WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical agents

  1. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  2. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  3. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  4. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  5. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  6. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laljer, Charles E.

    2003-08-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  7. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  8. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  9. Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents (CWA pose inevitable threat, both to soldiers and civilians. Risk on contact with these deadly agents can be avoided by neutralisation of their toxic effects. A suitable media with essential physico-chemical properties is required for this purpose. Considerable efforts have been made to develop several decontamination media suitable for neutralisation of highly toxic CWAs. This paper reviews history and details of recent technological advancements in the development of versatile, broad spectrum decontamination formulations against CWAs, as also nanosized metal oxides as CWA decontaminants.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.428-441, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.487

  10. JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM (JACADS) CLOSURE PLAN DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JACADS project consists of four incinerators including a liquid chemical agent waste processor, an explosives treatment incinerator and a batch metal parts treatment unit. Its mission was to disassemble and destroy chemcial weapons and bulk chemical agent. This prototypical...

  11. Chemical agents and the immune response.

    OpenAIRE

    Luster, M I; Rosenthal, G J

    1993-01-01

    Our desire to understand the potential adverse human health effects of environmental chemical exposure has coincided with an increased understanding of the immune system and an appreciation of its complex regulatory network. This has spawned a broad interest in the area of immunotoxicology within the scientific community as well as certain concerns in the public sector regarding chemical-induced hypersensitivity and immunosuppression. The incidence of alleged human sensitization to chemicals ...

  12. Study on scattering properties of tissues with hyperosmotic chemical agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Optical properties of biological tissue are variable due to the changes of micro-structures and scattering constituents after hyperosmotic chemical agents permeates into tissue. The changes of optical properties of biological tissue are due to the refractive indices matching between the scatterers with high refractive index and the ground substances, which reduce scattering of tissue. The main reasons are that permeated semipermeable chemical agents with higher refractive index than the ground substances of tissuemakes the refractive index of ground substances of tissue higher by the enhancement of the permeated concentration. We studied on the collimated transmittance changes of light penetrating biological tissue after the hyperosmotic chemical agents administrates with different concentration.

  13. The induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLuke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the general consensus that synaesthesia emerges at an early developmental stage and is only rarely acquired during adulthood, the transient induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents has been frequently reported in research on different psychoactive substances. Nevertheless, these effects remain poorly understood and have not been systematically incorporated. Here we review the known published studies in which chemical agents were observed to elicit synaesthesia. Across studies there is consistent evidence that serotonin agonists elicit transient experiences of synaesthesia. Despite convergent results across studies, studies investigating the induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents have numerous methodological limitations and little experimental research has been conducted. Cumulatively, these studies implicate the serotonergic system in synaesthesia and have implications for the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon but methodological limitations in this research area preclude making firm conclusions regarding whether chemical agents can induce genuine synaesthesia.

  14. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  15. 75 FR 76460 - Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for..., ``Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment.... ADDRESSES: The draft ``Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview...

  16. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  17. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  18. Towards decomposition of live chemical agents by pyrotechnic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Noort, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to improved EOD neutralisation techniques against improvised explosive devices (IEDs) containing chemical agents. The decomposition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) when exposed to a burning aluminum/potassium nitrate pyrotechnic mixture is studied experime

  19. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  20. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.556

  1. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agen

  2. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Gonçalves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  3. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Ogliari, Aline de Oliveira; Jardim, Patrícia dos Santos; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  4. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devulapalli Narasimha Swamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA, including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS, bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators.

  5. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Devulapalli Narasimha; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kapalavai, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators. PMID:26392682

  6. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Chemical agent detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.; Morrisey, Kevin; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-03-01

    In the past decade, the Unites States and its allies have been challenged by a different kind of warfare, exemplified by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although suicide bombings are the most often used form of terror, military personnel must consider a wide range of attack scenarios. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of several chemical agents measured in a generic tap water. Repeat measurements were performed to establish statistical error associated with SERS obtained using the sol-gel coated vials.

  8. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41 CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images.

  9. A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Tarighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of hemorrhage is one of the challenging situations dentists confront during deep cavity preparation and before impressions or cementation of restorations. For the best bond and least contamination it is necessary to be familiar with the hemostatic agents available on the market and to be able to choose the appropriate one for specific situations. This review tries to introduce the commercially available hemostatic agents, discusses their components and their specific features. The most common chemical agents that are widely used in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry according to their components and mechanism of action as well as their special uses are introduced. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for studies involving gingival retraction and hemostatic agents from 1970 to 2013. Key search words including: "gingival retraction techniques, impression technique, hemostasis and astringent" were searched. Based on the information available in the literature, in order to achieve better results with impression taking and using resin bonding techniques, common hemostatic agents might be recommended before or during acid etching; they should be rinsed off properly and it is recommended that they be used with etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

  10. Contaminación por agentes químicos Contamination by chemical agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación por productos químicos es una situación clínica cuyo manejo precisa de una serie de conocimientos muy concretos por parte de los médicos de emergencias, al tener que conocer los tipos de agentes químicos más frecuentes y su mecanismo de acción. Este tipo de contaminación exige la existencia de unos planes concretos de actuación en el ámbito hospitalario y en coordinación con los mecanismos extrahospitalarios de emergencias. Al riesgo que supone el estar diariamente rodeados de productos químicos a escala industrial, con riesgo de escapes y accidentes durante su transporte e incluso en los domicilios, se une la posibilidad de utilización de diversos agentes químicos como armas de destrucción masiva, tanto en conflictos bélicos, como en actos terroristas.Contamination by chemical products is a clinical situation whose handling requires very specific knowledge by the physicians in the emergency services, since they must know the most frequent types of chemical agents and their mechanism of action. This type of contamination makes it necessary for there to be concrete plans of action in the hospital milieu and coordination with the emergency outpatient mechanisms. To the risk of being surrounded by chemical products on an industrial scale on a daily basis, and the risk of leaks and accidents during transport and even in private homes, there is now added the possible use of different chemical agents as weapons of mass destruction, both in military conflicts and in terrorist acts.

  11. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  12. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Martins Alzira

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute, Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606, were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs; 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs; 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens.

  13. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  14. Fabrication of SAW Sensor for Detecting Chemical Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J H Lee; B S Joo; J S Huh; D D Lee

    2006-01-01

    SAW sensors using five different types of polymer to detect of chemical agents (DMMP, CH3CN, CH2Cl2, DCP)have been fabricated and its gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. The polymers used as the sensing material are polyisobutylene (PIB), polyepichlorohydrin (PECH), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyisoprene(PIP) and polybutadiene(PBD). Their thin films were coated on quartz substrate by spin coating technique. Three types of simulants gases, dimethylmethylphosphonate(DMMP), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dichloromethane(CH2Cl2), dichloropentane(DCP) were used as target gases, instead of the real nerve, blood, choking and vesicant agents. After spin coating of PIB and PECH, the substrates were heated to 65℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the cyclohexane and ethylacetate which was used as solvent.PDMS was heated to 75℃ with N2 flow for 2 h to remove the ethylacetate which was used as solvent. PBD and PIP on the substrate were heated to 60℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the benzen which was used as solvent. The sensing characteristics of the SAW sensors were measured by using E-5061A network analyzer.

  15. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  16. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.;

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  17. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  18. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  19. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF WATER BASIN CLEANING FROM CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Tiavlovskaya; V. F. Tamelo

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of reasons that explain pollution of World Ocean waters by chemical warfare agents and ecological dangers which can arise due to their emission. Possible methods for liquidation of chemical warfare agents and water basin cleaning from them have been considered in the paper.

  20. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  1. Compensation for occupational diseases by chemical agents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Roh, Soo-Yong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Eun-A

    2014-06-01

    Investigation into the frequency of compensation for occupational diseases (ODs) caused by hazardous chemicals revealed an important opportunity for the improvement and further development of occupational health and safety systems in Korea. In response to concerns after outbreaks of disease due to chemical exposure, specific criteria for recognition of ODs were established and included in the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standard Act (LSA) and the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) on June 28, 2013. However, the original versions of the LSA and IACIA contain several limitations. First, the criteria was listed inconsistently according to the symptoms or signs of acute poisoning. Second, all newly recognized hazardous chemicals and chemicals recognized as hazardous by the International Labor Organization (ILO) were not included in the LSA and IACIA. Although recent amendments have addressed these shortcomings, future amendments should strive to include all chemicals listed by the ILO and continuously add newly discovered hazardous chemicals as they are introduced into the workplace. PMID:25006329

  2. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  3. Chemical structure and pharmacokinetics of novel quinolone agents represented by avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Bela; Domokos, J.; Szabo, D.

    2016-01-01

    Quinolones are potent antimicrobial agents with a basic chemical structure of bicyclic ring. Fluorine atom at position C-6 and various substitutions on the basic quinolone structure yielded fluoroquinolones, namely norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and numerous other agents. The target molecules of quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Broad-spectrum and excellent tissue penetration make fluoroquinolones potent agents but their...

  4. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Devulapalli Narasimha Swamy; Sahitya Sanivarapu; Srinivas Moogla; Vasavi Kapalavai

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemica...

  5. Quantum chemical analysis of potential anti-Parkinson agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nima Razzaghi-Asl; Sara Shahabipour; Ahmad Ebadi; Azam Bagheri

    2015-07-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are amine oxidoreductase falvoenzymes that belong to the integral proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane. MAO exists in two distinct isoforms; MAO-A and MAO-B. Inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B is important for developing antidepressant and antiparkinson agents, respectively. In the light of the above explanations, detailed structure binding relationship studies on the intermolecular binding components of MAO-B complexes may unravel the way toward developing novel anti-Parkinson agents. In the present contribution, intermolecular binding pattern for a series of experimentally validated 3-arylcoumarin MAO-B inhibitors (1–9) have been elucidated via molecular docking and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Intermolecular binding energy components could not be analyzed by docking and due to this limitation, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations including functional B3LYP in association with split valence basis set (Def2-SVP) were applied to estimate the ligand-residue binding energies in the MAO-B active site. Moreover; results were interpreted in terms of calculated polarization effects that were induced by individual amino acids of the MAO-B active site. The results of the present study provide an approach to pharmacophore-based modification within the 3-arylcoumarin scaffold for potent MAO-B inhibitors.

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  7. Chemical structure and pharmacokinetics of novel quinolone agents represented by avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Bela; Domokos, J; Szabo, D

    2016-01-01

    Quinolones are potent antimicrobial agents with a basic chemical structure of bicyclic ring. Fluorine atom at position C-6 and various substitutions on the basic quinolone structure yielded fluoroquinolones, namely norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and numerous other agents. The target molecules of quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Broad-spectrum and excellent tissue penetration make fluoroquinolones potent agents but their toxic side effects and increasing number of resistant pathogens set limits on their use. This review focuses on recent advances concerning quinolones and fluoroquinolones, we will be summarising chemical structure, mode of action, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. We will be describing fluoroquinolones introduced in clinical trials, namely avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and non-fluorinated nemonoxacin. These agents have been proved to have enhanced antibacterial effect even against ciprofloxacin resistant pathogens, and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features are going to make them potential antimicrobial agents in the future. PMID:27215369

  8. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  9. Evaluation of antiseptic antiviral activity of chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Finance, Chantal; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    Antiviral antisepsis and disinfection are crucial for preventing the environmental spread of viral infections. Emerging viruses and associated diseases, as well as nosocomial viral infections, have become a real issue in medical fields, and there are very few efficient and specific treatments available to fight most of these infections. Another issue is the potential environmental resistance and spread of viral particles. Therefore, it is essential to properly evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics-disinfectants (ATS-D) on viruses. ATS-D antiviral activity is evaluated by (1) combining viruses and test product for an appropriately defined and precise contact time, (2) neutralizing product activity, and (3) estimating the loss of viral infectivity. A germicide can be considered to have an efficient ATS-D antiviral activity if it induces a >3 or >4 log(10) reduction (American and European regulatory agency requirements, respectively) in viral titers in a defined contact time. This unit describes a global methodology for evaluating chemical ATS-D antiviral activity.

  10. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent. PMID:23390579

  11. NOVEL MULTI-LEVEL OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR CHEMICAL COMPLEX USING INTELLIGENT AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun LI; Huanjun YU; Shangxu HU

    2003-01-01

    Multi-level optimization of complex chemical complex was comprehensively analyzed, including the optimization of management plan, production scheme, operating conditions, etc. The software framework of multi-level optimization of chemical complex was worked out. Basing upon the frame of multi-level optimization, the intelligent agent technique was adopted to search for global optimum. The organization, function, design and the implementation of a series of intelligent agents were discussed. According to the strategy that to spend most computing time in optimization solving and much less time in exchanging information regarding the tasks and results of optimization through network, the communication mechanism and cooperation rules for Multi-Agent System for hierarchically optimizing chemical complex was proposed.

  12. Risk and Responsibility in Chemical Research: The Case of Agent Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Walters

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new chemical substances causes a number of ethical problems frequently overlooked by chemists, such as the risk associated with the creation of a new substance and the question of ultimate responsibility for a new compound. The case of the synthesis and subsequent use of Agent Orange can be used to exemplify these issues. Risk as well as responsibility for the agent have shifted significantly since its discovery, from the original inventor of a new compound, via the industrial manufacturer of a dioxin-contaminated herbicide, to the user of the impure agent as tactical chemical weapon in Vietnam. Analyzing the chain of historical events in the light of moral responsibility allows us to set everyday chemistry into an ethical context and ask a number of important questions, such as who carries responsibility for a new chemical compound, its safety and its proliferation.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  14. Compilation of existing chemical agent guidelines table as of September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1998-08-01

    Public Law 99-145 requires the US Department of the Army to dispose of the lethal chemical agents and munitions stockpile stored at eight Army installations throughout the continental US and Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was greater than the threat from transportation and demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warfare agent munitions. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the US Army jointly coordinate and direct the CSEPP. The Compilation of Existing Chemical Agent Guidelines Table was developed under the direction of FEMA and the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). The purpose of this Table is to identify established chemical warfare agent guidelines, standards, and interim standards as of September 1997, and place them in an explanatory context for ready use by the CSEPP community. This Table summarizes and organizes information from numerous agencies and review bodies responsible for recommending exposure guidelines [e.g., The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Committee on Toxicology (COT), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), FEMA, Army and other federal agencies]. This Table provides references for the interested reader, but does not provide data and assumptions on which exposure guidelines were based, or comment on the rationale or appropriateness of the given values. To do so is beyond the scope of work for this task.

  15. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused b

  16. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed April ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Subscribe to RSS Get email updates To ...

  17. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination.

  18. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination. PMID:11844038

  19. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable. PMID:26314115

  20. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Chemical Reaction Between Polyvinyl Alcohol and Titanate Coupling Agent with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei-xing; ZHANG Wen-sheng

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reaction between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and tri(dioctylpyrophosphoryloxy) isopropyl titanate (NDZ-201) was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The results show that some C-OH functional groups of PVA react with the titanate coupling agent to form CPVA-O-Ti-O-CPVA bond.The cross-linking of the PVA chains occurs through the formation of CPVA-O-Ti-O-CPVA bonds and produces a three dimensional hydrophobic polymer network.Accordingly,the mechanism is proposed that the titanate coupling agent improves the moisture sensitivity of high alumina cement/polyvinyl alcohol (HAC/PVA) based macro defect free (MDF) composite material.

  3. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  4. Development of land disposal restrictions for military chemical agent-associated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Rosenblatt, D.H. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In July 1988, the State of Utah, Department of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) listed certain military chemical agents as hazardous waste, as well as residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of these chemicals. These materials are listed as hazardous waste in Utah, but are not listed as hazardous wastes under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. Pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment standards for most categories of hazardous wastes. However, considering that EPA has not listed chemical agent-associated wastes as hazardous waste under RCRA, LDR treatment standards have not been established specifically for these wastes. In February 1995, the DSHW announced a regulatory initiative to develop LDRs for chemical agent-associated wastes and solicited data and information from the U.S. Army to support a rulemaking effort. The Army`s Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) was designated the lead agency for the Army to assist the DSHW in developing the rule. CBDCOM established the U.S. Army Land Disposal Restrictions Utah Group (LDRUG) and initiated a project with Argonne National Laboratory to support the LDRUG. The focus is on providing the state with accurate and up-to-date data and information to support the rulemaking and the establishment of LDRs. The purpose of this paper is to review the general direction of the proposed rule and to discuss overall progress. Potential impacts of the imposition of LDRs on the management of agent-associated wastes are also reviewed.

  5. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology. PMID:26186853

  6. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  7. An agent-based service-oriented integration architecture for chemical process automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Luo; Weimin Zhong; Feng Wan; Zhencheng Ye; Feng Qian

    2015-01-01

    In reality, traditional process control system built upon centralized and hierarchical structures presents a weak response to change and is easy to shut down by single failure. Aiming at these problems, a new agent-based service-oriented integration architecture was proposed for chemical process automation system. Web services were dynamical y orchestrated on the internet and agent behaviors were built in them. Data analysis, model, op-timization, control, fault diagnosis and so on were capsuled into different web services. Agents were used for ser-vice compositions by negotiation. A prototype system of poly(ethylene terephthalate) process automation was used as the case study to demonstrate the validation of the integration.

  8. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  9. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E., E-mail: geiza.oliveira@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCE/DQUI/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Souza Junior, F.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2013-11-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  10. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  12. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  13. Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.

  14. Mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and chemical and environmental agents in Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies covered the following problems: an influence of some environmental agents on the mutagenic effectiveness of ionizing radiation, interaction between ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the induction of somatic mutations and also an application of Tradescantia model system for biological monitoring. The studies showed that the pretreatment of Tradescantia plants with sodium fluoride or the modification of the soil composition with dolomite admixture, visibly influences plants radiosensitivity. The analysis of the changes in the dose-response curves suggested that the employed agents were influencing in different ways the repair processes of the DNA. The studies on the interaction between agents proved that the synergistic effect occurs in case of combined action of ionizing radiation with such chemical mutagens as ethyl methansulfonate or 1,2 dibromomethane. It was also discovered that in the range of low doses the effect was proportional to radiation dose and total exposition to chemical mutagen. The field application of Tradescantia method defined the mutagenicity of air pollution in the Cracow area. The highest frequencies of mutations were detected after the Chernobyl accident and after the damage of the filters in the Pharmaceutical Plant. The applied method was evaluated in respect of its usefulness for biological monitoring of environmental pollution. 163 refs. (author)

  15. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  16. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  17. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  18. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  19. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  20. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  1. Bioluminescent bioreporter assays for targeted detection of chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Pat; Johnson, Courtney; Moser, Scott; Islam, Syed; Sayler, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Bioluminescent bioreporters carrying the bacterial lux gene cassette have been well established for the sensing and monitoring of select chemical agents. Their ability to generate target specific visible light signals with no requirement for extraneous additions of substrate or other hands-on manipulations affords a real-time, repetitive assaying technique that is remarkable in its simplicity and accuracy. Although the predominant application of lux-based bioluminescent bioreporters has been towards chemical compound detection, novel genetic engineering schemes are yielding a variety of new bioreporter systems that extend the lux sensing mechanism beyond mere analyte discrimination. For example, the unique specificity of bacteriophage (bacterial viruses) has been exploited in lux bioluminescent assays for specific identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. With the concurrent ability to interface bioluminescent bioreporter assays onto integrated circuit microluminometers (BBICs; bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits), the potential exists for the development of sentinel microchips that can function as environmental monitors for multiplexed recognition of chemical and biological agents in air, food, and water. The size and portability of BBIC biosensors may ultimately provide a deployable, interactive network sensing technology adaptable towards chem/bio defense.

  2. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  3. Optimizing the Chemical Compositions of Protective Agents for Freeze-drying Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婵媛; 朱晓丽; 范代娣; 米钰; 骆艳娥; 惠俊峰; 苏然

    2012-01-01

    Freeze drying has a deleterious effect on the viability of microorganisms. In front of this difficulty, the present study adopts response surface methodology to optimize the chemical compositions of protective agents to seek for maximum viability of Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920 during freeze-drying. Through the compara- tive analysis of single protectant, the complex protective agents show better effect on the Bifidobacterium viability. Human-like collagen (HLC), trehalose and glycerol are confirmed as significant factors by Box-Behnken Design. The optimized formula for these three variables is tested as follows: HLC 1.23%, trehalose 11.50% and glycerol 4.65%. Under this formula, the viability is 88.23%, 39.67% higher in comparison to the control. The viable count is 1.07×10 9 cfu·g-1 , greatly exceeding the minimum viable count requirement (10 6 cfu·g-1 ).

  4. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  5. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Arulmozhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead oxide (PbO nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Photoluminescence (PL Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  6. Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report provides an overview of the types of mechanisms underlying the lymphohematopoietic cancers induced by chemical agents and radiation in humans, with a primary emphasis on leukemia and leukemia-inducing agents. It focuses on how mechanistic information on human l...

  7. A Survey of Commercially Available Chemical Agent Instrumentation for Use in the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J S; Alcaraz, A; Andresen, B D; Pruneda, C O

    2002-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Forensic Science Center (FSC) has extensive experience and capabilities in the analysis of chemical agents (CA) and related compounds as well as experience in identifying these materials in the field (i.e. samples such as those found in soils, liquids, gases). An open source survey was performed to determine viable, commercially available technology that can detect, in situ, CA and also meet field-use performance criteria as specified by the Program Management Consultant (PMC). The performance requirements of the technology include accuracy, reliability, integration onto robotics, and chemical detection sensitivities that meet required specifications. Not included in this survey are technologies and methodologies to detect CA decomposition products and related waste streams.

  8. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

  9. Oak Ridge Multiple Attribute System (ORMAS) for Pu, HEU, HE, Chemical Agents, and Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the Oak Ridge Multiple Attribute System (ORMAS) is a Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) time-dependent coincidence processor that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry and utilizes a small, lightweight, portable DT neutron (14.1 MeV) generator (1 x 108 n/s), proton recoil scintillation detectors, and a gamma ray detector (HPGe). ORMAS is based on detecting fission neutrons and gamma rays from inherent source fission, fission induced by the external DT source, gamma ray detection of natural emissions of uranium and Pu, and induced gamma ray emission by the interaction of the 14.1 MeV neutrons from the DT source. This system is uniquely suited for detection of shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU), plutonium and other special nuclear materials, and detection of high explosives (HE), chemical agents, and in some cases, drugs. It could easily be adjusted to utilize a trusted processor that incorporates information barrier and authentication techniques using open software and then be useful in some international applications for materials whose characteristics may be classified. Since it is based entirely on commercially available components, the entire system, including the NMIS data acquisition boards, can be built with commercial off the shelf components (COTS). ORMAS incorporates the PINS technology of A. J. Caffrey of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for HE, chemical agents, and drugs detection

  10. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  11. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lomazzi, Eleonora [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Passoni, Alice [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Bagnati, Renzo [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lodi, Marco [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna [Department of Sciences and Technological Innovation (DiSIT), University of Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fanelli, Roberto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach was applied to study three foaming agents. • Several compounds not reported on the safety data sheets were identified by HRMS. • Environmental impacts were investigated with a battery of biological assays. • An ecotoxicological ranking of the products was obtained. - Abstract: The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  14. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  15. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...... to be illuminated in which this study hopefully will contribute to. Especially, chronic toxicity needs to be described as this mimics a more environmentally realistic situation. One or two compounds will be accessed based upon various factors such as detection frequencies, found concentrations in both sediment...... to the commercially important cod (Gadus morrhua). The cod migrates down to the seafloor – even crossing the oxycline - where the CWA munitions were dumped. To sum up, this study will obtain novel ecotoxicity data on recently discovered degradation products and assess the potential threat to the commercially...

  16. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1979-10-30

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  17. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-26

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  18. Trapping of organophosphorus chemical nerve agents in water with amino acid functionalized baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yian; Dalkiliç, Erdin; Peterson, Paul W; Pandit, Aroh; Dastan, Arif; Brown, Jason D; Polen, Shane M; Hadad, Christopher M; Badjić, Jovica D

    2014-04-01

    We prepared eleven amino-acid functionalized baskets and used (1) H NMR spectroscopy to quantify their affinity for entrapping dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, 118 Å(3) ) in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH=7.0±0.1; note that DMMP guest is akin in size to chemical nerve agent sarin (132 Å(3) ). The binding interaction (Ka ) was found to vary with the size of substituent groups at the basket's rim. In particular, the degree of branching at the first carbon of each substituent had the greatest effect on the host-guest interaction, as described with the Verloop's B1 steric parameter. The branching at the remote carbons, however, did not perturb the encapsulation, which is important for guiding the design of more effective hosts and catalysts in future. PMID:24616086

  19. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  20. Pretreatment of highly turbid coal mine drainage by a chemical agent free filtration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chunhui; He Xiong; Li Kaihe; Wu Dongsheng; Guo Yanrong; Wang Can

    2012-01-01

    A filtration system used without chemical agents for the pretreatment of turbid coal mine drainage is described in this paper.The influence of different aperture sizes and different motor speeds was investigated during the study.The experimental results show that for aperture diameters of 0.4,0.6,or 0.8 mm smaller apertures provide more complete filtration.Rotations of 12,20,28,or 40 r/min show that higher speeds give more efficient filtration.Suspended solids decreased in both particle size and concentration after the filtration.The separated slime can be directly reused as a fuel.Efficient filtration pretreatment systems for coal mine drainage were investigated and the economic feasibility is analyzed in this article.

  1. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity and the predicted environmental concentrations based on the conditions of use are lower than the NOAEC for soils but higher than the NOAEC for water, posing a potential risk to the waters due to the levels of foaming agents in the muck. PMID:25917697

  2. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  3. Investigation of chemical bath deposition of CdO thin films using three different complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khallaf, Hani [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Chen, Chia-Ta; Chang, Liann-Be [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lupan, Oleg [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Microelectronics and Semiconductor Devices, Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Boulevard, MD-2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dutta, Aniruddha; Heinrich, Helge [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Shenouda, A. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), Tebbin, P.O. Box 87, Helwan (Egypt); Chow, Lee, E-mail: Lee.Chow@ucf.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Chemical bath deposition of CdO thin films using three different complexing agents, namely ammonia, ethanolamine, and methylamine is investigated. CdSO{sub 4} is used as Cd precursor, while H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used as an oxidation agent. As-grown films are mainly cubic CdO{sub 2}, with some Cd(OH){sub 2} as well as CdO phases being detected. Annealing at 400 deg. C in air for 1 h transforms films into cubic CdO. The calculated optical band gap of as-grown films is in the range of 3.37-4.64 eV. Annealed films have a band gap of about 2.53 eV. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy of as-grown films reveals cadmium to oxygen ratio of 1.00:1.74 {+-} 0.01 while much better stoichiometry is obtained after annealing, in accordance with the X-ray diffraction results. A carrier density as high as 1.89 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and a resistivity as low as 1.04 x 10{sup -2} {Omega}-cm are obtained.

  4. Fusion of chemical, biological, and meteorological observations for agent source term estimation and hazard refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Sykes, Ian; Hurst, Jonathan; Vandenberghe, Francois; Weil, Jeffrey; Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Parker, Steve; Cabell, Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and biological (CB) agent detection and effective use of these observations in hazard assessment models are key elements of our nation's CB defense program that seeks to ensure that Department of Defense (DoD) operations are minimally affected by a CB attack. Accurate hazard assessments rely heavily on the source term parameters necessary to characterize the release in the transport and dispersion (T&D) simulation. Unfortunately, these source parameters are often not known and based on rudimentary assumptions. In this presentation we describe an algorithm that utilizes variational data assimilation techniques to fuse CB and meteorological observations to characterize agent release source parameters and provide a refined hazard assessment. The underlying algorithm consists of a combination of modeling systems, including the Second order Closure Integrated PUFF model (SCIPUFF), its corresponding Source Term Estimation (STE) model, a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Plume Model (LEPM), its formal adjoint, and the software infrastructure necessary to link them. SCIPUFF and its STE model are used to calculate a "first guess" source estimate. The LEPM and corresponding adjoint are then used to iteratively refine this release source estimate using variational data assimilation techniques. This algorithm has undergone preliminary testing using virtual "single realization" plume release data sets from the Virtual THreat Response Emulation and Analysis Testbed (VTHREAT) and data from the FUSION Field Trials 2007 (FFT07). The end-to-end prototype of this system that has been developed to illustrate its use within the United States (US) Joint Effects Model (JEM) will be demonstrated.

  5. Effect of Antimicrobial Agents on Physical and Chemical Properties of Ready-to-eat Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Gedikoglu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality and safety of ready-to-eat meat products can be altered by antimicrobial agents such as lactates, diacetates and citrates. This project evaluated the effect of Ional (1.5, 2.5, 3.5%, Ional LC (1.5, 2.5, 3.5% and Optiform SD4 (2.5% compared to a control on selected physical and chemical characteristics of ready-to-eat vacuum-packaged bologna slices stored less than 4°C for up to 112 days of retail display. Water activity (aw, expressible moisture (WHC, pH, fat and moisture content, cooking yield, texture profile analysis, puncture test, Hunter color values were evaluated. Addition of antimicrobials decreased pH. Product with Optiform SD4 (2.5% had the highest cooking yield. Bologna formulated with Optiform SD4 (2.5% had the highest springiness and hardness values after control and the highest puncture value. Water activity was not significantly different (p>0.05 between treatments. Furthermore, day of display had no significant effect on aw. L and a values were not significantly different between treatments, except for Ional LC (3.5% compared to the control. Overall, treatments with Ional (1.5%, (2.5% and Optiform SD4 (2.5% were most effective for preserving the quality of the bologna (s. Also, the highest levels of antimicrobial agents had a detrimental effect on the quality of ready-to-eat bolognas.

  6. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  7. Effect of activation agents on the surface chemical properties and desulphurization performance of activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Flue gas pollution is a serious environmental problem that needs to be solved for the sustainable development of China.The surface chemical properties of carbon have great influence on its desulphurization performance.A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3,H2O2,NH3·H2O and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process.The ACs were physically and chemically characterized by iodine and SO2 adsorption,ultimate analysis,Boehm titration,and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR).Results showed that the iodine number and desulphurization capacity of NH3·H2O activated carbon (AC-NH3) increase with both activation time,and its desulphurization capacity also increases with the concentration of activation agent.However,HNO3 activated carbon (AC-HNO3) and H2O2 activated carbon (AC-H2O2) exhibit more complex behavior.Only their iodine numbers increase monotonously with activation time.Compared with steam activated AC (AC-H2O),the nitrogen content increases 0.232% in AC-NH3 and 0.077% in AC-HNO3.The amount of total basic site on AC-HNO3 is 0.19 mmol·g-1 higher than that on AC-H2O.H2O2 activation introduces an additional 0.08 mmol·g-1 carboxyl groups to AC surface than that introduced by steam activation.The desulphurization capacity of ACs in simulate flue gas desulphurization decreases as follows: AC-NH3 > AC-HNO3 > AC-H2O2 > AC-H2O.This sequence is in accord with the SO2 catalytic oxidation/oxidation ratio in the absence of oxygen and the oxidation property reflected by TPR.In the presence of oxygen,all adsorbed SO2 on ACs can be oxidized into SO3.The desulphurization capacity increases differently according to the activation agents;the desulphurization capacity of AC-NH3 and AC-HNO3 improves by 4.8 times,yet AC-H2O increases only by 2.62 as compared with the desulphurization of corresponding ACs in absence of oxygen.

  8. Applying radiation approaches to the control of public risks from chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    risks from chemical and biological agents, the technical people involved should make certain that the major scientific considerations have a prominent role in the decision-making processes, not just assumptions, hypotheses and axioms adopted in lieu of facts

  9. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  10. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  11. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    OpenAIRE

    Qidi Zhu; Yulong Song; Gaisheng Zhang; Lan Ju; Jiao Zhang; Yongang Yu; Na Niu; Junwei Wang; Shoucai Ma

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther tra...

  12. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Qiang Han; Shuya Cao; Feng Huang; Molin Qin; Chenghai Guo; Mingyu Ding

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical an...

  13. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. I. Common molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of molecular mechanisms common to radiation and chemical carcinogenesis are discussed, particularly the DNA damage done by these agents. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological considerations and on dose-response models used in risk assessment to extrapolate from experimental data obtained at high doses to the effects from long-term, low-level exposures. 3 references, 6 figures. (ACR)

  14. Structural, energetic and electrical properties of boron nitride nanotubes interacting with DMMP chemical agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ab initio DFT calculations were used for interaction of DMMP with BNNTs. • Full structural optimization was performed for several possible active sites. • Electronic structure of the energetically favorable complexes was analyzed. • The stability of the most stable complex was evaluated at ambient condition. • First-principles calculations showed that DMMP is strongly bound to the small diameter BNNTs. - Abstract: The adsorption of DMMP as an intoxicating chemical warfare agent onto the boron nitride nanotube has been investigated by using density functional theory calculations. Several active sites were considered for both interacting systems and full structural optimization was performed to accurately find the energetically favorable state. It is found that DMMP molecule prefers to be adsorbed strongly on the top site above the B atom of a (5, 0) BNNT with a binding energy of about −103.24 kJ mol−1 and an O–B binding distance of 1.641 Å. We have performed a comparative investigation of BNNTs with different diameters and the results indicate that the DMMP adsorption ability for the side wall of the tubes significantly decreases for higher diameters BNNTs. Furthermore, the adsorption properties of DMMP molecule onto the BNNT have been investigated using the ab initio MD simulation at room temperature. Our result showed that BNNTs facilitates the DMMP detection at ambient conditions for practical applications

  15. NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System2 (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry3. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure

  16. Decomposition kinetics of dimethyl methylphospate(chemical agent simulant) by supercritical water oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bambang VERIANSYAH; Jae-Duck KIM; Youn-Woo LEE

    2006-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) has been drawing much attention due to effectively destroy a large variety of high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization and complex industrial chemical. An important design consideration in the development of supercritical water oxidation is the information of decomposition rate. In this paper, the decomposition rate of dimethyl methylphosphonate(DMMP), which is similar to the nerve agent VX and GB(Sarin) in its structure, was investigated under SCWO conditions. The experiments were performed in an isothermal tubular reactor with a H2O2 as an oxidant. The reaction temperatures were ranged from 398 to 633 ℃ at a fixed pressure of 24 MPa. The conversion of DMMP was monitored by analyzing total organic carbon (TOC) on the liquid effluent samples. It is found that the oxidative decomposition of DMMP proceeded rapidly and a high TOC decomposition up to 99.99% was obtained within 11 s at 555℃. On the basis of data derived from experiments, a global kinetic equation for the decomposition of DMMP was developed. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data.

  17. Chemical Warfare Agents Analyzer Based on Low Cost, Room Temperature, and Infrared Microbolometer Smart Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced IR emitters and sensors are under development for high detection probability, low false alarm rate, and identification capability of toxic gases. One of the most reliable techniques to identify the gas species is absorption spectroscopy, especially in the medium infrared spectral range, where most of existing toxic compounds exhibit their strongest rotovibrational absorption bands. Following the results obtained from simulations and analysis of expected absorption spectra, a compact nondispersive infrared multispectral system has been designed and developed for security applications. It utilizes a few square millimeters thermal source, a novel design multipass cell, and a smart architecture microbolometric sensor array coupled to a linear variable spectral filter to perform toxic gases detection and identification. This is done by means of differential absorption spectroscopic measurements in the spectral range of the midinfrared. Experimental tests for sensitivity and selectivity have been done with various chemical agents (CAs gases and a multiplicity of vapour organic compounds (VOCs. Detection capability down to ppm has been demonstrated.

  18. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  19. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  20. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Wang

    Full Text Available Chemical hybridization agent (CHA-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD, which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  1. Chemically modified tetracyclines: Novel therapeutic agents in the management of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Agnihotri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is a complex infection initiated by gram-negative bacteria which destroy the supporting structures of the tooth. Recently, it has been recognized that it is the host response to bacterial infection which causes greater destruction of the connective tissue elements, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in periodontitis. This has led to the development of various host modulating approaches to target cells and their destructive mediators involved in tissue degradation. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs are derivatives of tetracycline group of drugs which lack antimicrobial action but have potent host modulating affects. They inhibit pathologically elevated matrix metal loproteinases, pro-inflammtory cytokines and other destructive mediators. Bone resorption is also suppressed due to their combined anti-proteinase and apoptotic affects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Development of resistant bacteria and gastrointestinal toxicity seen with parent tetracyclines is not produced by CMTs. Hence, CMTs are viewed as potential therapeutic agents in the management of chronic diseases like periodontitis that involve destruction of connective tissue and bone.

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  3. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  4. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  5. A chemically labeled cytotoxic agent: Two-photon fluorophore for optical tracking of cellular pathway in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Krebs, Linda J.; Al-Nuri, Mohammed; Pudavar, Haridas E.; Ghosal, Saswati; Liebow, Charles; Nagy, Attila A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Prasad, Paras N.

    1999-01-01

    Chemotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of cancers. However, the mechanism of action of many of these agents is not well understood. We present the synthesis of a two-photon fluorophore (C625) and its biological application when chemically linked to a chemotherapeutic agent (AN-152). By using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, the drug:fluorophore conjugate can be observed directly as it interacts with receptor-positive cell lines. The results of this project visually show the recep...

  6. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  7. Semi-continuous high speed gas analysis of generated vapors of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and satin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a 'standard length' column, the system can either b

  8. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    OpenAIRE

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena; Damszel Marta Maria; Głosek-Sobieraj Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009). The experiment involved the following treatments: 1) biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. in...

  9. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Shivraj Lahoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer.

  10. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  11. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  13. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

  14. Report on NCI symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. II. Cellular and animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The point at which the common final pathway for induction of cancer by chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation has not been identified. Although common molecular targets are suggested by recent findings about the role of oncogenes, the mechanism by which the deposition of radiation energy and the formation of adducts or other DNA lesions induced by chemicals affects the changes in the relevant targets may be quite different. The damage to DNA that plays no part in the transformation events, but that influences the stability of the genome, and therefore, the probability of subsequent changes that influence tumorigenesis may be more readily induced by some agents than others. Similarly, the degree of cytotoxic effects that disrupt tissue integrity and increase the probability of expression of initiated cells may be dependent on the type of carcinogen. Also, evidence was presented that repair of the initial lesions could be demonstrated after exposure to low-LET radiation but not after exposure to chemical carcinogens.

  15. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  16. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  17. Physico-chemical properties and toxic effect of fruit-ripening agent calcium carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripening is the final stage of the maturation process, when the fruit changes color, softens and develops the flavor, texture and aroma that constitute optimum eating quality. This study was conducted to discuss the use of unsatisfactory calcium carbide to ripen fruits for domestic markets as well as their toxic effects on human health. The commonly used ripening agents are calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, propylene, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid, glycol, ethanol and some other agents. The calcium carbide is one of the most commonly used ripening agent for fruits, while other calcium salts like calcium ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and calcium sulfate are used to delay fruit ripening agents for local fruit industries. The use of calcium carbide is being discouraged worldwide, due to associated health hazards. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous, and once dissolved in water, it produces acetylene gas. Arsenic, phosphorous and acetylene gas may affect the different body organs and causes various health problems like headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema, seizures and prolonged hypoxia.

  18. Comparison of the mutagenic potential of 17 physical and chemical agents analyzed by the flow cytometry mutation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, C. Tenley [Cytomation GTX Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ross, Carley D. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Keysar, Stephen B. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Joshi, Dhanashree D. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Lim, Chang-Uk [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fox, Michael H. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States) and Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)]. E-mail: mfox@colostate.edu

    2006-12-01

    Several methods to assess genotoxicity of physical and chemical agents have been developed, most of which depend on growing colonies in selective medium. We recently published a new method for detecting mutations in the CD59 gene in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line that contains a single copy of human chromosome 11 (CHO A{sub L}). The assay is based on detecting the surface expression of CD59 with monoclonal antibodies using flow cytometry. The capabilities of this flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) to detect mutations from a wide variety of genotoxic agents are described here. There was a 400-fold separation between CD59{sup -} and CD59{sup +} populations based on fluorescence intensity. Small numbers of negative cells mixed in with positive cells were detected in a highly linear fashion. Mutation dose response curves over a dose range yielding 80% to 20% survival are shown for ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), mitomycin C (MMC) and lead acetate. EMS and lead acetate exhibited a threshold in response while MMC had a linear dose response over the full dose range. The mutant fraction was measured over time periods ranging up to 35 days following treatment. The mutant fraction peaked at different times ranging from 6 to 12 days after treatment. An additional 14 chemical and physical agents including point mutagens, heavy metals, ionizing and UV radiation, and DNA intercalators and cross linkers, were analyzed for mutagenic potential after doses giving 80% to 20% survival. The results presented here demonstrate the sensitivity and broad-ranging capability of the FCMA to detect mutations induced by a variety of genotoxic agents.

  19. Influence of complexing agent on the growth of chemically deposited Ni3Pb2S2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Soonmin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ni3Pb2S2 thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition method. Here, the objective of this research was to investigate the influence of complexing agent on the properties of films.These films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible spectro photometer and X-ray diffraction. It was found that, as the concentration of tartaric acid increased, film thickness increased, but, the band gap reduced. For the films prepared using 0.1M of tartaric acid, the films were uniform and completely covered the substrates.

  20. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rende (Italy); Amantea, Diana [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmacobiology, Rende (Italy); Saturnino, Carmela [University of Salerno, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fisciano (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals. (orig.)

  1. Prophage induction in Haemophilus influenzae and its relationship to mutation by chemical and physical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balganesh, M.; Setlow, J.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1984-01-01

    It is known that UV, X-rays, MMC and MMS are not mutagenic for H. influenzae, whereas HZ, EMS and MNNG are potent mutagens for this bacterium. All of these agents, however, are known to be both mutagenic and able to induce prophage in E. coli. We report here that all the agents except HZ induce prophage in H. influenzae, and EMS even induces in the recombination-defective recl mutant, which is non-inducible by UV, MMC, MNNG and MMS. MMS did not cause single-strand breaks or gaps in DNA synthesized after treatment of H. influenzae, but EMS and MNNG produced them. EMS caused more breaks in DNA synthesized before treatment than in that synthesized after treatment. On the other hand we did observe such breaks or gaps induced in E. coli in DNA synthesized posttreatment by EMS as well as by MMS and MNNG, at comparable survival levels.

  2. Preparation and Performance of an Adsorption Type Gel Plugging Agent as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adsorption type gel plugging agent (ATGPA was prepared using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS, formaldehyde (HCHO, resorcinol (C6H6O2, and thiocarbamide (CH4N2S as raw materials under mild conditions. ATGPA was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that ATGPA exhibited higher elastic modulus (G′ and viscous modulus (G′′ than AM/AA gel plugging agent (AAGPA under the same scanning frequency. It was also found that ATGPA had moderate temperature resistance and salt tolerance. Core plugging tests results indicated that ATGPA could achieve up to higher plugging rate (PR than AAGPA (97.2% versus 95.7% at 65°C. In addition, ATGPA possessed stronger antiscouring ability by core plugging experiments at 65°C.

  3. Application and appreciation of chemical sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) and its composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jun; Cao Hui; Wang Fang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tan Tianwei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: twtan@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2007-12-15

    The sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) (PASP) and its composites were applied in the field by two forms (spraying around by PASP solution and PASP powder directly). It was found that the sand fixing effect in powder form was not as good as in solution form, but it was more practical in dry region. It needed 9, 6 and 7 days for PASP, xanthan gum-PASP (X2) and ethyl cellulose-PASP (E3) to attain the maximal mechanical strength after they were applied, respectively. The sand fixing effect decreased when the material was subjected to repeated hydration-dehydration cycles and the material had no negative influence on plant growth. The PASP and its composites had water-retaining ability and could reduce the water evaporation. - The sand fixing agent was applied in powder form and it had no negative influence on plant growth.

  4. Application and appreciation of chemical sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) and its composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) (PASP) and its composites were applied in the field by two forms (spraying around by PASP solution and PASP powder directly). It was found that the sand fixing effect in powder form was not as good as in solution form, but it was more practical in dry region. It needed 9, 6 and 7 days for PASP, xanthan gum-PASP (X2) and ethyl cellulose-PASP (E3) to attain the maximal mechanical strength after they were applied, respectively. The sand fixing effect decreased when the material was subjected to repeated hydration-dehydration cycles and the material had no negative influence on plant growth. The PASP and its composites had water-retaining ability and could reduce the water evaporation. - The sand fixing agent was applied in powder form and it had no negative influence on plant growth

  5. Effect of therapeutic chemical agents in vitro and on experimental meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yang-Jin; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kwon, Daeho; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous, pathogenic free-living amoeba; it is the most virulent Naegleria species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in laboratory animals and humans. Although amphotericin B is currently the only agent available for the treatment of PAME, it is a very toxic antibiotic and may cause many adverse effects on other organs. In order to find other potentially therapeutic agents for N. fowleri infection, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of miltefosine and chlorpromazine against pathogenic N. fowleri. The result showed that the growth of the amoeba was effectively inhibited by treatment with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine, the MICs of the drug were 0.78, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively, on day 2. In experimental meningoencephalitis of mice that is caused by N. fowleri, the survival rates of mice treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine were 40, 55, and 75%, respectively, during 1 month. The average mean time to death for the amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine treatments was 17.9 days. In this study, the effect of drugs was found to be optimal when 20 mg/kg was administered three times on days 3, 7, and 11. Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B.

  6. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  7. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  8. Simultaneous Measurement of Serum Chemical Castration Agents and Testosterone Levels Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Jeon, Sun-Hee; Song, Sang Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jin Young; In, Moon Kyo; Song, Junghan

    2016-05-01

    Chemical castration involves administration of drugs to prevent pathological sexual behavior, reduce abnormal sexual drive and treat hormone-dependent cancers. Various drugs have been used for chemical castration; however, substantial interindividual variability and side effects are often observed. In this study, we proposed a useful monitoring method for the application of chemical castration agents using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Testosterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate and triptorelin acetate were analyzed by UPLC-MS-MS. The target drugs were extracted from serum samples by double protein precipitation using methanol. Testosterone-1,2-d2 and buserelin acetate were used as internal standards. Parameters of analytical performance were evaluated, including imprecision, linearity, ion suppression and detection capabilities. Testosterone measurements were compared with the results of immunoassays. Serum specimens from 51 subjects who underwent chemical castration were analyzed. All drugs and testosterone were well extracted and separated using our method. The method was essentially free from potential interferences and ion suppression. Within-run and between-run imprecision values were <15%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.125 and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL for testosterone and other drugs, respectively. Good correlations with pre-existing immunoassays for testosterone measurement were observed. Sera from subjects who underwent androgen deprivation therapy showed variable levels of drugs. We successfully developed a UPLC-MS-MS-based monitoring method for chemical castration. The performance of our method was generally acceptable. This method may provide a novel monitoring strategy for chemical castration to enhance expected effects while reducing unwanted side effects. PMID:26989223

  9. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  10. [Validation of measurement methods and estimation of uncertainty of measurement of chemical agents in the air at workstations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobecki, Marek

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the requirements for measurement methods of chemical agents in the air at workstations. European standards, which have a status of Polish standards, comprise some requirements and information on sampling strategy, measuring techniques, type of samplers, sampling pumps and methods of occupational exposure evaluation at a given technological process. Measurement methods, including air sampling and analytical procedure in a laboratory, should be appropriately validated before intended use. In the validation process, selected methods are tested and budget of uncertainty is set up. The validation procedure that should be implemented in the laboratory together with suitable statistical tools and major components of uncertainity to be taken into consideration, were presented in this paper. Methods of quality control, including sampling and laboratory analyses were discussed. Relative expanded uncertainty for each measurement expressed as a percentage, should not exceed the limit of values set depending on the type of occupational exposure (short-term or long-term) and the magnitude of exposure to chemical agents in the work environment.

  11. Ionization mechanism of the ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) and its applications to chemical nerve agent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidholdt, Evan L; Beauchamp, J L

    2009-11-01

    We present studies of the ionization mechanism operative in the ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source (APPIS), along with applications that include detection of simulants for chemical nerve agents. It is found that ionization by APPIS occurs in the gas-phase. As the crystal is thermally cycled over a narrow temperature range, electrical discharges near the surface of the crystal produce energetic species which, through reactions with atmospheric molecules, result in reactant ions such as protonated water clusters or clusters of hydroxide and water. Reactant ions can be observed directly in the mass spectrometer. These go on to react with trace neutrals via proton transfer reactions to produce the ions observed in mass spectra, which are usually singly protonated or deprotonated species. Further implicating gas-phase ionization, observed product distributions are highly dependent on the composition of ambient gases, especially the concentration of water vapor and oxygen surrounding the source. For example, basic species such as triethylamine are observed as singly protonated cations at a water partial pressure of 10 torr. At a water pressure of 4 torr, reactive oxygen species are formed and lead to observation of protonated amine oxides. The ability of the APPIS source to detect basic molecules with high proton affinities makes it highly suited for the detection of chemical nerve agents. We demonstrate this application using simulants corresponding to VX and GA (Tabun). With the present source configuration pyridine is detected readily at a concentration of 4 ppm, indicating ultimate sensitivity in the high ppb range. PMID:19682922

  12. A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

  13. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10−2 s−1) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10−8–10−6 s−1). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  14. METHODS ELABORATION ON DETECTION OF SOME ATYPICAL NEUROLYTIC AGENTS FOR CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Remezova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to elaborate methods of atypical neuroleptic agents detection as individual substances and in different combinations as well for diagnosis of poisoning by some of them: clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole. The purpose of this work is methods elaboration of detection of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, oxazepam, carbamazapine using TLC, HPLC and UV spectrophotometry methods. During this work we used tablet forms of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole. It is possible to use solution systems like ethanol-water-25% ammonia solution (8:1:1, toluolacetone-ethanol-25% ammonia solution (45:45:7.5:2.5, dioxan-chloroform-acetone-25% ammonia solution (47.5:45:5:2.5 for preliminary examination of atypical neuroleptic agents under study in combination with typical neuroleptics and tranquilizers with undirected analysis (general screening. System of solvents ethyl-acetate-chloroform-25% ammonia solution (85:10:5 is recommended to use for individual screening of risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, haloperidol, benzol-ethanol-25% ammonia solution (50:10:0.5 system to use for clozapine, sertindole, olanzapine. Ethanol-25% ammonia solution (100:1.5 system is reasonable to use for chromatographic clearance of extracts from biological substances under study. We recommend using HPLC method and UV spectrophotometry for carrying out of a principal examination of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine and aripiprazole in case one of the substances under study is determined in the object.

  15. Infrared differential absorption lidar for stand-off detection of chemical agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Razdan; S Veerabuthiran; M K Jindal; R K Sharma

    2014-02-01

    A compact trolley-mounted pulsed transverse electric atmospheric pressure (TEA) carbon dioxide laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system capable of stand-off detection of chemical clouds in aerosol and vapour form upto about 200 m range in the atmosphere has been developed and assembled at Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC), Delhi. The system was tested successfully with diethyl ether (DEE) (a toxic industrial chemical (TIC)) and differential absorption signals at on (strong absorption, 9R16) and off (weak absorption, 10R26) wavelengths were recorded for stand-off distances upto ∼100 m (open air ground path). This paper discusses the technical details of trolley-mounted CO2 DIAL system and the data generated during the test and evaluation of this sensor using DEE aerosols.

  16. Chemical and biological metal nanoparticles as antimycobacterial agents: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman U; Arkile, Manisha; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-08-01

    Resistance among mycobacteria leading to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. However, nanotechnology has provided new insights in drug delivery and medicine development. This is the first comparative report to determine the activity of chemically and biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mycobacteria. Screening data revealed the high mycobactericidal efficiency of AgNPs, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  17. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  18. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population

  19. Evaluation of aziridine bonding agent by means of chemical and instrumental techniques of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Cortes Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using wet chemistry and instrumental analysis has been developed for evaluating the ring-opening of aziridine tris [1-(2 methyl aziridinyl] phosphide oxide (MAPO of the bonding agent used in composite propellant. A reduction was observed in the intensity absorption bands in 1400 and 1040 cm-1, characteristic of aziridinic ring. It was also observed, in some cases, that when the number of open aziridinyl ring increases, the NH band in the range 3400-3300 cm-1, that appears with ring-opening, is located in the region of lower wave numbers. The study of the synthesis of MAPO derivative indicated side reactions such as homopolymerization of rings and also, with secondary hydroxyl of the 12-hydroxy stearic acid and probable humidity existent in the original sample.

  20. Secondary ionization of chemical warfare agent simulants: atmospheric pressure ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Wes E; Clowers, Brian H; Haigh, Paul E; Hill, Herbert H

    2003-11-15

    For the first time, the use of a traditional ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (radioactive nickel ((63)Ni) beta emission ionization) and three alternative ionization sources (electrospray ionization (ESI), secondary electrospray ionization (SESI), and electrical discharge (corona) ionization (CI)) were employed with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS) to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants from both aqueous- and gas-phase samples. For liquid-phase samples, ESI was used as the sample introduction and ionization method. For the secondary ionization (SESI, CI, and traditional (63)Ni ionization) of vapor-phase samples, two modes of sample volatilization (heated capillary and thermal desorption chamber) were investigated. Simulant reference materials, which closely mimic the characteristic chemical structures of CWA as defined and described by Schedule 1, 2, or 3 of the Chemical Warfare Convention treaty verification, were used in this study. A mixture of four G/V-type nerve simulants (dimethyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and 2-(butylamino)ethanethiol) and one S-type vesicant simulant (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide) were found in each case (sample ionization and introduction methods) to be clearly resolved using the IM(tof)MS method. In many cases, reduced mobility constants (K(o)) were determined for the first time. Ion mobility drift times, flight times, relative signal intensities, and fragmentation product signatures for each of the CWA simulants are reported for each of the methods investigated. PMID:14615983

  1. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  2. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  3. Chitosan Membrane as a New Wound Healing Agent on Chemical Wound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Tkachenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Healing of skin defect of any etiology goes through several stages, which are completed or complete restoration of the lost cover, or the formation of scar tissue that covers the injury. Regeneration of the skin is depending on the type of injury, collateral damage, existing diseases such as diabetes, obesity, immune deficiency, including AIDS. At present, in the arsenal of physicians, there are a range of materials – from human skin to materials using tissue engineering technology. However, there is no universal bandage that meets the physician and patient efficacy and pharmaco-economic indicators. Therefore, the development of new materials for local treatment of skin lesions is relevant biomedical problem. The purpose of the work. Identify the characteristics of the regeneration process of the skin after a chemical burn when using chitosan membranes. We have conducted an experiment on 180 male laboratory rats of three age groups. All animals were simulated chemical burn in the interscapular region. The control animals received standard treatment of a series of chemical burns with sterile gauze bandages, which are changed daily. Experimental series of animals for the treatment of skin lesions using chitosan hydrogel, which was applied to the damaged areas with the replacement of film 1 per day. As a result, the application of chitosan dressings observed accelerated cleansing the wound necrosis in animals of young and adult ages and full wound epithelialization till 21 day of observation. Cytological examination showed decreased number of inflammatory cells at the wound surface and increase in the number of macrophages and fibroblasts. These changes had expressed age-related and more pronounced effect in animals of young and adult ages.

  4. Textural Development of Activated Carbon Prepared from Recycled PET with Different Chemical Activation Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cansado, Isabel; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela; Carrott, Peter; Mourão, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work a series of microporous activated carbons, with different burn offs, was prepared from recycled PET provided by Selenis (Portalegre-Portugal). These AC were prepared by chemical activation with KOH, NaOH and H3PO4, and carbonised under a N2 flow of 85cm3min-1 between 873 and 1273K. The carbonised samples were then cooled and successively washed until the washable solutions achieved a pH around 7.0, afterwards these were dried at 110ºC. All adsorbents were characterised by the ads...

  5. Determination of decimal reduction time (D value) of chemical agents used in hospitals for disinfection purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; da S Martins, Alzira M

    2003-01-01

    Background Prior to the selection of disinfectants for low, intermediate and high (sterilizing) levels, the decimal reduction time, D-value, for the most common and persistent bacteria identified at a health care facility should be determined. Methods The D-value was determined by inoculating 100 mL of disinfecting solution with 1 mL of a bacterial suspension (104 – 105 CFU/mL for vegetative and spore forms). At regular intervals, 1 mL aliquots of this mixture were transferred to 8 mL of growth media containing a neutralizing agent, and incubated at optimal conditions for the microorganism. Results The highest D-values for various bacteria were determined for the following solutions: (i) 0.1% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (pH 7.0) – E. coli and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.9 min); (ii) sodium hypochlorite (pH 7.0) at 0.025% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 24 min), E. coli and E. cloacae (D = 7.5 min); at 0.05% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.4 min) and E. coli (D = 6.1 min) and 0.1% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 3.5 min) and B. subtilis (D = 3.2 min); (iii) 2.0% glutaraldehyde (pH 7.4) – B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis (D = 25 min) and E. coli (D = 7.1 min); (iv) 0.5% formaldehyde (pH 6.5) – B. subtilis (D = 11.8 min), B. stearothermophilus (D = 10.9 min) and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.2 min); (v) 2.0% chlorhexidine (pH 6.2) – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min), and at 0.4% for E. cloacae (D = 8.3 min); (vi) 1.0% Minncare® (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, pH 2.3) – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min) and E. coli (D = 6.7 min). Conclusions The suspension studies were an indication of the disinfectant efficacy on a surface. The data in this study reflect the formulations used and may vary from product to product. The expected effectiveness from the studied formulations showed that the tested agents can be recommended for surface disinfection as stated in present guidelines and emphasizes the importance and need to develop routine and novel programs to

  6. Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli Mansur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between tiles and mortars are crucial to the stability of ceramic tile systems. From the chemical point of view, weak forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrophilic interactions are expected to be developed preferably at the tiles and polymer modified Portland cement mortar interface. The main goal of this paper was to use organosilanes as primers to modify ceramic tile hydrophilic properties to improve adhesion between ceramic tiles and polymer modified mortars. Glass tile surfaces were treated with several silane derivatives bearing specific functionalities. Contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for evaluating the chemical changes on the tile surface. In addition, pull-off tests were conducted to assess the effect on adhesion properties between tile and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, modified mortar. The bond strength results have clearly shown the improvement of adherence at the tile-polymer modified mortar interface, reflecting the overall balance of silane, cement and polymer interactions.

  7. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry. PMID:22697030

  8. [Physico-chemical and toxicological profile of gadolinium chelates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idée, J-M; Fretellier, N; Thurnher, M M; Bonnemain, B; Corot, C

    2015-07-01

    Gadolinium chelates (GC) are contrast agents widely used to facilitate or to enable diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). From a regulatory viewpoint, GC are drugs. GC have largely contributed to the success of MRI, which has become a major component of clinician's diagnostic armamentarium. GC are not metabolised and are excreted by the kidneys. They distribute into the extracellular compartment. Because of its high intrinsic toxicity, gadolinium must be administered as a chelate. GC can be classified according to two key molecular features: (a) nature of the chelating moiety: either macrocyclic molecules in which gadolinium is caged in the pre-organized cavity of the ligand, or linear, open-chain molecules, (b) ionicity: Gd chelates can be ionic (meglumine or sodium salts) or non-ionic. The thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of the various GCs differ according to these structural characteristics. The kinetic stability of macrocyclic GCs is much higher than that of linear GCs and the thermodynamic stability of ionic GCs is generally higher than that of non-ionic GC, thus leading to a lower risk of gadolinium dissociation. This class of drugs has enjoyed an excellent reputation in terms of safety for a long time, until a causal link with a recently-described serious disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), was evidenced. It is acknowledged that the vast majority of NSF cases are related to the administration of some linear CG in renally-impaired patients. Health authorities, worldwide, released recommendations which drastically reduced the occurrence of new cases. PMID:25731664

  9. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    VOCs. In one experiment, the concentration of nonpolar VOCs in the breathing zone of a person who treated the floor in a large climate chamber (45 m3) using a water based polish product was found to be 3,9 mg/m3. Use of scented cleaning agents usually means that odour thresholds of some compounds...... with polish treatment of the floor in a large climate chamber (45 m3) concentrations of up to 20 mg/m3 og 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol were measured after 2 hours and it took more than 10 hours before the concentration was below the odour threshold (4 mg/m3).The amount of non-volatile compounds introduced......, an increase of the content of LAS in the dust was found after floor wash compared to the contents before floor wash. However, the most important source of LAS in the indoor environment is residues of detergent in clothes, thus a newly washed shirt contained 2960 ppm LAS. Other circumstances like transport...

  10. STUDY OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF FUNGAL COMMUNITIES FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND PHYLOSPHERE OF STRAWBERRY TREATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi-Mirela Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of long term utilization of pesticides on yields quality, as well as on the human health made scientific community to seek new ways, less expensive and environmental friendly for protecting cultivated plants against pathogens. Biological control agents of microbial origin represented by living selected strains or their metabolites are more and more frequently utilized for protecting horticultural plants intensely consumed by European population, such as strawberry. A green house experiment was designed to compare the structure of rhizospheric and phylospheric microflora of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana, sensible to Botrytis cinerea (the agent of grey mould treated with systemic and contact fungicides, as well as with four biological control preparations of microbial origin administrated on plant leaves or in the soil. The structure of fungal communities in rhizosphere and phylosphere of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana varied as a function of the nature of control agent and the method of administration. Non significant influence on soil fungal community diversity index and species number was registered after the treatment with chemical and biological control agents, but significant increments were induced in time by control agents as compared with both non-treated control and chemical pesticides. Fungal community structure from strawberry leaves was not significantly influenced by chemical and biological control agents. The most favourable influence on fungal communities registered for bio-control agents E1 and E2 due to

  11. High-throughput identification of chemical inhibitors of E. coli Group 2 capsule biogenesis as anti-virulence agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Goller

    Full Text Available Rising antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli, the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs, has placed a new focus on molecular pathogenesis studies, aiming to identify new therapeutic targets. Anti-virulence agents are attractive as chemotherapeutics to attenuate an organism during disease but not necessarily during benign commensalism, thus decreasing the stress on beneficial microbial communities and lessening the emergence of resistance. We and others have demonstrated that the K antigen capsule of E. coli is a preeminent virulence determinant during UTI and more invasive diseases. Components of assembly and export are highly conserved among the major K antigen capsular types associated with UTI-causing E. coli and are distinct from the capsule biogenesis machinery of many commensal E. coli, making these attractive therapeutic targets. We conducted a screen for anti-capsular small molecules and identified an agent designated "C7" that blocks the production of K1 and K5 capsules, unrelated polysaccharide types among the Group 2-3 capsules. Herein lies proof-of-concept that this screen may be implemented with larger chemical libraries to identify second-generation small-molecule inhibitors of capsule biogenesis. These inhibitors will lead to a better understanding of capsule biogenesis and may represent a new class of therapeutics.

  12. Polysulfide as a novel chemical agent to solidify/stabilize lead in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Qiao, Wei; Gao, Xingbao; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2010-09-01

    Polysulfide was produced and tested for use as an inexpensive chemical agent for the solidification/stabilization of lead in fly ash, generating little hydrogen sulfide gas. According to the equations S(n)(2-)-->S+S(n-1)(2-) and S(n)(2-)+H(+)-->HS(-)+S(n-1), this agent was expected to achieve long-term stability of disposed Pb. The leachate concentration of Pb in fly ash after sulfide treatment showed a decrease-increase-decrease trend. We also compared Pb leaching behavior from an aging/weathering experiment to thermodynamic modeling using the database from the Geochemist's Workbench software. Thermodynamic modeling indicated the tendency that when the precipitate was formed in the order of PbO, PbCO(3).PbO, and PbCO(3), the total concentration of soluble Pb will be lowered. The leaching curve of Pb in fly ash without a lime slurry injection system was close to PbO, whose activity was initially near 1, but when leaching time increased, it shifted to that of PbCO(3).PbO, before finally ending at that of PbCO(3). However, Ca(OH)(2) sprayed on fly ash interfered with the carbonation process of Pb. PMID:20688350

  13. A Cu(II)2 Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Contrast Agent Enabled by Magnetic Exchange Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kang; Harris, T David

    2016-06-29

    The ability of magnetic exchange coupling to enable observation of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) in transition metal ions with long electronic relaxation times (τs) is demonstrated. Metalation of the dinucleating, tetra(carboxamide) ligand HL with Cu(2+) in the presence of pyrophosphate (P2O7)(4-) affords the complex [LCu(II)2(P2O7)](-). Solution-phase variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data reveal weak ferromagnetic superexchange coupling between the two S = 1/2 Cu(II) centers, with a coupling constant of J = +2.69(5) cm(-1), to give an S = 1 ground state. This coupling results in a sharpened NMR line width relative to a GaCu analogue, indicative of a shortening of τs. Presaturation of the amide protons in the Cu2 complex at 37 °C leads to a 14% intensity decrease in the bulk water (1)H NMR signal through the CEST effect. Conversely, no CEST effect is observed in the GaCu complex. These results provide the first example of a Cu-based PARACEST magnetic resonance contrast agent and demonstrate the potential to expand the metal ion toolbox for PARACEST agents through introduction of magnetic exchange coupling. PMID:27276533

  14. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:23419022

  15. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  16. Computational Investigations of Potential Energy Function Development for Metal--Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, and Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioce, Christian R.

    sigma donates, and subsequent back-bonding occurs into a pi* antibonding orbital. This is a different type of interaction not seen in the three existing classes of metal-carbene complexes, namely Fischer, Schrock, and Grubbs. Finally, the virtual engineering of enhanced chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection systems is discussed. As part of a U.S. Department of Defense supported research project, in silico chemical modifications to a previously synthesized zinc-porphyrin, ZnCS1, were made to attempt to achieve preferential binding of the nerve agent sarin versus its simulant, DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Upon modification, a combination of steric effects and induced hydrogen bonding allowed for the selective binding of sarin. The success of this work demonstrates the role that high performance computing can play in national security research, without the associated costs and high security required for experimentation.

  17. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qidi; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  18. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidi Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility.

  19. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:27113675

  20. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-03-20

    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  1. Exploratory Study on Occupational Health Exposure to Chemical Agents, in a Public Hospital in Valencia, Venezuela. Preliminar Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rojas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive study that identified chemicalagents (AQ use and training on risk managementand waste disposal techniques in a publicHospital in Valencia. A questionnaire wasanswered by 48 workers. Information obtainedwas: personal data, occupational history, AQused; knowledge of risk management and wastedisposal. There were 16 occupations from 12“High Risk” areas. “Adult emergency” was theone with more workers (11 individuals, followedby “sterilization” and “clinical laboratory”(7 each and oncology (5. The remained areashad less than 8.3% workers. The most usedanesthetic agents were: Halothane, Enfluoraneand Isofluorane 4.17% each and main antineoplasticsused were: Doxorubicin 16.67% andPaclitaxel, 5-Fluoracil and Etoposide, 8.33%each. The most mentioned substances were:alcohol (70.8% and Chlorine (64.6%. None ofthe answers regarding knowledge of AQ’ riskmanagement and waste disposal was satisfactory.Statistical associations between trainingand several variables such as age, time in theirjob and being or not a professional, resultednon-significant. The correlation between trainingand the knowledge of AQ’s managementwas significant (p < 0.001. Participants showedthat their knowledge about chemical occupationalrisk factors they are exposed to is stillinsufficient. Therefore, this theme should beincluded in graduate course curricula. Theseresults provide important data and will serveas a pilot research for the follow up Phase IIstudy that will include clinical aspects and environmentaland biological monitoring.

  2. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  3. Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R

    2013-11-15

    For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning. PMID:24140529

  4. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  5. 化学/生物战剂激光雷达探测技术%Lidar Detection Technology for Chemical/Biological Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振坤; 王秋华

    2011-01-01

    对化学生物战剂的危害与杀伤效能、传统侦检方法及战剂激光雷达探测机理、结构、性能、作用机制和相关技术进行了分析.探讨了生化战剂激光雷达技术的特点及优化设计、建立战剂探测技术模块.提出生化战剂激光雷达探测技术主要包括战剂侦察报警、采集检测、距离测定、测角定位、自动跟踪、扫描成像和生物芯片检测技术.指出激光雷达探测技术为生化战剂的侦检提供了有效技术途径.多功能多传感器集成的一体化探测技术将成为今后的发展趋势和研究重点.%Objective To research the lidar detection technologies for the chemical/biological agents based on the principles of lidar and harm of the chemical/biological agents. Methods The harm induced by chemical/biological agents, traditional detection methods for the agents, detection mechanism, structure, performance and correlative technologies of lidar were analyzed. The technology modules of the agents detection were designed and built up. Results The harm of chemical/ biological agents, the characteristics of lidar detection technologies and the research progress were described. The lidar detection technologies for the agents, including the ones for reconnaissance and warning, sampling and inspection, distance mensuration, angular orientation, automatic follow, scanning imaging and bio-chip detection, were proposed. Conclusion The lidar detection technologies are effective approaches for the scout and mensuration of the chemical/biological agents. The integrated detection technology with multi functions and multi sensors will be paid special attention to.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of N-acylaniline derivatives as potential chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Devakumar, C

    2006-09-01

    Induction of male sterility by deployment of chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) are important in heterosis breeding of self-pollinated crops like wheat, wherein the male and female organs are in the same flower. Taking a lead from the earlier work on rice, a total of 25 N-acylanilines comprising of malonanilates, acetoacetanilides, and acetanilides (including halogenated acetanilides) were synthesized and screened as CHAs on three genotypes of wheat, viz., PBW 343, HD 2046, and HD 2733 at 1500 ppm in the winter of 2001-2002. The N-acylanilines containing variations at the acyl and aromatic domain were synthesized by condensation of substituted anilines with appropriate diesters, acid chlorides, or monoesters. The test compounds with highly electronegative groups such as F/Br at the para position of the aryl ring were identified as the most potent CHAs, causing higher induction of male sterility. A variation of N-substitution at the side chain generally furnished analogues like 4'-fluoroacetoacetanilide (7) and ethyl 4'-fluoromalonanilate (1), which induced 89.12 and 84.66% male sterility, respectively, in PBW 343. Among halogenated acetanilides, the increasing number of chlorine atoms in the side chain led to an increase in the activity of 4'-fluoro (23) and 4'-bromo (24) derivatives of trichoroacetanilides, which induced >87% male sterility. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated the positive contributions of the field effect exemplified by the Swain-Lupton constant (Fp) and negative contributions of the Swain-Lupton resonance constant (R) for the aromatic substitution. The positive influences of parachor (P) for the acyl domain have been underlined. These leads will be significant in explaining the CHA fit in the macromolecular receptor site. The CHAs appeared to act by causing an imbalance in the acid-base equilibrium in pollen mother cells resulting in dissolution of the callose wall by premature callase secretion. PMID:16939342

  7. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  8. Structural Studies on Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase Directed Towards Development of Therapeutic Biomolecules for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases and Protection Against Chemical Threat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel

    Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase are important targets for treatment of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, respectively, both of which impose major burdens on the health care systems in Western society. Acetylcholinesterase is the target of lethal nerve agents, and paraoxonase is under consideration as a bioscavenger for their detoxification. Both are thus the subject of research and development in the context of nerve agent toxicology. The crystal structures of the two enzymes are described, and structure/function relationships are discussed in the context of drug development and of development of means of protection against chemical threats.

  9. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

  10. Occurrence and possible sources of arsenic in seafloor sediments surrounding sea-disposed munitions and chemical agents near O´ahu, Hawai´i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael S.; De Carlo, Eric Heinen

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Defense disposed of conventional and chemical munitions as well as bulk containers of chemical agents in US coastal waters including those surrounding the State of Hawai´i. The Hawai´i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment has been collecting biota, water, and sediment samples from two disposal areas south of the island of O´ahu in waters 500 to 600 m deep known to have received both conventional munitions and chemical agents (specifically sulfur mustard). Unlike a number of other sea-disposed munitions investigations which used grabs or corers lowered from surface vessels, we used manned submersibles to collect the samples. Using this approach, we were able to visually identify the munitions and precisely locate our samples in relation to the munitions on the seafloor. This paper focuses on the occurrence and possible sources of arsenic found in the sediments surrounding the disposed military munitions and chemical agents. Using nonparametric multivariate statistical techniques, we looked for patterns in the chemical data obtained from these sediment samples in order to determine the possible sources of the arsenic found in these sediments. The results of the ordination technique nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicate that the arsenic is associated with terrestrial sources and not munitions. This was not altogether surprising given that: (1) the chemical agents disposed of in this area supposedly did not contain arsenic, and (2) the disposal areas studied were under terrestrial influence or served as dredge spoil disposal sites. The sediment arsenic concentrations during this investigation ranged from <1.3 to 40 mg/kg-dry weight with the lower concentrations typically found around control sites and munitions (not located in dredge disposal areas) and the higher values found at dredge disposal sites (with or without munitions). During the course of our investigation we did, however, discover that mercury appears to be loosely associated

  11. Effect of ionic interaction between a hyperpolarized magnetic resonance chemical probe and a gadolinium contrast agent for the hyperpolarized lifetime after dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Inoue, Kaori; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Hyodo, Fuminori; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    In hyperpolarization of 13C-enriched magnetic resonance chemical probes in the solid-state, a trace amount of gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent can be used to maximize polarization of the 13C nuclear spins. Here, we report systematic measurement of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and enhancement level of 13C-enriched chemical probes in the presence of various Gd contrast agents in the liquid-state after dissolution. Using two different 13C probes having opposite electric charges at neutral pH, we clearly show the T1 of hyperpolarized 13C was barely affected by the use of a Gd complex that displays repulsive interaction with the 13C probe in solution, whilst T1 was drastically shortened when there was ionic attraction between probe and complex.

  12. The effect of bulking agents on the chemical stability of acid-sensitive compounds in freeze-dried formulations: sucrose inversion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Enxian; Ewing, Susan; Gatlin, Larry; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2009-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of amorphous bulking agents on the chemical stability of freeze-dried materials. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and dextran of different molecular weights and lactose were used as bulking agents, and sucrose was used as an example of an acid-sensitive compound. Lyophiles containing bulking agent and sucrose at 10:1 (w/w) ratio, citrate buffer, and optionally bromophenol blue (pH indicator) were tested by X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and Karl Fischer titrimetry. Diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy was used to obtain the concentration ratio of the deprotonated (In(2-)) to the protonated (HIn(-)) indicator species, from which the Hammett acidity function (H(2-)) was calculated. The extent of sucrose inversion in lyophiles stored at 60 degrees C was quantified by HPLC. The bulking agent had a major impact on both the apparent solid-state acidity (H(2-)) and the degradation rate, with the degradation rate constants value highest for dextran lyophiles (most "acidic", lower H(2-)) followed by lactose and polyvinylpyrrolidone lyophile (least "acidic", higher H(2-)). The Hammett acidity function can be used as an empirical solid-state acidity scale, to predict the rank-order stability of acid-sensitive compounds in lyophiles prepared with different bulking agents. PMID:19544366

  13. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  14. Prophylactic effect of topical silica nanoparticles as a novel antineovascularization agent for inhibiting corneal neovascularization following chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: SiNPs is an effective modality for inhibiting corneal neovascularization following chemical burn in an experimental model. Further investigations are suggested for evaluation of its safety and efficacy in human eyes.

  15. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haynes, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel chemical sand-fixing agent-poly(aspartic acid) and its composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jun [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Fang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Fang Li [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tan Tianwei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: twtan@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2007-09-15

    A novel sand-fixing agent-poly(aspartic acid) and its composites were synthesized to improve sand particles compressive strength and anti-wind erosion properties. The relationship between the concentration of sand-fixing agent and the sand-fixing properties was studied by three kinds of aging tests. Some composites were choose to improve the sand-fixing property and the composition of 40% xanthan gum and 60% ethyl cellulose were chosen to compare sand-fixing property with lignosulfonate. The results showed that the sand-fixing and water-retaining properties of xanthan gum and ethyl cellulose composites were better than that of lignosulfonate. The biodegradability experiment showed that the PASP and its composites were environment-friendly products and the field test showed that the PASP composites could improve wind erosion disturbance. - A novel biodegradability polymer significantly improved sand particles' compressive strength and anti-wind erosion properties.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel chemical sand-fixing agent-poly(aspartic acid) and its composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sand-fixing agent-poly(aspartic acid) and its composites were synthesized to improve sand particles compressive strength and anti-wind erosion properties. The relationship between the concentration of sand-fixing agent and the sand-fixing properties was studied by three kinds of aging tests. Some composites were choose to improve the sand-fixing property and the composition of 40% xanthan gum and 60% ethyl cellulose were chosen to compare sand-fixing property with lignosulfonate. The results showed that the sand-fixing and water-retaining properties of xanthan gum and ethyl cellulose composites were better than that of lignosulfonate. The biodegradability experiment showed that the PASP and its composites were environment-friendly products and the field test showed that the PASP composites could improve wind erosion disturbance. - A novel biodegradability polymer significantly improved sand particles' compressive strength and anti-wind erosion properties

  18. High-Throughput Identification of Chemical Inhibitors of E. coli Group 2 Capsule Biogenesis as Anti-Virulence Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Goller, Carlos C.; Seed, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    Rising antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli, the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), has placed a new focus on molecular pathogenesis studies, aiming to identify new therapeutic targets. Anti-virulence agents are attractive as chemotherapeutics to attenuate an organism during disease but not necessarily during benign commensalism, thus decreasing the stress on beneficial microbial communities and lessening the emergence of resistance. We and others have demonstrated that...

  19. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  20. 丸化型水稻种衣剂的理化性能研究%Study on Physical and Chemical Properties of Rice Seed-pelleting Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海蓉; 邹应斌; 熊远福; 李霞; 文祝友; 刘英

    2012-01-01

    To explore physical and chemical properties of rice seed-pelleting agent for providing reference for no-tillage and direct-seeding cultivation of rice,the physical and chemical properties of seed-pelleting agent WHW-25 were studied by means of experiments of film-forming and storage of seed-pelleting agent,and experiments of water absorption,underwater germination and storage of pelleted rice seed. Meanwhile its effects were compared with those of a export seed -coating agent. Results showed that,the seed-pelleting agent had good properties in film-forming,film uniform and water permeability. The germinant energy and germinant rate of the pelleted rice seed increased 36.3% and 33.5% compared with uncoated controls,respectively. After 12 months' storage,the germinant rate of the pelleted rice seed increased 35.6% compared with uncoated controls. The general effects of this seed pelleting agent were obviously better than those of the export agent used in this experiment. These results indicated that,the seed-pelleting agent could markedly promote seed germination underwater and improve safety storage of rice seed,its physical and chemical properties were good.%为了探明丸化型水稻种衣剂的理化性能,为水稻免耕直播栽培技术提供参考,用丸化型水稻种衣剂WHW-25包衣水稻种子,通过种衣剂的成膜、贮存试验和包衣种子的吸水率、水下萌发以及贮存等试验,研究丸化型水稻种衣剂WHW-25的理化性能,并与进口种衣剂适乐时进行比较.结果显示:丸化型水稻种衣剂成膜性、贮存性及丸衣透水性良好;丸化包衣种子在水下的发芽势、发芽率分别比未包衣的对照提高了36.3%和33.5%;贮存12个月,丸化包衣种子的发芽率比对照提高了35.6%;其综合效果优于对比试验所用的进口种衣剂.说明丸化型水稻种衣剂能显著促进水稻种子在水下的萌发、提高水稻种子的耐贮存性,其理化性能良好.

  1. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  2. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  3. An isomer-specific high-energy collision-induced dissociation MS/MS database for forensic applications: a proof-of-concept on chemical warfare agent markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Raja; Östin, Anders; Nygren, Yvonne; Juhlin, Lars; Nilsson, Calle; Åstot, Crister

    2011-09-01

    Spectra database search has become the most popular technique for the identification of unknown chemicals, minimizing the need for authentic reference chemicals. In the present study, an isomer-specific high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS spectra database of 12 isomeric O-hexyl methylphosphonic acids (degradation markers of nerve agents) was created. Phosphonate anions were produced by the electrospray ionization of phosphonic acids or negative-ion chemical ionization of their fluorinated derivatives and were analysed in a hybrid magnetic-sector-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer. A centre-of-mass energy (E(com)) of 65 eV led to an optimal sequential carbon-carbon bond breakage, which was interpreted in terms of charge remote fragmentation. The proposed mechanism is discussed in comparison with the routinely used low-energy CID MS/MS. Even-mass (odd-electron) charge remote fragmentation ion series were diagnostic of the O-alkyl chain structure and can be used to interpret unknown spectra. Together with the odd-mass ion series, they formed highly reproducible, isomer-specific spectra that gave significantly higher database matches and probability factors (by 1.5 times) than did the EI MS spectra of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the same isomers. In addition, ionization by negative-ion chemical ionization and electrospray ionization resulted in similar spectra, which further highlights the general potential of the high-energy CID MS/MS technique. PMID:21915956

  4. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target

    OpenAIRE

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Young, Kellie S.; Hillier, Shawn M.; Proffitt, Kyle D.; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action...

  5. Treatment of paraffin problems in petroleum production with chemicals; Tratamento de problemas parafinicos com agentes quimicos na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; Yin, Ralph; Weispfennig, Klaus; Newberry, Mike [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Paraffin problems can greatly reduce production of certain crude oils, if correct methods to control the problems are not used. These problems are primarily related to flow line deposition and reduction in crude oil flow properties caused by wax network growth. Deep water production and production of high-wax content crude oils can be especially problematic. Much of the petroleum production in Brazil falls in these categories: in the Campos Basin and in Bahia. Paraffin problems can be controlled with diverse methods. These methods include use of: pigging, insulation, heating, and chemicals. Sometimes, the use of chemicals can be very practical, alone or in combination with other methods. This paper discusses the use of chemicals for the treatment of paraffin problems. Three types of treatments are discussed: prevention of deposition in flow lines with paraffin inhibitors; improvement in flow properties of crude oils with pour point depressants, and removal of paraffin deposits with dispersants. The discussion includes the physical effects of the treatment chemicals and field examples. (author)

  6. INDUCTION OF MUTATIONS BY CHEMICAL AGENTS AT THE HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE LOCUS IN HUMAN EPITHELIAL TERATOMA CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance by chemical mutagens was examined in a line of cells derived from a human epithelial teratocarcinoma cell clone. The cells, designated as P3 cells, have a stable diploid karyotype with 46(XX) chromosomes, including a translocation betwee...

  7. Characterization of nanostructured As{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films synthesized at room temperature by chemical bath deposition method using various complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubale, Ashok U., E-mail: ashokuu@yahoo.com; Kantale, J.S.; Choudhari, D.M.; Mitkari, V.N.; Nikam, M.S.; Belkhedkar, M.R.

    2013-09-02

    Nanostructured binary As{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method from complexed and uncomplexed baths using complexing agents acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid. The effect of complexing agent on structural, electrical, morphological and optical properties of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} is reported. The synthesized films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical resistivity and optical absorption measurements. The deposited films are nanocrystalline in nature with monoclinic lattice. The films deposited from uncomplexed bath and from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complexes are non-porous and become porous for other complexes. The electrical resistivity and optical band gap is also found complex dependent. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline n-type As{sub 2}S{sub 3} films were grown by chemical bath deposition method. • Effect of complex on structural, electrical and optical properties was reported. • The film morphology highly depends on complex used in deposition process.

  8. Development of Laser Warning and Detection Technology for Chemical/Biological Agents%生化战剂激光侦检技术的发展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧云; 孙振海; 黄志松; 生甡; 王华; 徐卸古

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical/biological agents in terrorism and unmilitary fields induce serious impact to the public safety. Principles of laser warning and detection technology for chemical/biological agents based on Mie scattering signals, Rayleigh scattering signals, Raman scattering signals, absorption signals and laser induced fluorescence signals are described. The key technologies in the laser warning and detection system are analyzed, the laser warning and detection technology development profiles in the United States, Russia, German and France are introduced.%生化战剂在恐怖主义活动和非军事领域的非法使用对社会公共安全造成了严重的威胁.分析了基于米氏散射、瑞利散射、拉曼散射、吸收光谱和诱导荧光光谱信号的生化战剂激光侦察报警和快速检测技术的基本原理,说明了生化战剂激光侦检系统的关键技术,回顾了美、俄、德、法等国生化战剂激光侦检技术的发展情况.

  9. Optical clearing effect on gastric tissues immersed with biocompatible chemical agents investigated by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiangqun [Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Wang Ruikang [Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Elder, James B [Department of Surgery, North Staffordshire Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-21

    In order to understand the role of water desorption in optical clearing effect on gastric tissues after the application of hyperosmotic agents, dynamics of water loss in porcine stomach administrated with glycerol was investigated with the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. It is found that the progress of optical clearing of various samples corresponds very well with the individual pattern of water desorption. The changes in optical properties are almost linear with time in frozen-thawed cardiac mucosa immersed in 80% glycerol whilst the water inside the tissue is displaced at the same rate. For the same samples immersed in 50% glycerol, after 30 min, when the dehydration equilibrates with time, optical clearing tends to lever out. The overall water loss in frozen porcine stomach at 60 min after the immersion of 80% and 50% glycerol is approximately 38% and 13%, respectively. The more significant effect of optical clearing by 80% glycerol is due to its high refractive index and high dehydration capability. In fresh pyloric mucosa samples, treated with 50% glycerol through the topical application, the changes of optical properties at the initial stage are very slow due to the mucous barrier. However, once the solution has penetrated into tissue, optical clearing is achieved significantly with time. The results indicate that optical clearing induced by hyperosmotic agents is strongly correlated with dehydration.

  10. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Alejo C., E-mail: acarreras@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba—CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Cangiano, María de los A.; Ojeda, Manuel W.; Ruiz, María del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Qumica (INTEQUI), Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys.

  11. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys

  12. ALPHA SARCIN, A NEW ANTITUMOR AGENT. I. ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, AND THE IDENTITY OF A NEW AMINO ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLSON, B H; GOERNER, G L

    1965-05-01

    Isolation and purification procedures are given for the new antitumor agent, alpha sarcin. These procedures include the use of column ion exchange with a carboxylic resin (Amberlite IRC50), dialysis, decolorization with activated charcoal, gradient salt chromatography, salt removal, and drying from the frozen state. The final product has an activity of 800 sarcoma 180 mouse dilution units per mg. The amino acid composition of the purified material is reported. All of the usual amino acids found in proteins were present except methionine. In addition to the usual amino acids, an unknown amino acid was present in the acid hydrolysate. The latter was isolated, and was found to yield phenylalanine and kynurenine. This compound, which has been named "sarcinine," is extremely stable in 6 n hydrochloric acid in the absence of air, and is unstable in alkali. Sarcinine has also been found in two other antitumor peptides produced by aspergilli, and so may relate significantly to the antitumor properties of these peptides.

  13. IN SITU COMPATIBILIZATION OF LDPE/NYLON-6 BLEND USING LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT INTERFACIAL AGENT AS A CHEMICAL COMPATIBILIZER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pei; ZHANG Ruifeng; Chung Long Choy

    1997-01-01

    In situ compatibilization of low density polyethylene (LDPE) (30%) and nylon-6 (70%) blends through one-step reactive extrusion using t-BuOOH as an initiator and low molecular weight interfacial agents as compatibilizers was studied. The compatibilizer contained a long chain hydrocarbon, double bond and two polar functional groups which was capable of reacting with both LDPE and nylon-6 in the presence of initiator to form a copolymer at the interface of the two polymer phases. The extruded blends exhibited significant enhancement in their compatibility based on morphological, thermal analysis and mechanical studies. The effect of the hydrocarbon chain length and structure of the functional group of the compatibilizer was also examined. It was found that blends prepared by using the compatibilizer containing longer hydrocarbon chain and amide group had better mechanical properties.

  14. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  15. Effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents mediated by trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Alcaraz, Armando

    2016-08-24

    The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1)). Due to its insolubility in methylene chloride, TMO·BF4 conveniently settles to the bottom during the reaction and does not produce additional interfering by-products that may further complicate the GC-MS analysis. The method was demonstrated to successfully methylate a variety of Schedule 2 phosphonic acids, including their half esters, resulting in derivatives that were readily detected and identified using the instrument's spectral library. Most importantly, the method was shown to simultaneously methylate a mixture of the organophosphorus-based nerve agent hydrolysis products: pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), cyclohexyl methylphosphonate (CyMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA) (at a 10 μg mL(-1) concentration each) in a fatty acid ester-rich organic matrix (OPCW-PT-O3) featured in the 38th Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test. In addition, the protocol was found to effectively methylate N,N-diethylamino ethanesulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropylamino ethanesulfonic acid that are products arising from the oxidative degradation of the V-series agents VR and VX respectively. The

  16. Discovery of novel antiviral agents directed against the influenza A virus nucleoprotein using photo-cross-linked chemical arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Kyoji [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kondoh, Yasumitsu [Chemical Biology Core Facility, RIKEN, Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ueda, Atsushi; Yamada, Kazunori [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Medical Genome Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Goto, Hideo [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Watanabe, Toshiki [Department of Medical Genome Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Nakata, Tadashi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Osada, Hiroyuki [Chemical Biology Core Facility, RIKEN, Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aida, Yoko, E-mail: aida@riken.jp [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Medical Genome Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of the influenza virus is expressed in the early stage of infection and plays important roles in numerous steps of viral replication. NP is relatively well conserved compared with viral surface spike proteins. This study experimentally demonstrates that NP is a novel target for the development of new antiviral drugs against the influenza virus. First, artificial analogs of mycalamide A in a chemical array bound specifically with high affinity to NP. Second, the compounds inhibited multiplication of the influenza virus. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance imaging experiments demonstrated that the binding activity of each compound to NP correlated with its antiviral activity. Finally, it was shown that these compounds bound NP within the N-terminal 110-amino acid region but their binding abilities were dramatically reduced when the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail was deleted, suggesting that the compounds might bind to this region, which mediates the nuclear transport of NP and its binding to viral RNA. These data suggest that compound binding to the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail region may inhibit viral replication by inhibiting the functions of NP. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that chemical arrays are convenient tools for the screening of viral product inhibitors.

  17. Discovery of novel antiviral agents directed against the influenza A virus nucleoprotein using photo-cross-linked chemical arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of the influenza virus is expressed in the early stage of infection and plays important roles in numerous steps of viral replication. NP is relatively well conserved compared with viral surface spike proteins. This study experimentally demonstrates that NP is a novel target for the development of new antiviral drugs against the influenza virus. First, artificial analogs of mycalamide A in a chemical array bound specifically with high affinity to NP. Second, the compounds inhibited multiplication of the influenza virus. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance imaging experiments demonstrated that the binding activity of each compound to NP correlated with its antiviral activity. Finally, it was shown that these compounds bound NP within the N-terminal 110-amino acid region but their binding abilities were dramatically reduced when the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail was deleted, suggesting that the compounds might bind to this region, which mediates the nuclear transport of NP and its binding to viral RNA. These data suggest that compound binding to the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail region may inhibit viral replication by inhibiting the functions of NP. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that chemical arrays are convenient tools for the screening of viral product inhibitors.

  18. Influence of bulking agents on physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    A recyclable organic bulking agent (BA) that can be screened and was developed to optimize green waste (GW) composting. This study investigated the use of wood chips (WC) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) and/or composted green waste (CGW) (at 0%, 25%, and 35%) as the BAs in the two-stage composting of GW. The combined addition of WC and CGW improved the conditions of composting process and the quality of compost product in terms of composting temperature, porosity, water retention, particle-size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nitrogen losses, humification indices, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, macro- and micro-nutrient contents, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The compost matured in only 22days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days typically required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting process and the best quality of compost product were obtained with the combined addition of 15% WC and 35% CGW.

  19. A radiobiological approach to cancer treatment. Possible chemical and physical agents modifying radiosensitivity in comparison with high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological characteristics of high LET radiations are summarized to be low oxygen enhancement ratio, high RBE, low repair and low cell cycle dependency of radiosensitivity. Various chemical modifiers of radiosensitivity and radiological effect of hyperthermia are classified into these four properties. It is evident that we have now various means to mimic high LET radiations as far as biological response is concerned though some of them are still in experimental stage. Among them, the means to cope with hypoxia and repair which are assumed to be the most important causes of radioresistance of human tumors are discussed in some detail. It is expected that through the present seminar we would have consensus to concentrate our effort of development for new modifying means available and useful in developing countries. (author)

  20. In vitro evaluation of different chemical agents for the decontamination of gutta-percha cones Avaliação in vitro de diferentes agentes de descontaminação de cones de guta-percha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Emílio de Souza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of three disinfectants used in Dentistry for decontamination of gutta-percha cones. Sixty gutta-percha cones were contaminated with standardized pure cultures of five species of microorganisms (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Candida albicans ATCC CBS-ICB/USP 562, Bacillus subtilis spores ATCC 6633 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The cones were treated with 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine aqueous solution (PVP-I; Groups 1 and 2, 5.25% aqueous sodium hypochlorite (Groups 3 and 4 and paraformaldehyde tablets (Group 5. All chemical agents were efficient for the cold sterilization of gutta-percha cones in short time periods.A eficiência de três desinfetantes usados em Odontologia foi estudada na descontaminação de 60 cones de guta-percha contaminados com culturas puras e padronizadas de cinco cepas de microrganismos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Candida albicans ATCC CBS-ICB/USP 562, Bacillus subtilis em esporos ATCC 6633 e Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. Os cones foram tratados com solução aquosa de polivinilpirrolidona-iodo 10% (PVP-I; Grupos 1 e 2, solução aquosa de hipoclorito de sódio 5,25% (Grupos 3 e 4 e pastilhas de formaldeído (Grupo 5. Nossos resultados indicam que todos os agentes químicos foram eficientes para a esterilização a frio dos cones de guta-percha em curtos espaços de tempo.

  1. Physico-chemical characterisation of 99mTc-SnF2 colloid agent used for labelling white cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For more than fifteen years, Tc-stannous fluoride (SnF2) has been used to successfully label patient whole blood for the clinical diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The physico-chemical characteristics of this radiocolloid are still poorly understood. Using filters of specific composition, the particle size distribution (PSD) of SnF2 was found to be 6.1% >5μm, 5.2% 1-5μm, 0% 0.2-1μm and 88.7% 5μm, 14.1% 1-5μm, 0% 0.2-1μm and 85.9% 99mTc-SnF2 was found to be 0.8% >5μm, 96.7% 1 -5mm, 2.3% 0.2-1 μm and 0.4% 2 is used in colloidal particle formation, and of the radioactivity added, all Tc is associated with the 1-5μm diameter particles. The growth of these colloidal particles depends upon the surface chemistry of SnF2. There is a slow initial rate of accretion of SnF2 during colloid formation, which is a slow hydrolysis reaction in water, to yield fewer yet larger particles. Subsequently, reduction of 99mTc-pertechnetate by Sn2+ present, yields [Tc3+] that binds to the growing colloid surface. The chemical units comprising the colloidal surface are probably SnO-SnF2 or Sn2O2F2 or SnF3- and Sn2F5-. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Effect of Top Slag Basicity on Quality of Steel Treated by Exothermic Agent SiFe and SiCaBa during Chemical Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of top slag basicity on quality of steel treated with SiFe and SiCaBa alloy as exothermic agent in chemical heating was studied. These experiments were carried out in MoSi2 laboratory furnace with 0.2kg molten steel for equilibrium test and 2kg molten steel for simulation test respectively. These results showed that the adjusting basicity of top slag with CaO is effective to prevent rephosphorization and resulphurization, and it is possible to dephosphorize and desulphurize and remove the inclusions from molten steel when basicity R of the top slag is adjusted to 2.0-3.10, and SiCaBa alloy is better than SiFe alloy in this relation.

  3. On the need to assess cancer risk in populations environmentally and occupationally exposed to virus and chemical agents in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Netto Guilherme

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence exists that exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses may produce elevated cancer mortality in human populations, particularly excesses of cancer of lung and excesses of cancer of lymphopoietic tissues. To date, this potential risk is unknown in populations from the developing countries. This paper suggests the need to assess cancer risk in populations of developing countries with reported environmental exposure to chicken meat products and eggs; the need to assess risk of cancer in populations inoculated with vaccines from infected chicken embryos; and the need to assess risk of cancer in occupational populations highly exposed to poultry oncogenic viruses, and with potential concurrent exposure to chemical agents known or suspected to be carcinogens.

  4. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. PMID

  5. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  6. An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, Nick; Salinaro, Angela; Emeline, Alexei V; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hidaka, Hisao; Zhao, Jincai

    2002-12-01

    The photostabilities of a random set of commercially available sunscreen lotions and their active ingredients are examined spectroscopically subsequent to simulated sunlight UV exposure. Loss of filtering efficacy can occur because of possible photochemical modifications of the sunscreen active agents. Changes in absorption of UVA/ UVB sunlight by agents in sunscreen lotions also leads to a reduction of the expected photoprotection of human skin and DNA against the harmful UV radiation. The active ingredients were investigated in aqueous media and in organic solvents of various polarities (methanol, acetonitrile, and n-hexane) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions The UV absorption features are affected by the nature of the solvents with properties closely related to oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions actually used in sunscreen formulations, and by the presence of molecular oxygen. The photostabilities of two combined chemical ingredients (oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate) and the combination oxybenzone/titanium dioxide were also explored. In the latter case, oxybenzone undergoes significant photodegradation in the presence of the physical filter TiO2. PMID:12661594

  7. Bioanalytical procedures for detection of chemical agents in hair in the case of drug-facilitated crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2007-08-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. The drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals, such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc.), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some anti-H1) or anaesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse, such as cannabis, ecstasy or LSD, or more often ethanol. To perform successful toxicological examinations, the analyst must follow some important rules: (1) obtain as soon as possible the corresponding biological specimens (blood and urine); (2) collect hair about 1 month after the alleged event; (3) use sophisticated analytical techniques (gas or liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, MS/MS, headspace gas chromatography); and (4) take care in the interpretation of the findings. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low doses, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood or even urine can be of low interest. This is the reason why some laboratories have developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations where, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biological specimens. While there are a lot of papers that have focused on the identification of drugs in hair following chronic drug use, those dealing with a single dose are very scarce. The experience of the author and a review of the existing literature will be presented for cases involving benzodiazepines, hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and various sedatives or chemical weapons. The expected concentrations in hair are in the low picogram/milligram range for most compounds

  8. THE PEROXYMONOCARBONATE ANIONS AS PULP BLEACHING AGENTS. PART 1. RESULTS WITH LIGNIN MODEL COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis K Attiogbe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The peroxymonocarbonate mono-anion (HCO4─ is generated when the bicarbonate anion is added to a H2O2 solution. The mono-anion is believed to have a pKa value of ca. 10 and as such would start dissociating to the di-anion (CO42─ at pH ca. 8. The mono-anion should demonstrate electrophilic properties, while the di-anion should be a nucleophile. In an alkaline, non-sulfur pulping process such as soda/AQ, Na2CO3 could be obtained from the chemical recovery system and carbonated with CO2 from a flue gas stream to produce NaHCO3. In such a case only H2O2 would need to be purchased to generate the peroxymonocarbonate (PMC anions. Bicarbonate anions could also be produced from the carbonation of solutions containing NaOH, Mg(OH2 or mined Na2CO3. One or both of the PMC anions was found to be effective in oxidizing two lignin model compounds as well as lowering the lignin content of kraft and soda/AQ hardwood pulps. The PMC anions were generated in-situ by NaHCO3 or Na2CO3 + CO2 addition to dilute H2O2 solutions.

  9. Non-surgical treatment of deep wounds triggered by harmful physical and chemical agents: a successful combined use of collagenase and hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesti, Maria G; Fino, Pasquale; Ponzo, Ida; Ruggieri, Martina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-02-01

    Some chronic ulcers often occur with slough, not progressing through the normal stages of wound healing. Treatment is long and other therapies need to be performed in addition to surgery. Patients not eligible for surgery because of ASA class (American Society of Anesthesiologists class) appear to benefit from chemical therapy with collagenase or hydrocolloids in order to prepare the wound bed, promoting the healing process. We describe four cases of traumatic, upper limb deep wounds caused by different physical and chemical agents, emphasising the effectiveness of treatment based on topical application of collagenase and hyaluronic acid (HA) before standardised surgical procedures. We performed careful disinfection of lesions combined with application of topical cream containing hyaluronic acid, bacterial fermented sodium hyaluronate (0·2%w/w) salt, and bacterial collagenase obtained from non-pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus (>2·0 nkat1/g). In one patient a dermo-epidermal graft was used to cover the wide loss of substance. In two patients application of a HA-based dermal substitute was done. We obtained successful results in terms of wound healing, with satisfactory aesthetic result and optimal recovery of the affected limb functionality. Topical application of collagenase and HA, alone or before standardised surgical procedures allows faster wound healing. PMID:24698215

  10. Potential of Entomopathogenic Fungi as Biological Control Agents of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Compatibility With Chemical Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R T; Gonçalves, K C; Espinosa, D J L; Moreira, L F; De Bortoli, S A; Humber, R A; Polanczyk, R A

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi, Isaria fumosorosea, Isaria sinclairii, and Lecanicillium muscarium standardized at a concentration of 10(7) conidia/ml. Cabbage leaf discs were immersed in these suspensions, and after evaporation of the excess water, were placed 10 second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, totaling 10 leaf discs per treatment. Mortality was assessed 7 d after treatment, and the isolates that caused mortality>80% were used to estimate LC50 and LT50. The compatibilities of the most virulent isolates and the insecticides were tested from the mixture of these into the culture medium, and after solidifying, the medium was inoculated with an aliquot of the isolated suspension. The following parameters were evaluated: growth of the colony, number and viability of conidia after 7 d. The isolated IBCB01, IBCB18, IBCB66, and IBCB87 of B. bassiana, LCMAP101 of M. rileyi, and ARSEF7973 of I. sinclairii caused mortality between 80 and 100%, with LC50 and LT50 between 2.504 to 6.775×10(4) conidia/ml and 52.22 to 112.13 h, respectively. The active ingredients thiamethoxam and azadirachtin were compatible with the entomopathogenic fungi. The results suggest that the use of these isolates is an important alternative in the pesticidal management of P. xylostella, with the possible exception of the associated use of chemical controls using the active ingredients thiamethoxam or azadirachtin. PMID:26850733

  11. Chemical Validation of Phosphodiesterase C as a Chemotherapeutic Target in Trypanosoma cruzi, the Etiological Agent of Chagas' Disease▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Keller, Sharon; Li, Minyong; Smith, Alyssa; Zheng, Shilong; Kaur, Gurpreet; Yang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Binghe; Docampo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi phosphodiesterase (PDE) C (TcrPDEC), a novel and rather unusual PDE in which, unlike all other class I PDEs, the catalytic domain is localized in the middle of the polypeptide chain, is able to hydrolyze cyclic GMP (cGMP), although it prefers cyclic AMP (cAMP), and has a FYVE-type domain in its N-terminal region (S. Kunz et al., FEBS J. 272:6412-6422, 2005). TcrPDEC shows homology to the mammalian PDE4 family members. PDE4 inhibitors are currently under development for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, chronic pulmonary diseases, and psoriasis, and for treating depression and serving as cognitive enhancers. We therefore tested a number of compounds originally synthesized as potential PDE4 inhibitors on T. cruzi amastigote growth, and we obtained several useful hits. We then conducted homology modeling of T. cruzi PDEC and identified other compounds as potential inhibitors through virtual screening. Testing of these compounds against amastigote growth and recombinant TcrPDEC activity resulted in several potent inhibitors. The most-potent inhibitors were found to increase the cellular concentration of cAMP. Preincubation of cells in the presence of one of these compounds stimulated volume recovery after hyposmotic stress, in agreement with their TcrPDEC inhibitory activity in vitro, providing chemical validation of this target. The compounds found could be useful tools in the study of osmoregulation in T. cruzi. In addition, their further optimization could result in the development of new drugs against Chagas' disease and other trypanosomiases. PMID:20625148

  12. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda. PMID:27165227

  13. A new method of inhibiting pollutant release from source water reservoir sediment by adding chemical stabilization agents combined with water-lifting aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Chai; Tinglin Huang; Weihuang Zhu; Fengying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Source water reservoirs easily become thermally and dynamically stratified.Internal pollution released from reservoir sediments is the main cause of water quality problems.To mitigate the internal pollution more effectively,a new method,which combined chemical stabilization with water lifting aerator (WLA) technology,was proposed and its efficiency in inhibiting pollutant release was studied by controlled sediment-water interface experiments.The results showed that this new method can inhibit pollutant release from sediment effectively.The values of mean efficiency (E) in different reactors 2#-5# (1# with no agent,2# 10 mg/L polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) was added,3# 20 mg/L PAC was added,4# 30 mg/L PAC was added,5# 20 mg/L PAC and 0.2 mg/L palyacrylamide (PAM)were added) for PO43- were 35.0%,43.9%,50.4% and 63.6%,respectively.This showed that the higher the PAC concentration was,the better the inhibiting efficiency was,and PAM addition strengthened the inhibiting efficiency significantly.For Fe2+,the corresponding values of E for the reactors 2#-5# were 22.9%,47.2%,34.3% and 46.2%,respectively.The inhibiting effect of PAC and PAM on Mn release remained positive for a relatively short time,about 10 days,and was not so effective as for PO43- and Fe2+.The average efliciencies in inhibiting the release of UV254 were 35.3%,25.9%,35.5%,38.9% and 39.5% for reactors 2#-5#,respectively.The inhibiting mechanisms of the agents for different pollutants varied among the conditions and should be studied further.

  14. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  15. Radiation sensitizations at DNA-level by chemical and biological agents. Coordinated programme on improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitization by chemical agents at DNA level is discussed. Procaine, Halothan and Metronidazole showed no significant effect on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse spleen cells, investigated by autoradiography and no effect on rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after gamma or UV irradiation. Oxyphenbutazon and prednisolone reduced the replicative DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo but there was only little effect on DNA repair in the in vivo experiments. These two substances showed also a small reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis (PAR synthesis). 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in combination with UV irradiation showed that 5-MOP was more toxic than mutagen, but induced much less DNA crosslinks than 8-MOP. Autoradiographic studies of radiation sensitization by biological agents showed significant inhibition of UDS in Yoshida tumor cells after acute mycoplasma infection in rats. Nucleoid sedimentation studies showed only in the case of Yoshida tumor cells after mycoplasma infection a dramatic effect in the sedimentation behaviour. Sensitization of cells by changing chromatin structure was also studied. Benzamide, 3-NH2-benzamide, 3-Methoxybenzamide, Spermine, Theophyllin and Caffeine were tested in different concentrations on replicative DNA synthesis, UDS after UV irradiation and PAR synthesis Chinese hamster ovary cells. 5-Methoxybenzamide was the strongest sensitizer and inhibitor of the PAR synthesis, and was used in further experiments. Results of KFA Juelich on sensitization of a mamma-adenocarcinoma EO 771 on C57 B1 mice are given. Replicative DNA synthesis, DNA repair and PAR synthesis were compared in spleen cells and adenocarcinoma cells after treatment with 5-Methoxybenzamide. An inhibitory effect on UDS could be shown only in adenocarcinoma cells but not in the mice spleen cells

  16. /sup 32/P-Postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: Application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.; Randerath, E.; Randerath, K.

    1984-02-01

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by /sup 32/P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-/sup 32/P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)phosphate transfer from (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(/sup 8/) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(/sup 5/) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for /sup 32/P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity.

  17. 32P-Postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: Application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by 32P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-32P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(8) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(5) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for 32P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, 32P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity

  18. Chemicals agents and human male fertility: Review of the past thirty years literature; Sostanze chimiche e infertilita` maschile: Rassegna degli studi condotti negli ultimi trenta anni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Urbani, Elisabetta [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Petrelli, Grazia; Pasquali, Massimo; Pace, Francesca [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-03-01

    The effects of several industrial and environmental pollutants on the male reproductive system are known from animal studies, but to date the impact on human fertility is still scarcely documented by epidemiological studies. The literature of the past thirty years on the adverse effects of occupational chemical factors on human male fertility is reviewed. Eighty-nine studies have been analysed with the purpose to identify the substances and/or the working categories investigated and to evaluate the methods used. Since 1977 the interest has been focused on the human exposures to 1,2-dibromochloropropane, a powerful spermatotoxic agent, but a consistent number of studies was also related to other active ingredients of pesticides (lindane, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorofenoxiacetic acid), solvents (glycol ethers, carbon disulfide) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Among the indicators used in these studies to evaluate the effects on male fertility, the seminal parameters are analysed in 67 % of the reports; blood hormonal tests are done in 54 % of the cases. The literature suggests that further epidemiological studies need to be conducted in other working categories; more attention should be paid to the sensitivity and biological significance of the male reproductive parameters used in human studies.

  19. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO. PMID:26653465

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qilu; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Li, Ying; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1) is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2 (-), H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding. PMID:26379693

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilu eSong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1 is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2-, H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding.

  2. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  3. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  4. Exposición ocupacional a agentes químicos en la construcción de edificios Occupational exposure to chemicals in the construction of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hernández Gómez

    2012-11-01

    /03. Occupational exposure levels to the chemical agents were compared to the threshold limit values of the national standard INTE 31-08-04-01. Influence of some possible determinants of exposure by statistical association tests was calculated. Results: Mean for occupational exposure levels of inhalable wood dust was 3.55 mg/m3; relationship was found between sampling time and the concentrations. Chromium was not detected in collected samples. Mean for iron was 0.78 mg/m3; no relationship was found between concentration values and possible exposure determinants. Mean for manganese concentration was 0.04 mg/m3; temperature was the most influential factor. Conclusions: Occupational exposure levels for iron, manganese and inhalable wood dust were different among projects and companies. Dust concentrations were associated with sampling time and no statistical significance was found for metal exposure determinants.

  5. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  6. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  7. Partial chemical characterization of antigenic preparations of chromoblastomycosis agents Caracterização química parcial de preparações antigênicas de agentes da cromoblastomicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Fraga BARROS

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic preparations (saline, methylic, metabolic and exoantigens of four agents of chromoblastomycosis, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora (Cladosporium carrionii and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa were obtained. Partial chemical characterization of these antigenic preparations was obtained by determination of the levels of total lipids, protein, and carbohydrates, and identification of the main sterols and carbohydrates. Methylic antigens presented the highest lipid contents, whereas metabolic antigens showed the highest carbohydrate content. Total lipid, protein, and carbohydrate levels were in the range of 2.33 to 2.00mg/ml, 0.04 to 0.02 mg/ml and 0.10 to 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, in the methylic antigens and in the range of 0.53 to 0.18mg/ml, 0.44 to 0.26mg/ml, and 1.82 to 1.02 mg/ml, respectively, in saline antigens. Total lipid, protein, and carbohydrate contents were in the range of 0.55 to 0.20mg/ml, 0.69 to 0.57mg/ml and 10.73 to 5.93mg/ml, respectively, in the metabolic antigens, and in the range of 0.55 to 0.15mg/ml, 0.62 to 0.20mg/ml and 3.55 to 0.42mg/ml, respectively, in the exoantigens. Phospholipids were not detected in the preparations. Saline and metabolic antigens and exoantigens presented hexose and the methylic antigen revealed additional pentose units in their composition. The UV light absorption spectra of the sterols revealed squalene and an ergosterol fraction in the antigens. The characterization of these antigenic preparations may be useful for serological evaluation of patients of chromoblastomycosis.Preparações antigênicas (antígenos salinos, metílicos, metabólicos e exoantígenos de quatro agentes da cromoblastomicose, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora (Cladosporium carrionii e Rhinocladiella aquaspersa foram obtidos e foi determinada a caracterização química parcial dos mesmos. Os antígenos metílicos apresentaram os maiores teores de lípides enquanto os

  8. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  9. Effect of A Polymer Chemical Agent on Natural Settlement of Dredged Soil%一种高分子化学剂对疏浚土自然沉降的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骞; 董志良; 鲍树峰

    2013-01-01

    在疏浚土的化学加固研究中,化学剂的加入会直接影响疏浚土的沉降过程.以不同剂量、含水量、疏浚土组成为影响因素,观测并推算了各组试样的沉降过程中泥面高度、沉降速率、孔隙比、含水量、湿密度等参数随时间的变化情况,试验研究结果表明:化学剂在沉降速率和沉降稳定时间方面有很大的提高;化学剂的作用效果,随粘粒含量增加而降低.%In the study of dredged soil being reinforced by chemical process,adding chemical agent will affect the settlement of the soil directly.As agent consumption,water content and composition of dredged soil are the affecting factors,how the parameters of each group of sample,including mud surface height,settlement velocity,void ratio,water content,wet density,change with the time was observed and calculated.The study result shows that chemical agent could improve the settlement velocity and stabilization time but its effect will decrease with increase of clay content.

  10. Intrinsic dependence of the magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared via chemical methods with addition of chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, E.C. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Tenório, Mayara A. [Departamento de Física, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, UFS, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Mecena, S.G.; Zucolotto, B.; Silva, L.S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Jesus, C.B.R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, C. P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Meneses, C.T. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); and others

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the effect of addition of different chelating agents on the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles produced by the combining of both co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods is reported. The Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that our samples are single phase (space group: Fd-3m) with small average sizes. The weight losses observed in the thermogravimetric measurements together with the M×H curves show that the organic contamination coming from chelating agent decomposition can give rise to misinterpretation of the magnetization measurements. Besides, analyses of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization measurements and the M×H curves measured at room temperature allows us to state that both the average blocking temperature and particles size distribution are sensitive to the kind of chelating agent. - Highlights: Superparamagnetism. Chelating agents. Organic contamination.

  11. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2012-06-01

    virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts.Conclusion/significance: α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with nanomaterials to be a targeting drug that can further decrease immunogenicity and side effects. Through nanotechnology we can make them low-release drugs, which can further prolong their half-life period in the human body.Keywords: ribosome-inactivating proteins, alpha-momorcharin, momordica anti-HIV protein, antitumor, antivirus, (mPEG2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa, immunogenicity

  12. Competing intermolecular interactions of artemisinin-type agents and aspirin with membrane phospholipids: Combined model mass spectrometry and quantum-chemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashynska, Vlada, E-mail: vlada@vl.kharkov.ua [B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Ave., 47, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Stepanian, Stepan [B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Ave., 47, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Gömöry, Agnes; Vekey, Karoly [Institute of Organic Chemistry of Research Centre for Natural Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudosok korutja, 2, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary); Adamowicz, Ludwik [University of Arizona, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Highlights: • Competitive binding of artemisinin agents and aspirin with phospholipids is shown. • Complexation between the antimalarial drugs and aspirin molecules is also found. • Energetically favorable structures of the model complexes are identified by DFT. • Membranotropic activity of the studied drugs can be modified under joint usage. - Abstract: Study of intermolecular interactions of antimalarial artemisinin-type drugs and aspirin with membrane phospholipids is important in term of elucidation of the drugs activity modification under their joint usage. Combined experimental and computational study of the interaction of dihydroartemisinin, α-artemether, and artesunate with aspirin (ASP) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and by DFT B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ methods. The results of the ESI investigation of systems containing artemisinin-type agent, ASP and DPPC, reveal a competition between the antimalarial agents and ASP for binding with DPPC molecules. The complexation between the antimalarial drugs and ASP is also found. Observed phenomena suggest that membranotropic activity of artemisin-type agents and aspirin is modified under their combined usage. To elucidate structure-energy characteristics of the non-covalent complexes studied the model DFT calculations are performed for dihydroartemisinin · ASP complex and complexes of the each drug with phosphatidylcholine head of DPPC in neutral and cationized forms.

  13. Competing intermolecular interactions of artemisinin-type agents and aspirin with membrane phospholipids: Combined model mass spectrometry and quantum-chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Competitive binding of artemisinin agents and aspirin with phospholipids is shown. • Complexation between the antimalarial drugs and aspirin molecules is also found. • Energetically favorable structures of the model complexes are identified by DFT. • Membranotropic activity of the studied drugs can be modified under joint usage. - Abstract: Study of intermolecular interactions of antimalarial artemisinin-type drugs and aspirin with membrane phospholipids is important in term of elucidation of the drugs activity modification under their joint usage. Combined experimental and computational study of the interaction of dihydroartemisinin, α-artemether, and artesunate with aspirin (ASP) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and by DFT B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ methods. The results of the ESI investigation of systems containing artemisinin-type agent, ASP and DPPC, reveal a competition between the antimalarial agents and ASP for binding with DPPC molecules. The complexation between the antimalarial drugs and ASP is also found. Observed phenomena suggest that membranotropic activity of artemisin-type agents and aspirin is modified under their combined usage. To elucidate structure-energy characteristics of the non-covalent complexes studied the model DFT calculations are performed for dihydroartemisinin · ASP complex and complexes of the each drug with phosphatidylcholine head of DPPC in neutral and cationized forms

  14. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri; Daniela Castilho Orsi

    2014-01-01

    Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, cit...

  15. 基于多Agent的危险化学品安全生产信息采集系统设计%Design of information collection system of hazardous chemical work-safety based on multi-agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婕; 周铝; 王江

    2012-01-01

    Work-safety monitoring is a critical governmental responsibility, which directly affects human safety as well as protects capital assets. In this regard, hazardous chemical monitoring is of paramount importance. A well-developed safety monitoring information system has been proven to be a feasible solution to this problem, which can lower the amount of required work while increase the effectiveness of the monitoring process. A distributed agent information-collection model was established, which composed by management agent, collection agent, diagnosis a-gent and communication agent. The system was used to connect industrial enterprises located in Bureau of work safety supervision center through to the Hazardous Chemical Information Center at the Enterprise, so as to monitor the work safety of their manufacturing processes. A system based on multi-agent was applied to of production state parameters for hazard sources. The function and structure of all types of agent were designed. The system was used to data acquisition, monitoring and analysis on the state parameters in production of hazardous chemical , which lo-cated in different industrial enterprises, so as to predict or diagnose abnormal conditions in the manufacturing process. Thereby, through the cooperation and parallel solution, the problem of information-collection for hazardous chemicals work safety can be solved.%安全生产监管是政府的重要职责,直接关系到国家财产和人民生命安全.安全生产监管中,以危险化学品的监管为重中之重.提高安全生产监管的信息化程度是降低监管强度、提高监管效率行之有效的方法.构建了由管理Agent、采集Agent、故障诊断Agent、通信Agent组成的分布式信息采集多Agent系统,将安监局监管中心对危险化学品生产过程监管的信息采集任务下移到企业端,利用多Agent系统实现危险源生产状态参数的采集、监控及分析;设计了该信息采集系统各

  16. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  17. Small-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry studies of DPPC multilamellar structures containing membranotropic agents of different chemical nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilamellar structures formed in DPPC/water/glycerol and DPPC/water/oxyethylated glycerol systems are studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. The effects of glycerol, oxyethylated glycerol, and other membranotropic agents (MTAs) on the lamellar repeat distance D are compared in gel, ripple, and high-temperature (Lα) liquid crystal phases of the hydrated phospholipids. It is noted that the introduction of MTAs could lead to different types of 'D vs. temperature' behavior in the Lα phase, which is correlated with changes in D caused by the introduction of these substances to the DPPC/water reference system

  18. [Lectures from the tutorial courses at NATO--Advanced Study Institute pt. "Human biomonitoring after environmental and occupational exposure to chemical and physical agents" (Turkey, 9/23-10/3/1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, M M

    2000-01-01

    The NATO Science Programme joining in the celebration of 50th Anniversary of Founding of the NATO by organisation of NATO Advanced Study Institute "Human Monitoring after Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Chemical and Physical Agents", which was held in Tekirova-Antalya (Turkey), September 23-October 3, 1999. The director of ASI was dr Diana Anderson from TNO-BIBRA (UK). The members of Scientific Organizing Committee were also dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr A. Karakaya (Turkey), Dr P. O'Neill (USA), dr R. Bos (Netherlands), dr M. Lotti (Italy). It was a high-level tutorial course for scientists at the post-doctoral level from NATO countries and from NATO Cooperation Partner countries. NATO-ASI attended about 100 scientists from about 30 countries. There were 40 lectures, 20 oral presentations and 43 posters presented, 19 authors of posters were invited to additional short oral presentations. Subject of course concerned undesirable effects of chemical and physical agents on human health. The aim of NATO-Advanced Study Institute was the meeting of scientists working in different fields of science to present and discuss the knowledge and recent developments in the field of human monitoring. The majority of lectures concerned about biomonitoring of people exposed to genotoxic agents at work place and environment. Dr A. Autio (Switzerland) presented definitions of different kinds of bimarkers proposed by the Committee on Biological Markers in Environmental Health of USA Academy of Science/National Research Council. Dr D. Anderson (UK) introduced history of biomonitoring. The main lecturers on this topic were dr W. Au (USA), dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr M. Lotti (Italy), dr J. Timbell (USA), Dr E. Moustacchi (France). The following group of lectures presented by dr D. Anderson (UK), dr A. Wyrobek (USA), dr J. Bonde (Dennmark), dr H. Norppa (Finland) was regarded to male-mediated mutagenic effect in offspring induced by genotoxic physical and chemical agents

  19. 混凝土休眠-唤醒剂化学体系作用机理的研究%The Mechanism of Concrete Sleep-wake Agent Chemical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁惠星; 李海波; 徐惠青

    2014-01-01

    From the hydration reaction exothermic properties and the microscopic structure of the hydration products, through the comparative analysis of the effect of conventional retarder on the performance of concrete mixture, this paper studied and discussed the mechanism of sleep-wake agent chemical system and initially established the theoretical system of the mechanism of sleep-wake agent chemical system.%从水化反应放热特性、水化反应产物微观结构方面,并通过与常规缓凝剂对混凝土拌合物性能作用效果的对比分析对休眠-唤醒剂化学体系的作用机理进行了较深入的研究和探讨,初步建立了休眠-唤醒剂化学体系的作用机理理论体系。

  20. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid and L-cysteine on the inhibition of enzymatic browning of yacon, using Response Surface Methodology. The yacon pre-treated with anti-browning agents in concentrations of 15.0 mM for ascorbic acid, 7.5 mM for citric acid and 10.0 mM for L-cysteine was used for the processing of flour. Yacon flour presented an attractive color and good sensory properties, without residual aroma. The contents of FOS and phenolic compounds obtained in yacon flour were 28.60 g.100 g- 1 and 1.35 g.100 g- 1. Yacon flour can be considered as a potential functional food, especially due to high levels of FOS, which allows for its use in formulation of various foods.

  1. Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent Towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zeniou

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells reside in hypoxic and slightly acidic tumor niches. Such microenvironments favor more aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes and a slow growing "quiescent state" which preserves them from chemotherapeutic agents that essentially target proliferating cells. Our objective was to identify compounds active on glioblastoma stem-like cells, including under conditions that mimick those found in vivo within this most severe and incurable form of brain malignancy. We screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing "quiescent" phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. Compound effects were assessed by ATP-level determination using a cell-based assay. Twenty active molecules belonging to different pharmacological classes have thus been identified. Among those, the stimulant laxative drug bisacodyl was the sole to inhibit in a potent and specific manner the survival of quiescent glioblastoma stem-like cells. Subsequent structure-function relationship studies led to identification of 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-2-pyridyl-methane (DDPM, the deacetylated form of bisacodyl, as the pharmacophore. To our knowledge, bisacodyl is currently the only known compound targeting glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells in their quiescent, more resistant state. Due to its known non-toxicity in humans, bisacodyl appears as a new potential anti-tumor agent that may, in association with classical chemotherapeutic compounds, participate in tumor eradication.

  2. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

  3. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM PALM OIL SHELL BY CHEMICAL ACTIVATION WITH Na2CO3 AND ZnCl2 AS IMPRENATED AGENTS FOR H2S ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokorn Hussaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S, rotten-egg is one of the major environmental pollutants having its sources in natural and anthropogenic activities. It’s had smell gas produced by anaerobic digestion in acid condition from organic and inorganic compounds containing sulphur, presents dual problems of its toxicity and foul ordour. One of methods of its removal is adsorption. Activated carbon is a widely used adsorbent in the treatment of air pollution. Adsorption type and capacity are primarily based on the physical properties of pores, namely the surface area. Convetionnally, activated carbon is produced from biomass residues, wood coal and agricultural residuces. Today, one promising approach for the production of cheap and efficient activated carbon is used of waste from palm oil mill industries, which is palm oil shell. Palm oil shell is available in large quantities of approximately 0.53 million tonnes annually in Thailand. Palm oil shell is a by-products of the palm oil industry and was used as a raw material in this study due to its high carbon content, high density and low ash content. Normally, H2S in biogas, which is found the range between as low as about 50-10,000 ppm depending on the feed material composition to prodction, can cause corrosion to engine and metal substance via of SO2 from combustion. H2S must be removed from biogas product prior to further utilization. Therefore, in these research the usage of palm oil shell is especially important due to its high value added for produced activated carbon adsorbent for H2S adsorption in biogas product. In this study, fixed bed reactor (stainless steel with 54.1 mm internal diameter and 320 mm length was studied to observe the effect of char product: Chemical agent ratio (Na2CO3 and ZnCl2, 1:1 to 1:3, which there are activated at 700°C activation temperature for 2 h on the chemical and physical properties

  4. Protein and non-protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in gastric mucosa and liver after gastrotoxic chemicals and sucralfate: Possible new targets of pharmacologic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lajos Nagy; Miki Nagata; Sandor Szabo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of major non-protein and protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in chemically induced gastric hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) and the mechanism of gastroprotective effect of sucralfate.METHODS: Rats were given 1 mL of 75% ethanol, 25%NaCl, 0.6 mol/L HCI, 0.2 mol/L NaOH or 1% ammonia solutions intragastrically (i.g.) and sacrificed 1, 3, 6 or 12 min later. Total (reduced and oxidized) glutathione (GSH + GSSG), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), protein free sulfhydryls (PSH), protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) and protein cystine disulfides (PSSP) were measured in gastric mucosa and liver.RESULTS: Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in the gastric mucosa after ethanol, HCI or NaCl exposure,while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations increased, except by HCI and NaOH exposure. Decreased levels of PSH after exposure to ethanol were observed,NaCl or NaOH while the total protein disulfides were increased. Ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione or sulfhydrils to disulfides were decreased by all chemicals.No changes in thiol homeostasis were detected in the liver after i.g. abbreviation should be spelled out the first time here administration of ethanol. Sucralfate increased the concentrations of GSH and PSH and prevented the ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucosal thiol concentrations.CONCLUSION: Our modified methods are now suitable for direct measurements of major protein and nonprotein thiols/disulfides in the gastric mucosa or liver.A common element in the pathogenesis of chemically induced HML and in the mechanism of gastroprotective drugs seems to be the decreased ratios of reduced and oxidized glutathione as well as protein sulfhydryls and disulfides.

  5. 化学物理与生物毒素所致的溶血性贫血%Hemolytic anemia resulting from chemical and physical agents and biotoxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小平

    2012-01-01

    Non-immune hemolytic anemia induced by chemical, physical factors and biological toxins is associated with external factors, unrelated to erythrocytes themselves. Hemolysis can be the only one of clinical features, also coexist with features of other organs. This paper will introduce the mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of hemolytic anemia which caused by chemical, physical factors and biological toxins which happens accidentally in our normal life.%化学、物理与生物毒素所致的溶血性贫血属于红细胞外在因素导致的非免疫性溶血性贫血.溶血可以是患者唯一的临床表现,也可以与其他脏器的症状合并存在.文章重点介绍日常生活中较为多见的化学、物理与生物毒素引起溶血性贫血的发生机制以及诊治原则.

  6. Effect of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation under mild and hydrothermal conditions in related to chemical evolution of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Takeya, Hitoshi; Kushibe, Takao

    2009-07-01

    The role of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation was inspected to see whether minerals possess catalytic activity under mild and hydrothermal conditions. Under mild conditions, oligopeptide formation from negatively charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) using different minerals and the elongation of alanine oligopeptides ((Ala) 2-(Ala) 5) were attempted using apatite minerals. Oligo(Asp) up to 10 amino acid units from Asp were observed in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). Notable influence of minerals was not detected for the oligo(Asp) formation. Oligo(Asp) was gradually degraded by the further incubation in the presence of EDC in both the absence and presence of minerals. The formation of oligo(Glu) was less efficient in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole. The elongation from (Ala) 3, (Ala) 4, and (Ala) 5 and the formation of diketopiperazine from (Ala) 2 proceeded immediately in the presence of EDC in the meantime of the sample preparations. In addition, it was unexpected that the disappearance of the products and the reformation of the reactants occurred by the further incubation for 24 h; for instance, (Ala) 5 decreased but (Ala) 4 increased with increasing the reaction time in the reaction of (Ala) 4 with EDC. These facts suggest that the activation of the reactant amino acids or peptides immediately occurs. Under the simulated hydrothermal conditions, EDC did not enhance the formation of oligopeptides from Asp, Glu or Ala nor the spontaneous formation of (Ala) 5 from (Ala) 4.

  7. Chemical stability of ecomustine, a new antitumor agent in aqueous and biological media as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Abed, I; Roger, P; Gosse, C; Atassi, G; Gouyette, A

    1991-01-01

    Ecomustine, or CY233 (NSC-609224), is a new water-soluble nitrosoureido sugar derived from acosamine. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay (HPLC) developed to quantify the unchanged drug in aqueous solutions and biological specimens enabled us to study the chemical stability as a function of pH, light, and temperature. In buffered aqueous solutions, the kinetics of degradation of CY233 is a first-order process. The log k-pH profile demonstrated hydroxide ion-catalyzed solvolysis. The drug is most stable at pH 4, more stable than some other nitrosoureas in 5% glucose (t1/2, 62-67 h) and in 0.9% isotonic saline (t1/2, 25-37 h) solutions. Based on these findings, blood samples should be collected in cold tubes (4 degrees C) containing citrate buffer (pH 4) and all manipulations should be protected from heat and light. PMID:1998985

  8. In vitro activity of essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis and their major chemical components against Thielaviopsis paradoxa, causal agent of stem bleeding in coconut palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis and their main chemical components were investigated for in vitro control of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Mycelial growth and a number of pathogen conidia were inhibited by the essential oil of L. sidoides at all concentrations tested (0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 µL mL-1. L. sidoides oil contained 42.33% thymol and 4.56% carvacrol, while L. gracilis oil contained 10% thymol and 41.7% carvacrol. Mycelial growth and conidial production of T. paradoxa were completely inhibited by thymol at a 0.3 µL m-1 concentration. The results suggest that thymol could potentially be used for controlling coconut stem bleeding.

  9. Study of influence of early-strength agent on properties of foamed concrete using chemical foaming%早强剂对化学发泡泡沫混凝土性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧东; 郭中光; 于宁; 张云飞; 杨云超

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,it is preparation of foamed concrete for dry density at≤250 kg/m3 by using chemical foaming,with the ordinary Portland cement as the cementing material,and the use of Ⅱ fly ash replacing part of cement.The influence of three kinds of early-strength agent with different proportions on foaming rate and the slurry stability,compressive strength,dry apparent density,the volume water absorption rate of foamed concrete was studied.The results showed that the types and dosage of earlystrength agent has different influence on foamed concrete,especially effect on foaming rate and the slurry stability,compressive strength of foamed concrete multiple is significant.Comparing with three kinds of early-strength agent,effect of calcium chloride is the best,effect of sodium carbonate comes second,and effect of sodium sulfate is the worst.%以普通硅酸盐水泥为胶凝材料,使用Ⅱ级粉煤灰替代部分水泥,利用化学发泡法制备了干密度不大于250 kg/m3的泡沫混凝土;研究3种早强剂对泡沫混凝土的发泡倍数、浆体稳定性、抗压强度、干表观密度和体积吸水率的影响.试验结果表明:早强剂的种类和掺量对泡沫混凝土的发泡倍数、浆体稳定性和抗压强度的影响较明显;3种早强剂中,以氯化钙的效果最好,碳酸钠的效果次之,硫酸钠的效果最差.

  10. Applying theoretical premises of binary toxicity mathematical modeling to combined impacts of chemical plus physical agents (A case study of moderate subchronic exposures to fluoride and static magnetic field).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, B A; Tsepilov, N A; Panov, V G; Sutunkova, M P; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Minigalieva, I A; Valamina, I E; Makeyev, O H; Meshtcheryakova, E Y

    2016-09-01

    Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two thirds of these rats and of the sham-injected ones were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field for 2 or 4 h a day, 5 times a week. For mathematical analysis of the effects they produced in combination, we used a response surface model. This analysis demonstrated that (like in combined toxicity) the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a diversity of types depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on their level as well. From this point of view, the indices for which at least one statistically significant effect was observed could be classified as identifying (1) single-factor action; (2) additivity; (3) synergism; (4) antagonism (both subadditive unidirectional action and all variants of contradirectional action). Although the classes (2) and (3) taken together encompass a smaller part of the indices, the biological importance of some of them renders the combination of agents studied as posing a higher health risk than that associated with each them acting alone.

  11. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  13. Comparative chemical screening and genetic analysis reveal tentoxin as a new virulence factor in Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the causal agent of brown spot disease on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, Lieselotte; Van Poucke, Christof; Di Mavungu, Diana Jose; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Vleesschauwer, David; Turgeon, B Gillian; De Saeger, Sarah; Höfte, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Brown spot disease, caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, is currently considered to be one of the most important yield reducers of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Despite its agricultural importance, little is known about the virulence mechanisms deployed by the fungus. Therefore, we set out to identify novel virulence factors with a role in disease development. This article reports, for the first time, the production of tentoxin by C. miyabeanus as a virulence factor during brown spot disease and the identification of the non-ribosomal protein synthetase (NRPS) CmNps3, responsible for tentoxin biosynthesis. We compared the chemical compounds produced by C. miyabeanus strains differing in virulence ability using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HRMS). The production of tentoxin by a highly virulent strain was revealed by principal component analysis of the detected ions and confirmed by UHPLC coupled to tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The corresponding NRPS was identified by in silico genome analysis and confirmed by gene deletion. Infection tests with wild-type and Cmnps3 mutants showed that tentoxin acts as a virulence factor and is correlated with chlorosis development during the second phase of infection. Although rice has previously been classified as a tentoxin-insensitive plant species, our data demonstrate that tentoxin production by C. miyabeanus affects symptom development. PMID:26456797

  14. The Different Sensitive Behaviors of a Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer-Coated SAW Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA linear functionalized polymer (PLF, was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, mustard gas (HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES, 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected. However, the sensor possesses an unexpected high sensitivity toward 2-CEES. This good sensing performance can’t be solely or mainly attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction since the sensor is not sensitive to some high polarity solvents. We believe the lone pair electrons around the sulphur atom of 2-CEES provide an electron-rich site, which facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding between PLF and 2-CEES. On the contrary, the electron cloud on the sulphur atom of the HD molecule is offset or depleted by its two neighbouring strong electron-withdrawing groups, hence, hydrogen bonding can hardly be formed.

  15. Changes in the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of alfalfa root cell walls in the presence of toluene as a toxic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A H; Hadadzadeh, H

    2016-04-01

    The influence of toluene pollution on the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of root cell walls in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was investigated. Two sets of alfalfa seedlings were selected and one set was treated with 450 mg L(-1) toluene in the nutrient solution under hydroponic culture. Thirty days after treatment with toluene, alfalfa plants were harvested and the root cell walls were isolated. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out for the characterization of the root cell walls composition. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the swelling coefficient of the root cell walls (Kcw) were estimated at various pH values. The toluene contamination significantly reduced the mass of the cell wall material in the alfalfa roots. According to the FTIR spectra, the toluene pollution can change the alfalfa root cell wall properties by reducing the cell wall functional groups. These functional groups are probably related to the proteins and polysaccharides in the cell wall. Also, toluene pollution strongly reduced CEC and Kcw of the root cell walls. The results show that the decrease in the active sites of adsorption on the root cell walls as a response to toluene pollution can affect the water flow rate and the mineral nutrients uptake by roots. PMID:26728292

  16. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Ramkrishna Belwalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25 using silane as a control (Group A and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05. Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface.

  17. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  18. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  19. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  20. Effect of Different Chemical Drying Agents on the Mechanical Harvesting Yieid in Foxtail Millet%不同化学脱水剂对谷子机械收获产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝洪波; 崔海英; 李明哲

    2013-01-01

    To select the application technology of appropriate chemical drying agent for mechanical harvesting of millet, different concentrations of Diquat, glyphosate and CEPA were sprayed at the millet mature period to accelerate the ripening, and the effects of different chemical drying agents and application concentrations on plant dehydration effect and mechanical harvesting yieid of Henggu No.10 were studied.The results showed that the dehydration speed of Diquat was fast and the effect was obvious, the dehydration speed of glyphosate and CEPA was slow.Although having some negative effects on panicle weight, grain weight per spike and 1000-grain weight, 3 kinds of chemical drying agents had no significant difference on the millet yield and could effectively reduce the harvesting losses.The mechanical harvesting yields of 2250 mg/hm2 and 3 000 mg/hm2 of Diquat, 5 000 mg/kg of CEPA were higher than control by 6.68%, 1.38% and 1.61%.2 250 -3 000 mg/hm2 of Diquat was recommended for chemical drying in the millet production by mechanical harvest.%  为谷子机械化收获筛选合适的脱水剂施用技术,以衡谷10号为试材,在谷子蜡熟期喷施不同浓度的立收谷、草甘膦和乙烯利进行催熟,研究不同脱水剂及施用浓度对谷子植株脱水效果和收获产量的影响。结果表明:立收谷脱水速度快、效果明显,乙烯利和草甘膦脱水速度较缓慢;3种化学脱水剂虽对谷子穗重、穗粒重和千粒重产生了一定的负面作用,但对谷子产量无显著影响,可以有效减少机械收获损失,其中,立收谷3000和2250 mg/hm2浓度处理、乙烯利5000 mg/kg 浓度处理的机械收获产量分别较理想状态下损失率为0的收获产量(4018.72 kg/hm2)增加6.68%、1.38%和1.61%。谷子生产上采用机械收获时,推荐使用2250~3000 mg/hm2的立收谷溶液进行化学脱水,可获得理想效果,不仅产量高,而且脱水效果好。

  1. Studies on Preparation and Physico-chemical Properties of Coating-agent for Controlled Release Fertilizer%控释肥包衣剂的制备及理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 熊海蓉; 祝友; 熊远福; 李霞; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

      为了获得控释肥包衣剂的制备条件、探明其理化性质,以2种树脂为成膜材料,探讨了成膜材料复合比、成膜材料用量、增塑剂用量、乳化剂用量等单因素对控释肥包衣剂制备效果的影响,运用正交试验L9(34)确定了控释肥包衣剂制备的最佳条件;并对其pH、粘度、成膜时间、成膜性、衣膜水溶性、包衣均匀度、包衣脱落率等理化性质进行了测定。结果表明,控释肥包衣剂的最佳制备条件:树脂JZ与BZ复合比1:1.5,成膜材料用量12%,增塑剂用量0.8%,乳化剂用量1.0%,色素用量0.08%,乙酸乙酯用量86.12%。理化性质测定结果显示:pH 5.21,粘度为21.1 MPa/s,成膜性良好,衣膜不溶于水,成膜时间为6 min,包衣均匀度95%,包衣脱落率<8%,表明所制备的控释肥包衣剂理化性质良好。%To obtain the preparation conditions and explore the physico-chemical properties of coating-agent for controlled release fertilizer, the single factor tests of the composite ratio of film-forming materials, the amount of film-forming materials, plasticizer, emulsifier and pigment were made with two resins as the film-forming materials, and the optimal preparation conditions of coating-agent for controlled-fertilizer were determined by orthogonal test L9(34). The physico-chemical properties of the pH, viscosity, film-forming time, film-forming properties, water solubility of coated film, coating uniformity, coating-off rate were measured. The results showed that, the optimal preparation conditions were as follows:the composite ratio (JZ:BZ) was 1:1.5, amount of film-forming materials was 12%, plasticizer was 0.8%, emulsifier was 1.0%, pigment was 0.08% and solvent was 86.12%. Test results of physico-chemical properties showed that, the pH was 5.21, viscosity was 21.1 MPa/s, the film was good and indissolvable in water, the film-forming time was 6 min, coating uniformity was 95%, coating

  2. 控释肥包衣剂的制备及理化性质研究%Studies on Preparation and Physico-chemical Properties of Coating-agent for Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 熊海蓉; 祝友; 熊远福; 李霞; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

      为了获得控释肥包衣剂的制备条件、探明其理化性质,以2种树脂为成膜材料,探讨了成膜材料复合比、成膜材料用量、增塑剂用量、乳化剂用量等单因素对控释肥包衣剂制备效果的影响,运用正交试验L9(34)确定了控释肥包衣剂制备的最佳条件;并对其pH、粘度、成膜时间、成膜性、衣膜水溶性、包衣均匀度、包衣脱落率等理化性质进行了测定。结果表明,控释肥包衣剂的最佳制备条件:树脂JZ与BZ复合比1:1.5,成膜材料用量12%,增塑剂用量0.8%,乳化剂用量1.0%,色素用量0.08%,乙酸乙酯用量86.12%。理化性质测定结果显示:pH 5.21,粘度为21.1 MPa/s,成膜性良好,衣膜不溶于水,成膜时间为6 min,包衣均匀度95%,包衣脱落率<8%,表明所制备的控释肥包衣剂理化性质良好。%To obtain the preparation conditions and explore the physico-chemical properties of coating-agent for controlled release fertilizer, the single factor tests of the composite ratio of film-forming materials, the amount of film-forming materials, plasticizer, emulsifier and pigment were made with two resins as the film-forming materials, and the optimal preparation conditions of coating-agent for controlled-fertilizer were determined by orthogonal test L9(34). The physico-chemical properties of the pH, viscosity, film-forming time, film-forming properties, water solubility of coated film, coating uniformity, coating-off rate were measured. The results showed that, the optimal preparation conditions were as follows:the composite ratio (JZ:BZ) was 1:1.5, amount of film-forming materials was 12%, plasticizer was 0.8%, emulsifier was 1.0%, pigment was 0.08% and solvent was 86.12%. Test results of physico-chemical properties showed that, the pH was 5.21, viscosity was 21.1 MPa/s, the film was good and indissolvable in water, the film-forming time was 6 min, coating uniformity was 95%, coating

  3. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  4. 复合型缓释肥包衣剂理化性质及缓释特性研究%Studies on Physical and Chemical Properties and Slow- Release Properties of Compound Coating Agent for Slow-Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海蓉; 钟总; 官春云; 蒋利华; 邹应斌; 熊远福

    2011-01-01

    为了探明复合型缓释肥包表剂的理化性质及其缓释特性,对复合型缓释肥包衣剂的粘度、成膜性、成膜时间、膜韧性、包衣脱落率、包衣肥的养分初期溶出率、养分微分溶出率、养分累积释放曲线等进行了测定.理化性质测试结果显示:缓释肥包衣剂的粘度为44.5 MPa/s、成膜性良好、成膜时间7min、包衣膜拉长倍数达2.8倍,包衣脱落率<5%.缓释特性测试结果显示:包衣肥养分N、P、K初期溶解率<15%、微分溶解率<2%,符合中国缓释肥料标准GB/T23348-2009.其中P的初期溶解率小于N、K的初期溶解率,而N、P、K微分溶解率相差不大.养分累积释放曲线大致呈“S”型,与作物生长需肥规律一致.表明复合型缓释肥包衣剂的理化性质良好,能有效控制普通复合肥养分的缓释.%To explore the physical and chemical properties and slow-release properties of compound coating-agent for slow-release fertilizer (KSFF-2), the viscosity, forming film property, forming film time, film tenacity, coating off rates of coating agent, and the nutrient initial-release ratios, nutrient micro-release ratios and nutrient accumulation-release curves of coating slow-release fertilizer were determined. Results showed that the viscosity of the compound coating-agent was 44.5 Mpa/s, forming film property was better, forming film time was 7 min, film stretch ratio was 2.8 times, coating off rates was less than 5%. The initial release ratio of N, P, K in the coated fertilizer was less than 15%, the micro release ratio was less than 2%, which was consistent with the slow-release fertilizer standard GB/T 23348-2009 constituted by China. The initial dissolution rate of P was less than those of N and K, and the micro release ratio of N, P, K was almost the same. The nutrient accumulation-release curves were S-shape, which was consistent with the nutrient demand of crops. These results indicated the physical and chemical

  5. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  6. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  7. 基于炎症反应的应对多种威胁医学救治措施的研究进展%Multi-treat medical countermeasures based on inflammation against chemical agents: research advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋尚华; 王永安

    2011-01-01

    应对多种威胁医学救治措施(multi-threat medical countermeasures,MTMC)是指寻求一组单一药物,使其能够预防、缓解或治疗多种因素引发的人体损伤.近来发现,尽管不同化学战剂作用部位、中毒机制及中毒后的症状表现各异,但是它们都涉及到了共同的信号通道、分子介质及一些细胞过程,这些共同的信号通路可为MTMC研究提供较为明确的作用靶点,其中炎症反应及所参与的炎症介质与受体已成为MTMC研究热点.本文主要就炎症反应与化学中毒救治进行综述.%The multi-threat medical countermeasures (MTMC) have been proposed with the aim at developing a single countermeasure drug which can prevent,relieve and even cure injuries induced by multiple factors. Recently it was shown that although sites and mechanisms of action and symptoms of post-poisoning caused by different chemical insults vary, they are all involved in common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators and cellular processes,which provide definitive targets for MTMC drugs. Among them, inflammation,as well as inflammatory mediators and their receptors,might be one of the hotspots of MTMC. In this article,inflammation and the countermeasures against chemical agents are reviewed.

  8. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930437 A study on the pathologic changes andmechanism of radiation interstitial pneumonitis.BAI Yunhong(白蕴红),et al.Instit RadiationMed,Milit Acad Med Sci,Beijing,100000.Med JChin PLA 1993;18(1):14—18.The right or whole thorax of Wistar rat wasirradiated with Co γ—ray including single expo-sure(10,30, 50,70Gy)and fractional exposures(30,60Gy).Animals from each group were sac-rificed at 0.5,1,2,3,6,9,12 months after irradia-tion.Sections of lung were examined with lightmicroscopy(LM),electron microscopy(EM),histochemistry and morphometry.The pul-monary changes could be divided into four phas-es;exudation,granulation,fibroplasia and colla-genation.The four phases can exactly show.the

  9. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004448 Studies on the developmental toxicity of fluoride and its mechanism of mouse embryos in vitro. ZHANG Benzhong (张本忠),et al. Dept Toxi-col,Lanzhou Coll Med,Lanzhou 730000. Chin J End 2004;23(5) :420-422.Objective: To investigate the developmental toxicity of fluoride and its mechanism. Methods: 8. 5 day-

  10. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006143 The effect of different dosage of fluoride intake on activation of osteoblasts and the expression of BMP -2,BMP -4 and Smad -4. ZHANG Wenlan (张文岚) ,et al. Tianjin Instit Urol Surg, 2nd Clin Coll, Tianjin Med Univ , Tianjin 300211. Chin J Endemiol 2006;25(2):125-128. Objective: To explore the effect of excessive fluoride on the expressions of BMP -2, BMP - 4 and Smad -4 in rat osteoblasts and its correlation with pathogenic mecha-

  11. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have in your shelter room: First aid kit Flashlight, battery-powered radio, and extra batteries for both ... on the radio and on television emergency broadcast system if you need to shelter in place. What ...

  12. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008008 Reproductive effects of occupational exposure to mercury on female workers in China: a Meta-analysis. PAN Jie(潘洁), et al. Dept Occupat Health & Environment Sci, Sch Public Health, Ningxia Med Coll, Yinchuan 750004. Chin J Epidemiol 2007;28(12):1215-1218. Objective To analyze and evaluate the reproductive effects of

  13. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007141 Toxicity of combination of fluoride and aluminum on rat embryos in vitro. CHEN Li(陈丽), et al. Dept Toxicol, Public Health Coll, Lanzhou Univ, Lanzhou 730000. Chin J Endemiol 2007;26(2):133-138. Objective To explore developmental toxicity and mechanism of combination of fluoride and aluminum to embryos of SD rat. Methods Embryos of SD rat on day 9.5 of gestation were explanted and cultured in a whole-embryo culture system exposed to a series of doses of fluoride and aluminum (F + Al), which were (0 + 0), (5.0 + 0), (5.0 + 1.2), (5.0 + 2.4), (10.0 + 0), (10.0 + 1.2); (10.0 + 2.4), (0 + 1.2) and (0 + 2.4) mg/L. After 48 h of culture, yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, head length and dry weight of each viable embryo were evaluated by Browns morphological scoring system. Factorial experimental analysis of 3×3 was used to analyze the types of combined action. Results When exposed to both F and Al, yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length and dry weight affected each other (F=29.75,P<0. 01 ), especially with the consistent increase of Al. Every morphogenetic differentiation index has alternate action (P<0.05). Comparison of the data in groups of F + Al of (10.0 + 2.4)mg/L to (10.0 + 0)mg/L showed that Al had antagonism to teratogenic toxicity induced by fluoride. Conclusion Both fluoride and aluminum are developmental toxicant and dysmorphogent to rats. Aluminum partially antagonizes developmental toxicity induced by fluoride on whole embryo culture.

  14. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004001 Renal dysfunction in workers exposed to arsenic and cadmium. HONG Feng (洪峰), et al. Dept Occup Health & Toxicol, Public Health Sch, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2003;21(6) : 432-436.Objective: To examine the nephrotoxicity induced by

  15. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008235 A test of screening to predict lung cancer among dust-exposed tin miners with sputum imaging cytometry.LIU Yuewei(刘跃伟),et al.Dept Occup & Environ Health,Public Health Sch,Tongji Med Coll,Huazhong Sci & Technol Univ,Wuhan 430030.Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2008;26(4):203-207.Objective To evaluate efficacy of sputum imaging cytometry in early diagnosis on lung cancer among tinminers exposed to dust and analyze possible risk factors

  16. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008499 Cohort studies on cancer mortality of digestive system among workers exposed to asbestos:a meta analysis.SUN Tongda(孙统达),et al.Instit Public Health & Family Med,Ningbo Health Sci Coll,Ningbo 315100.Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2008;26(10):605-608. Objective To determine if there are excessive risks of malignant tumors

  17. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009408 Effects of aluminum on the intracellular calcium concentration and the expression of calcium channels in the hippocampus of rats.REN Rui,et al.Dept Health Toxicol,Coll Public Health,Harbin Med Univ,Harbin 15008.Chin J Endemiol 2009;28(5):501-504. Objective To dynamically investigate the effects of aluminum on the concentration of free intracellular Ca2+

  18. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930027 Clinical and chest radiological studieson 15 cases of acute phosgene poisoning.ZHUHanzhou(朱汉洲),et al.Jingjiang CountyPeople’s Hosp,Jiangsu,214500.Chin J Tuberc& respir Dis 1992;15(4):231—232.A clinical and chest radiological observation

  19. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008369 Analysis of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 gene expression in the lung of paraquat intoxicated rats by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. ZHI Qiaoming(支巧明), et al.Dept Emerg Med, Clin Sch, Med Coll, Nanjing Univ. Chin J Emerg Med 2008;17(6):577-582.

  20. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010280 Analysis of clinical classification and outcome of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. ZHANG Wei(张炜),et al. Dept Emerg,Nanjing General Hosp,Nanjing Milit Command, PLA, Nanjing 210002.Chin J Emerg Med 2010;19(4):357-360. Objective To study correlation between the clinical classification and outcome of acute paraquat poisoning. Method A total of 43

  1. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009131 Expression of the keratin 10 related genes in buccal mucous membrane exfoliated cells and changes of liver function in coal-burning arsenism. HAN Bing(韩冰),et al.Dept Pathophysiol,Guiyang Med Coll,Guiyang 550004.Chin J Endemiol;28(2):162-164.

  2. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2003006 The profiles of free organophosphorus poisons in the bile of rabbits poisoned with different organophosphates.HOU Yunxiu(侯云修),et al.Emerg Dept, Affili Hosp, Binzhou Med Coll, Shandong 256603. Chin J Intern Med 2002; 41 (12): 795 - 797.Objective:To study the process and significance of the distribution of free organophosphorus poisons (FOPs) in the blood and bile of rabbits poisoned with organophos-

  3. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2003161 Study on mechanism of carcinogenic effect and genetic damage of arsenism caused by burning coal. ZHANG Aihua(张爱华), et al. Dept Prev Med, Guiyang Med Coll, Guiyang 550004. Guiyang 550009. Chin J Endemiol 2003; 22( 1): 12-15.

  4. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004308 Monitoring indexes for early renal injury in workers exposed to mercury. PENG Shanzhuo(彭珊茁),et al. Shenyang 9th People’s Hosp, Shenyang 110024. Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2004; 22 (2) : 122-124.Objective: To study the diagnostic method for ear-

  5. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011286 Relationship between the methylation and mutation of p53 gene and endemic arsenism caused by coal-burning. ZHANG Aihua(張愛華),et al.Dept Toxicol,Guiyang Med Coll,Guiyang 550004.Abstract:Objective To explore the influence of arsenic pollution caused by coal-burning on methylation(promoter and exon 5) and mutation(exon 5) of human p53 gene,and to analyze the

  6. Diseases Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005150 Fluorosis on expression of nocotinic acety-choline acetylcholine receptors in protein and gene levels in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. GUAN Zhi-zhong(官志忠)?, et al. Key Lab Molec Biol, Guiyang Med Coll, Guizhou 550004. Chin J Prev Med, 2005;39(1):26-29. Objective: To investigate the influence of fluorosis on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in protein and gene levels in SH-SY5Y cells and the mecha-

  7. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009020 Relationship between gene polymorphism of CYP2E1/, CYP1A1, IL-4 and medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene. XU Xin-yun(徐新云), et al. Shenzhen Dis Contr & Prev Center, Shenzhen 518020. Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2009;27(2):71-73. Objective To investigate the relationship between gene polymorphism of CYP2E1,CYP1A1, IL-4 and susceptibility of medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (TCE).particles were measured using ELISA kits.

  8. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010159 Expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 mRNA in patients of endemic arsenism and its clinical significances.PAN Xueli(潘雪莉),et al.Dept Toxicol,Public Health Sch,Guiyang Med Univ,Guiyang 550004.Chin J Endemiol 2010;29(1):13-17.

  9. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011156 The impact of dietary iodine intake on lipid metabolism in experimental hypothyroid mice. ZHAO Shujun (赵树君) ,et al. Hormone & Develop Key Lab,Health Ministry,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin 300070.

  10. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  11. Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water%化学消毒的中和剂对水中内毒素活性检测的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿; 刘文君; 史云; 安代志; 白淼; 徐稳

    2015-01-01

    detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1. 0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1. 0% -5. 0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0. 5% of concentration is allowable.

  12. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  13. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  14. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  15. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  16. Evaluation of damage to DNA induced by UV-C radiation and chemical agents using electrochemical biosensor based on low molecular weight DNA and screen-printed carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Evaluation of damage to DNA induced by UV-C radiation and chemical agents. ► Utilization of an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on low molecular weight DNA. ► Utilization of screen-printed carbon electrode as an electrical transducer. ► Complex detection of double-stranded DNA damage. - Abstract: There is great interest and need to detect and evaluate damage to DNA by environmental factors. In the present paper, simple electrochemical DNA biosensors composed of commercially available screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and low molecular weight double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition layer are reported and applied to the detection of damage to DNA by UV-C radiation and reactive oxygen species produced by the Fenton type reaction in model as well as mineral water samples with additives. Complex DNA biosensor response is based on square-wave voltammetric intrinsic signal of the guanine moiety as well as that of the intercalative indicator thioridazine, cyclic voltammetric response of the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− indicator in solution and on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy when the measurements can be performed in the same solution. For the last two types of measurements, the biosensor was also used with an interface between the SPCE and DNA formed by a composite of carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan to enhance the transducer conductivity. Individual electrochemical/electrical signals depend on the time of biosensor incubation in a cleavage medium and their profiles characterize process of deep DNA degradation.

  17. Advances in researches on application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in the detection of chemical threat agents%表面增强拉曼光谱在化学恐怖物质检测中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高敬; 郭磊; 李春正; 陈佳; 谢剑炜

    2012-01-01

    在应对和处置涉及化学恐怖物质的突发公共安全事件中,实现实时快速、准确可靠、高灵敏的现场侦检非常关键.表面增强拉曼光谱技术因其灵敏、快速、便携等特性,在化学恐怖物质的侦检领域逐渐受到重视.该文综述了这一技术在化学战剂及相关物质、生物毒素检测中的应用进展,并分析了其应用前景.%The first important response is a real -time or rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and on-site detection strategy for public security emergencies related to chemical threat agents . Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has attracted wide attention in the detection field in chemical threat agents by virtue of its speed , sensitivity and portability. In this review, recent applications of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in the detection of chemical warfare agents , related chemicals and biotoxins are summarized, and the outlook of such a technique in the on -site detection is briefly described.

  18. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  19. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  20. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  1. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  2. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  4. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  5. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  6. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  7. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  8. 腐秆剂快速分解水稻秸秆的机理及效果研究%The Biological and Chemical Mechanism for Quick Decomposition of Rice Straw by Straw Rot Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 罗琳; 魏建宏; 何飚

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of adding straw rot agent at different periods on activities of cellulase, hemicellulase and phenol oxidase in rice straw were determined by the method that used to determine the activity of enzyme. The results showed that adding straw rot agent had significant impact on increasing the activities of cellulase, hemicellulase and phenol oxidase. The results of isolation of pure culture indicated that adding straw rot agent can increase the amount of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in different growing stages. Meanwhile, through quantitative analysis procedures found that the degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin increased after adding straw rot agent.%利用测定酶活力的方法测定不同时间段内添加腐秆剂对水稻秸秆中纤维素酶、半纤维素酶、酚氧化酶活性的影响,结果表明:腐秆剂的添加对3种酶的活性提高有显著影响.利用纯种分离技术测得腐秆剂的添加对细菌、真菌、放线菌3种微生物的量在不同生长时期具有促进作用.同时通过定量分析程序添加腐秆剂后纤维素、半纤维素和木质素的降解率均有所提高.

  9. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  10. Determination of decimal reduction time (D-value of chemical agents used in hospital disinfection Determinação do tempo de redução decimal (valor D dos agentes químicos empregados em desinfecção hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Gava Mazzola

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to selecting disinfectant for low, intermediate and high (sterilizing levels, the decimal reduction time, D-value, for the most common or persistent bacteria identified on a medical device or at a health care facility should be determined. The D-value was determined by inoculating 100 mL of disinfecting solution with 1 mL of a bacterial suspension. At regular intervals, 1 mL aliquots of this mixture were transferred to 8 mL of growth media containing a neutralizing agent, and incubated at optimal conditions for the microorganism. B. stearothermophilus and E. coli were the most resistant bacteria for the disinfecting and sterilizing procedures.Para selecionar o agente sanitizante de acordo com o nível (baixo, intermediário, alto ou esterilizante é necessário determinar o tempo de redução decimal (valor D para os microrganismos comumente identificados em equipamentos médico-hospitalares. O valor D é determinado inoculando-se 1 mL da suspensão de microrganismo em 100 mL da solução desinfetante. Em intervalos constantes, alíquotas de 1 mL da mistura devem ser transferidas para 8 mL de meio de cultura contendo agente neutralizante. B. stearothermophilus e E. coli se mostraram os microrganismos mais resistentes para soluções esterilizantes e desinfetantes.

  11. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  12. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  13. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

  15. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  16. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  17. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  18. 保水剂对土壤理化性状和木薯产量影响研究%Effects of Water Retaining Agent on the Physical and Chemical Biological Character of Soil and the Root Tubers Yield of Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪霜; 罗兴录; 樊吴静; 黄冬飞; 杨鑫; 曾文丹

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of water retaining agent on the physical and chemical biological character of soil and the root tubers yield of cassava. The cassava cultivar‘Fuxuan 01’were used as materials. The water retaining agent was applied on three different levels of 0 kg/hm2, 20 kg/hm2 and 40 kg/hm2 in this experiment. The physical and chemical biological character of soil, the agronomic characters of cassava and the root tubers character of soil, the agronomic characters of cassava and the root tubers yield of cassava were analyzed during the experiment. The results showed that, the water retaining agent could improve physical and chemical biological character of soil, promote cassava growth and increase the yield of cassava. The facilitation of the 40 kg/hm2 water retaining agent was the best which the soil moisture, total porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium increased respectively by 12.56%, 16.47%, 11.62%, 36.87%, 45.42%; the tree height, stem diameter increased respectively by 14.74%, 12.74%; the yield and economic income of cassava increased respectively by 36.96%and 22.15%. This showed that the water retaining agent play a positive role in improving physical and chemical biological character of soil, promoting cassava growth, increasing the yield and the economic benefit of cassava, it should be applied extends in the planting of cassava.%为探讨保水剂对土壤理化性状和木薯产量的影响,以木薯品种‘辐选01’为材料,在每公顷施用保水剂(0 kg,20 kg,40 kg)的处理下,研究保水剂不同用量对土壤理化性状、木薯农艺性状及产量的影响。结果表明:施用保水剂能改善土壤理化性状,促进木薯生长,提高木薯产量。其中以40 kg/hm2保水剂施用量效果最好,其土壤含水量、孔隙度、速效氮、速效磷、速效钾分别增加了12.56%、16.47%、11.62%、36.87%、45.42%;株高、茎粗分别增加了14.74%

  19. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  20. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  1. Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents by Differential Mobility Spectrometry and Drift-time Ion Mobility Spectrometry Hybrid Technology%差分离子迁移谱和迁移时间离子迁移谱联用技术检测化学战剂模拟物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程沙沙; 陈创; 王卫国; 李海洋

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel hybrid technology combined differential ion mobility spectrometry ( DMS) with drift time ion mobility spectrometry DMS-IMS2 , we detected the typical chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl methylphosphonate ( DMMP ) and methyl salicylate ( MS) . With carrier gas 800 mL/min and DMS RF voltage 1100 V, the chemical warfare agents DMMP and MS could be detected and characterized by DMS-IMS2 under DIMS mode. In addition, DMS-IMS2 is capable to monitor positive and negative ions of DMMP and MS simultaneously, and provides the two-dimensional separation parameters DMS compensation voltage ( CV) and IMS drift time ( Td ) , which provides more information for the identification of two chemical warfare agents. DMS-IMS2 has potential application in on-site detection and instrument miniaturization due to its advantages including small size, low power consumption and rapid response time.%采用平板式差分离子迁移谱( DMS)和迁移时间离子迁移谱( DTIMS)联用技术( DMS-IMS2)对典型化学战剂模拟物甲基膦酸二甲酯(DMMP)和水杨酸甲酯(MS)进行测定。实验结果表明,在载气800 mL/min, DMS射频电压1100 V条件下,DMS-IMS2在DIMS模式能够实现DMMP和MS两种化学战剂模拟物的有效识别和检测。另外,DMS-IMS2能够实现DMMP和MS正、负离子的同时检测,同时获得DMMP和MS的DMS补偿电压( CV)和IMS迁移时间( Td )的二维分离信息,为两种化学战剂模拟物的准确鉴定提供更多的信息。DMS-IMS2具有二维分析能力、可同时分析正负离子、响应速度快、体积小、功耗低等优点,在现场检测中具有广阔的应用前景。

  2. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  3. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  4. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  5. Traçadores: o uso de agentes químicos para estudos hidrológicos, ambientais, petroquímicos e biológicos Tracers: the use of chemical agents for hydrological, environmental, petrochemical and biological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láuris Lucia da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revision of the history, definitions, and classification of tracers (natural and artificial, internal and external. The fundamental ideas concerning tracers are described, followed by their application illustrated by typical examples. The advantages and disadvantages of five classes among the most frequently used external tracers (fluorescent, microbial, chemical, radioactive and activable isotopes are also described in detail. This review also presents some interesting and modern applications of tracers in the areas of diagnostics in medical practice, environmental pollution, hydrology and petroleum chemistry.

  6. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  7. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  8. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  9. 杀秧机及不同化学制剂对马铃薯杀秧效果比较试验%Comparing Trials of Potato Haulm Killing by Haulm Cutter and Chemical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿军; 乔雪静; 闫任沛; 苏允华; 孙东显

    2011-01-01

    Potato haulm killing had been applied in virus-free seed potato production, and there were some differences in cost and effect of the practice. Haulm killing by haulm cutter, cooper sulfate and paraquat were compared in field experiments. The best results were obtained from haulm cutter, which was low cost, good for operating harvester, and no chemical pollution. Therefore, using haulm cutter in seed potato production should be recommended.%马铃薯杀秧措施已经广泛应用于脱毒马铃薯种薯生产中,但实际调查中杀秧效果和杀秧成本,有很大的差异,针对这一问题,本试验选出常用的杀秧机和硫酸铜、百草枯两种化学制剂进行杀秧处理,并对马铃薯的杀秧效果进行了综合比较。结果表明,自制2垄马铃薯杀秧机效果最好,其杀秧成本低,利于机械收获,安全性高,是可以大力推广的技术措施。

  10. Multiscale modeling of nerve agent hydrolysis mechanisms: a tale of two Nobel Prizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy W.

    2014-10-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems, whereas the 2013 Peace Prize was given to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for their efforts to eliminate chemical warfare agents. This review relates the two by introducing the field of multiscale modeling and highlighting its application to the study of the biological mechanisms by which selected chemical weapon agents exert their effects at an atomic level.

  11. Chemical exposure during pregnancy and oral clefts in newborns Exposição a agentes químicos na gravidez e fendas lábio-palatinas no recém-nascido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the risk factors for oral clefts (lip and/or palate, emphasizing discussion of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Several studies have identified the risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, use of anticonvulsivant drugs, and exposure to organic solvents. A protective effect has been shown for supplementation with folic acid. As with other chemicals, the risk associated with exposure to sex hormones is still obscure, although some authors describe a moderate risk level. New studies addressing this hypothesis need to be conducted, while the population exposed to these endocrine disrupters is increasing.O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os fatores de risco para a ocorrência de fendas lábio-palatinas descritos na literatura, destacando a discussão sobre a exposição hormonal materna durante a gravidez. Os trabalhos analisados apontam como fatores de risco o tabagismo e a ingestão de álcool, uso de anticonvulsivantes e exposições a solventes orgânicos, e como fator de proteção, a administração de ácido fólico. O risco associado à exposição hormonal, bem como a outros fatores, ainda é obscuro, embora alguns autores descrevam moderadas magnitudes de risco. Novos estudos, especificamente elaborados para testar esta hipótese, devem ser realizados à medida em que aumenta a população exposta a drogas de ação endócrina.

  12. Clinical applications of quinone-containing alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begleiter, A

    2000-11-01

    Quinone-containing alkylating agents are a class of chemical agents that have received considerable interest as anticancer drugs. These agents contain a quinone moiety that can be reduced and an alkylating group that can form covalent bonds with a variety of cellular components. The oxidation state of the quinone element can modulate the activity of the alkylating element, and reduction of the quinone is required for activation of the alkylating activity of many of these agents. The quinone element may also contribute to the cytotoxic activity of quinone-containing alkylating agents through the formation of reactive oxygen species during redox cycling. The natural product, mitomycin C, has been the most widely used quinone-containing alkylating agent in the clinic, but other quinone-containing alkylating agents like porfiromycin, diaziquone, carbazilquinone, triaziquone and EO9 have also been used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer. In addition, many other quinone-containing alkylating agents have been tested in preclinical studies and the development of new agents is being actively pursued. This chapter describes the current and past clinical uses of these agents in the treatment of cancer and discusses new agents that are currently in clinical trials. PMID:11056078

  13. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  14. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  15. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  16. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  17. OCT monitoring of diffusion of clearing agents within tooth dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunina, N. A.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Monitoring of agent diffusion within tooth tissues is important in a wide context of tooth therapy (diffusion of medicinal preparations) and cosmetics (chemical whitening agents). We report here the results of optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring of diffusion of water and glycerol as clearing agents in samples of human tooth tissue. The diffusion process is analyzed by monitoring the changes in the OCT signal slope and the depth-resolved amplitude of OCT signal from a sample. Slow temporal kinetics of the mean attenuation coefficient was measured to monitor a saturable optical clearing due to the diffusion of the agent. The average permeability coefficient was estimated by dividing the measured thickness of the selected region by the time it took for the agent to diffuse through. The experimental results demonstrate that OCT can be an efficient tool in the study of agent diffusion through hard tissues.

  18. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  19. Droplet Reaction and Evaporation of Agents Model (DREAM). Glass model results; Sand model plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, A.R.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Agent Fate Program is generating an extensive set of quality agent fate data which is being used to develop highly accurate secondary evaporation predictive models. Models are being developed that cover a wide range of traditional chemical warfare agents deposited onto surfaces routinely found o

  20. Ação de produtos químicos in vitro e in vivo sobre Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, agente causal do cancro bacteriano do tomateiro In vitro and in vivo action of chemicals on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of the bacterial canker of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Faria Theodoro

    2000-09-01

    filter papers soaked with the chemicals was evaluated, for concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mug mL-1, 24 h after the installation of the experiment. In the in vivo evaluation, two experiments were installed under greenhouse conditions, with tomato plants cv. Ângela Hiper and two methods of inoculation: leaf spray and stem injury. In both experiments, the plants were sprayed with 0.06 mL L-1 of kasugamicyn chloridrate, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075 mL L-1 of fulusulfamide and 0.40 g L-1 of oxytetracycline, twice before and twice after the inoculations, at intervals of 5 to 7 days. The incidence of diseased leaves (inoculation by leaf spray and the severity of the symptoms in the plants inoculated by stem injury was evaluated. The Cmm isolate was in vitro sensitive to kasugamicyn chloridrate, fulusulfamide and oxytetracycline in the respective concentrations of 1000, 100 and 10 mug mL-1. Only the oxytetracycline promoted a lower incidence of diseased leaves in the plants inoculated by leaf spray. None of the chemicals had success in the disease control (inoculation by stem injury. The fulusulfamide, in all concentrations, was toxic to the leaves of tomato plants.

  1. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  2. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  3. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  4. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  5. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  6. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  7. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  8. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  9. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  10. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  11. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  12. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  13. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor based detection of toxins includes enhancing a fluorescence signal by concentrating a plurality of photosynthetic organisms in a fluid into a concentrated region using biased AC electro-osmosis. A measured photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms is obtained in the concentrated region, where chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. A presence of the chemical, biological and/or radiological agents or precursors thereof, is determined in the fluid based on the measured photosynthetic activity of the concentrated plurality of photosynthetic organisms. A lab-on-a-chip system is used for the concentrating step. The presence of agents is determined from feature vectors, obtained from processing a time dependent signal using amplitude statistics and/or time-frequency analysis, relative to a control signal. A linear discriminant method including support vector machine classification (SVM) is used to identify the agents.

  14. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  15. Synthesis of a new NIR fluorescent Nd complex labeling agent.

    OpenAIRE

    Aita, Kazuki; Temma, Takashi; Shimizu, Yoichi; Kuge, Yuji; Seki, Koh-ichi; Saji, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent analysis has been widely used in biological, chemical and analytical research. A useful fluorescent labeling agent should include NIR emission, a large Stoke's shift, and good labeling ability without interfering with the pharmacological profile of the labeled compound. Thus, we planned to develop an M-AMF-DOTA(Nd) derivative composed of an NIR fluorescent moiety and a maleimide conjugating moiety as a new NIR fluorescent labeling agent which fulfills these requirements. M-AMF-DOT...

  16. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy®

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, AS

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy....

  17. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Angel S

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy....

  18. Winter railcar unloading: heat thawing vs FCA. [Freeze conditioning agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    The use of freeze conditioning agents and thawing by radiant heat are compared as methods for freezing coal for unloading from railcars in severe weather. The costs of the methods are evaluated and it is shown that, although heating systems require capital expenditure, if a sufficient volume of coal is to be treated, the cost per ton compares very favourably with the use of chemical agents.

  19. The continuing search for antitumor agents from higher plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Li; Chai, Heebyung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites and their semi-synthetic derivatives continue to play an important role in anticancer drug therapy. In this short review, selected single chemical entity antineoplastic agents from higher plants that are currently in clinical trials as cancer chemotherapy drug candidates are described. These compounds are representative of a wide structural diversity. In addition, the approaches taken toward the discovery of anticancer agents from tropical plants in the laboratory ...

  20. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  1. An anesthesiological approach to nerve agent victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Ahmet; Kenar, Levent

    2006-01-01

    The potential use of weapons of mass destruction has recently become a real threat even in the areas of ongoing armed conflicts. Mass casualty victims can suffer from psychological and physical trauma. The exposure of physically injured patients to a toxic substance, in a scenario of mass injury, has recently gained major attention among planners of future protocols for emergency medical services. Because rapid deterioration and multiorgan involvement are to be expected after physical injuries, proper organization and complex but efficient acute medical care systems must be organized and deployed to ensure a maximal number of saved lives. These victims will inevitably require urgent surgical intervention and prolonged perioperative care. Understanding the interdependence between the toxic and traumatic occurrences and the drugs used to prevent or treat nerve agent intoxication (pyridostigmine bromide, a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase; atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist that is one of the on-site, first aid, pharmacological resuscitation drugs; and oxime-like pralidoxime chloride or obidoxime chloride, acetylcholinesterase reactivators) is vital. In addition, the administration of anesthesia and emergency surgery pose further unpredictable threats to the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and respiratory function, all of which may be compromised after chemical intoxication and physical trauma. It is noteworthy that information concerning the effects of nerve agent intoxication among human subjects is derived largely from reports of incidents of intentional terrorist attacks or of accidental exposure to organophosphate pesticides, compounds that are chemically related to nerve agents. PMID:16532866

  2. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gravett, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Farrha B.; Self, Adam J.; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M.; Matthew J. Baker

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve a...

  3. 4.DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930626 Studies on the toxicities and occupational ex-posure limit of chloroform.LI Linghong,etal.Dept Occupat Health,Shanghai Med Univ,Shang-hai,200032.Chin J Industr Hyg & Occupat Dis 1993;11(4):206—208.In order to get necessary data to recommend themaximum acceptable concentration(MAC)of chloro-form, a series of studies were carried out.The resultsshowed that the occupationally exposure of chloroform

  4. Identifying therapeutic chemical agents for osteoarthritis by high throughput screening

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, YK; Masuda, K.; Cheung, KM; Leung, VY; Kao, RY; CHAN, D

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An articular cartilage lesion, notably generated by osteoarthritis (OA), is initiated partly by the loss of proteoglycan content from the extracellular matrix and manifests as pain or disturbed joint function [1]. Strategies that restore the proteoglycan content would be of therapeutic benefit to prevent, delay, or even reverse the progression of the lesion. Numerous clinical and experimental approaches have been widely applied [2-4] to relieve the pain or induce healing of the ...

  5. 4.DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920225 The report of organophosphoruspesticides causing delayed dysneuria in 143cases.ZHANG Cilu (张慈禄),et al.JiaojiangHosp.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1991;24(6):336-338.This article reports delayed dysneuria in 143

  6. Corner capping of silsesquioxane cages by chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-McPherson, Melinda K; Low, Emily R; Esker, Alan R; Morris, John R

    2005-11-22

    The room-temperature uptake and reactivity of gas-phase methyl dichlorophosphate (MDCP) and trichlorophosphate (TCP) within trisilanolphenyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) Langmuir-Blodgett films are investigated. The halogenated phosphate molecules are found to readily diffuse into and react with the hybrid inorganic-organic silicon-oxide films under ambient conditions. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) measurements suggest that the chlorophosphates undergo hydrolysis with the silanol groups of the POSS LB-film. Substitution and elimination reactions appear to cap the corner of the POSS molecules, leaving a surface-bound phosphoryl group and a resulting structure that is highly stable at elevated temperatures. PMID:16285795

  7. Physico-chemical modification of asphalt bitumens by reactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  8. Common Wet Chemical Agents for Purifying Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasel Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purification and functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are challenging but vital for their effective applications in various fields including water purification technologies, optoelectronics, biosensors, fuel cells, and electrode arrays. The currently available purification techniques, often complicated and time consuming, yielded shortened and curled MWCNTs that are not suitable for applications in certain fields such as membrane technologies, hybrid catalysis, optoelectronics, and sensor developments. Here we described the H2O2 synergy on the actions of HCl and KOH in purifying and functionalizing pristine MWCNTs. The method (HCl/H2O2 showed 100% purification yield as compared to HCl and KOH/H2O2 with purification yields 93.46 and 3.92%, respectively. We probed the findings using transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscope, Raman spectroscope, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. The study is a new avenue for simple, rapid, low cost, and scalable purification of pristine MWCNTs for application in versatile fields.

  9. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  10. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  11. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  12. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  13. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  14. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  15. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  16. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  17. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  18. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  19. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  20. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  1. Novel anticancer agents from plant sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Unnati; Shah Ripal; Acharya Sanjeev; Acharya Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Plants remain an important source of new drugs,new drug leads and new chemical entities.Plant based drug discovery resulted mainly in the development of anticancer and anti-infectious agents,and continues to contribute to the new leads in clinical trials.Natural product drugs play a dominant role in pharmaceutical care.Several plant-derived compounds are currently successfully employed in cancer treatment.There are many classes of plant-derived cytotoxic natural products studied for further improvement and development of drugs.New anticancer drugs derived from research on plant antitumor agents will be continuously discovered.The basic aim of this review is to explore the potential of newly discovered anticancer compounds from medicinal plants,as a lead for anticancer drug development.It will be helpful to explore the medicinal value of plants and for new drug discovery from them for the researchers and scientists around the globe.

  2. A review of antiseptics. Cleansing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, J

    1990-10-01

    1. The cells of the stratum corneum are rough, jagged, and contain myriad niches in which bacteria dwell. The complex structure of the stratum corneum limits complete access of any chemical; an antiseptic agent must have contact to kill bacteria. 2. Shaving hair on the skin, long considered essential prior to surgery, has been shown to sabotage the effectiveness of the preoperative skin preparation. 3. Experimental evidence over a long period has documented that no other agent can achieve as rapid and large a reduction in skin flora as alcohol. 4. The preoperative hand scrub calls not only for removal of dirt, grease, and pathogens from the surface of the hands, but also a maximum reduction of the resident flora.

  3. Agent Orange. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, L G

    1983-12-01

    Review of the available literature on dioxin over the last several years is reported. There has been considerable writing on the subject, but extraction of true scientific data from emotionalism and sensationalism remains difficult. We must continue to remain alert to potential hazards stemming from this herbicidal chemical and await more definitive and conclusive studies than have been published to date. PMID:6364790

  4. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  5. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  6. Fibrous Filter to Protect Building Environments from Polluting Agents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Md. Vaseem; Mukhopadhyay, Arunangshu

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the use of fibrous filter to protect the building environments from air born polluting agents and especially of concern chemical, biological and radiological agents. Air-filtration includes removal of particulate from air and toxic gases from air. In air filtration, particulate which are mostly biological and radioactive types of agents can be removed by using mechanical and electrostatic filters. Some biological agents, which cannot be removed by air filtration alone, special techniques like antimicrobial finish, UV germicides, coated filters etc. are required. Biocide agent can be added into the fibre itself by grafting reaction to impart antimicrobial activity. Chemical agents like toxic gases can be removed by integrating adsorbents and sorbents in filters or by fibre modifications. It is also possible to impart catalytic conversion properties into the fibre to remove volatile gasous. Radioactive agents can be removed by particulate filter if present in the form of aerosol or by gas cleaning by the use of specific fibre impregnate.

  7. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  8. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  9. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  10. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  11. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  12. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  13. Self-Organization and Autonomy in Computational Networks: Agents-based Contractual Workflow Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.Krishnamurthy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an agents-based contractual workflow paradigm for Self-organization and autonomy in computational networks. The agent-based paradigm can be interpreted as the outcome arising out of deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic interaction among a set of agents that includes the environment. These interactions are like chemical reactions and result in self-organization. Since the reaction rules are inherently parallel, any number of actions can be performed cooperatively or competitively among the subsets of elements, so that the agents carry out the required actions. Also we describe the application of this paradigm in finding short duration paths, chemical- patent mining, and in cloud computing services.

  14. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  15. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  17. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  18. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence......, our critical examination offers understandings about how mathematics teachers are part of the larger cultural politics of schooling and education....

  19. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  20. Newer Hemostatic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment of inherited coagulation disorders is based on the infusion of the deficient clotting factor, when available. Significant advances have been made over the past two decades in the production and availability of factor replacement products. In spite of such progression, several issue are still unsolved, the most important being the need for frequent factor concentrate infusions and the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. To overcome these important limitations, several newer hemostatic agents with an extended half-life are at an advanced stage of clinical development. After a brief overview of hemostasis, this narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the most promising novel products for hemostasis. The current status of gene therapy for hemophilia, the only therapeutic option to definitively cure this inherited bleeding disorder, is also concisely discussed. PMID:25893779

  1. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  2. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  3. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  4. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, who subsequently become pregnant or have a history of brownish facial discoloration. Scarring Reactivation of cold sores What can I expect after having a chemical peel? All peels require some follow-up care: ...

  5. Unnecessary Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  6. SYSTEM FOR APPLYING POWDERED GELLING AGENTS TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has been conducted to develop a blended material that would optimally immobilize a wide range of liquid chemicals detrimental to the environment. The product of this research was Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), a blend of four polymers and an inorganic powder. When app...

  7. Methods for detection of environmental agents that produce congenital defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, T.H.; Miller, J.R.; Marois, M. (eds.)

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: current methods for teratogenicity testing in animals and suggestion for improvement; use of zebra fish for screening of teratogens; chemical structure and teratogenic mechanism of action; somatic cell genetics and teratogenesis; studies on mammalian embryos during organogenesis; infectious agents as teratogens; and pharmacogenetics and teratogenesis. (HLW)

  8. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  9. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  10. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  11. Experimental models used for the study of antihepatotoxic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2012-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo liver models have been developed in the past years to study the hepatoprotective agents. These systems measure the ability of the test drug to prevent or cure liver toxicity (induced by various hepatotoxins) in experimental animals. In in vitro models fresh hepatocytes are treated with hepatotoxin and the effect of the test drug on the same is evaluated. In in vivo models, a toxic dose or repeated doses of a known hepatotoxin are administered to induce liver damage in experimental animals. The test substance is administered along with, prior to and/or after the toxin treatment. Various chemical agents normally used to induce hepatotoxicty in experimental animals for the evaluation of hepatoprotective agents include carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, Acrylamide, adriamycin, alcohol, antitubercular drugs etc. The present article explains the mechanism of action of various hepatotoxic chemical/drugs, their dosage and route of administration.

  12. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  13. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  14. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  15. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  16. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  17. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  18. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  19. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutré, J.A.; Sadeh, N.M.; Janson, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005, held in Edi

  20. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  1. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed.

  2. Comparison of the oncogenic potential of several chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several chemotherapeutic drugs that have been routinely used in cancer treatment were tested for their carcinogenic potential. Two antitumor antibiotics (adriamycin and vincristine), an alkalating agent (melphalan), 5-azacytidine and the bifunctional agent cis-platinum that mimics alkylating agents and/or binds Oxygen-6 or Nitrogen-7 atoms of quanine were tested. Cell killing and cancer induction was assessed using in vitro transformation system. C3H/10T 1/2 cells, while normally exhibiting contact inhibition, can undergo transformation from normal contact inhibited cells to tumorgenic cells when exposed to chemical carcinogens. These cells have been used in the past by this laboratory to study oncogenic transformation of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and electron affinic compounds that sensitize hypoxic cells to x-rays. The endpoints of cell killing and oncogenic transformation presented here give an estimate of the carcinogenic potential of these agents

  3. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  4. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  5. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  6. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...

  7. Study and Application of Gelling Water Shutoff and Profile Control Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongguan; Yu Liancheng; Tian Hongkun; Xu Yanxing

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oilfield Chemistry Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, has made great efforts to study and develop oil chemicals since 1976.For many years, the systematic research has been done on the styles of polymers,crosslinking agents and addtional agents, which are primary components of the gelling systems,the chemical reaction process, the physical and chemical performance of final gelling forms,and the compatibility of chemicals with the different strata. The gelling systems adaptable to the different formations have been formed through these studies.

  8. Agent Roles in Human Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M.; Sycara, K.; Payne, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe results of a series of experiments investigating the effects of agent aiding on human teams. The role an agent played, its task, and the ease with which it communicated with its human teammates all influenced team behavior. Team supporting tasks such as relaying and reminding seemed particularly effective.

  9. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  10. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  11. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  12. 2012 Survey of clothing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Clothing agents take part in China International Clothing and Accessories Fairs ( CHIC ) year by year. In order to attracting investment, they compared with each other at improving their originality and service levels. At the exhibition brands manufacturers and agents had a face-to-face communication,

  13. Detection of Sulfatase Enzyme Activity with a CatalyCEST MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Fernández-Cuervo, Gabriela; Acfalle, Jasmine P; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    A chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI contrast agent has been developed that detects sulfatase enzyme activity. The agent produces a CEST signal at δ=5.0 ppm before enzyme activity, and a second CEST signal appears at δ=9.0 ppm after the enzyme cleaves a sulfate group from the agent. The comparison of the two signals improved detection of sulfatase activity. PMID:26956002

  14. Detection of Sulfatase Enzyme Activity with a CatalyCEST MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Fernández-Cuervo, Gabriela; Acfalle, Jasmine P; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    A chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI contrast agent has been developed that detects sulfatase enzyme activity. The agent produces a CEST signal at δ=5.0 ppm before enzyme activity, and a second CEST signal appears at δ=9.0 ppm after the enzyme cleaves a sulfate group from the agent. The comparison of the two signals improved detection of sulfatase activity.

  15. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Singh; Vimal Malviya; Anshoo Gautam; Ram Singh; Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate) and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide) are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent) toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostin...

  16. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  17. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  18. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  19. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  20. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  1. A color test for the convenient identification of an ingested surface activating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Jamal, Mostofa; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Tobiume, Tadashi; Tsutsui, Kunihiko; Ameno, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Color tests are easy, simple and inexpensive methods for the qualitative identification of chemicals. A color test was applied to the stomach contents of a forensic autopsy case. The result of the test, using bromophenol blue reagent, indicated the ingestion of a commercial cleaning product containing a cationic surface activating agent. Our findings suggest that forensic investigators should consider the additives used in commercial chemical products, such as surface activating agents, when determining the cause of death. PMID:26419519

  2. The Scarlet Letter of Alkylation: A Mini Review of Selective Alkylating Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Oronsky, Bryan T.; Reid, Tony; Knox, Susan J.; Scicinski, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    If there were a stigma scale for chemotherapy, alkylating agents would be ranked at the top of the list. The chemical term alkylation is associated with nonselective toxicity, an association that dates back to the use of nitrogen mustards during World War I as chemical warfare agents. That this stigma persists and extends to compounds that, through selectivity, attempt to “tame” the indiscriminate destructive potential of alkylation is the subject of this review. Selective alkylation, as it i...

  3. Lab-on-a-chip for rapid electrochemical detection of nerve agent Sarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Nguyen, Nam-Trung;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a lab-on-a-chip for the detection of Sarin nerve agent based on rapid electrochemical detection. The chemical warfare agent Sarin (C4H10FO2P, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a highly toxic organophosphate that induces rapid respiratory depression, seizures and death w...

  4. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  5. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  6. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  7. Effect of reducing agents on wheat gluten and quality characteristics of flour and cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of reducing agents (Lcystine, glutathione and proteases on wheat gluten recovery and quality characteristics of dough and cookies. PBW-343 and RAJ-3765 wheat varieties were analysed for physico-chemical properties which indicated that wheat variety RAJ-3765 had superior quality characteristics in comparison to PBW-343. Wet gluten and dry gluten %yields were reduced with addition of reducing agents. As the concentration of reducing agents increased gluten, yield decreased further. The dough strength (resistance to extension decreased, whereas extension of dough increased significantly with the addition of reducing agents. Upon addition of reducing agents, spread factor increased, whereas hardness decreased. Glutathione was found to be the most effective reducing agent out of the three reducing agents used in this study.

  8. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  9. MDE and Mobile Agents : another reflexion on the agent migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gherbi, Tahar; Borne, Isabelle; Meslati, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    International audience Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is a software development approach family based on the use of models in the software construction. It allows the exploitation of models to simulate, estimate, understand, communicate and produce code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of h...

  10. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  11. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  12. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingCheng; XuGuan; BaoLiu

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to designing and building complex systems. Yet, to date, little effort had been devoted to discussing the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstream software engineering paradiam.Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agentoriented will be argued.We describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing a auction system.

  13. The effect of new chemical hybridizing agent SX-1 on Brassica napus L. in two ecological regions%化学杂交剂SX-1对不同生态区甘蓝型油菜的杀雄效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦世豪; 田建华; 李永红; 张耀文; 李殿荣; 董育红; 任军荣; 姚雪雁

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The effect of new chemical hybridizing Agent SX-1 on Brassica napus L.was studied in two different ecological regions.【Method】 In order to study the influence of SX-1 on the rapeseed growth,inducing male sterility,agronomic traits and yield in the different ecological regions and the different mass concentrations,pure water selected was as control,chemical hybridizing agent SX-1 with four different mass concentrations were sprayed two times on rapeseed lines YD66A and Cn10 in winter rapeseed region and spring rapeseed region.The first spraying occured when pollen mother cell of maximum bud blossom entered monocyte stage,and the second spraying was done 10-15 days later.【Result】 Treated with A2(6.0 mg/L+7.0 mg/L)and B2(6.5 mg/L+7 mg/L)of SX-1 in two ecological regions,YD66A and Cn10 have the sterile rates of 98.11%,100%,100% and 100%,respectively.Moreover,the sterile plants have some good characteristics,such as no negative reaction to SX-1,leaf color becomes weaker,stem color is light purple,little inhibition for plant growth,plant height and the length of main inflorescence are reduced,the number of silique and yield per plant increase a little,and so on.【Conclusion】 With the concentration of(6.0 mg/L+7.0 mg/L)in rapeseed spring region and the concentration of(6.5 mg/L+7 mg/L)in rapeseed winter region,both spayings of SX-1 have good effect on inducing male sterility.%【目的】研究在不同生态区化学杂交剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜的杀雄效果。【方法】在冬油菜区和春油菜区分别采用4个不同质量浓度的化学杂交剂SX-1,对YD66A和Cn10 2个甘蓝型油菜品种(系)进行2次喷施杀雄处理,第1次喷施在油菜最大花蕾的花粉母细胞进入单核期时进行,第2次喷施在第1次喷施后10~15d内进行,以喷施等量清水为对照,研究在不同生态区喷施SX-1的杀雄效果,并探讨其对油菜生长发育、农艺性状和产量的影响。

  14. Paraffin wax deposits and chemical inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Solutions to this problem becomes necessary with the advent of extremely deep production, offshore production, and the probability of ocean-floor completions. The reasons for paraffin-wax accumulations are many and difficult to pinpoint. Inhibition of these paraffin deposits appears to be the best solution. Paraffin solvents and inhibitors are as follows: solvents, wetting agents, dispersants, and crystal modifiers. Solvents are effective, but can harm a refinery catalyst and create health hazards. Wetting agents and dispersants comprise the majority of chemicals used as paraffin wax inhibitors. Crystal modifiers are relatively new and may provide the most efficient means of reducing deposition. Evaluations of chemical paraffin inhibitors are outlined. Field test results which consider the various chemicals tested may give satisfactory results in determining which particular chemical can solve the problem of the particular situation. (38 refs.)

  15. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  16. Chemical Leukoderma Improved by Low-dose Steroid Pulse Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Yeom, Kkot Bora; Eun, Hee Chul

    2010-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma occurs due to the toxic effect of a specific chemical preceding allergic contact dermatitis. The mechanism is either destruction or inhibition of melanocytes by the offending substance. Clinicohistopathologically, no absolute criteria can differentiate chemical leukoderma from vitiligo. However, chemical leukoderma can be diagnosed clinically by a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the primary site. There is no agreed treatment guide...

  17. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  18. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity

  19. Optimistic Agents are Asymptotically Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Sunehag, Peter; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We use optimism to introduce generic asymptotically optimal reinforcement learning agents. They achieve, with an arbitrary finite or compact class of environments, asymptotically optimal behavior. Furthermore, in the finite deterministic case we provide finite error bounds.

  20. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  1. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  2. Basic MR relaxation mechanisms and contrast agent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Martins, André F; Pinho, Marco C; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists, largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand-based contrast agents. We discuss the mechanisms involved in MR relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents is accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in the development of future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide.

  3. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  4. Locating Agents in RFID Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The use of software agents can create an “intelligent” interface between users’ preferences and the back‐end systems. Agents are now able to interact and communicate with each other, forming a virtual community and feeding back the user with suggestions. Innovative systems related to Asset Tracking, Inventory and Shelving architectures are more often involving advanced communication techniques (e.g., RFID); these systems are responsible for user authentication and objects verification. RFID s...

  5. Agents in E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mencke; Dumke, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  6. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  7. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  8. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  9. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  10. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhraj eKaur; Sumanpreet eKaur

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  11. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  12. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  13. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Chemical pleurodesis for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Cheng-Hung; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2013-12-01

    Pneumothorax is defined as the presence of air in the pleural cavity. Spontaneous pneumothorax, occurring without antecedent traumatic or iatrogenic cause, is sub-divided into primary and secondary. The severity of pneumothorax could be varied from asymptomatic to hemodynamically compromised. Optimal management of this benign disease has been a matter of debate. In addition to evacuating air from the pleural space by simple aspiration or chest tube drainage, the management of spontaneous pneumothorax also focused on ceasing air leakage and preventing recurrences by surgical intervention or chemical pleurodesis. Chemical pleurodesis is a procedure to achieve symphysis between the two layers of pleura by sclerosing agents. In the current practice guidelines, chemical pleurodesis is reserved for patients unable or unwilling to receive surgery. Recent researches have found that chemical pleurodesis is also safe and effective in preventing pneumothorax recurrence in patients with the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax or after thoracoscopic surgery and treating persistent air leakage after thoracoscopic surgery. In this article we aimed at exploring the role of chemical pleurodesis for spontaneous pneumothorax, including ceasing air leakage and preventing recurrence. The indications, choice of sclerosants, safety, effects, and possible side effects or complications of chemical pleurodesis are also reviewed here.

  15. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  16. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  20. Natural product as potential of radioprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Hosseinimehr, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSince exposure to irradiation in radiotherapy or unwanted radiation, induces side effects to health, it is important to makear effort to protect humans against side effects induced by irradiation. In these cases, radioprotective drugs could be used to reduce or delay the side effects and the mortality induced by irradiation. Although, thiol compounds were early compounds in these categories, administration of these agents have induced serious side effects and is limited to use clinically. The search for less-toxic radiation protectors has spurred interest in the development of natural products. Natural products have mainly antioxidant and immunostimulant activity. Cytokines and androsetendiol have immunomudulatory effects in the prevention of mortality induced by gamma irradiation in animal model. Many studies have showed herbal medicine has good radioprotective effects. Flavonoids are one of the main chemical compositions in herbal medicine with antioxidant activity. Although, these natural products had low efficacy in comparison to thiol compounds, they have low toxicity. This review focused on recent radioprotective agents with natural origin that have more potential effects.