted of patients studied after implementing the sepsis alarm system in the Emergency Department computer system. There were two types of alarms, a serious one and an alert one depending on the on vital signs defined. The historical sample called «no alarms» consisted of patients seen in the Emergency Department during the year before the introduction of the alarm system. The compliance rate of the sepsis treatment package was higher in the «alarms» sample, compared to the sample without alarms, with blood cultures, 96.3% versus 80.9% (Psepsis allows acting earlier, better compliance with basic measures, and a reduction in hospital stay and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple cue use and integration in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Eric L G; Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L; Ludvig, Elliot A

    2016-05-01

    Encoding multiple cues can improve the accuracy and reliability of navigation and goal localization. Problems may arise, however, if one cue is displaced and provides information which conflicts with other cues. Here we investigated how pigeons cope with cue conflict by training them to locate a goal relative to two landmarks and then varying the amount of conflict between the landmarks. When the amount of conflict was small, pigeons tended to integrate both cues in their search patterns. When the amount of conflict was large, however, pigeons used information from both cues independently. This context-dependent strategy for resolving spatial cue conflict agrees with Bayes optimal calculations for using information from multiple sources.

  4. Association between exposure to non-actionable physiologic monitor alarms and response time in a children's hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P.; Lin, Richard; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Paine, Christine W.; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E.; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Localio, A. Russell; Keren, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Alarm fatigue is reported to be a major threat to patient safety, yet little empirical data support its existence in the hospital. Objective To determine if nurses exposed to high rates of non-actionable physiologic monitor alarms respond more slowly to subsequent alarms that could represent life-threatening conditions. Design Observational study using video. Setting Freestanding children's hospital. Patients (1) Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients requiring inotropic support and/or mechanical ventilation, and (2) medical ward patients. Intervention None. Measurements Actionable alarms were defined as correctly identifying physiologic status and warranting clinical intervention or consultation. We measured response time to alarms occurring while there were no clinicians in the patient's room. We evaluated the association between the number of non-actionable alarms the patient had in the preceding 120 minutes (categorized as 0-29, 30-79, or 80+ alarms) and response time to subsequent alarms in the same patient using a log-rank test that accounts for within-nurse clustering. Results We observed 36 nurses for 210 hours with 5070 alarms; 87.1% of PICU and 99.0% of ward clinical alarms were non-actionable. Kaplan-Meier plots showed incremental increases in response time as the number of non-actionable alarms in the preceding 120 minutes increased (log-rank test stratified by nurse Palarms were non-actionable, and response time increased as nonactionable alarm exposure increased. Alarm fatigue could explain these findings. Future studies should evaluate the simultaneous influence of workload and other factors that can impact response time. PMID:25873486

  5. Flammable Gas Alarm System Based on ADAM-6017%基于ADAM-6017的可燃气体报警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫华; 赵庆云; 靳建水; 赵继安; 韩国栋

    2012-01-01

    利用智能型以太网I/O ADAM-6017的特性,以分布式控制方式构建某化工厂碳酸酯类等可燃气体报警系统,给出了系统的硬件架构和软件流程及其组态方式.%Basing on Ethernet I/O ADAM-6017 and distributed control mode, the flammable gas alarm system for carbonates in a chemical plant was proposed, including its hardware and software configuration and programming process.

  6. Research: Association of Low-Amplitude QRSs with False-Positive Asystole Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michele M; Fidler, Richard; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Although electrocardiographic monitoring is valuable for continuous surveillance of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, false alarms are common and have been cited as a cause of alarm fatigue. ANSI/AAMI EC12:2002 states that electrocardiograms (ECGs) should not detect a QRS if the waveform is less than 0.15 mV (1.5 mm) for adult patients, in order to avoid mislabeling P waves or baseline noise as QRSs during complete heart block or asystole. However, ECG software algorithms often use more conservative QRS thresholds, which may result in false-positive asystole alarms in patients with low-amplitude QRS complexes. To 1) assess the frequency of low QRS amplitude in a group of ICU patients with one or more false-positive asystole alarms and 2) determine whether low-amplitude QRSs are associated with false-positive asystole alarms during continuous ECG monitoring. Hospital-acquired standard 12-lead ECGs were examined in a group of 82 ICU patients who had one or more false-positive asystole alarms. Low QRS amplitude was defined as a unidirectional (only positive or negative) QRS of less than 5 mm in two of four leads (I, II, III, and V1). Low-amplitude QRSs were present in 45 of 82 (55%) patients. The presence of low-amplitude QRSs did not differ according to age, sex, or race. Patients treated in the cardiac ICU had the highest proportion of low-amplitude QRSs. An equivalent proportion of patients had false-positive asystole alarms by group (no low-amplitude QRSs 95% vs. low-amplitude QRSs 87%; P = 0.229). Eight patients (10%) had both true- and false-positive asystole alarms (two [5%] with no low-amplitude QRSs and six [13%] with low-amplitude QRSs; P = 0.229). Low-amplitude QRS, as assessed from hospital 12-lead ECGs, occurs frequently and is more common in cardiac ICU patients. However, this ECG feature did not identify patients with false-positive asystole alarms during continuous ECG monitoring.

  7. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-02-01

    Discriminating between group members and strangers is a key feature of social life. Nestmate recognition is very effective in social insects and is manifested by aggression and rejection of alien individuals, which are prohibited to enter the nest. Nestmate recognition is based on the quantitative variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical and behavioral analyses. We show that nestmate recognition was not impaired by constant environment, even though cuticular hydrocarbon profiles changed over time and were slightly converging among colonies. Linear hydrocarbons increased over time, especially in queenless colonies, but appeared to have weak diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure for the evolution of eusociality.

  8. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems.

  9. The Value of Alarm Features in Identifying Organic Causes of Dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Galmstrup Madsen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The unaided clinical diagnosis of dyspepsia is of limited value in separating functional dyspepsia from clinically relevant organic causes of dyspepsia (gastric and esophageal malignancies, peptic ulcer disease and complicated esophagitis. The identification of one or more alarm features, such as weight loss, dysphagia, signs of gastrointestinal bleeding, an abdominal mass or age over 45 years may help identify patients with a higher risk of organic disease. This review summarizes the frequency of alarm symptoms in dyspeptic patients in different settings (such as the community, primary care and specialist clinics. The prevalence of alarm features in patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal malignancy or peptic ulcer disease is described. The probability of diagnosing clinically relevant upper gastrointestinal disease in patients presenting with alarm features and other risk factors is discussed. Alarm features such as age, significant weight loss, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, signs of bleeding and dysphagia may help stratify dyspeptic patients and help optimize the use of endoscopy resources.

  10. A LFP-tree based method for association rules mining in telecommunication alarm correlation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mining of association rules is one of the primary methods used in telecommunication alarm correlation analysis,of which the alarm databases are very large.The efficiency of the algorithms plays an important role in tackling with large datasets. The classical frequent pattern growth(FP-growth) algorithm can produce a large number of conditional pattern trees which made it difficult to mine association rules in are telecommunication environment.In this paper,an algorithm based on layered frequent pattern tree(LFP-tree) is proposed for mining frequent patterns. Efficiency of this alagorithm is achieved with following techniques:1) All the frequent patterns are condensed into a layered structure,which can save memory time but also be very useful for updating the alarm databases.2) Each alarm item can be viewed as a triple,in which t is a Boolean vaviable that shows the item frequent or not.3) Deleting infrequent items with dynamic pruning can avoid produce conditional pattern sets. Simulation and analysis of algorithm show that it is a valid method with better time and space efficiency,which is adapted to mine association rules in telecommunication alarm correlation analysis.

  11. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan province (2010- 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fariadras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surveillance systems need to define the levels of alarm threshold for early detection of outbreak. The purpose of this study was to determine the threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan province, Iran. Methods: The suspected cases of meningitis that were reported through meningitis surveillance form 2010 to 2012 were investigated in this study. Explainable patterns of the syndromic data of fever and neurological symptoms were removed by Generalized Linear Model. The upper limits of cumulative sum (CUSUM algorithm were used to estimate the alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak. The seasonal pattern of dynamic alarm thresholds was defined using the data obtained from different seasons. Results: The fixed alarm threshold levels according to standardized CUSUM, i.e. 1.5 to 2 standard deviations from the mean, were equal to the occurrence of more than 3 and 4 suspected cases of meningitis, respectively. The corresponding values for dynamic levels based on the upper control limit of CUSUM were 2.6 to 3.2 cases for different seasons. In other words, 3 cases were considered to be a discrete scale for suspected cases of meningitis. Conclusion: Due to the seasonality pattern of meningitis, dynamic levels of alarm threshold should be determined according to the seasons and months of year.

  12. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  13. Mate choice: from sexual cues to cognitive adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have successfully combined sexual selection theory and empirical research to compile lists of sexual attractiveness cues used in human mate choice. But a list of inputs is not the same as a normative or descriptive model of a psychological adaptation. We need to shift from cataloguing sexual cues to modelling cognitive adaptations for mate choice. This theoretical chapter addresses how to make this transition in three parts. The introduction discusses four general problems with cue cataloguing as an evolutionary psychology research strategy: animals' promiscuous flexibility of cue use; cue use being marginal to cognition; cue use being marginal to the hard game-theoretical aspects of mate choice; and cue use being uninformative about the exact adaptive functions of mate choice. The middle section develops six critiques of current mate choice research: the obsession with sex difference; the over-emphasis on physical rather than behavioural cues; the assumption of weighted linear models of cue integration; the avoidance of game-theoretical problems of mutual choice and assortative mating; the neglect of co-evolution between mate choice heuristics and the cues that they select; and the failure to understand that mate choice is only worth doing if potential mates show significant genetic variance. The conclusion outlines a new normative and descriptive framework for mate choice, centred on the use of brutally efficient search heuristics that exploit the informational structure of human genotypes, phenotypes and populations to make good mate choices.

  14. Video Analysis of Factors Associated With Response Time to Physiologic Monitor Alarms in a Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Localio, A Russell; Holmes, John H; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Stemler, Shannon; MacMurchy, Matthew; Zander, Miriam; Roberts, Kathryn E; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Bedside monitor alarms alert nurses to life-threatening physiologic changes among patients, but the response times of nurses are slow. To identify factors associated with physiologic monitor alarm response time. This prospective cohort study used 551 hours of video-recorded care administered by 38 nurses to 100 children in a children's hospital medical unit between July 22, 2014, and November 11, 2015. Patient, nurse, and alarm-level factors hypothesized to predict response time. We used multivariable accelerated failure-time models stratified by each nurse and adjusted for clustering within patients to evaluate associations between exposures and response time to alarms that occurred while the nurse was outside the room. The study participants included 38 nurses, 100% (n = 38) of whom were white and 92% (n = 35) of whom were female, and 100 children, 51% (n = 51) of whom were male. The race/ethnicity of the child participants was 45% (n = 45) black or African American, 33% (n = 33) white, 4% (n = 4) Asian, and 18% (n = 18) other. Of 11 745 alarms among 100 children, 50 (0.5%) were actionable. The adjusted median response time among nurses was 10.4 minutes (95% CI, 5.0-15.8) and varied based on the following variables: if the patient was on complex care service (5.3 minutes [95% CI, 1.4-9.3] vs 11.1 minutes [95% CI, 5.6-16.6] among general pediatrics patients), whether family members were absent from the patient's bedside (6.3 minutes [95% CI, 2.2-10.4] vs 11.7 minutes [95% CI, 5.9-17.4] when family present), whether a nurse had less than 1 year of experience (4.4 minutes [95% CI, 3.4-5.5] vs 8.8 minutes [95% CI, 7.2-10.5] for nurses with 1 or more years of experience), if there was a 1 to 1 nursing assignment (3.5 minutes [95% CI, 1.3-5.7] vs 10.6 minutes [95% CI, 5.3-16.0] for nurses caring for 2 or more patients), if there were prior alarms requiring intervention (5.5 minutes [95% CI, 1.5-9.5] vs 10.7 minutes [5.2-16.2] for patients

  15. Support-Vector-Machine-Based False Alarm Filter of Mechatronic Built-in Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosing intermittent fault is an important approach to reduce built-in test (BIT) false alarms. Aiming at solving the shortcoming of the present diagnostic method of intermittent fault, and according to the merit of support vector machines ( SVM) which can be trained with a small-sample, an SVM-based diagnostic model of 3 states that include OK state, intermittent state and faulty state is presented. With the features based on the reflection coefficients of an alarm rate(AR) model extracted from small vibration samples, these models are trained to diagnose intermittent faults. The experimental results show that this method can diagnose multiple intermittent faults accurately with small training samples and BIT false alarms are reduced.

  16. Shadow Probability of Detection and False Alarm for Median-Filtered SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Analysis and Applications Dept.; Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Mission Engineering Dept.; Miller, John A. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Bishop, Edward E. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems

    2014-06-01

    Median filtering reduces speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery while preserving edges, at the expense of coarsening the resolution, by replacing the center pixel of a sliding window by the median value. For shadow detection, this approach helps distinguish shadows from clutter more easily, while preserving shadow shape delineations. However, the nonlinear operation alters the shadow and clutter distributions and statistics, which must be taken into consideration when computing probability of detection and false alarm metrics. Depending on system parameters, median filtering can improve probability of detection and false alarm by orders of magnitude. Herein, we examine shadow probability of detection and false alarm in a homogeneous, ideal clutter background after median filter post-processing. Some comments on multi-look processing effects with and without median filtering are also made.

  17. Communication Pattern Regarding Alarms and Patient Signals Between Nurses, Other Health Care Actors, Patients and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvoll, Terje; Hanenburg, Adrienne; Giordanego, Alain; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    CallMeSmart is a context aware communication system for hospitals. The system is being used by nurses and the physicians at the Oncology department, University Hospital of North Norway. CallMeSmart has been designed to increase the efficiency of communication between the nurse-physician and physician-physician. In this study, we have looked at the communication pathways between nurse-nurse and patient-nurse: how nurses define a preference of calling somebody, how alarms and tasks are prioritized, and how this could be implemented into the CallMeSmart system to improve the system for the nurses. This paper discusses how the communication pathways of the patient alarm system can be improved for health care actors in hospitals by revealing the communication patterns according to an alarm between those actors. We address the communication pattern between nurses, other health care actors, patients and the devices used, and discuss possible improvements of this communication.

  18. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1996-04-15

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

  19. Specificity improvement for network distributed physiologic alarms based on a simple deterministic reactive intelligent agent in the critical care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, James M; Kruger, Grant H; Sanders, Kathryn L; Gutierrez, Jorge; Rosenberg, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Automated physiologic alarms are available in most commercial physiologic monitors. However, due to the variability of data coming from the physiologic sensors describing the state of patients, false positive alarms frequently occur. Each alarm requires review and documentation, which consumes clinicians' time, may reduce patient safety through 'alert fatigue' and makes automated physician paging infeasible. To address these issues a computerized architecture based on simple reactive intelligent agent technology has been developed and implemented in a live critical care unit to facilitate the investigation of deterministic algorithms for the improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of physiologic alarms. The initial proposed algorithm uses a combination of median filters and production rules to make decisions about what alarms to generate. The alarms are used to classify the state of patients and alerts can be easily viewed and distributed using standard network, SQL database and Internet technologies. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a 28 day study was conducted in the University of Michigan Medical Center's 14 bed Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Alarms generated by patient monitors, the intelligent agent and alerts documented on patient flow sheets were compared. Significant improvements in the specificity of the physiologic alarms based on systolic and mean blood pressure was found on average to be 99% and 88% respectively. Even through significant improvements were noted based on this algorithm much work still needs to be done to ensure the sensitivity of alarms and methods to handle spurious sensor data due to patient or sensor movement and other influences.

  20. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of false alarm in handling of selfish nodes in MANET with congestion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobile nodes will have the characteristics of mobility and constraints in resources. Since, the mobility is high, the nodes may move randomly and fastly, which lead to network partitioning. The resource constraints leads to a big problem as decrease in performance and the network partitioning leads to poor data accessibility. To improve the data accessibility, we have proposed several data replication techniques. Most of the users at different places assume that mobile nodes co-operate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. But In reality, some nodes may decide as not to co-operate with others or partially co-operate with other nodes. The behavior of these selfish nodes leads to decrease in over all data accessibility of the network. We have explored the impression of selfish nodes in a MANET from the perspective of replica allocation and developed selfish node detection algorithm that considers the partial selfish node and fully selfish node as selfish replica allocation. The replica will be allocated using specific SCF tree concept. An alarm will be raised based on the selfish behavior of overall nodes called overall selfishness alarm. But the alarm will also be initiated because of network disconnections too but it seems and treated as overall selfishness alarm, it will affect the overall performance of the network. The concept of the paper deals with detection of false alarm as differentiated from overall selfishness alarm and to inform the other nodes at route as exactly where the disconnections occur to select the next best alternative path and also to increase the performance with increased congestion control. Detection of attacker node in the network and should be informed to all others in the network.

  2. Validation of the Rome III criteria and alarm symptoms for recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Benninga, Marc A; Schweizer, Joachim J; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Büller, Hans A

    2014-06-01

    Rome criteria were formulated to define functional gastrointestinal disorders (Rome III criteria, 2006) excluding organic diagnoses when alarm symptoms were absent. The aims of the study were to validate the Rome III criteria as to their capacity to differentiate between organic and functional abdominal pain and to assess the role of alarm symptoms in this differentiation. During 2 years all of the patients (ages 4-16 years) presenting with recurrent abdominal pain (Apley criteria) and referred to secondary care were included. Clinical diagnoses were based on protocolized evaluation and intervention with 6-month follow-up. Alarm symptoms were registered. Rome III criteria for functional pain syndromes were assigned independently. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. In 200 patients (87 boys, mean age 8.8 years), organic (17%), functional (40%), combined organic and functional (9%), spontaneous recovery (27%), and other (8%) clinical diagnoses were established. Alarm symptoms were found in 57.5% (organic causes 56%, functional causes 61%). The evaluation for Rome symptom clusters revealed symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in 27%, functional dyspepsia in 15%, functional abdominal pain in 28%, functional abdominal pain syndrome in 14.5%, and no pain syndrome in 15.5%. Rome diagnoses, based on symptoms and absence of alarm symptoms, predicted functional clinical diagnosis with sensitivity 0.35 (95% confidence interval 0.27-0.43), specificity 0.60 (0.46-0.73), positive predictive value 0.71 (0.61-0.82), and negative predictive value of 0.24 (0.17-0.32). The Rome III criteria for abdominal pain are not specific enough to rule out organic causes. Alarm symptoms do not differentiate between organic and functional abdominal pain.

  3. Laboratory-based, cue-elicited craving and cue reactivity as predictors of naturally occurring smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research.

  4. Consumer attention to product health cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five...... healthfulness and purchase likelihood. Study 2 used a 3x2x2 group mixed design manipulating product images (control images, health-related images, exercise-related images), brand (control brand, health association brand), and color scheme (control color scheme, green health-association color scheme). Study 3...

  5. Visual cues to female physical attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovée, M.J.; Maisey, D S; Emery, J. L.; Cornelissen, P L

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of health and reproductive potential. In recent years, research has focused on the ratio of the width of the waist to the width of the hips (the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A low WHR (i.e. a curvaceous body) is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility, and so this shape should be highly attractive. In this paper we present evidence that weight scaled for height (the body mass ...

  6. Low-Level Flight Simulation: Vertical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    The ASPT visual s’ester Soiftware autoematic’ally droips the’m freim the scene- at altitudes above 2000 fe’et AGI.) In an attempt to make the cue’s...8217 vertical (V) field of view. The ASPT has a - 15’ view o er the nose. - 370 over the left side, and - 15’ over the right side. (The aircraft field of...simulation, the ASPT /F-16 provided several instructional features that were used in this study. A video display of the HUD (Figures 1 and 21 and forward

  7. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  8. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  9. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  10. An auditory cue-depreciation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Watkins, M J

    1991-01-01

    An experiment is reported in which subjects first heard a list of words and then tried to identify these same words from degraded utterances. Paralleling previous findings in the visual modality, the probability of identifying a given utterance was reduced when the utterance was immediately preceded by other, more degraded, utterances of the same word. A second experiment replicated this "cue-depreciation effect" and in addition found the effect to be weakened, if not eliminated, when the target word was not included in the initial list or when the test was delayed by two days.

  11. An Intrusion Alarming System Based on Self- Similarity of Network Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fei; ZHU Miao-liang; CHEN Yu-feng; LI Ren-fa; XU Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Intrusion detection system can make effective alarm for illegality of network users, which is absolutely necessarily and important to build security environment of communication base service. According to the principle that the number of network traffic can affect the degree of self-similar traffic, the paper investigates the variety of self-similarity resulted from unconventional network traffic. A network traffic model based on normal behaviors of user is proposed and the Hurst parameter of this model can be calculated. By comparing the Hurst parameter of normal traffic and the self-similar parameter, we can judge whether the network is normal or not and alarm in time.

  12. Earthquake alarm; operating the seismograph station at the University of California, Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, B.

    1980-01-01

    An alarm bell rings at the seismographic station and at the office of the campus police. It is 3:00 on a foggy San Francisco morning. Somewhere in the world an earthquake has occurred. The police telephone the duty seismologist at home telling him that the alarm has triggered. He makes his way into the seismograph station, bathrobe and all, to locate the earthquake and determine its magnitude. In this way, many seismology graduate students have been initiated into the responsibilities of running a seismographic station. 

  13. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the utilisation of product choice cues in a retail environment and the impact of consumer involvement on this utilisation. It further investigates the impact of product knowledge on product choice cue utilisation and its moderating role on the impact...... of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada....... Product choice cues are grouped into extrinsic, intrinsic and marketing mix. The importance of how these cues are influenced from different dimensions of consumer involvement is illustrated. Findings The results show that product knowledge has a positive impact on intrinsic product cue utilisation...

  14. Reactivity to alcohol cues: isolating the role of perceived availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Lisman, Stephen A

    2005-08-01

    Perceived availability of a substance has been proposed to play a role in cue reactivity by both traditional classical conditioning models and S. T. Tiffany's (1990) cognitive processing model (CPM) of substance use. This study investigated the role of availability information on alcohol cue reactivity. Subjects were 134 heavy drinkers in a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, crossing cues (alcohol vs. neutral) and availability information (availability vs. unavailability). The results indicated significant main effects for cue type, with alcohol cues eliciting greater reactivity on multiple measures, and an interaction effect on the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (M. J. Bohn, D. D. Krahn, & B. B. Staehler, 1995), such that exposure to alcohol cues in conjunction with unavailability information elicited a greater urge. This was largely a result of changes in self-reported craving and was interpreted as consistent with the CPM. Alternative methodologies and limitations are discussed.

  15. Specific cue reactivity on computer game-related cues in excessive gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalemann, R; Wölfling, K; Grüsser, S M

    2007-06-01

    It has been posited that excessive computer game playing behavior, referred to as computer game addiction, meets criteria that have been internationally established to define drug addiction. Nevertheless, there have been no psychophysiological investigations of the underlying mechanisms available to support the characterization of excessive computer gaming as behavioral addiction. To investigate whether excessive computer gaming parallels learning processes in development and maintenance (which are assumed to underlie drug addiction), the authors obtained a psychophysiological assessment of the (learned) emotional processing of computer game-relevant and -irrelevant cues. For this purpose, electroencephalographic recordings in excessive and casual computer game players were conducted. Significant between-group differences in event-related potentials evoked by computer game related-cues were found at parietal regions and point to an increased emotional processing of these cues in excessive pathological players compared with casual players. These results are in concordance with the suggestion that addiction is characterized and maintained through sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system along with incentive salience of specific addiction-associated cues.

  16. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de la Paz; Chan, Yick-Bun; Yew, Joanne Y; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Levine, Joel D; Kravitz, Edward A

    2010-11-23

    Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR) was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF) elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral responses towards

  17. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Fernández

    Full Text Available Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral

  18. Subliminal Cues While Teaching: HCI Technique for Enhanced Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Chalfoun; Claude Frasson

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from an empirical study conducted with a subliminal teaching technique aimed at enhancing learner's performance in Intelligent Systems through the use of physiological sensors. This technique uses carefully designed subliminal cues (positive) and miscues (negative) and projects them under the learner's perceptual visual threshold. A positive cue, called answer cue, is a hint aiming to enhance the learner's inductive reasoning abilities and projected in a way to hel...

  19. Strategy selection in cue-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, David J

    2014-06-01

    People can make use of a range of heuristic and rational, compensatory strategies to perform a multiple-cue judgment task. It has been proposed that people are sensitive to the amount of cognitive effort required to employ decision strategies. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task methodology to investigate whether participants' preference for heuristic versus compensatory decision strategies can be altered by increasing the cognitive demands of the task. As indicated by participants' decision times, a secondary task interfered more with the performance of a heuristic than compensatory decision strategy but did not affect the proportions of participants using either type of strategy. A stimulus set effect suggested that the conjunction of cue salience and cue validity might play a determining role in strategy selection. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that when a perceptually salient cue was also the most valid, the majority of participants preferred a single-cue heuristic strategy. Overall, the results contradict the view that heuristics are more likely to be adopted when a task is made more cognitively demanding. It is argued that people employ 2 learning processes during training, one an associative learning process in which cue-outcome associations are developed by sampling multiple cues, and another that involves the sequential examination of single cues to serve as a basis for a single-cue heuristic.

  20. Cross-language differences in cue use for speech segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Michael D; Cutler, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Two artificial-language learning experiments directly compared English, French, and Dutch listeners' use of suprasegmental cues for continuous-speech segmentation. In both experiments, listeners heard unbroken sequences of consonant-vowel syllables, composed of recurring three- and four-syllable "words." These words were demarcated by (a) no cue other than transitional probabilities induced by their recurrence, (b) a consistent left-edge cue, or (c) a consistent right-edge cue. Experiment 1 examined a vowel lengthening cue. All three listener groups benefited from this cue in right-edge position; none benefited from it in left-edge position. Experiment 2 examined a pitch-movement cue. English listeners used this cue in left-edge position, French listeners used it in right-edge position, and Dutch listeners used it in both positions. These findings are interpreted as evidence of both language-universal and language-specific effects. Final lengthening is a language-universal effect expressing a more general (non-linguistic) mechanism. Pitch movement expresses prominence which has characteristically different placements across languages: typically at right edges in French, but at left edges in English and Dutch. Finally, stress realization in English versus Dutch encourages greater attention to suprasegmental variation by Dutch than by English listeners, allowing Dutch listeners to benefit from an informative pitch-movement cue even in an uncharacteristic position.

  1. Cross-modal cueing in audiovisual spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Greenlee, Mark W.; Gondan, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Visual processing is most effective at the location of our attentional focus. It has long been known that various spatial cues can direct visuospatial attention and influence the detection of auditory targets. Cross-modal cueing, however, seems to depend on the type of the visual cue: facilitation...... that the perception of multisensory signals is modulated by a single, supramodal system operating in a top-down manner (Experiment 1). In contrast, bottom-up control of attention, as observed in the exogenous cueing task of Experiment 2, mainly exerts its influence through modality-specific subsystems. Experiment 3...

  2. Retro-dimension-cue benefit in visual working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Gendron, Maria; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants’ performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants’ performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased probability of reporting the target, but not in the probability of reporting the non-target, as well as increased precision with which this item is remembered. Experiment 2 replicated the retro-dimension-cue benefit and showed that the length of the blank interval after the cue disappeared did not influence recall performance. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 with a lower memory load. Our studies provide evidence that there is a robust retro-dimension-cue benefit in VWM. Participants can use internal attention to flexibly allocate cognitive resources to a particular dimension of memory representations. The results also support the feature-based storing hypothesis. PMID:27774983

  3. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  4. Attention to health cues on product packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (a) to examine which information and design elements on dairy product packages operate as cues in consumer evaluations of product healthfulness, and (b) to measure the degree to which consumers voluntarily attend to these elements during product choice. Visual att...... during purchase likelihood evaluations. The study also revealed that the probability that a consumer will read the nutrition label during the purchase decision process is associated with gender, body mass index and health motivation.......The objectives of the study were (a) to examine which information and design elements on dairy product packages operate as cues in consumer evaluations of product healthfulness, and (b) to measure the degree to which consumers voluntarily attend to these elements during product choice. Visual...... attention was measured by means of eye-tracking. Task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, and purchase likelihood evaluation) and product (five different yoghurt products) were varied in a mixed within-between subjects design. The free viewing condition served as a baseline against which...

  5. Magnetic information calibrates celestial cues during migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg; Bäckman; Moore; Lõhmus

    2000-10-01

    Migratory birds use celestial and geomagnetic directional information to orient on their way between breeding and wintering areas. Cue-conflict experiments involving these two orientation cue systems have shown that directional information can be transferred from one system to the other by calibration. We designed experiments with four species of North American songbirds to: (1) examine whether these species calibrate orientation information from one system to the other; and (2) determine whether there are species-specific differences in calibration. Migratory orientation was recorded with two different techniques, cage tests and free-flight release tests, during autumn migration. Cage tests at dusk in the local geomagnetic field revealed species-specific differences: red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus, and northern waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis, selected seasonally appropriate southerly directions whereas indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea, and grey catbird, Dumetella carolinensis, oriented towards the sunset direction. When tested in deflected magnetic fields, vireos and waterthrushes responded by shifting their orientation according to the deflection of the magnetic field, but buntings and catbirds failed to show any response to the treatment. In release tests, all four species showed that they had recalibrated their star compass on the basis of the magnetic field they had just experienced in the cage tests. Since release tests were done in the local geomagnetic field it seems clear that once the migratory direction is determined, most likely during the twilight period, the birds use their recalibrated star compass for orientation at departure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Interpreting prosodic cues in discourse context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments investigated whether and how quickly discourse-based expectations about the prosodic realization of spoken words modulate interpretation of acoustic-prosodic cues. Experiment 1 replicated effects of segmental lengthening on activation of onset-embedded words (e.g. pumpkin) using resynthetic manipulation of duration and fundamental frequency (F0). In Experiment 2, the same materials were preceded by instructions establishing information-structural differences between competing lexical alternatives (i.e. repeated vs. newly-assigned thematic roles) in critical instructions. Eye-movements generated upon hearing the critical target word revealed a significant interaction between information structure and target-word realization: Segmental lengthening and pitch excursion elicited more fixations to the onset-embedded competitor when the target word remained in the same thematic role, but not when its thematic role changed. These results suggest that information structure modulates the interpretation of acoustic-prosodic cues by influencing expectations about fine-grained acoustic-phonetic properties of the unfolding utterance. PMID:25599081

  7. Haven't a Cue? Mapping the CUE Space as an Aid to HRA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; Ronald L Boring; Jacques Hugo; William Phoenix

    2012-06-01

    Advances in automation present a new modeling environment for the human reliability analysis (HRA) practitioner. Many, if not most, current day HRA methods have their origin in characterizing and quantifying human performance in analog environments where mode awareness and system status indications are potentially less comprehensive, but simpler to comprehend at a glance when compared to advanced presentation systems. The introduction of highly complex automation has the potential to lead to: decreased levels of situation awareness caused by the need for increased monitoring; confusion regarding the often non-obvious causes of automation failures, and emergent system dependencies that formerly may have been uncharacterized. Understanding the relation of incoming cues available to operators during plant upset conditions, in conjunction with operating procedures, yields insight into understanding the nature of the expected operator response in this control room environment. Static systems methods such as fault trees do not contain the appropriate temporal information or necessarily specify the relationship among cues leading to operator response. In this paper, we do not attempt to replace standard performance shaping factors commonly used in HRA nor offer a new HRA method, existing methods may suffice. In this paper we strive to enhance current understanding of the basis for operator response through a technique that can be used during the qualitative portion of the HRA analysis process. The CUE map is a means to visualize the relationship among salient cues in the control room that help influence operator response, show how the cognitive map of the operator changes as information is gained or lost, and is applicable to existing as well as advanced hybrid plants and small modular reactor designs. A brief application involving loss of condensate is presented and advantages and limitations of the modeling approach and use of the CUE map are discussed.

  8. Development and Application of a Clinical Microsystem Simulation Methodology for Human Factors-Based Research of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Gosbee, John W; Merck, Derek L

    2017-07-01

    (1) To develop a clinical microsystem simulation methodology for alarm fatigue research with a human factors engineering (HFE) assessment framework and (2) to explore its application to the comparative examination of different approaches to patient monitoring and provider notification. Problems with the design, implementation, and real-world use of patient monitoring systems result in alarm fatigue. A multidisciplinary team is developing an open-source tool kit to promote bedside informatics research and mitigate alarm fatigue. Simulation, HFE, and computer science experts created a novel simulation methodology to study alarm fatigue. Featuring multiple interconnected simulated patient scenarios with scripted timeline, "distractor" patient care tasks, and triggered true and false alarms, the methodology incorporated objective metrics to assess provider and system performance. Developed materials were implemented during institutional review board-approved study sessions that assessed and compared an experimental multiparametric alerting system with a standard monitor telemetry system for subject response, use characteristics, and end-user feedback. A four-patient simulation setup featuring objective metrics for participant task-related performance and response to alarms was developed along with accompanying structured HFE assessment (questionnaire and interview) for monitor systems use testing. Two pilot and four study sessions with individual nurse subjects elicited true alarm and false alarm responses (including diversion from assigned tasks) as well as nonresponses to true alarms. In-simulation observation and subject questionnaires were used to test the experimental system's approach to suppressing false alarms and alerting providers. A novel investigative methodology applied simulation and HFE techniques to replicate and study alarm fatigue in controlled settings for systems assessment and experimental research purposes.

  9. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control, and trial (day or night. When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F20,442 = 9.140, P < 0.001 and night (F23,459 = 8.356, P < 0.001 alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F6,183 = 2.450, P < 0.001 following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F6,174 = 4.071, P < 0.001 than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants′ ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake.

  10. Sight or smell? Behavioural and heart rate responses in subordinate rainbow trout exposed to cues from dominant fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjesjö, Johan; Axelsson, Michael; Dahy, Ronja; Gustavsson, Lena; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-01-01

    Many animals, including fish, can utilize both vision and the chemical senses in intra-specific communication. However, the relative influence of these sensory modalities on behavioral and physiological responses in social interactions is not well understood. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relative effects of visual and chemical stimuli from dominant individuals on the behavioral and physiological responses of subordinate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). External electrodes were used to detect ECG signals from free-swimming fish. This method allowed the simultaneous recording of behavioral and physiological responses, and possible sex differences in these responses were also investigated. The results suggest that, in this context, visual cues are more important than chemical cues in settling the social hierarchy in rainbow trout because a combination of chemical and visual exposure generally yielded a response in focal fish that was similar to the response elicited by visual exposure alone. Both activity and physiological responses were most pronounced during the first ten seconds after exposure, with subordinate fish moving closer to the dominant, accompanied by a strong bradycardic response. Furthermore, females acted more boldly and moved closer to the dominant fish than males, but here the effect of the modes was additive, with a stronger effect of the combined visual and chemical exposure. Overall, the extra information furnished to the fish in the form of chemical cues did not change either the behavioral or the physiological response. This result suggests that visual cues are more important than chemically mediated ones for social communication and individual recognition in rainbow trout.

  11. Sight or smell? Behavioural and heart rate responses in subordinate rainbow trout exposed to cues from dominant fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Höjesjö

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animals, including fish, can utilize both vision and the chemical senses in intra-specific communication. However, the relative influence of these sensory modalities on behavioral and physiological responses in social interactions is not well understood. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relative effects of visual and chemical stimuli from dominant individuals on the behavioral and physiological responses of subordinate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. External electrodes were used to detect ECG signals from free-swimming fish. This method allowed the simultaneous recording of behavioral and physiological responses, and possible sex differences in these responses were also investigated. The results suggest that, in this context, visual cues are more important than chemical cues in settling the social hierarchy in rainbow trout because a combination of chemical and visual exposure generally yielded a response in focal fish that was similar to the response elicited by visual exposure alone. Both activity and physiological responses were most pronounced during the first ten seconds after exposure, with subordinate fish moving closer to the dominant, accompanied by a strong bradycardic response. Furthermore, females acted more boldly and moved closer to the dominant fish than males, but here the effect of the modes was additive, with a stronger effect of the combined visual and chemical exposure. Overall, the extra information furnished to the fish in the form of chemical cues did not change either the behavioral or the physiological response. This result suggests that visual cues are more important than chemically mediated ones for social communication and individual recognition in rainbow trout.

  12. Preconditioning of Spatial and Auditory Cues: Roles of the Hippocampus, Frontal Cortex, and Cue-Directed Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Talk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks, in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner. The opposite corner acted as an unpaired control location. The rats demonstrated recollection of location by avoiding the paired corner after the auditory cue was in turn paired with shock. Damage to either the dorsal hippocampus or the frontal cortex impaired this memory ability. However, we also found that hippocampal lesions enhanced attention directed towards the cue during the encoding phase, while frontal cortical lesions reduced cue-directed attention. These results suggest that the deficit in spatial sensory preconditioning caused by frontal cortical damage may be mediated by inattention to the location of cues during the latent encoding phase, while deficits following hippocampal damage must be related to other mechanisms such as generation of neural plasticity.

  13. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 27.1-27.4 Computer Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of four learning modules on computer usage is one of eight such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide…

  14. Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care : an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Gijs; van Ierland, Yvette; Bohnen, Arthur M.; de Wilde, Marcel; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriette A.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to antibiotic pres

  15. Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care: An observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs); Y. van Ierland (Yvette); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); M. de Wilde (Marcel); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to ant

  16. Sensor fusion methods for reducing false alarms in heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gabriel; Brusamarello, Valner

    2016-12-01

    Automatic patient monitoring is an essential resource in hospitals for good health care management. While alarms caused by abnormal physiological conditions are important for the delivery of fast treatment, they can be also a source of unnecessary noise because of false alarms caused by electromagnetic interference or motion artifacts. One significant source of false alarms is related to heart rate, which is triggered when the heart rhythm of the patient is too fast or too slow. In this work, the fusion of different physiological sensors is explored in order to create a robust heart rate estimation. A set of algorithms using heart rate variability index, Bayesian inference, neural networks, fuzzy logic and majority voting is proposed to fuse the information from the electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure and photoplethysmogram. Three kinds of information are extracted from each source, namely, heart rate variability, the heart rate difference between sensors and the spectral analysis of low and high noise of each sensor. This information is used as input to the algorithms. Twenty recordings selected from the MIMIC database were used to validate the system. The results showed that neural networks fusion had the best false alarm reduction of 92.5 %, while the Bayesian technique had a reduction of 84.3 %, fuzzy logic 80.6 %, majority voter 72.5 % and the heart rate variability index 67.5 %. Therefore, the proposed algorithms showed good performance and could be useful in bedside monitors.

  17. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert... § 75.352 Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert... be identified and the AMS operator must promptly notify appropriate personnel. (b) Upon...

  18. Alarm symptoms of upper gastrointestinal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival of upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer depends on early stage diagnosis. Symptom-based guidelines and fast-track referral systems have been implemented for use in general practice. To improve diagnosis of upper GI cancer, knowledge on prevalence of alarm symptoms...

  19. Fast estimation of false alarm probabilities of STAP detectors - the AMF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Rajan; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to harness the power of adaptive importance sampling techniques for estimating false alarm probabilities of detectors that use space-time adaptive processing. Fast simulation using these techniques have been notably successful in the study of conventional constant fal

  20. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.