WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical agent transport

  1. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  3. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  4. Chemical Vapor Transport Deposition of Molybdenum Disulfide Layers Using H2O Vapor as the Transport Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 layers show excellent optical and electrical properties and have many potential applications. However, the growth of high-quality MoS2 layers is a major bottleneck in the development of MoS2-based devices. In this paper, we report a chemical vapor transport deposition method to investigate the growth behavior of monolayer/multi-layer MoS2 using water (H2O as the transport agent. It was shown that the introduction of H2O vapor promoted the growth of MoS2 by increasing the nucleation density and continuous monolayer growth. Moreover, the growth mechanism is discussed.

  5. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  6. An Inverse Analysis Approach to the Characterization of Chemical Transport in Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P.; Stevenson, Shawn M.; Pearl, Thomas P.; Mantooth, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to directly characterize chemical transport and interactions that occur within a material (i.e., subsurface dynamics) is a vital component in understanding contaminant mass transport and the ability to decontaminate materials. If a material is contaminated, over time, the transport of highly toxic chemicals (such as chemical warfare agent species) out of the material can result in vapor exposure or transfer to the skin, which can result in percutaneous exposure to personnel who interact with the material. Due to the high toxicity of chemical warfare agents, the release of trace chemical quantities is of significant concern. Mapping subsurface concentration distribution and transport characteristics of absorbed agents enables exposure hazards to be assessed in untested conditions. Furthermore, these tools can be used to characterize subsurface reaction dynamics to ultimately design improved decontaminants or decontamination procedures. To achieve this goal, an inverse analysis mass transport modeling approach was developed that utilizes time-resolved mass spectroscopy measurements of vapor emission from contaminated paint coatings as the input parameter for calculation of subsurface concentration profiles. Details are provided on sample preparation, including contaminant and material handling, the application of mass spectrometry for the measurement of emitted contaminant vapor, and the implementation of inverse analysis using a physics-based diffusion model to determine transport properties of live chemical warfare agents including distilled mustard (HD) and the nerve agent VX. PMID:25226346

  7. Modeling Dispersion of Chemical-Biological Agents in Three Dimensional Living Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William S. Winters

    2002-01-01

    This report documents a series of calculations designed to demonstrate Sandia's capability in modeling the dispersal of chemical and biological agents in complex three-dimensional spaces. The transport of particles representing biological agents is modeled in a single room and in several connected rooms. The influence of particle size, particle weight and injection method are studied

  8. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard,

  9. Chemical warfare agents identification by thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Ai Xianyun; Tan Daoyuan; Zhang Dianqin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogen concentration determination by thermal neutron detection is a non-destructive, fast and effective method to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contain different hydrogen fraction. When an isotropic neutron source is used to irradiate chemical ammunition, hydrogen atoms of the agent inside shell act as a moderator and slow down neutrons. The number of induced thermal neutrons depends mainly upon hydrogen content of the agent. Therefore measurement of thermal neutron influence can be used to determine hydrogen atom concentration, thereby to determine the chemical warfare agents. Under a certain geometry three calibration curves of count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. According to the calibration curves, response of a chemical agent or TNT could be calculated. Differences of count rate among chemical agents and TNT for each kind of shells is greater than five times of standard deviations of count rate for any agent, so chemical agents or TNT could be identified correctly. Meanwhile, blast tube or liquid level of chemical warfare agent could affect the response of thermal neutron count rate, and thereby the result of identification. (author)

  10. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)

  11. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  12. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  13. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  14. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  15. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  16. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  17. Project Swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Special publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Project Swiftsure describes a three-year project at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield to safely destroy stockpiles of mustard lewisite, nerve agents and decontaminate scrap material which was stored on the DRES Experimental Proving Ground. Using both in-house and contracted resources, the agent waste was destroyed by chemical neutralization or incineration. With the exception of the arsenic byproducts from the lewisite neutralization process, all secondary waste generated by chemical neutralization was incinerated. Mustard in different forms was thermally destroyed using a transportable incinerator of commercial design. Extensive environmental monitoring and public consultation programs were conducted during the project. Results of the monitoring programs verified that the chemical warfare agents were destroyed in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. jg p.329.

  18. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Nagarajan, R., E-mail: Ramanathan.Nagarajan@us.army.mil [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. {yields} Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. {yields} Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. {yields} Rank ordering of simulants in current use. {yields} Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  19. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree; Nagarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  20. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  1. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  3. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  4. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  5. Agent-based transportation planning compared with scheduling heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2004-01-01

    Here we consider the problem of dynamically assigning vehicles to transportation orders that have di¤erent time windows and should be handled in real time. We introduce a new agent-based system for the planning and scheduling of these transportation networks. Intelligent vehicle agents schedule

  6. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  7. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  8. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 491-500

  9. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 491-500

  10. Identification of chemical warfare agent with radiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Ai Xianyun

    2000-01-01

    There are three non-destructive radiological methods for identification of warfare agents and TNT. Their principles and problems related were discussed. Portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy is based on the assay of key elemental composition (such as Cl, P, H, As, S, N) in chemical agents by neutron induced prompt gamma ray analysis. Hydrogen concentration measurement by means of using thermal neutron can be employed to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contains different hydrogen fraction. The calibration curves of thermal neutron count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. X ray imagination system can be used to determine the internal structure of chemical bombs, there by to identify them. The radiological methods are very useful for identification of old chemical weapons abandoned by Japan Army during World War 2

  11. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures

  12. Recent Advances in Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wadood Khan; Sabna Kotta; Shahid Husain Ansari; Javed Ali; Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The recent turmoil and volatile situation in many countries and the increased risk of terrorist activities have raised alarm bells for the field of defense against toxic chemical/materials. These situations poses threats to society as terrorists can take advantage of such situations to strike and cause public mayhem. A number of chemicals have the potential of being used as chemical warfare (CW) agents. CW agents could immediately kill or incapacitate the affected individuals even when they a...

  13. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous aerial transportation has multiple potential applications including emergency cases and rescue missions where ground intervention may be difficult. In this context, the following work will address the control of multi-agent Vertical Take-off and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group of VTOLs transporting one payload. The main idea is that each agent perceive the interaction with other agents as a disturbance while assuming a negotiated motion model and imposing certain magnitude bounds on each agent. The theoretical model will be then validated using a numerical simulation illustrating the interesting features of the presented control method. Results show that under specified disturbances, the algorithm is able to guarantee the tracking with a minimal error. We describe a toolbox that has been developed for this purpose. Then, a system of multiple VTOLs lifting payloads will be studied. The algorithm assures that the VTOLs are coordinated with minimal communication. Additionally, a novel gripper design for ferrous objects is presented that enables the transportation of ferrous objects without a cable. Finally, we discuss potential connections to human in the loop transportation systems.

  14. A MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR FOREST TRANSPORT ACTIVITY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Araújo Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to propose and implement a conceptual model of an intelligent system in a georeferenced environment to determine the design of forest transport fleets. For this, we used a multi-agent systems based tool, which is the subject of studies of distributed artificial intelligence. The proposed model considers the use of plantation mapping (stands and forest roads, as well as information about the different vehicle transport capacities. The system was designed to adapt itself to changes that occur during the forest transport operation process, such as the modification of demanded volume or the inclusion of route restrictions used by the vehicles. For its development, we used the Java programming language associated with the LPSolve library for the optimization calculation, the JADE platform to develop agents, and the ArcGis Runtime to determine the optimal transport routes. Five agents were modelled: the transporter, controller, router, loader and unloader agents. The model is able to determine the amount of trucks among the different vehicles available that meet the demand and availability of routes, with a focus on minimizing the total costs of timber transport. The system can also rearrange itself after the transportation routes change during the process.

  15. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Format: Select ... What “sheltering in place” means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

  16. Portable Sensor for Chemical Nerve Agents and Organophosphorus Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    as pesticides in crop, livestock, and poultry products and as chemical and biological warfare agents. As a result of the high toxicity and the...biomedical applications such as: tissue engineering, wound dressing materials, molecular imprinting, drug delivery, etc. In this experiment the hydrogel...agents have been exploited for use as pesticides in crop, livestock, and poultry products and as chemical and biological warfare agents. As a result of

  17. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  18. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  19. Chemical vapour transport of pyrite (FeS 2) with halogen (Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, S.; Mai, J.; Ennaoui, A.; Szacki, W.

    1986-12-01

    A systematic study of chemical vapour transport (CVT) of pyrite with halogen, hydrogen halides and ammonium halides as transporting agents has shown that the transport with chlorine and bromine in a temperature gradient Δ T = 920-820 K yields the highest transport rates (˜6 mg/h) with crystals up to 5 mm edge length. Computing thermochemical equilibria and flux functions in the system Fe-S-Hal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) it has been confirmed that the transport velocity of pyrite is limited by the concentration of FeHal 2 in the vapour phase, the equilibrium position between FeHal 2(g) and FeHal 3(g) and the flux directions of the iron gas species.

  20. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  1. Vesicants and nerve agents in chemical warfare. Decontamination and treatment strategies for a changed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, Asha; Amundson, Dennis E; Parrish, J S; Lazarus, Angeline A

    2002-10-01

    Vesicants and nerve agents have been used in chemical warfare for ages. They remain a threat in today's altered political climate because they are relatively simple to produce, transport, and deploy. Vesicants, such as mustard and lewisite, can affect the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal system. They leave affected persons at risk for long-term effects. Nerve agents, such as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, hyperstimulate the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors of the nervous system. Physicians need to familiarize themselves with the clinical findings of such exposures and the decontamination and treatment strategies necessary to minimize injuries and deaths.

  2. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  3. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , H 2 S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  4. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  5. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth and characterization of Bi2Se3 crystals by chemical vapor transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularly-shaped high-quality Bi2Se3 crystals were grown by a chemical vapor transport using iodine as the transport agent. In addition to exhibiting a characteristic Dirac cone for a topological insulator, the Bi2Se3 crystals show some outstanding properties including additional crystallographic surfaces, large residual resistance ratio (∼10, and high mobility (∼8000 cm2·V−1·s−1. The low-temperature resistivity abnormally increases with applying pressures up to 1.7 GPa, and no superconductivity was observed down to 0.4 K.

  7. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings.

  8. Recent canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Canadian chemical warfare agent destruction project (Swiftsure) was recently completed in which stockpiles of aged mustard, lewisite, nerve agents and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. The project scope, destruction technologies, environmental monitoring and public consultation programs are described.

  9. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  11. CHMTRNS, Non-Equilibrium Chemical Transport Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorishad, J.; Carnahan, C.L.; Benson, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CHMTRNS simulates solute transport for steady one-dimensional fluid flow by convection and diffusion or dispersion in a saturated porous medium based on the assumption of local chemical equilibrium. The chemical interactions included in the model are aqueous-phase complexation, solid-phase ion exchange of bare ions and complexes using the surface complexation model, and precipitation or dissolution of solids. The program can simulate the kinetic dissolution or precipitation for calcite and silica as well as irreversible dissolution of glass. Thermodynamic parameters are temperature dependent and are coupled to a companion heat transport simulator; thus, the effects of transient temperature conditions can be considered. Options for oxidation-reduction (redox) and C-13 fractionation as well as non-isothermal conditions are included. 2 - Method of solution: The governing equations for both reactive chemical and heat transport are discretized in time and space. For heat transport, the Crank-Nicolson approximation is used in conjunction with a LU decomposition and backward substitution solution procedure. To deal with the strong nonlinearity of the chemical transport equations, a generalized Newton-Raphson method is used

  12. [Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of lonazolac-Ca, a new antiphlogistic/antirheumatic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, G; Krüger, U; Klemm, K

    1981-01-01

    Calcium-[3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylpyrazole-4]-acetate (Lonazolac-Ca, active principle of Irritren) is a new antiinflammatory/antirheumatic agent whose synthesis and physico-chemical properties are described. The physical parameters measured (pKa, partition coefficient P, saturation concentration Cs, surface activity, protein binding) are held against the corresponding values of indomethacin, diclofenac, and phenylbutazone. The size of the permeability coefficient PM of the passive transport through artificial phospholipid collodion membranes as well as the invasion curves calculated from PM indicate a good absorption of lonazolac in man.

  13. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  14. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  16. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  17. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  18. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  19. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10 -21 ), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents

  20. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  1. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  2. Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, J.; Ajora, C.

    1993-01-01

    During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs

  3. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  4. Deactivating Chemical Agents Using Enzyme-Coated Nanofibers Formed by Electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    7.3mM/mg). Key words Coaxial electrospinning, DFPase, Enzyme, chemical warfare , nanofiber, decontamination . Introduction Chemical warfare ...Krile, R.; Nishioka, M.; Taylor, M.; Riggs, K.; Stone, H. Decontamination of Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Chemical Warfare Agents On Building...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 MATS COATINGS ELECTROSPINNING CHEMICAL WARFARE

  5. Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, Iman; Pagel, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a "double-agent" approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T 2 -exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T 1 and T 2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as "secret agents" in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging.

  6. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  7. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  8. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  9. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  10. Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V = 15 pl and V = 10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture.

  11. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  12. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  13. Biodegradation of Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents by Activated Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    bronchoconstriction Bladder (M) Urinary frequency, incontinence Cardiovascular system (M) Bradycardia, hypotension Cardiovascular system (N...conventional weapons: their cost and stability, simplicity of production, pound for pound potency and fear factor (Hill et al., 2008a). Compared to...Chemical agents, especially nerve agents, have a dramatic fear factor due to the symptoms they cause. Witnessing civilians violently convulsing

  14. Destruction and waste treatment methods used in a chemical agent disposal project. Memorandum report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.; Fedor, V.; Kinderwater, T.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and methods used to thermally decontaminate scrap metal and destroy stockpiles of nerve agents, mustard and lewisite chemical warfare agents. Mustard was destroyed by direct incineration whereas the nerve agents and lewisite were chemically neutralized. The arsenic waste from the lewisite neutralization process was chemically-fixated in concrete for final disposal by landfilling. The scrap metal was incinerated and rendered suitable for recycling into metal feedstock.

  15. Parameters for the Evaluation of the Fate, Transport, and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Agents in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Anal. Bering/Chukchi, accessed 3 January 2007, http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/PSB/EPS/SST/data/beringst.c.gif. RE-2 15 Brewer , P. G.; Glover, D. M...Highly Purified Mustard Gas and its Action on Yeast , ” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69(7), 1808-1809. 135 Redemann, C. E.; Chaikin, S. W.; Fearing, R. B...171 MacNaughton, M. G.; Brewer , J. H., Environmental Chemistry and Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio TX, 1994

  16. Agent-Based Coordination Model for Designing Transportation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    BADEIG, F; BALBO, F; SCEMAMA, G; ZARGAYOUNA, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an environment-centered approach to design multi-agent solutions to transportation problems. Based on the Property-based Coordination Principle (PbC), the objective of our approach is to solve three recurrent issues in the design of these solutions: the knowledge problem, the space-time dimension and the dynamics of the real environment. To demonstrate the benefits of our approach, two completely different applications, a demand-responsive transportation system and a simul...

  17. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R.; Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds

  18. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R; Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J

    2008-10-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds.

  19. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  1. Reactions of CW Agents HD And GD with the Polymer Fabrics PVAM and CHEMCAT 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    D. Durst, “Qualitative Gas Chromatographic Characterization of Chemically Neutralized Chemical Warfare Agent Reaction Masses Produced During...based catalysts for decontamination of HD and G agents,” Proceedings of the 2003 Joint Service Scientific Conference on Chemical & Biological...thermal burden on the wearer by allowing heat and moisture transport. The garment prevents exposure to outside chemical weapons agents (CWAs) by a

  2. The Multi-Agent Transport Simulation MATSim

    OpenAIRE

    Horni Andreas; Nagel Kai; Axhausen Kay W.

    2016-01-01

    "The MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation) software project was started around 2006 with the goal of generating traffic and congestion patterns by following individual synthetic travelers through their daily or weekly activity programme. It has since then evolved from a collection of stand-alone C++ programs to an integrated Java-based framework which is publicly hosted, open-source available, automatically regression tested. It is currently used by about 40 groups throughout the world. T...

  3. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  4. CET89 - CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B.

    1994-01-01

    Scientists and engineers need chemical equilibrium composition data to calculate the theoretical thermodynamic properties of a chemical system. This information is essential in the design and analysis of equipment such as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment. The substantial amount of numerical computation required to obtain equilibrium compositions and transport properties for complex chemical systems led scientists at NASA's Lewis Research Center to develop CET89, a program designed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of these systems. CET89 is a general program which will calculate chemical equilibrium compositions and mixture properties for any chemical system with available thermodynamic data. Generally, mixtures may include condensed and gaseous products. CET89 performs the following operations: it 1) obtains chemical equilibrium compositions for assigned thermodynamic states, 2) calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures, 3) obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous species, 4) calculates incident and reflected shock properties in terms of assigned velocities, and 5) calculates theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. The rocket performance function allows the option of assuming either a finite area or an infinite area combustor. CET89 accommodates problems involving up to 24 reactants, 20 elements, and 600 products (400 of which may be condensed). The program includes a library of thermodynamic and transport properties in the form of least squares coefficients for possible reaction products. It includes thermodynamic data for over 1300 gaseous and condensed species and transport data for 151 gases. The subroutines UTHERM and UTRAN convert thermodynamic and transport data to unformatted form for faster processing. The program conforms to the FORTRAN 77 standard, except for

  5. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Charlene A [Knoxville, TN

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  6. Laboratory analysis of chemical warfare agents, adducts, and metabolites in biomedial samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are the most toxic compounds ever produced. To develop medical countermeasures against the effects of these agents, analytical procedures to analyze these agents in biological matrices are essential for a better understanding of the toxicological process. The need for

  7. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Researchers study decontamination of chemical, biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office has awarded Virginia Tech a $680,000 grant over two years to build an instrument that can be used to study the chemistry of gases that will decompose both chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces.

  9. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, M.A.; Chinnaswamy, R.; Gray, D.R.; Miladinov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  10. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  11. An Agent-Based Approach for a Smart Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PEÑARANDA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a Smart Transport System which is an application that facilitates the interconnection between people (citizens, tourists and transport providers (Bus, metro, trains, trams, defining the services that everyone can request or offer. The system has been defined as a virtual organization where agents (representing actors of the transport system can enter or leave into the system consuming or offering services. Due to the fact that modern urban public transport is increasingly an important service used by citizens in current cities, the proposed system will improve the use of resources while also ensuring time flexible mobility solutions for citizens.

  12. Study on the identification method of chemical warfare agents with spectroscopy of neutron induced γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Li Xiangbao

    1996-01-01

    The paper briefly describes some non-destructive verification technologies of chemical warfare agents in-site, and some application of neutron induced gamma ray analysis, such as multi-elements analysis of coal, hidden explosive detection and identification of chemical agents. It also describes some problems in developing the portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy for non-destructive evaluation of chemical warfare agents

  13. Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

    2014-11-25

    Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications.

  14. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented

  15. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-02-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

  16. Effects of anticaking agents and relative humidity on the physical and chemical stability of powdered vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipasek, Rebecca A; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that is widely used by the food industry in the powder form for both its nutritional and functional properties. However, vitamin C is deliquescent, and deliquescence has been linked to physical and chemical instabilities. Anticaking agents are often added to powder systems to delay or prevent caking, but little is known about their effect on the chemical stability of powders. In this study, various anticaking agents (calcium phosphate, calcium silicate, calcium stearate, corn starch, and silicon dioxide) were combined with sodium ascorbate at 2% and 50% w/w ratios and stored at various relative humidities (23%, 43%, 64%, 75%, 85%, and 98% RHs). Chemical and physical stability and moisture sorption were monitored over time. Additionally, saturated solution samples were stored at various pHs to determine the effect of surface pH and dissolution on the vitamin degradation rate. Storage RH, time, and anticaking agent type and ratio all significantly affected (P vitamin C stability. Silicon dioxide and calcium silicate (50% w/w) and calcium stearate (at both ratios) were the only anticaking agents to improve the physical stability of powdered sodium ascorbate while none of the anticaking agents improved its chemical stability. However, corn starch and calcium stearate had the least adverse effect on chemical stability. Dissolution rate and pH were also important factors affecting the chemical and physical stability of the powders. Therefore, monitoring storage environmental conditions and anticaking agent usage are important for understanding the stability of vitamin C. Anticaking agent type and ratio significantly affected the physical and chemical stability of vitamin C over time and over a range of RHs. No anticaking agent improved the chemical stability of the vitamin, and most caused an increase in chemical degradation even if physical stability was improved. It is possible that anticaking agents would greatly affect other

  17. Cumulus parameterizations in chemical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1995-12-01

    Global three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs) are valuable tools for studying processes controlling the distribution of trace constituents in the atmosphere. A major uncertainty in these models is the subgrid-scale parametrization of transport by cumulus convection. This study seeks to define the range of behavior of moist convective schemes and point toward more reliable formulations for inclusion in chemical transport models. The emphasis is on deriving convective transport from meteorological data sets (such as those from the forecast centers) which do not routinely include convective mass fluxes. Seven moist convective parameterizations are compared in a column model to examine the sensitivity of the vertical profile of trace gases to the parameterization used in a global chemical transport model. The moist convective schemes examined are the Emanuel scheme [Emanuel, 1991], the Feichter-Crutzen scheme [Feichter and Crutzen, 1990], the inverse thermodynamic scheme (described in this paper), two versions of a scheme suggested by Hack [Hack, 1994], and two versions of a scheme suggested by Tiedtke (one following the formulation used in the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting) and ECHAM3 (European Centre and Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut) models [Tiedtke, 1989], and one formulated as in the TM2 (Transport Model-2) model (M. Heimann, personal communication, 1992). These convective schemes vary in the closure used to derive the mass fluxes, as well as the cloud model formulation, giving a broad range of results. In addition, two boundary layer schemes are compared: a state-of-the-art nonlocal boundary layer scheme [Holtslag and Boville, 1993] and a simple adiabatic mixing scheme described in this paper. Three tests are used to compare the moist convective schemes against observations. Although the tests conducted here cannot conclusively show that one parameterization is better than the others, the tests are a good measure of the

  18. Towards decomposition of live chemical agents by pyrotechnic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Noort, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to improved EOD neutralisation techniques against improvised explosive devices (IEDs) containing chemical agents. The decomposition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) when exposed to a burning aluminum/potassium nitrate pyrotechnic mixture is studied

  19. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Meimaridou, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Meulenberg, E.; Albertus, F.; Mizuguchi, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Irth, H.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two

  20. UTMTOX, Toxic Chemical Transport in Atmosphere, Ground Water, Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: UTMTOX is a unified transport model for toxic materials. It combines hydrologic, atmospheric, and sediment transport in one computer code and extends the scope to predict the transport of not only trace metals but also many chemical compounds, including organics. UTMTOX is capable of calculating 1) the atmospheric dispersion of up to 20 chemicals from a maximum of 10 point, 10 line, and 10 area sources; 2) deposition of one chemical at a time in both wet and dry form on foliage or the surface of the earth; 3) surface flow and erosion; 4) percolation through the soil to a stream channel; and 5) flow in the stream channel to the outfall of a watershed. B - Method of solution: UTMTOX calculates rates of flux of chemicals from release to the atmosphere, through deposition on a watershed, infiltration, and runoff from the soil to flow in the stream channel and the associated sediment transport. From these values, mass balances can be established, budgets for the chemical can be made, and concentrations in many environmental compartments can be estimated. Since the coupling is established among three major submodels, they can share data

  1. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal; Hicks, Kristin A.; Barlaz, Morton A.; De Los Reyes, Francis Delos De Los

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Second NATO/SIBCA Exercise on Sampling of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wils, E

    1999-01-01

    In order to practise the sampling of chemical warfare agents under realistic conditions, the Netherlands participated successfully in the second NATO/SIBCA sampling exercise conducted in Poland on 1-3...

  4. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  5. Active multispectral reflection fingerprinting of persistent chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholl, H. D.; Münzhuber, F.; Kunz, J.; Raab, M.; Rattunde, M.; Hugger, S.; Gutty, F.; Grisard, A.; Larat, C.; Papillon, D.; Schwarz, M.; Lallier, E.; Kastek, M.; Piatkowski, T.; Brygo, F.; Awanzino, C.; Wilsenack, F.; Lorenzen, A.

    2017-10-01

    Remote detection of toxic chemicals of very low vapour pressure deposited on surfaces in form of liquid films, droplets or powder is a capability that is needed to protect operators and equipment in chemical warfare scenarios and in industrial environments. Infrared spectroscopy is a suitable means to support this requirement. Available instruments based on passive emission spectroscopy have difficulties in discriminating the infrared emission spectrum of the surface background from that of the contamination. Separation of background and contamination is eased by illuminating the surface with a spectrally tune-able light source and by analyzing the reflectivity spectrum. The project AMURFOCAL (Active Multispectral Reflection Fingerprinting of Persistent Chemical Agents) has the research topic of stand-off detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with amplified quantum cascade laser technology in the long-wave infrared spectral range. The project was conducted under the Joint Investment Programme (JIP) on CBRN protection funded through the European Defence Agency (EDA). The AMURFOCAL instrument comprises a spectrally narrow tune-able light source with a broadband infrared detector and chemometric data analysis software. The light source combines an external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to boost the peak output power of a short laser pulse tune-able over the infrared fingerprint region. The laser beam is focused onto a target at a distance between 10 and 20 m. A 3D data cube is registered by tuning the wavelength of the laser emission while recording the received signal scattered off the target using a multi-element infrared detector. A particular chemical is identified through the extraction of its characteristic spectral fingerprint out of the measured data. The paper describes the AMURFOCAL instrument, its functional units, and its principles of operation.

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  7. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  8. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  9. Determination of chemical solute transport parameters effecting radiostrontium interbed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.; Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which radionuclides migrate in an aquifer system is a function of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. A measure of this migration rate is of primary concern when locating suitable storage sites for such species. Parameters including water-rock interactions, infiltration rates, chemical phase modification, and biochemical reactions all affect solute transport. While these different types of chemical reactions can influence solute transport in subsurface waters, distribution coefficients (Kd) can be send to effectively summarize the net chemical factors which dictate transport efficiency. This coefficient describes the partitioning of the solute between the solution and solid phase. Methodology used in determining and interpreting the distribution coefficient for radiostrontium in well characterized sediments will be presented

  10. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  12. A study on the adsorption and subsurface transport of radioactive solutes in the presence of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon

    1994-02-01

    In this study, adsorption and transport models were developed to analyze the effect of chelating agents on the adsorption and subsurface transport of radioactive solutes. The effect of chelating agents on the adsorption of radioactive solutes was analyzed by developing an adsorption model based upon the extended concept of distribution coefficient reflecting the presence of chelating agents. Also, a batch adsorption experiment was conducted in order to validate the developed adsorption model and to investigate the effect of chelating agent on the adsorption of radioactive metal solutes. In this experiment, a Cobalt(II)/EDTA/Bentonite system was considered as a representative chelation/adsorption system. It was found from the results that the presence of chelating agents significantly reduced the adsorbing capacity of geologic media such as clay minerals and soils. Thus it was concluded that the presence of chelating agents even in a small amount could contribute to the mobilization of radioactive solutes from radioactive waste burial sites by reducing the adsorbing capacity of geologic media. The effect of chelating agents on the transport of radioactive solutes in subsurface porous media was analyzed by formulating an advective-dispersive transport model which incorporated chelate formation, adsorption, decay, and degradations and by introducing the concept of a tenad. Particularly the governing equation for the tenad of radioactive solutes, M, was presented as a linear partial differential form by introducing the extended distribution coefficient, K D . The calculated results from the model showed that the transport rate of the chelated radionuclides was much greater than that of the free ionic radionuclides. This much faster transport of the chelated radionuclides was found to be due to the lower retardation factor of the chelated radionuclides than the free ionic radionuclides. The effect of parameters on the transport of radioactive solutes was also analyzed

  13. Decontamination and Detoxification of Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents Using Polyurethane Sponges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Richard K; Gunduz, Alper T; Askins, LaTawnya Y; Strating, Simon J; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Clarkson, Edward D; Mitchelree, Larry W; Lukey, Brian; Railer, Roy; Schulz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Another serious problem that may be encountered while caring for personnel contaminated with organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents is the possibility that there will be cross-contamination...

  14. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-06

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs.

  15. Chemical controls on subsurface radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, K.J.; Killey, R.W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical processes can affect the movement of contaminants in groundwater. Materials can be almost completely removed from circulation by processes such as precipitation and coprecipitation. Organic compounds or contaminants that are hazardous may be degraded or formed during groundwater transport. Studies at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL have focused on radionuclide transport, although other contaminants have been and are being investigated. This paper summarizes findings from research that extends back more than 30 years. Much of the work on reactive contaminant transport has centered on 90 Sr; other contaminants have also been considered, however, and features of their behaviour are also reviewed. (25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.)

  16. An integrative assessment of the commercial air transportation system via adaptive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon Giap

    The overarching research objective is to address the tightly-coupled interactions between the demand-side and supply-side components of the United States Commercial Air Transportation System (CATS) in a time-variant environment. A system-of-system perspective is adopted, where the scope is extended beyond the National Airspace System (NAS) level to the National Transportation System (NTS) level to capture the intermodal and multimodal relationships between the NTS stakeholders. The Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation technique is employed where the NTS/NAS is treated as an integrated Multi-Agent System comprising of consumer and service provider agents, representing the demand-side and supply-side components respectively. Successful calibration and validation of both model components against the observable real world data resulted in a CATS simulation tool where the aviation demand is estimated from socioeconomic and demographic properties of the population instead of merely based on enplanement growth multipliers. This valuable achievement enabled a 20-year outlook simulation study to investigate the implications of a global fuel price hike on the airline industry and the U.S. CATS at large. Simulation outcomes revealed insights into the airline competitive behaviors and the subsequent responses from transportation consumers.

  17. Permeation Testing of Materials With Chemical Agents or Simulants (Swatch Testing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    nerve agents, sarin (GB), soman (GD), and persistent nerve agent (VX). These procedures can also be applied to toxic industrial chemicals (TICs...garment, cap, clothing liner, mask, glove, footwear , etc. The swatch should be selected to be representative of the area of the material to be tested...solvent and the extract analyzed. This reduces the sensitivity but obviates problems arising from one-shot thermal desorption. c. NRT and real

  18. Identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongpin

    2007-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on this theory discussed above. (authors)

  19. Alpha-hydroxyacid chemical peeling agents: case studies and rationale for safe and effective use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briden, M Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    Chemical peeling is an in-office procedure that involves the application of a chemical agent to the skin to induce controlled destruction or exfoliation of old skin and stimulation of new epidermal growth with more evenly distributed melanin. When peel agents reach the dermal layer, important wound-healing activities occur that cause skin remodeling and skin smoothing, both antiaging benefits. There are a number of key factors in selecting a peeling agent and procedure, and each is discussed. Variables to consider are the peeling agent and its formulation, the concentration of the agent, the patient's skin type, the site to be peeled, the skin preparation procedure prior to and immediately preceding the application of the agent, the application method, the duration of contact, and the patient's medical history and lifestyle. Various types of peels are discussed. Of particular interest are superficial chemical peels, which offer great flexibility over a range of skin types and conditions with minimal to no "downtime." Alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) peels are superficial and can be combined with other cosmetic procedures in the office to maximize benefits. In addition, AHA peels work well when combined with supportive homecare products including AHAs or polyhydroxy acids (PHAs), topical retinoids, and antiacne/antirosacea treatments. Case studies are presented of patients using AHA peels for the treatment of acne and hyperpigmentation in a variety of skin types, including Asian skin.

  20. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...

  1. Sample Preparation and Identification of Biological, Chemical and Mid-Spectrum Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hancock, J. R; Dragon, D. C

    2005-01-01

    A general survey of sample preparation and identification techniques for biological, chemical and mid-spectrum agents was conducted as part of Canada's contribution to a joint NATO Allied Engineering Publication (AEP) handbook...

  2. Neutralization of Aerosolized Bio-Agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Bio -agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation Mechanisms Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...of Cincinnati Project Title: Neutralization of Aerosolized Bio -agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation...fire ball, where they will not effectively interact with any viable bio -aerosol. 1.1.4. Conclusions Cryo-milling is necessary to achieve a

  3. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  4. MamMoeT : An intelligent agent-based communication support platform for multimodal transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, Wout; Neutens, Tijs; Vanden Berghe, Greet; Vermeulen, Tijs; Vernimmen, Bert; Witlox, Frank

    In this paper, an intelligent agent-based communication support platform for multimodal transport is developed. The rationale for doing so is found in the potential of such a system to increase cost efficiency, service and safety for different transport-related actors. Although, at present several

  5. A PMMA coated PMN–PT single crystal resonator for sensing chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Michael; Kassegne, Sam; Moon, Kee S

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN–PT) single crystal resonator coated with a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) useful for detecting chemical agents such as acetone, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol is presented. Swelling of the cured PMMA polymer layer in the presence of acetone, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol vapors is sensed as a mass change transduced to an electrical signal by the PMN–PT thickness shear mode sensor. Frequency change in the PMN–PT sensor is demonstrated to vary according to the concentration of the chemical vapor present within the sensing chamber. For acetone, the results indicate a frequency change more than 6000 times greater than that which would be expected from a quartz crystal microbalance coated with PMMA. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate vapor loading of adsorbed chemical agents onto a polymer coated PMN–PT resonator

  6. DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul

    1997-01-01

    .... Update of the database continues as an ongoing effort and the DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents is available panel in hardcopy form or as a softcopy Procite or Wordperfect file...

  7. Potential for Intermodal Transport of Chemical Goods in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagelčák Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with intermodal transport of chemical goods in Slovak republic. Analysis is based on information from interviews with companies and logistics service providers. The first part of the article describes importance of Intermodal transport and basic transport routes for intermodal transport. Respondents considered advantages and disadvantages of intermodal transport. Possible improvements inside companies and improvements of external framework conditions to promote modal shift are described in the second part of the paper.

  8. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  9. Biodegradation of HT Agent from an Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Projectile Washout Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guelta, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    In this study, HT agent, removed from a chemical round similar to the current stockpile stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot, was neutralized and the hydrolysate treated in a laboratory scale Immobilized Cell Bioreactor (ICB...

  10. Audit Report. Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Preparation for Year 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall audit objective was to determine whether the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System was adequately preparing its information technology systems to resolve date-processing issues...

  11. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Martins Alzira

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute, Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606, were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs; 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs; 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens.

  12. Mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and chemical and environmental agents in Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1988-01-01

    The studies covered the following problems: an influence of some environmental agents on the mutagenic effectiveness of ionizing radiation, interaction between ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the induction of somatic mutations and also an application of Tradescantia model system for biological monitoring. The studies showed that the pretreatment of Tradescantia plants with sodium fluoride or the modification of the soil composition with dolomite admixture, visibly influences plants radiosensitivity. The analysis of the changes in the dose-response curves suggested that the employed agents were influencing in different ways the repair processes of the DNA. The studies on the interaction between agents proved that the synergistic effect occurs in case of combined action of ionizing radiation with such chemical mutagens as ethyl methansulfonate or 1,2 dibromomethane. It was also discovered that in the range of low doses the effect was proportional to radiation dose and total exposition to chemical mutagen. The field application of Tradescantia method defined the mutagenicity of air pollution in the Cracow area. The highest frequencies of mutations were detected after the Chernobyl accident and after the damage of the filters in the Pharmaceutical Plant. The applied method was evaluated in respect of its usefulness for biological monitoring of environmental pollution. 163 refs. (author)

  13. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  14. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  15. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  16. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAIN-INDUCED WASH-OFF OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (VX) FROM FOLIAR SURFACES OF LIVING PLANTS MAINTAINED IN A...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar...galli Foliage Chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-(2

  17. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  18. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  19. Toward a comprehensive model of chemical transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.

    1983-02-01

    A chemical transport model, CHEMTRN, that includes advection, dispersion/diffusion, complexation, sorption, precipitation or dissolution of solids, and the dissociation of water has been written. The transport, mass action and site constraint equations are written in a differential/algebraic form and solved simultaneously. The sorption process is modelled by either ion-exchange or surface complexation. The model has been used to investigate the applicability of a k/sub D/ model for simulating the transport of chemical species in groundwater systems, to simulate precipitation/dissolution of minerals, and to consider the effect of surface complexation on sorption

  20. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Tarighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of hemorrhage is one of the challenging situations dentists confront during deep cavity preparation and before impressions or cementation of restorations. For the best bond and least contamination it is necessary to be familiar with the hemostatic agents available on the market and to be able to choose the appropriate one for specific situations. This review tries to introduce the commercially available hemostatic agents, discusses their components and their specific features. The most common chemical agents that are widely used in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry according to their components and mechanism of action as well as their special uses are introduced. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for studies involving gingival retraction and hemostatic agents from 1970 to 2013. Key search words including: "gingival retraction techniques, impression technique, hemostasis and astringent" were searched. Based on the information available in the literature, in order to achieve better results with impression taking and using resin bonding techniques, common hemostatic agents might be recommended before or during acid etching; they should be rinsed off properly and it is recommended that they be used with etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

  3. Theoretical and practical aspects of improving the durability of steel reinforcement in transport designs, using passivation and plasticizing chemical additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Evgenij; Talipov, Linar

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the problem of steel reinforcement corrosion in reinforced concrete structures exposed to aggressive media, in particular in reinforced concrete construction of transport infrastructure, in snowy areas, and subject to the influence of chlorides contained in applied deicing agents. Basic schemes for preventing the reinforcement corrosion in reinforced-concrete structures have been considered and analyzed. Prospects of primary protection against corrosion of reinforcement by introducing chemical additives with plasticizing/passivating action in a concrete mixture with mixing water have been considered in detail. The physical/chemical mechanism of the protective action of a superplasticizer together with a passivator has been highlighted.

  4. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Gon; Byun, Hun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  5. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  6. Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models. Acoplamiento de modelos de transporte de solutos y de modelos de reacciones quimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Ajora, C. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC, Barcerlona (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs.

  7. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.; Zhu, S.E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be

  8. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  9. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  10. A identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of Detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on the theory discussed above. (authors)

  11. Screening of chemical compound libraries identified new anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluyomi Stephen; Sugi, Tatsuki; Han, Yongmei; Kato, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease that affects nearly one-third of the human population. The primary infection can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals but may prove fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Available treatment options for toxoplasmosis patients are limited, underscoring the urgent need to identify and develop new therapies. Non-biased screening of libraries of chemical compounds including the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as viable approach to achieving this goal. In the present investigation, we screened libraries of natural product and FDA-approved compounds to identify those that inhibited T. gondii growth. We identified 32 new compounds that potently inhibit T. gondii growth. Our findings are new and promising, and further strengthen the prospects of drug repurposing as well as the screening of a wide range of chemical compounds as a viable source of alternative anti-parasitic therapeutic agents.

  12. Effects of coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes on nuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-03-01

    Coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes can be classified in two categories. One category consists of the ''Onsager'' type of processes driven by gradients of thermodynamic state variables. These processes occur simultaneously with the direct transport processes. In particular, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration may be prominent in semipermeable materials such as clays. The other category consists of processes affected indirectly by magnitudes of thermodynamic state variables. An important example of this category is the effect of temperature on rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibria. Coupled processes in both categories may affect transport of radionuclides. Although computational models of limited extent have been constructed, there exists no model that accounts for the full set of THC-coupled processes. In the category of Onsager coupled processes, further model development and testing is severely constrained by a deficient data base of phenomenological coefficients. In the second category, the lack of a general description of effects of heterogeneous chemical reactions on permeability of porous media inhibits progress in quantitative modeling of hydrochemically coupled transport processes. Until fundamental data necessary for further model development have been acquired, validation efforts will be limited necessarily to testing of incomplete models of nuclide transport under closely controlled experimental conditions. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  14. Continuum Model for Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent from a Rubbery Polymer using the Maxwell-Stefan Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent

    Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.

  15. Behavioral determinants of occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijman, T F; Ulenbelt, P; Lumens, M E; Herber, R F

    1996-01-01

    In the demand-control model (see T. Theorell & R. A. Karasek, 1996), it is hypothesized that workers in active jobs (high demands-high decision latitude) can exert effective coping strategies when confronted with environmental stessors. Thus, when exposed to similar levels of a chemical agent, lower concentrations of this agent in blood could be expected in these workers in comparison with workers in passive jobs. This theory was tested in 2 studies of lead-exposed workers: 18 male Caucasian workers from an electric accumulatory factory and 18 male Caucasian workers from a lead smelting factory. The results did not follow the hypothesized outcomes. In the work environment of the workers in active jobs, lower concentrations of lead in air were measured, but higher levels of lead in blood were observed in these workers. The opposite was true of workers in passive jobs. Differences in hygienic behavior at work may explain these unexpected results.

  16. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  18. Towards electron transport measurements in chemically modified graphene: effect of a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Arnhild; Ensslin, Klaus [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Koehler, Fabian M; Stark, Wendelin J, E-mail: arnhildj@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: fabian.koehler@chem.ethz.ch [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The chemical functionalization of graphene modifies the local electron density of carbon atoms and hence electron transport. Measuring these changes allows for a closer understanding of the chemical interaction and the influence of functionalization on the graphene lattice. However, not only chemistry, in this case diazonium chemistry, has an effect on electron transport. The latter is also influenced by defects and dopants resulting from different processing steps. Here, we show that the solvents used in the chemical reaction process change the transport properties. In more detail, the investigated combination of isopropanol and heating treatment reduces the doping concentration and significantly increases the mobility of graphene. Furthermore, isopropanol treatment alone increases the concentration of dopants and introduces an asymmetry between electron and hole transport, which might be difficult to distinguish from the effect of functionalization. The results shown in this work demand a closer look at the influence of solvents used for chemical modification in order to understand their influence.

  19. Towards electron transport measurements in chemically modified graphene: effect of a solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Arnhild; Ensslin, Klaus; Koehler, Fabian M; Stark, Wendelin J

    2010-01-01

    The chemical functionalization of graphene modifies the local electron density of carbon atoms and hence electron transport. Measuring these changes allows for a closer understanding of the chemical interaction and the influence of functionalization on the graphene lattice. However, not only chemistry, in this case diazonium chemistry, has an effect on electron transport. The latter is also influenced by defects and dopants resulting from different processing steps. Here, we show that the solvents used in the chemical reaction process change the transport properties. In more detail, the investigated combination of isopropanol and heating treatment reduces the doping concentration and significantly increases the mobility of graphene. Furthermore, isopropanol treatment alone increases the concentration of dopants and introduces an asymmetry between electron and hole transport, which might be difficult to distinguish from the effect of functionalization. The results shown in this work demand a closer look at the influence of solvents used for chemical modification in order to understand their influence.

  20. Identification of Chemical Agents (Mimics) Residues after Destructive Adsorption Using TPD and UV-vis-IR and Raman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation was purchased that helps characterize the chemical structures and chemical reactions that occur when nanocrystalline metal oxides carry out destructive adsorption of chemical agents mimics. The residues (adducts...

  1. Overview on Analysis of Free Metabolites for Detection of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriu Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents (CWA’s induce complex toxicological effects with major adverse consequences for those exposed. For many chemical agents there is a need for research and development of analytical toxicological methods for a rapid and certain confirmation of those exposures. The certain methods will help for establishing the laboratory diagnosis for applying the proper therapy; the treatment of only contaminated people, decreasing the stress level in the medical community in management of crisis situations, increasing the survival rate of the population exposed to the contamination, supervision of professional exposure, judicial analysis in case of suspicious terrorist activities.

  2. Predicting soil formation on the basis of transport-limited chemical weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Hunt, Allen Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Soil production is closely related to chemical weathering. It has been shown that, under the assumption that chemical weathering is limited by solute transport, the process of soil production is predictable. However, solute transport in soil cannot be described by Gaussian transport. In this paper, we propose an approach based on percolation theory describing non-Gaussian transport of solute to predict soil formation (the net production of soil) by considering both soil production from chemical weathering and removal of soil from erosion. Our prediction shows agreement with observed soil depths in the field. Theoretical soil formation rates are also compared with published rates predicted using soil age-profile thickness (SAST) method. Our formulation can be incorporated directly into landscape evolution models on a point-to-point basis as long as such models account for surface water routing associated with overland flow. Further, our treatment can be scaled-up to address complications associated with continental-scale applications, including those from climate change, such as changes in vegetation, or surface flow organization. The ability to predict soil formation rates has implications for understanding Earth's climate system on account of the relationship to chemical weathering of silicate minerals with the associated drawdown of atmospheric carbon, but it is also important in geomorphology for understanding landscape evolution, including for example, the shapes of hillslopes, and the net transport of sediments to sedimentary basins.

  3. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  4. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  5. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    In order to evaluate the importance for the indoor environment of chemical compounds in cleaning agents, the emission of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) from 10 selected cleaning agents and the content of LAS (Linear AlkanbenzeneSulfonate) in dust samples from 7 buildings were investigated.The...... of LAS between smooth floored corridors to carpeted offices, are apparently also of importance for the LAS content in individual rooms.The amounts of LAS found in the dust samples indicated that LAS may be of importance for the indoor environment, but inadequate knowledge about how low concentrations...... investigation of VOC emission from 10 selected cleaning agents showed that it was useful to classify the VOCs into two groups: nonpolar VOCs and polar VOCs.The nonpolar VOCs consisted of several hundred different compounds, mainly terpenes typically used as perfume in cleaning agents. The nonpolar VOC...

  6. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveau, J; Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  7. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveau, J.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Transport Properties of a Kinetic Model for Chemical Reactions without Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Giselle M.; Kremer, Gilberto M.; Soares, Ana Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation for chemical reactions without energy barrier is considered here with the aim of evaluating the reaction rate and characterizing the transport coefficient of shear viscosity for the reactive system. The Chapman-Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to compute the chemical reaction effects, in a flow regime for which the reaction process is close to the final equilibrium state. Some numerical results are provided illustrating that the considered chemical reaction without energy barrier can induce an appreciable influence on the reaction rate and on the transport coefficient of shear viscosity.

  9. Thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous tetrafluoromethane in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. L.; Boney, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Equations and in computer code are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous, undissociated tetrafluoromethane (CF4) in chemical equilibrium. The computer code calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties of CF4 when given any two of five thermodynamic variables (entropy, temperature, volume, pressure, and enthalpy). Equilibrium thermodynamic and transport property data are tabulated and pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented.

  10. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent.

  11. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  13. Multi-agent model predictive control for transportation networks : Serial versus parallel schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the control of large-scale transportation networks, like road traffic networks, power distribution networks, water distribution networks, etc. Control of these networks is often not possible from a single point by a single intelligent control agent; instead control has to be performed

  14. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    agent migration rates. As stated by Armour and Sturgeon (1992), the extent of the contact hazard depends on the initial degree of contamination, the...with a contaminated surface. 2.1.5 Literature Cited 1. Armour , S.J; Sturgeon, W.R. Liquid Hazard from Chemical Warfare Agents for Pilots of High...the neck area was clipped and prepped with betadine, and the animal covered with a sterile surgical drape . The planned incision areas in the

  15. Dependence of radioprotective effect of chemical modifying agents on their intracellular concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidus, L.K.; Korystov, Y.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Vexler, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Regularities of the radioprotective effect of chemical modifying agents cysteamine, caffeine benzoate, thioglycolic acid, and caffeine, all weak electrolytes, have been studied in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Efficiency of protection is shown to be dependent on pH and concentrations of the drug inside the cells and in the medium. Based on the theory of the dissociation of weak electrolytes and their distribution between the cells and the medium a strong correlation between the efficiency of modification of the radiation response and intracellular concentration of a modifying agent is shown. (author)

  16. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused

  17. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene

  18. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K., E-mail: l.m.k.vandersypen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M. [Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratory, Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene.

  19. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, B.; Bednář, P.; Fryšová, I.; Stýskala, J.; Hlaváč, J.; Barták, P.; Ulrichová, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 12 (2007), s. 1550-1561 ISSN 1076-5174 Grant - others:The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (NL) L/ICA/ICB/84322/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : mass spectrometry * chemical warfare agent * high performance liquid chromatography * LC/MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2007

  20. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Davis, Erin Durke

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications

  1. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  2. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  3. A Coupled Chemical and Mass Transport Model for Concrete Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general continuum theory is used to evaluate the service life of cement based materials, in terms of mass transport processes and chemical degradation of the solid matrix. The model established is a reactive mass transport model, based on an extended version of the Poisson-Nernst-...

  4. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  5. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  6. Output variability caused by random seeds in a multi-agent transport simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Mads; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic transport simulators are intended to support decision makers in transport-related issues, and as such it is valuable that the random variability of their outputs is as small as possible. In this study we analyse the output variability caused by random seeds of a multi-agent transport...... simulator (MATSim) when applied to a case study of Santiago de Chile. Results based on 100 different random seeds shows that the relative accuracies of estimated link loads tend to increase with link load, but that relative errors of up to 10 % do occur even for links with large volumes. Although...

  7. Detection and identification of alkylating agents by using a bioinspired "chemical nose".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog-Ronen, Carmit; Borzin, Elena; Gerchikov, Yulia; Tessler, Nir; Eichen, Yoav

    2009-10-12

    Alkylating agents are simple and reactive molecules that are commonly used in many and diverse fields such as organic synthesis, medicine, and agriculture. Some highly reactive alkylating species are also being used as blister chemical-warfare agents. The detection and identification of alkylating agents is not a trivial issue because of their high reactivity and simple structure. Herein, we report on a new multispot luminescence-based approach to the detection and identification of alkylating agents. In order to demonstrate the potential of the approach, seven pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers bearing nucleophilic pyridine groups, 1-7, were adsorbed onto a solid support and exposed to vapors of alkylators 8-15. The alkylation-induced color-shift patterns of the seven-spot array allow clear discrimination of the different alkylators. The spots are sensitive to minute concentrations of alkylators and, because the detection is based on the formation of new covalent bonds, these spots saturate at about 50 ppb.

  8. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noort, D

    2006-01-01

    This report is an update of TNO report PML 2003-A63. In this report an overview is presented of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e...

  9. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  10. Finite element modeling of contaminant transport in soils including the effect of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M

    2007-05-17

    The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.

  11. Analysis of the Precursors, Simulants and Degradation Products of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Neffe, Slawomir; Sliwka, Ewa; Quagliano, Javier

    2018-09-03

    Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997). The authors stated that during last 15 years increased number of laboratories are focused not only on trace analysis of CWA (mostly nerve and blister agents) in environmental and biological samples, but the growing number of research are devoted to instrumental analysis of precursors and degradation products of these substances. The identification of low-level concentration of CWA degradation products is often more important and difficult than the original CWA, because of lower level of concentration and a very large number of compounds present in environmental and biological samples. Many of them are hydrolysis products and are present in samples in the ionic form. For this reason, two or three instrumental methods are used to perform a reliable analysis of these substances.

  12. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  13. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  14. Test Results of Level A Suits to Challenge by Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belmonte, Richard B

    1998-01-01

    ...) terrorism incidents. As part of an effective response, people who are responding to an incident will use personal protective equipment to protect them from exposure to chemical agents or biological agents...

  15. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  16. Cooperative biological effects between ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Lorenzo; D'Arco, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), at environmentally and therapeutically relevant doses or as a result of diagnostics or accidents, causes cyto- and genotoxic damage. However, exposure to IR alone is a rare event as it occurs in spatial and temporal combination with several physico-chemical agents. Some of these are of known noxiousness, as is the case with chemical compounds at high dose, hence additive/synergistic effects can be expected or have been demonstrated. Conversely, the cellular toxicity of other agents, such as non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), is only presumed and their short- and long-term cooperation on IR-induced damage remains undetermined. In this review, we shall examine evidence in support of the interplay between spatially and/or temporally related environmentally relevant stressors. In vitro or animal-based studies as well as epidemiological surveys have generally examined the combined action of no more than a couple of known or potentially DNA-damaging agents. Moreover, most existing research mainly focused on short-term effects of combined exposures. Hence, it is important that quantitative research addresses the issue of the possible cooperation between chronic exposure to environmental trace contaminants and exposure to EMFs, examining not only the modulation of damage acutely induced by IR but also long-term genome stability. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  18. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  19. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transport and Fate of Volatile Organic Chemical in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lis Wollesen

    Recently much attention has been paid to the behavior of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the environment. This is due to the fact that the environmental pollution with these hazardous chemicals has drastically increased during the last decades. The present study is limited to consider...... the transport and fate of VOCs in the gaseous phase, thus contributing to the overall understanding of VOCs behavior in soil, which eventually will facilitate future cleanup....

  1. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  2. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas; Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non-toxic at the dose applied. This review focuses on studies that employed chemical warfare agent simulants in decontamination contexts, to identify those simulants most suitable for use in HVTs of emergency decontamination. Twenty-two simulants were identified, of which 17 were determined unsuitable for use in HVTs. The remaining simulants (n = 5) were further scrutinized for potential suitability according to toxicity, physicochemical properties and similarities to their equivalent toxic counterparts. Three suitable simulants, for use in HVTs were identified; methyl salicylate (simulant for sulphur mustard), diethyl malonate (simulant for soman) and malathion (simulant for VX or toxic industrial chemicals). All have been safely used in previous HVTs, and have a range of physicochemical properties that would allow useful inference to more toxic chemicals when employed in future studies of emergency decontamination systems. © 2017 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  4. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  5. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    James, Thomas; Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte‐Davidson, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining ...

  6. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  7. FPGA hardware acceleration for high performance neutron transport computation based on agent methodology - 318

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanjie, Xiao; Tatjana, Jevremovic

    2010-01-01

    The accurate, detailed and 3D neutron transport analysis for Gen-IV reactors is still time-consuming regardless of advanced computational hardware available in developed countries. This paper introduces a new concept in addressing the computational time while persevering the detailed and accurate modeling; a specifically designed FPGA co-processor accelerates robust AGENT methodology for complex reactor geometries. For the first time this approach is applied to accelerate the neutronics analysis. The AGENT methodology solves neutron transport equation using the method of characteristics. The AGENT methodology performance was carefully analyzed before the hardware design based on the FPGA co-processor was adopted. The most time-consuming kernel part is then transplanted into the FPGA co-processor. The FPGA co-processor is designed with data flow-driven non von-Neumann architecture and has much higher efficiency than the conventional computer architecture. Details of the FPGA co-processor design are introduced and the design is benchmarked using two different examples. The advanced chip architecture helps the FPGA co-processor obtaining more than 20 times speed up with its working frequency much lower than the CPU frequency. (authors)

  8. Chemical nickel plating in tartrate solutions with borohydride reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plokhov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the influence of various factors on the rate of chemical nickel plating in strongly alkaline tartrate solutions with a borohydride reducing agent. After 30 min of the process of nickel plating, the final concentration of sodium borohydride decreases to 0.26 g/liter, leading to stoppage of the process. The nickel plating process can be intensified by increasing the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the solution, suppressing hydrolysis of borohydride, and also by introducing additives which suppress hydrolysis of borohydride. For chemical deposition of nickel-boron coatings from tartrate solutions the authors recommend the following composition (g/liter): nickel chloride 15-25, Rochelle salt 450-550, sodium hydroxide 140-160, sodium borohydride 0.8-1.0, thallium nitrate 0.003-0.008. The process temperature is 92-95 C, and the deposition rate is 4-6 um/h

  9. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...

  10. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  11. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  12. Occupation, exposure to chemicals, sensitizing agents, and risk of multiple myeloma in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Zock, Jan-Paul; Pollán, Marina

    2008-11-01

    This study sought to identify occupations with high incidence of multiple myeloma and to investigate possible excess risk associated with occupational exposure to chemicals and sensitizing agents in Sweden. A historical cohort of 2,992,166 workers was followed up (1971--1989) through record linkage with the National Cancer and Death Registries. For each job category, age and period standardized incidence ratios and age and period adjusted relative risks of multiple myeloma were calculated using Poisson models. Exposure to chemicals and to sensitizing agents was also assessed using two job-exposure matrices. Men and women were analyzed separately. During follow-up, 3,127 and 1,282 myelomas were diagnosed in men and women, respectively. In men, excess risk was detected among working proprietors, agricultural, horticultural and forestry enterprisers, bakers and pastry cooks, dental technicians, stone cutters/carvers, and prison/reformatory officials. In women, this excess was observed among attendants in psychiatric care, metal workers, bakers and pastry cooks, and paper/paperboard product workers. Workers, particularly bakers and pastry cooks, exposed to high molecular weight sensitizing agents registered an excess risk of over 40% across the sexes. Occasional, although intense, exposure to pesticides was also associated with risk of myeloma in our cohort. Our study supports a possible etiologic role for farming and use of pesticides in myeloma risk. The high incidence found in both female and male bakers and pastry cooks has not been described previously. Further research is required to assess the influence of high molecular weight sensitizing agents on risk of multiple myeloma.

  13. From the Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents to the Decontamination of Cytostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Mazanec, K.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.; Štenglová Netíková, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2018), s. 2114-2122 ISSN 0888-5885 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312804 - COUNTERFOG Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984599 Program:Science for Peace and Security Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical warfare agents * Degradation * Metal oxide sorbents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  14. Polypropylene Track Membranes for Mikro and Ultrafiltration of Chemically Aggressive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    A production process for track membranes on the basis of chemically resistant polymer polypropylene has been developed. Research in all stages of the formation of the polypropylene track membranes has been conducted: the main principles of the process of chemical etching of polypropylene irradiated with accelerated ions have been investigated, the most effective structure of the etchant for a selective etching of the heavy ion tracks has been selected, the parameters of etching have been optimized. A method for sensibilization of latent tracks in polypropylene by effect of solvents has been developed. It helps to reach a significant increase in etching selectivity. A method for destruction of an absorbed chromocontaining layer on the surface of polypropylene track membranes formed during etching has been elaborated. Experimental samples of the membranes for micro and ultrafiltration have been obtained and their properties have been studied in course of their exploitation in chemically aggressive agents. For t...

  15. A vector/parallel method for a three-dimensional transport model coupled with bio-chemical terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); J. Kok (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA so-called fractional step method is considered for the time integration of a three-dimensional transport-chemical model in shallow seas. In this method, the transport part and the chemical part are treated separately by appropriate integration techniques. This separation is motivated

  16. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L.J.; Peters, K.J.H.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Duine, R.A.; van Wees, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position-dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  17. Determination of trace amounts of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Kuitunen, Marja-Leena; Vanninen, Paula

    2007-12-01

    Decontamination solutions are used for an efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As these solutions can be composed of strong alkaline chemicals with hydrolyzing and oxidizing properties, the analysis of CWA degradation products in trace levels from these solutions imposes a challenge for any analytical technique. Here, we present results of application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of trace amounts of CWA degradation products in several untreated decontamination solutions. Degradation products of the nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX were selectively monitored with substantially reduced interference of background signals by 1D 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry. The detection limit of the chemicals was at the low part-per-million level (2-10 microg/mL) in all studied solutions. In addition, the concentration of the degradation products was obtained with sufficient confidence with external standards.

  18. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  19. Performance, Accuracy and Efficiency Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Whole-Core Neutron Transport Code AGENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevremovic, Tatjana; Hursin, Mathieu; Satvat, Nader; Hopkins, John; Xiao, Shanjie; Gert, Godfree

    2006-01-01

    The AGENT (Arbitrary Geometry Neutron Transport) an open-architecture reactor modeling tool is deterministic neutron transport code for two or three-dimensional heterogeneous neutronic design and analysis of the whole reactor cores regardless of geometry types and material configurations. The AGENT neutron transport methodology is applicable to all generations of nuclear power and research reactors. It combines three theories: (1) the theory of R-functions used to generate real three-dimensional whole-cores of square, hexagonal or triangular cross sections, (2) the planar method of characteristics used to solve isotropic neutron transport in non-homogenized 2D) reactor slices, and (3) the one-dimensional diffusion theory used to couple the planar and axial neutron tracks through the transverse leakage and angular mesh-wise flux values. The R-function-geometrical module allows a sequential building of the layers of geometry and automatic sub-meshing based on the network of domain functions. The simplicity of geometry description and selection of parameters for accurate treatment of neutron propagation is achieved through the Boolean algebraic hierarchically organized simple primitives into complex domains (both being represented with corresponding domain functions). The accuracy is comparable to Monte Carlo codes and is obtained by following neutron propagation through real geometrical domains that does not require homogenization or simplifications. The efficiency is maintained through a set of acceleration techniques introduced at all important calculation levels. The flux solution incorporates power iteration with two different acceleration techniques: Coarse Mesh Re-balancing (CMR) and Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD). The stand-alone originally developed graphical user interface of the AGENT code design environment allows the user to view and verify input data by displaying the geometry and material distribution. The user can also view the output data such

  20. Chemical and kinetic equilibrations via radiative parton transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Wortman, Warner A

    2011-01-01

    A hot and dense partonic system can be produced in the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. How it equilibrates is important for the extraction of Quark-Gluon Plasma properties. We study the chemical and kinetic equilibrations of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a radiative transport model. Thermal and Color-Glass-Condensate motivated initial conditions are used. We observe that screened parton interactions always lead to partial pressure isotropization. Different initial pressure anisotropies result in the same asymptotic evolution. Comparison of evolutions with and without radiative processes shows that chemical equilibration interacts with kinetic equilibration and radiative processes can contribute significantly to pressure isotropization.

  1. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism.

  2. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents in Indoor Sample Media Typically Collected During Forensic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, P. A; Hancock, J. R; Chenier, C. L

    2005-01-01

    .... DRDC Suffield, in collaboration with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, identified a need for analytical methods for chemical warfare agent identification in media, including flooring, wall surfaces...

  3. Recent Canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction: An overview. Suffield report No. 626

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews a project in which stockpiles of aged mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide), lewisite (2-chlorovinyl-dichloro arsine), nerve agents, and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally responsible manner. Sections of the paper describe the public consultation program conducted prior to destruction operations, the environmental assessment of the destruction projects, the environmental protection plan implemented to eliminate or mitigate risks with respect to the installation and operation of the destruction equipment, the environmental monitoring procedures, the agent destruction operations, and the destruction process performance, including incinerator emissions.

  4. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  5. The Equipment of Czech Firefighters for the Detection and Field Analyses of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krykorkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the requirements for the devices of detection, chemical reconnaissance and field analyses of chemical warfare agents (CWA and divides them into simple devices of detection, universal detectors, selective analyzers, multi-component analyzers and mobile laboratories. It also describes the devices of detection available within the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and compares them with some prospective trends of further development.

  6. Efficient modeling of reactive transport phenomena by a multispecies random walk coupled to chemical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingsten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories require a detailed knowledge of physical, chemical, hydrological, and geological processes for long time spans. In the past, individual models for hydraulics, transport, or geochemical processes were developed more or less separately to great sophistication for the individual processes. Such processes are especially important in the near field of a waste repository. Attempts have been made to couple at least two individual processes to get a more adequate description of geochemical systems. These models are called coupled codes; they couple predominantly a multicomponent transport model with a chemical reaction model. Here reactive transport is modeled by the sequentially coupled code MCOTAC that couples one-dimensional advective, dispersive, and diffusive transport with chemical equilibrium complexation and precipitation/dissolution reactions in a porous medium. Transport, described by a random walk of multispecies particles, and chemical equilibrium calculations are solved separately, coupled only by an exchange term. The modular-structured code was applied to incongruent dissolution of hydrated silicate gels, to movement of multiple solid front systems, and to an artificial, numerically difficult heterogeneous redox problem. These applications show promising features with respect to applicability to relevant problems and possibilities of extensions

  7. Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S.D.; Steefel, C.I.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

  8. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Advantages of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) complexes having slow to intermediate water exchange properties as responsive MRI agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soesbe, Todd C; Wu, Yunkou; Dean Sherry, A

    2013-07-01

    Paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) complexes are exogenous contrast agents that have great potential to further extend the functional and molecular imaging capabilities of magnetic resonance. As a result of the presence of a central paramagnetic lanthanide ion (Ln(3+) ≠ La(3+) , Gd(3+) , Lu(3+) ) within the chelate, the resonance frequencies of exchangeable protons bound to the PARACEST agent are shifted far away from the bulk water frequency. This large chemical shift, combined with an extreme sensitivity to the chemical exchange rate, make PARACEST agents ideally suited for the reporting of significant biological metrics, such as temperature, pH and the presence of metabolites. In addition, the ability to turn PARACEST agents 'off' and 'on' using a frequency-selective saturation pulse gives them a distinct advantage over Gd(3+) -based contrast agents. A current challenge for PARACEST research is the translation of the promising in vitro results into in vivo systems. This short review article first describes the basic theory behind PARACEST contrast agents, their benefits over other contrast agents and their applications to MRI. It then describes some of the recent PARACEST research results: specifically, pH measurements using water molecule exchange rate modulation, T2 exchange contrast caused by water molecule exchange, the use of ultrashort TEs (TE < 10 µs) to overcome T2 exchange line broadening and the potential application of T2 exchange as a new contrast mechanism for MRI. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO RS and COSMOTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    SELECTED TRADITIONAL CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND SIMULANTS II: COSMO-RS AND COSMOTHERM ECBC-TR-1454 Jerry B. Cabalo RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO-RS and COSMOTherm 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER CB10115...in the ADF 2012 suite of programs for the physico- chemical properties of a set of traditional chemical warfare agents and selected simulants. To

  11. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  12. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  13. Evaluation of liquid-phase oxidation for the destruction of potential chemical terrorism agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Li, K.; Kuang, W.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Potaraju, S.; Velicogna, D.; Obenauf, A. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are designed to protect crops and livestock against insects, fungi or nuisance plants, the toxicity of these compounds is not limited to target species. Organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides all target the nervous systems of insects. This paper assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced oxidation process using peroxycarboxylic acids for the liquid-phase destruction of toxic industrial chemicals, considered to be potential agents of chemical terrorism. Peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and peroxypropionic acid (PPA) were tested as decontamination agents on organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The processes were reviewed in relation to the terms of percent agent destruction over time, with a target of 90 per cent destruction within 30 minutes. Effectiveness was also assessed on the accumulation of toxic by-products. A background of the pesticides was presented, as well as details of their various applications. The molecular structures of the compounds were also provided. Oxidation extraction procedures, materials and methods were also presented, as well as analytical techniques, method detection limits and issues concerning reproducibility. The pH profile of PAA and PPA as a function of the concentration in acid was studied in order to determine which was more likely to be corrosive. It was concluded that peroxycarboxylic acids are effective decontamination agents for organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides. PAA and PPA are equally effective in degrading the examined pesticides, however, greater amounts of toxic by-products are found with PPA than with PAA. Neither PAA nor PPA were able to degrade lindane, and more lindane was found in the treated samples than in the controls. It was noted that time profiles for lower concentrations of peroxycarboxylic acids and pH profiles are currently being developed. It was suggested that further research in this area included degradation experiments on various types of

  14. Quantitative analysis of intraneuronal transport in human iPS neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Nakamura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are promising tools to investigate disease mechanism and develop new drugs. Intraneuronal transport, which is fundamental for neuronal survival and function, is vulnerable to various pharmacological and chemical agents and is disrupted in some neurodegenerative disorders. We applied a quantification method for axonal transport by counting CM-DiI–labeled particles traveling along the neurite, which allowed us to monitor and quantitate, for the first time, intraneuronal transport in human neurons differentiated from iPS cells (iCell neurons. We evaluated the acute effects of several anti-neoplastic agents that have been previously shown to affect intraneuronal transport. Vincristine, paclitaxel and oxaliplatin decreased the number of moving particle along neurites. Cisplatin, however, produced no effect on intraneuronal transport, which is in contrast to our previous report indicating that it inhibits transport in chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. Our system may be a useful method for assessing intraneuronal transport and neurotoxicity in human iPS neurons.

  15. Computational enzymology for degradation of chemical warfare agents: promising technologies for remediation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical weapons are a major worldwide problem, since they are inexpensive, easy to produce on a large scale and difficult to detect and control. Among the chemical warfare agents, we can highlight the organophosphorus compounds (OP, which contain the phosphorus element and that have a large number of applications. They affect the central nervous system and can lead to death, so there are a lot of works in order to design new effective antidotes for the intoxication caused by them. The standard treatment includes the use of an anticholinergic combined to a central nervous system depressor and an oxime. Oximes are compounds that reactivate Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, a regulatory enzyme responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses, which is one of the molecular targets most vulnerable to neurotoxic agents. Increasingly, enzymatic treatment becomes a promising alternative; therefore, other enzymes have been studied for the OP degradation function, such as phosphotriesterase (PTE from bacteria, human serum paraoxonase 1 (HssPON1 and diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase that showed significant performances in OP detoxification. The understanding of mechanisms by which enzymes act is of extreme importance for the projection of antidotes for warfare agents, and computational chemistry comes to aid and reduce the time and costs of the process. Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics and QM/MM (quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics are techniques used to investigate the molecular interactions between ligands and proteins.

  16. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  17. Technology assessment for the determination of chemical agent vapors in demilitarization facilities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Wise, M.B.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of analytical methods for the determination of chemical agents GB, VX, and HD was made. HD, or mustard, is bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, and is classified as a blishtering agent. GB, or Sarin, is isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate. VX is O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)methylphosphonothioate. Both GB and VX are nerve agents. Included were methods capable of providing for monitoring requirements at the time weighted average (TWA) and allowable stack concentration (ASC) levels in near real time. A review of the currently used automatic continuous air monitoring system (ACAMS) was made as well as a review of the recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (APIMS). This report recommends a strategy for research and development for near term and medium term improvement of the overall monitoring program. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Transport Coefficients for the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1995-01-01

    The new transport property data that will be used in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Chemical Equilibrium and Applications Program (CEA) is presented. It complements a previous publication that documented the thermodynamic and transport property data then in use. Sources of the data and a brief description of the method by which the data were obtained are given. Coefficients to calculate the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and binary interactions are given for either one, or usually, two temperature intervals, typically 300 to 1000 K and 1000 to 5000 K. The form of the transport equation is the same as used previously. The number of species was reduced from the previous database. Many species for which the data were estimated were eliminated from the database. Some ionneutral interactions were added.

  19. Methyl salicylate: a reactive chemical warfare agent surrogate to detect reaction with hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, W Bruce; Owens, Jeffery R; Wander, Joseph D

    2011-11-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeS) has a rich history as an inert physical simulant for the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard and soman, where it is used extensively for liquid- and vapor-permeation testing. Here we demonstrate possible utility of MeS as a reactivity simulant for chlorine-based decontaminants. In these experiments MeS was reacted with sodium hypochlorite varying stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time, and pH. No colored oxidation products were observed; however, chlorination of the aromatic ring occurred ortho (methyl 3-chlorosalicylate) and para (methyl 5-chlorosalicylate) to the position bearing the -OH group in both the mono- and disubstituted forms. The monosubstituted para product accumulated initially, and the ortho and 3,5-dichloro products formed over the next several hours. Yields from reactions conducted below pH 11 declined rapidly with decreasing pH. Reactions run at 40 °C produced predominantly para substitution, while those run at 0 °C produced lower yields of ortho- and para-substituted products. Reactions were also carried out on textile substrates of cotton, 50/50 nylon-cotton, and a meta aramid. The textile data broadly reproduced reaction times and stoichiometry observed in the liquid phase, but are complicated by physical and possibly chemical interactions with the fabric. These data indicate that, for hypochlorite-containing neutralizing agents operating at strongly alkaline pH, one can expect MeS to react stoichiometrically with the hypochlorite it encounters. This suggests utility of MeS in lieu of such highly hazardous surrogates as monochloroalkyl sulfides as a simulant for threat scenarios involving the stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard. Specifically, the extent of coverage of the simulant on a fabric by the neutralizing agent can be directly measured. Similar reactivity toward other halogen oxidizing agents is likely but remains to be demonstrated.

  20. Chemical Transport Models on Accelerator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Sandu, A.

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneous multicore chipsets with many layers of polymorphic parallelism are becoming increasingly common in high-performance computing systems. Homogeneous co-processors with many streaming processors also offer unprecedented peak floating-point performance. Effective use of parallelism in these new chipsets is paramount. We present optimization techniques for 3D chemical transport models to take full advantage of emerging Cell Broadband Engine and graphical processing unit (GPU) technology. Our techniques achieve 2.15x the per-node performance of an IBM BlueGene/P on the Cell Broadband Engine, and a strongly-scalable 1.75x the per-node performance of an IBM BlueGene/P on an NVIDIA GeForce 8600.

  1. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Environmental Health Perspectives 1994, 102, 18-38. 21. La Franchi , P., Chemical and Biological Weapons: The War from Hell. ADM September, 1995, pp 9-10...One-to-Five Gas Monitor with VOC Detection. In ENVCO Global . DSTO-GD-0570 98 152. MultiRAE Plus. In RAE Systems: San Jose, CA. 153. ToxiRAE Plus PID...158. Rippen, M., Chemical and Biological Agent Sensor/Detector Systems Technology Development for Applications in the Global War on Terrorism. In

  2. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L J; Peters, K J H; Bauer, G. E. W.; Duine, R A; van Wees, B J

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position-dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  3. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L.J.; Peters, K. J H; Bauer, G.E.; Duine, R. A.; Van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position-dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  4. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Ludo J.; Peters, Kevin J. H.; Duine, Rembert A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Wees, Bart J. van

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  5. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E., E-mail: geiza.oliveira@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCE/DQUI/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Souza Junior, F.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2013-11-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  6. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E.; Souza Junior, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  7. Influence of chemical agents on the surface area and porosity of active carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA M. KLJAJEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active carbon hollow fibers were prepared from regenerated polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using: disodium hydrogen phosphate 2-hydrate, disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate, hydrogen peroxide, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate. After chemical activation fibers were carbonized in an inert atmosphere. The specific surface area and porosity of obtained carbons were studied by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K, while the structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The activation process increases these adsorption properties of fibers being more pronounced for active carbon fibers obtained with disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate and hydrogen peroxide as activator. The obtained active hollow carbons are microporous with different pore size distribution. Chemical activation with phosphates produces active carbon material with small surface area but with both mesopores and micropores. X-ray diffraction shows that besides turbostratic structure typical for carbon materials, there are some peaks which indicate some intermediate reaction products when sodium salts were used as activating agent. Based on data from the electrochemical measurements the activity and porosity of the active fibers depend strongly on the oxidizing agent applied.

  8. A dispersion model of transport media in radiotracer investigations on selected chemical installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.

    1999-01-01

    Tracer investigations of media transport through chemical reactors play a significant role in the chemical technology. They provide the basis for the determination of some important process parameters, such as flow character of the transported medium, degree of utilisation of the reactor volume during chemical transitions of substrates or even indicate possible mechanisms of chemical reactions. Determination of the medium flow characteristics is closely connected with the mathematical description of the process - a mathematical model of transport. The method of assessment of radiotracers suitability for the investigation of distillation processes presented in this paper allows to determine, in a simple manner, the parameters of distillation characteristics of the radionuclides, the average distillation temperature, the range of distillation temperatures, a suitable radiochemical purity. These parameters precisely determine the behavior of tracers to be expected in a wide range of variable conditions of the distillation process. Applications of tracer tested in such a manner to the investigations of dynamics of media in the industrial rectification columns has resulted in obtaining a dependable evaluation of the performance of these columns in a wide range of changes of their operational parameters. Particular attention has been paid to dynamics of the liquid [phase on the column plate. A dispersion model of liquid flow with hold-up zones has been proposed for the description of the liquid phase transport in the plate - overall assembly.The model consists of a number of flow and stagnant zones, with mass transfer between them. Another example of practical application of results from radiotracer investigation is an analysis of of phase dynamics in the installations designed for the process of liquefaction of Polish coals by means of their catalytic hydrogenation. For the analysis of phase transport in a reaction vessel various mathematical models were applied with

  9. Chemical agent recoveries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset shows the calculation of reported decontamination efficacies from the raw data (i.e., measured amount of chemical recovered from test coupons and positive...

  10. [The development of neurotoxic agents as chemical weapons during the National Socialist period in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C; Guerra, J A; García-García, P

    The discovery and development of the so-called 'nerve agents' (neurotoxic substances to be used as weapons) took place in the Third Reich, largely thanks to the vast amount of progress being made in pharmacology in Germany at that time, both in academic and industrial terms. Furthermore, successive National Socialist governments set up a collaborative network made up of the academia, the chemical industry and military chiefs that also favoured this line of research. The first neurotoxic substance to be incorporated into the category of 'chemical warfare agent' did so almost wholly by chance. As part of the work being carried out on organophosphate-type pesticides and insecticides, Gerald Schrader, a chemist at the I.G. Farben company, synthesised tabun (ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) and an incident involving accidental contamination of laboratory staff with this substance highlighted its potential toxicity. The same group of researchers later synthesised another substance with the same properties, sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate). Both agents were studied for use as chemical weapons by Wolfgang Wirth. At the same time, a group led by Richard Kuhn, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938, synthesised pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate, otherwise known as soman. Pharmacological studies confirmed that the neurotoxic mechanism of action of these substances was the irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for metabolising acetylcholine. Results also showed that an excess of this neurotransmitter led to a continuous over-stimulation of the cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) receptors, which is what triggers the appearance of the wide range of symptoms of poisoning and their swift fatal effect.

  11. Laser mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weickhardt, C.; Grun, C.; Grotemeyer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Fast relaxation processes in excited molecules such as IC, ISC, and fragmentation are observed in many environmentally and technically relevant substances. They cause severe problems to resonance ionization mass spectrometry because they reduce the ionization yield and lead to mass spectra which do not allow the identification of the compound. By the use of ultrashort laser pulses these problems can be overcome and the advantages of REMPI over conventional ionization techniques in mass spectrometry can be regained. This is demonstrated using soil samples contaminated with a chemical warfare agent

  12. Prophylaxis and Therapy Against Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Hematopoietic Consequences F. Dorandeu 5) pH Dependent Toxicity of Sulphur Mustard In Vitro J. Mikler Nerve Agents / Scavengers 1) Mutagenesis...symptoms such as salivation or shortness of breath and lower level exposures could be rendered inconsequential. B.2 CURRENT THERAPY FOR NERVE AGENT

  13. Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents: General Overview, LC-MS Review, In-House LC-ESI-MS Methods and Open Literature Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul A; Chenier, C. L

    2006-01-01

    Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention by more than 165 States Parties has reduced the risk of chemical warfare agent use, but there still remains a concern that other parties may make use...

  14. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-05

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  15. Some Sensitivity Studies of Chemical Transport Simulated in Models of the Soil-Plant-Litter System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.

    2002-10-28

    Fifteen parameters in a set of five coupled models describing carbon, water, and chemical dynamics in the soil-plant-litter system were varied in a sensitivity analysis of model response. Results are presented for chemical distribution in the components of soil, plants, and litter along with selected responses of biomass, internal chemical transport (xylem and phloem pathways), and chemical uptake. Response and sensitivity coefficients are presented for up to 102 model outputs in an appendix. Two soil properties (chemical distribution coefficient and chemical solubility) and three plant properties (leaf chemical permeability, cuticle thickness, and root chemical conductivity) had the greatest influence on chemical transport in the soil-plant-litter system under the conditions examined. Pollutant gas uptake (SO{sub 2}) increased with change in plant properties that increased plant growth. Heavy metal dynamics in litter responded to plant properties (phloem resistance, respiration characteristics) which induced changes in the chemical cycling to the litter system. Some of the SO{sub 2} and heavy metal responses were not expected but became apparent through the modeling analysis.

  16. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  17. Quantification of chemical transport processes from the soil to surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kun; Huang, Chi-Hua; Wang, Guang-Qian; Fu, Xu-Dong; Parker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    There is a good conceptual understanding of the processes that govern chemical transport from the soil to surface runoff, but few studies have actually quantified these processes separately. Thus, we designed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify the chemical transport from soil to runoff water in the following individual processes: (i) convection with a vertical hydraulic gradient, (ii) convection via surface flow or the Bernoulli effect, (iii) diffusion, and (iv) soil loss. We applied different vertical hydraulic gradients by setting the flow cell to generate different seepage or drainage conditions. Our data confirmed the general form of the convection-diffusion equation. However, we now have additional quantitative data that describe the contribution of each individual chemical loading process in different surface runoff and soil hydrological conditions. The results of this study will be useful for enhancing our understanding of different geochemical processes in the surface soil mixing zone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. A kinetic model for chemical reactions without barriers: transport coefficients and eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Giselle M; Kremer, Gilberto M; Marques, Wilson Jr; Soares, Ana Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation proposed in the work of Kremer and Soares 2009 for a binary mixture undergoing chemical reactions of symmetric type which occur without activation energy is revisited here, with the aim of investigating in detail the transport properties of the reactive mixture and the influence of the reaction process on the transport coefficients. Accordingly, the non-equilibrium solutions of the Boltzmann equations are determined through an expansion in Sonine polynomials up to the first order, using the Chapman–Enskog method, in a chemical regime for which the reaction process is close to its final equilibrium state. The non-equilibrium deviations are explicitly calculated for what concerns the thermal–diffusion ratio and coefficients of shear viscosity, diffusion and thermal conductivity. The theoretical and formal analysis developed in the present paper is complemented with some numerical simulations performed for different concentrations of reactants and products of the reaction as well as for both exothermic and endothermic chemical processes. The results reveal that chemical reactions without energy barrier can induce an appreciable influence on the transport properties of the mixture. Oppositely to the case of reactions with activation energy, the coefficients of shear viscosity and thermal conductivity become larger than those of an inert mixture when the reactions are exothermic. An application of the non-barrier model and its detailed transport picture are included in this paper, in order to investigate the dynamics of the local perturbations on the constituent number densities, and velocity and temperature of the whole mixture, induced by spontaneous internal fluctuations. It is shown that for the longitudinal disturbances there exist two hydrodynamic sound modes, one purely diffusive hydrodynamic mode and one kinetic mode

  19. A kinetic model for chemical reactions without barriers: transport coefficients and eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Giselle M.; Kremer, Gilberto M.; Marques, Wilson, Jr.; Jacinta Soares, Ana

    2011-03-01

    The kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation proposed in the work of Kremer and Soares 2009 for a binary mixture undergoing chemical reactions of symmetric type which occur without activation energy is revisited here, with the aim of investigating in detail the transport properties of the reactive mixture and the influence of the reaction process on the transport coefficients. Accordingly, the non-equilibrium solutions of the Boltzmann equations are determined through an expansion in Sonine polynomials up to the first order, using the Chapman-Enskog method, in a chemical regime for which the reaction process is close to its final equilibrium state. The non-equilibrium deviations are explicitly calculated for what concerns the thermal-diffusion ratio and coefficients of shear viscosity, diffusion and thermal conductivity. The theoretical and formal analysis developed in the present paper is complemented with some numerical simulations performed for different concentrations of reactants and products of the reaction as well as for both exothermic and endothermic chemical processes. The results reveal that chemical reactions without energy barrier can induce an appreciable influence on the transport properties of the mixture. Oppositely to the case of reactions with activation energy, the coefficients of shear viscosity and thermal conductivity become larger than those of an inert mixture when the reactions are exothermic. An application of the non-barrier model and its detailed transport picture are included in this paper, in order to investigate the dynamics of the local perturbations on the constituent number densities, and velocity and temperature of the whole mixture, induced by spontaneous internal fluctuations. It is shown that for the longitudinal disturbances there exist two hydrodynamic sound modes, one purely diffusive hydrodynamic mode and one kinetic mode.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Non Line of Sight Chemical Detection Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    aircraft system that is used to perform point detection of chemical warfare agents and collection of vapor, liquid, and solid samples. A modular payload...their goals to better protect the Warfighter. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization members have divided detection distances into the following three...materials for onboard analysis or transporting chemical samples for analysis to a mobile laboratory. An innovative proposed solution to non-line-of

  1. The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Eisenkraft

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are used to stop organophosphate-induced seizures. Despite these approved drugs, efforts have been made to introduce other medical countermeasures in order to attenuate both the short-term and long-term clinical effects following exposure. Currently, there is no antidote against sulfur mustard poisoning. Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition. In recent years, efficacy of lipid emulsions has been shown in the treatment of poisoning by fat-soluble compounds in animal models as well as clinically in humans. In this review we discuss the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsions as an adjunct to the in-hospital treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning. Keywords: Intravenous lipid emulsion, Organophosphates, Sulfur mustard, Antidotes, Poisoning, Chemical Warfare agents

  2. Studies of the action of chemical agents on the heart. Annual report, February 1985-February 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassler, G.R.; Moutvic, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes initial studies to determine the subchronic effect of Soman and Sarin, on the electrical, mechanical, and neurochemical properties of the heart. Two different animal models are under development. The electrophysiologic and hemodynamic aspects of survival doses of chemical agent are begin studied in the dog. Two chronically instrumented dog models have been developed. The first is a hemodynamic dog model in which long-term measurements of left and right heart pressures, aortic flow, coronary flow as well as epicardial electrocardiograms, are monitored. The animals will be monitored at baseline and for one month following exposure in survival of a chemical-warfare-agent insult. These animals are stressed via treadmill exercise. The electrophysiology dog model consists of chronically implanted electrodes for performance of repetitive ventricular response stimulation, His bundle recording, and ECG analysis. Measurements are made prior to, and for one month following, exposure to survivable doses of CW agent. This dog model is further probed by sequential administration of various pharmacologic agents designed to study the autonomic status of the heart. All dogs and a limited number of the guinea pigs will be continuously monitored for occurrence of arrhythmic events utilizing Holter monitoring technology. The guinea pig neurochemical studies will include acetylcholines, choline acetyltransferase activity, QNB binding, choline uptake, norepinephrine levels and turnover, and norepinephrine uptake experiments.

  3. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  4. A Coupled Chemical and Mass Transport Model for Concrete Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2012-01-01

    -Raphson iteration scheme arising from the non-linearity. The overall model is a transient problem, solved using a single parameter formulation. The sorption hysteresis and chemical equilibrium is included as source or sink terms. The advantages with this formulation is that each node in the discrete system has...... their individual sorption hysteresis isotherm which is of great importance when describing non fully water saturated system e.g. caused by time depended boundary conditions. Chemical equilibrium is also established in each node of the discrete system, where the rate of chemical degradation is determined.......g. charge balance, from the mass transport calculation could cause the above mentioned numerical problems. Two different test cases are studied, the sorption hysteresis in different depth of the sample, caused by time depended boundary condition and the chemical degradation of the solid matrix in a ten year...

  5. Iron-montmorillonite clays as active sorbents for the decontamination of hazardous chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, F; Bisio, C; Evangelisti, C; Psaro, R; Dal Santo, V; Costenaro, D; Marchese, L; Guidotti, M

    2018-02-27

    A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties. The catalytic performance of these materials was evaluated in the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. A new decontamination formulation was, moreover, proposed and obtained by mixing sodium perborate, as a solid oxidant, to iron-bentonite catalysts. Solid-phase decontamination tests, performed on a cotton textile support contaminated with organosulfide and organophosphonate simulant agents revealed the good activity of the solid formulation, especially in the in situ detoxification of blistering agents. Tests carried out on the real blistering warfare agent, sulfur mustard (HD agent), showed that, thanks to the co-presence of the iron-based clay together with the solid oxidant component, a good decontamination of the test surface from the real warfare agent could be achieved (80% contaminant degradation, under ambient conditions, in 24 h).

  6. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references

  7. STRATAQ: A three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model of the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM of the stratosphere has been developed and used for a test study of the evolution of chemical species in the arctic lower stratosphere during winter 1996/97. This particular winter has been chosen for testing the model’s capabilities for its remarkable dynamical situation (very cold and strong polar vortex along with the availability of sparse chlorine, HNO3 and O3 data, showing also very low O3 values in late March/April. Due to those unusual features, the winter 1996/97 can be considered an excellent example of the impact of both dynamics and heterogeneous reactions on the chemistry of the stratosphere. Model integration has been performed from January to March 1997 and the resulting long-lived and short-lived tracer fields compared with available measurements. The model includes a detailed gas phase chemical scheme and a parameterization of the heterogeneous reactions occurring on liquid aerosol and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC surfaces. The transport is calculated using a semi-lagrangian flux scheme, forced by meteorological analyses. In such form, the STRATAQ CTM model is suitable for short-term integrations to study transport and chemical evolution related to "real" meteorological situations. Model simulation during the chosen winter shows intense PSC formation, with noticeable local HNO3 capture by PSCs, and the activation of vortex air leading to chlorine production and subsequent O3 destruction. The resulting model fields show generally good agreement with satellite data (MLS and TOMS, although the available observations, due to their limited number and time/space sparse nature, are not enough to effectively constraint the model. In particular, the model seems to perform well in reproducing the rapid processing of air inside the polar vortex on PSC converting reservoir species in active chlorine. In addition, it satisfactorily reproduces the morphology of the continuous O3

  8. STRATAQ: A three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model of the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM of the stratosphere has been developed and used for a test study of the evolution of chemical species in the arctic lower stratosphere during winter 1996/97. This particular winter has been chosen for testing the model’s capabilities for its remarkable dynamical situation (very cold and strong polar vortex along with the availability of sparse chlorine, HNO3 and O3 data, showing also very low O3 values in late March/April. Due to those unusual features, the winter 1996/97 can be considered an excellent example of the impact of both dynamics and heterogeneous reactions on the chemistry of the stratosphere. Model integration has been performed from January to March 1997 and the resulting long-lived and short-lived tracer fields compared with available measurements. The model includes a detailed gas phase chemical scheme and a parameterization of the heterogeneous reactions occurring on liquid aerosol and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC surfaces. The transport is calculated using a semi-lagrangian flux scheme, forced by meteorological analyses. In such form, the STRATAQ CTM model is suitable for short-term integrations to study transport and chemical evolution related to "real" meteorological situations. Model simulation during the chosen winter shows intense PSC formation, with noticeable local HNO3 capture by PSCs, and the activation of vortex air leading to chlorine production and subsequent O3 destruction. The resulting model fields show generally good agreement with satellite data (MLS and TOMS, although the available observations, due to their limited number and time/space sparse nature, are not enough to effectively constraint the model. In particular, the model seems to perform well in reproducing the rapid processing of air inside the polar vortex on PSC converting reservoir species in active chlorine. In addition, it

  9. METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SOIL VULNERABILITY AT THE CHEMICAL AGENTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The negative effect induced to the soil by any impact, commonly chemical impact, defining the soil vulnerability to this impulse. To put in equation this soil characteristic, were chosen these physical and chemical indicators which determining the phenomenon intensity and its evolution direction, as: texture, pH (soil reaction, organic matter content, carbonates content and ion exchange capacity. Each of these indicators was divided into five classes, depending on the content in elements and/or chemical substances that defining any indicator, the specific indicator size, and on the direction and intensity of process generated by impact. Every of these five classes have been got marks from one to five according to soil capacity to putting up resistance to modification induced by impact. One mark reflecting the lowest impact resistance and five mark the highest ones. By summing of characteristic marks for each class resulted a scale from 5 to 25. According to this scale we could have very high soil vulnerability with only 5 points, and an invulnerable soil with 25 points. Analytical data of all these five physics and chemical indicators, determined for a specific territory, could be framing in vulnerability scale according to the presented methodology. This methodology permit to realize maps of the specific territories for soils vulnerability to impact of any nature chemical agents.

  10. Optical and electrical properties of ZrSe3 single crystals grown by chemical vapour transport technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kaushik; Prajapati, Jagdish; Vaidya, Rajiv; Patel, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Single crystals of the lamellar compound, ZrSe 3 , were grown by chemical vapour transport technique using iodine as a transporting agent. The grown crystals were characterized with the help of energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX), which gave confirmation about the stoichiometry. The optical band gap measurement of as grown crystals was carried out with the help of optical absorption spectra in the range 700-1450 nm. The indirect as well as direct band gap of ZrSe 3 were found to be 1.1 eV and 1.47 eV, respectively. The resistivity of the as grown crystals was measured using van der Pauw method. The Hall parameters of the grown crystals were determined at room temperature from Hall effect measurements. Electrical resistivity measurements were performed on this crystal in the temperature range 303-423 K. The crystals were found to exhibit semiconducting nature in this range. The activation energy and anisotropy measurements were carried out for this crystal. Pressure dependence of electrical resistance was studied using Bridgman opposed anvils set up up to 8 GPa. The semiconducting nature of ZrSe 3 single crystal was inferred from the graph of resistance vs pressure. The results obtained are discussed in detail. (author)

  11. Selective transport of metal ions through cation exchange membrane in the presence of a complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingchia Huang; Jaukai Wang (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-01-01

    Selective transport of metal ions through a cation exchange membrane was studied in stirred batch dialyzer for the systems Ni[sup 2+]-Cu[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+]-Fe[sup 3+]. Oxalic acid, malonic acid, citric acid, glycine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were employed as the complexing agents added in the feed solution in order to increase the permselectivity of metal ions. The experimental results show that the selective transport behavior of metal ions depends on the valence and the concentration of metal ions, the stoichiometric ratio of complexing agent to metal ions, and the pH value of the feed solution, but is independent of the concentration of counterion in the stripping phase. A theoretical approach was formulated on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equation and interface quasi-equilibrium. Theoretical solutions obtained from numerical calculation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  12. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  13. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, M Kavosh; Jaafari, E; Mobashery, A; Mohammad, M Malek

    2015-01-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2–10.8 μm tunable CO 2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl–methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH 3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution. (paper)

  14. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M.; Watson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M. partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M. species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions

  15. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly N; Kim, Young-Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-06-16

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing N(E) equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-N(E) kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  16. Atmospheric emissions and long-range transport of persistent organic chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheringer M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic chemicals include several groups of halogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, and polyfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs. These chemicals remain for long times (years to decades in the environment and cycle between different media (air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, etc.. The environmental distribution of this type of chemicals can conveniently be analyzed by multimedia models. Multimedia models consist of a set of coupled mass balance equations for the environmental media considered; they can be set up at various scales from local to global. Two applications of multimedia models to airborne chemicals are discussed in detail: the day-night cycle of PCBs measured in air near the surface, and the atmospheric long-range transport of volatile precursors of PFCAs, formation of PFCAs by oxidation of these precursors, and subsequent deposition of PFCAs to the surface in remote regions such as the Arctic.

  17. The influence of vertical sorbed phase transport on the fate of organic chemicals in surface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Czub, Gertje; Wania, Frank

    2002-11-15

    Gaseous exchange between surface soil and the atmosphere is an important process in the environmental fate of many chemicals. It was hypothesized that this process is influenced by vertical transport of chemicals sorbed to soil particles. Vertical sorbed phase transport in surface soils occurs by many processes such as bioturbation, cryoturbation, and erosion into cracks formed by soil drying. The solution of the advection/diffusion equation proposed by Jury et al. to describe organic chemical fate in a uniformly contaminated surface soil was modified to include vertical sorbed phase transport This process was modeled using a sorbed phase diffusion coefficient, the value of which was derived from soil carbon mass balances in the literature. The effective diffusivity of the chemical in a typical soil was greater in the modified model than in the model without sorbed phase transport for compounds with log K(OW) > 2 and log K(OA) > 6. Within this chemical partitioning space, the rate of volatilization from the surface soil was larger in the modified model than in the original model by up to a factor of 65. The volatilization rate was insensitive to the value of the sorbed phase diffusion coefficient throughout much of this chemical partitioning space, indicating that the surface soil layer was essentially well-mixed and that the mass transfer coefficient was determined by diffusion through the atmospheric boundary layer only. When this process was included in a non-steady-state regional multimedia chemical fate model running with a generic emissions scenario to air, the predicted soil concentrations increased by upto a factor of 25,whilethe air concentrations decreased by as much as a factor of approximately 3. Vertical sorbed phase transport in the soil thus has a major impact on predicted air and soil concentrations, the state of equilibrium, and the direction and magnitude of the chemical flux between air and soil. It is a key process influencing the environmental

  18. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  19. Effect of chemical and physical heterogeneities on colloid-facilitated cesium transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, Kenton; Um, Wooyong; Chun, Jaehun; Wu, Ning; Yin, Xialong; Wang, Guohui; Neeves, Keith

    2018-06-01

    A set of column experiments was conducted to investigate the chemical and physical heterogeneity effect on colloid facilitated transport under slow pore velocity conditions. Pore velocities were kept below 100 cm d-1 for all experiments. Glass beads were packed into columns establishing four different conditions: 1) homogeneous, 2) mixed physical heterogeneity, 3) sequentially layered physical heterogeneity, and 4) chemical heterogeneity. The homogeneous column was packed with glass beads (diameter 500-600 μm), and physical heterogeneities were created by sequential layering or mixing two sizes of glass bead (500-600 μm and 300-400 μm). A chemical heterogeneity was created using 25% of the glass beads coated with hydrophobic molecules (1H-1H-2H-2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane) mixed with 75% pristine glass beads (all 500-600 μm). Input solution with 0.5 mM CsI and 50 mg L-1 colloids (1-μm diameter SiO2) was pulsed into columns under saturated conditions. The physical heterogeneity in the packed glass beads retarded the transport of colloids compared to homogeneous (R = 25.0), but showed only slight differences between sequentially layered (R = 60.7) and mixed heterogeneity(R = 62.4). The column with the chemical, hydrophobic/hydrophilic, heterogeneity removed most of the colloids from the input solution. All column conditions stripped Cs from colloids onto the column matrix of packed glass beads.

  20. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  2. Simulation of uranium transport with variable temperature and oxidation potential: The computer program THCC [Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    A simulator of reactive chemical transport has been constructed with the capabilities of treating variable temperatures and variable oxidation potentials within a single simulation. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions are simulated at temperature-dependent equilibrium, and changes of oxidation states of multivalent elements can be simulated during transport. Chemical mass action relations for formation of complexes in the fluid phase are included explicitly within the partial differential equations of transport, and a special algorithm greatly simplifies treatment of reversible precipitation of solid phases. This approach allows direct solution of the complete set of governing equations for concentrations of all aqueous species and solids affected simultaneously by chemical and physical processes. Results of example simulations of transport, along a temperature gradient, of uranium solution species under conditions of varying pH and oxidation potential and with reversible precipitation of uraninite and coffinite are presented. The examples illustrate how inclusion of variable temperature and oxidation potential in numerical simulators can enhance understanding of the chemical mechanisms affecting migration of multivalent waste elements

  3. Features of formation of car-traffic in a regional transportation system in conditions the multi-agents organization of a railway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Leonidovich Kazakov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of structural reform of Russian railways, a host of agents that provide customers with loading resources, especially wagons for transport by railway. These processes reduce in efficiency of the car fleet, increasing transportation costs, shortage of cars for many customers, an increase of empty runs and, as a result, a depletion of a number of sections of the network carrying capacity at a reduced total volume of rail traffic. The article describes the reasons for this situation due to the mismatch occurred heterogeneity of rolling stock to existing planning conditions and tariffs. It is also shown that the inefficiency of decentralized car fleet contributes to the predominance of tree-type network, and the importance of this factor in the new environment has increased substantially. To ensure the efficient operation of rail transport as a systemic industry, providing mass-haul transport, it is proposed for integration into a regional logistics. Freight terminals regional logistics transportation and distribution system (RLTRS is appropriate to create on the basis of major freight railway stations. Thus, the adaptation of planning car traffic volume and train formation to modern standards, the establishment of tariff incentives and long-term changes in network configuration are considered as a prerequisite for the transformation of local transport and technological systems on the network of Russian railways into the integrated transport and logistics systems.

  4. Poly High Internal Phase Emulsion for the Immobilization of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexander J; Main, Marcus J; Cooper, Nicholas J; Blight, Barry A; Holder, Simon J

    2017-09-20

    We report a facile method for the absorption (characterized by the weight/weight swelling degree, Q) of a variety of chemical warfare agents (CWAs); including sulfur mustard (HD) (Q = 40) and V-series (VM, VX, i-Bu-VX, n-Bu-VX) of nerve agents (Q ≥ 45) and a simulant, methyl benzoate (Q = 55), through the use of a poly(styrene-co-vinyl benzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) lightly cross-linked poly high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE). By varying the vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC) content and the volume of the internal phase of the precursor emulsion it is demonstrated that absorption is facilitated both by the swelling of the polymer and the uptake of liquid in the pores. In particular the sample prepared from a 95% internal emulsion water content showed rapid swelling (<5 min to total absorption) and the ability to swell both from a monolithic state and from a compressed state, making these systems ideal practical candidates for the rapid immobilization of CWAs.

  5. In-situ leaching of crownpoint, NM, uranium ore: Part 7 - Laboratory study of chemical agents for molybdenum restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, E.T.; Vogt, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    One possible drawback to the use of an in-situ leaching to recover uranium is the potential release of previously insoluble chemical species into the formation water. Before a pilot test of in-situ uranium leaching at Crownpoint, NM, was begun, extensive laboratory studies were undertaken to develop chemical methods for treating one possible contaminant, molybdenum (Mo). New Mexico regulations restrict the amount of Mo permissable in formation waters after leaching to less than 1 ppm. Two techniques to restore Mo after leaching were studied with core and pack tests. These studies suggest that if Mo restoration problems occur in the field, the use of precipitating agents such as Ca/sup 2+/ or reducing agents such as Fe/sup 2+/ may be helpful in ameliorating such problems

  6. Imaging in Vivo Extracellular pH with a Single Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of extracellular pH (pHe has potential utility for cancer diagnoses and for assessing the therapeutic effects of pH-dependent therapies. A single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent that is detected through paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST was designed to measure tumor pHe throughout the range of physiologic pH and with magnetic resonance saturation powers that are not harmful to a mouse model of cancer. The chemical characterization and modeling of the contrast agent Yb3+-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid, 10-o-aminoanilide (Yb-DO3A-oAA suggested that the aryl amine of the agent forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with a proximal carboxylate ligand, which was essential for generating a practical chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST effect from an amine. A ratio of CEST effects from the aryl amine and amide was linearly correlated with pH throughout the physiologic pH range. The pH calibration was used to produce a parametric pH map of a subcutaneous flank tumor on a mouse model of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma. Although refinements in the in vivo CEST MRI methodology may improve the accuracy of pHe measurements, this study demonstrated that the PARACEST contrast agent can be used to generate parametric pH maps of in vivo tumors with saturation power levels that are not harmful to a mouse model of cancer.

  7. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  8. Establish an Agent-Simulant Technology Relationship (ASTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-14

    collective protection; CP; decontamination ; decon; contamination avoidance; CA; chemical biological radiological; CBR 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Within chemical defense, the individual protection (IP), collective protection (CP), decontamination (decon), and contamination avoidance (CA...OT). c. Testing may use chemical warfare agent (CWA), biological warfare agent (BWA), radiological agent, or simulant (surrogate). A simulant is a

  9. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  10. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-12-22

    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis.

  11. Cellular automaton model of mass transport with chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karapiperis, T.; Blankleider, B.

    1993-10-01

    The transport and chemical reactions of solutes are modelled as a cellular automaton in which molecules of different species perform a random walk on a regular lattice and react according to a local probabilistic rule. The model describes advection and diffusion in a simple way, and as no restriction is placed on the number of particles at a lattice site, it is also able to describe a wide variety of chemical reactions. Assuming molecular chaos and a smooth density function, we obtain the standard reaction-transport equations in the continuum limit. Simulations on one-and two-dimensional lattices show that the discrete model can be used to approximate the solutions of the continuum equations. We discuss discrepancies which arise from correlations between molecules and how these discrepancies disappear as the continuum limit is approached. Of particular interest are simulations displaying long-time behaviour which depends on long-wavelength statistical fluctuations not accounted for by the standard equations. The model is applied to the reactions a + b ↔ c and a + b → c with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initial conditions as well as to systems subject to autocatalytic reactions and displaying spontaneous formation of spatial concentration patterns. (author) 9 figs., 34 refs

  12. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable.

  13. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  14. Chemical Evidence for Vertical Transport from Magma Chambers to the Surface During Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.

    2009-12-01

    Many mid-ocean ridge eruptions show significant internal chemical heterogeneity; in general, the amount of chemical heterogeneity within eruptions scales with erupted volume. These variations reflect magmatic processes occurring in magma reservoirs prior to or possibly during eruption. For example, systematic variations in Mg# with along-axis distance in the early 90’s Aldo-Kihi (S. EPR near 17.5°S), 1996 N. Gorda, 1993 Co-Axial (Juan de Fuca Ridge), and 1991-2 and 2005-6 9°50’N EPR eruptions is unlikely to be related to fractionation during emplacement, and rather reflects variations in sub-axial magma reservoirs prior to eruption. Such variations are inconsistent with well-mixed sub-axial reservoirs and, in some cases, require relatively long-lived, systematic variations in reservoir temperatures along axis. Chemical heterogeneity within the Aldo-Kihi eruption preserves spatial variations in mantle-derived isotopic and trace element ratios with implications for the temporal and spatial scales of magma injections to the crust and along-axis mixing within shallow reservoirs. These spatial variations are difficult to reconcile with significant (> ~1 km) along-axis magma transport, as are striking correlations of chemical compositions with surface geological discontinuities or seismically imaged sub-axial magma chamber reflectors in the S. Hump (S. EPR), 9°50’N EPR, N. Gorda and 1975-1984 Krafla (N. Iceland) eruptive units. Rather, spatial correlations between surface lava compositions and sub-axial magma chamber properties or long-lived axial morphology suggest that most of the erupted magma was transported nearly vertically from the underlying reservoirs to the surface during these eruptions. In the case of the Krafla eruption, coincident deformation suggests a component of lateral melt migration at depth, despite chemical evidence for vertical transport of erupted lava from more than one chemical reservoir. In addition, along-ridge movement of earthquake

  15. Pharmacological studies of dopamine transporter imaging agent 125/131I-β-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shiyu; Zhou Xiang; Chen Zhengping; Wu Chunying; Lin Yansong; Ji Shuren; Lu Chunxiong; Fang Ping; Tang Jun; Wang Feng

    2001-01-01

    To prepare 125/131 I-β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane) as an imaging agent for dopamine transporter (DAT), the labelling method from tributylstannyl precursor with peracetic acid has been reported. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the labelled compound was over 95% determined by HPLC and TLC. The stability, partition coefficients were also determined. The pharmacological studies of the imaging agent were performed in rats, mice, rabbits and normal monkey. The ligand showed preferable uptake in brain (1.9% ID/organ in rats and 4.5% ID/organ in mice at 5 min). The ratios of striatum/cerebellum, hippocampus/cerebellum and cortex/cerebellum were 28.9, 3.97 and 4.75 at 6 h in rats, and 8.52, 2.99 and 3.06 at 6 h in mice, respectively. In monkey brain imaging the ratios of striatum/frontal cortex (ST/FC) and striatum/occipital cortex (ST/OC) were 5.14 and 5.97 at 4h, respectively. All of above showed the high affinity of the ligand to DAT. The compound was primarily metabolized in liver because the hepatic uptake was much higher than other organs (75.4% ID/organ at 18h). The half-life of blood elimination was 5 min. The dose received by mice was 2500 times as high as that received by human in the test of undue toxicity, which evaluated the safety of the agent. All the results suggest that β-CIT can be used as a potential DAT imaging agent

  16. Permeation Studies of CW Agents with Fabric Treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Jeffery R. Owens AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER CENTER AFCEC/CXAE, Tyndall AFB, FL 32403-5320 December 2017 Approved for public release: distribution...P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder, MD 21010-0068 Universal Technology Corp.; 139 Barnes Drive Suite 2 Tyndall AFB, FL 32404-5325 Air Force Civil Engineer ...moisture transport. The garment prevents exposure to outside chemical weapons agents (CWAs) by reacting or reducing permeation of the CWA. By

  17. Electromechanical and Chemical Sensing at the Nanoscale: DFT and Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh

    Of the many nanoelectronic applications proposed for near to medium-term commercial deployment, sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal-oxide nanowires are receiving significant attention from researchers. Such devices typically operate on the basis of the changes of electrical response characteristics of the active component (CNT or nanowire) when subjected to an externally applied mechanical stress or the adsorption of a chemical or bio-molecule. Practical development of such technologies can greatly benefit from quantum chemical modeling based on density functional theory (DFT), and from electronic transport modeling based on non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF). DFT can compute useful quantities like possible bond-rearrangements, binding energy, charge transfer, and changes to the electronic structure, while NEGF can predict changes in electronic transport behavior and contact resistance. Effects of surrounding medium and intrinsic structural defects can also be taken into account. In this work we review some recent DFT and transport investigations on (1) CNT-based nano-electromechanical sensors (NEMS) and (2) gas-sensing properties of CNTs and metal-oxide nanowires. We also briefly discuss our current understanding of CNT-metal contacts which, depending upon the metal, the deposition technique, and the masking method can have a significant effect on device performance.

  18. Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: how clean is clean enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, E; Jin, A; Noonan, K; McGuire, R; Kirvel, R D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this assessment is to determine what level of cleanup will be required to meet regulatory and stakeholder needs in the case of a chemical and/or biological incident at a civilian facility. A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial. Environmental regulatory limits or other industrial health guidelines that could be used to help establish cleanup concentration levels for such agents are generally unavailable or not applicable for a public setting. Although dose information, cleanup criteria, and decontamination protocols all present challenges to effective planning, several decontamination approaches are available. Such approaches should be combined with risk-informed decision making to establish reasonable cleanup goals for protecting health, property, and resources. Key issues during a risk assessment are to determine exactly what constitutes a safety hazard and whether decontamination is necessary or not for a particular scenario. An important conclusion is that cleanup criteria are site dependent and stakeholder specific. The results of a modeling exercise for two outdoor scenarios are presented to reinforce this conclusion. Public perception of risk to health, public acceptance of recommendations based on scientific criteria, political support, time constraints, and economic concerns must all be addressed in the context of a specific scenario to yield effective and acceptable decontamination.

  19. Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Method for Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastigejev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical modeling of global atmospheric chemical transport presents enormous computational difficulties, associated with simulating a wide range of time and spatial scales. The described difficulties are exacerbated by the fact that hundreds of chemical species and thousands of chemical reactions typically are used for chemical kinetic mechanism description. These computational requirements very often forces researches to use relatively crude quasi-uniform numerical grids with inadequate spatial resolution that introduces significant numerical diffusion into the system. It was shown that this spurious diffusion significantly distorts the pollutant mixing and transport dynamics for typically used grid resolution. The described numerical difficulties have to be systematically addressed considering that the demand for fast, high-resolution chemical transport models will be exacerbated over the next decade by the need to interpret satellite observations of tropospheric ozone and related species. In this study we offer dynamically adaptive multilevel Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement (WAMR) method for numerical modeling of atmospheric chemical evolution equations. The adaptive mesh refinement is performed by adding and removing finer levels of resolution in the locations of fine scale development and in the locations of smooth solution behavior accordingly. The algorithm is based on the mathematically well established wavelet theory. This allows us to provide error estimates of the solution that are used in conjunction with an appropriate threshold criteria to adapt the non-uniform grid. Other essential features of the numerical algorithm include: an efficient wavelet spatial discretization that allows to minimize the number of degrees of freedom for a prescribed accuracy, a fast algorithm for computing wavelet amplitudes, and efficient and accurate derivative approximations on an irregular grid. The method has been tested for a variety of benchmark problems

  20. Oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and chemical agents used in a textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B R; Hu, H Y; Ahn, K H; Fujie, K

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and typical chemicals such as desizing, scouring, dispersing and swelling agents used in the textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process were experimentally studied. The refractory organic matters remained in the effluent of biological treatment process without degradation may be suitable for the improvement of biodegradability and mineralized to CO2 by combined ozonation with and without hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, the refractory chemicals contained in the scouring agent A and swelling agent may not be mineralized and their biodegradability may not be improved by ozonation. However, the BOD/DOC ratio of scouring agent B increased from 0.3 to 0.45 after ozonation. Based on the results described above, advanced treatment process involving the ozonation without and with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, followed by biological treatment was proposed for the treatment of refractory wastewater discharged from the textile-dyeing process.

  1. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

  2. Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF-Nanofiber Kebabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Lee, Dennis T; Yaga, Robert W; Hall, Morgan G; Barton, Heather F; Woodward, Ian R; Oldham, Christopher J; Walls, Howard J; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-10-10

    The threat associated with chemical warfare agents (CWAs) motivates the development of new materials to provide enhanced protection with a reduced burden. Metal-organic frame-works (MOFs) have recently been shown as highly effective catalysts for detoxifying CWAs, but challenges still remain for integrating MOFs into functional filter media and/or protective garments. Herein, we report a series of MOF-nanofiber kebab structures for fast degradation of CWAs. We found TiO 2 coatings deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto polyamide-6 nanofibers enable the formation of conformal Zr-based MOF thin films including UiO-66, UiO-66-NH 2 , and UiO-67. Cross-sectional TEM images show that these MOF crystals nucleate and grow directly on and around the nanofibers, with strong attachment to the substrates. These MOF-functionalized nanofibers exhibit excellent reactivity for detoxifying CWAs. The half-lives of a CWA simulant compound and nerve agent soman (GD) are as short as 7.3 min and 2.3 min, respectively. These results therefore provide the earliest report of MOF-nanofiber textile composites capable of ultra-fast degradation of CWAs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Evaluate transport processes in MERRA driven chemical transport models using updated 222Rn emission inventories and global observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Fairlie, T. D.; Chen, G.; Chambers, S. D.; Kang, C. H.; Williams, A. G.; Zhang, K.; Considine, D. B.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Yantosca, R.

    2015-12-01

    Convective and synoptic processes play a major role in determining the transport and distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere. The representation of these processes in global models (at ~100-1000 km horizontal resolution) is challenging, because convection is a sub-grid process and needs to be parameterized, while synoptic processes are close to the grid scale. Depending on the parameterization schemes used in climate models, the role of convection in transporting trace gases and aerosols may vary from model to model. 222Rn is a chemically inert and radioactive gas constantly emitted from soil and has a half-life (3.8 days) comparable to synoptic timescale, which makes it an effective tracer for convective and synoptic transport. In this study, we evaluate the convective and synoptic transport in two chemical transport models (GMI and GEOS-Chem), both driven by the NASA's MERRA reanalysis. Considering the uncertainties in 222Rn emissions, we incorporate two more recent scenarios with regionally varying 222Rn emissions into GEOS-Chem/MERRA and compare the simulation results with those using the relatively uniform 222Rn emissions in the standard model. We evaluate the global distribution and seasonality of 222Rn concentrations simulated by the two models against an extended collection of 222Rn observations from 1970s to 2010s. The intercomparison will improve our understanding of the spatial variability in global 222Rn emissions, including the suspected excessive 222Rn emissions in East Asia, and provide useful feedbacks on 222Rn emission models. We will assess 222Rn vertical distributions at different latitudes in the models using observations at surface sites and in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Results will be compared with previous models driven by other meteorological fields (e.g., fvGCM and GEOS4). Since the decay of 222Rn is the source of 210Pb, a useful radionuclide tracer attached to submicron aerosols, improved

  4. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  5. Solid phase microextraction headspace sampling of chemical warfare agent contaminated samples : method development for GC-MS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Lepage, C.R.; Hancock, J.R. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada); Wyatt, H.D.M. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Defence R and D Canada-Suffield (DRDC-Suffield) is responsible for analyzing samples that are suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, either collected by the Canadian Forces or by first-responders in the event of a terrorist attack in Canada. The analytical techniques used to identify the composition of the samples include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GC-MS and LC-MS generally require solvent extraction and reconcentration, thereby increasing sample handling. The authors examined analytical techniques which reduce or eliminate sample manipulation. In particular, this paper presented a screening method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling and GC-MS analysis for chemical warfare agents such as mustard, sarin, soman, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate in contaminated soil samples. SPME is a method which uses small adsorbent polymer coated silica fibers that trap vaporous or liquid analytes for GC or LC analysis. Collection efficiency can be increased by adjusting sampling time and temperature. This method was tested on two real-world samples, one from excavated chemical munitions and the second from a caustic decontamination mixture. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Complexing agents and pH influence on chemical durability of type I moulded glass containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-06-16

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents presence in aqueous solution have the main role (1). Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue with glass particles appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed (2,3). The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on the borosilicate glass chemical durability. Hydrolytic attack was performed in small volume 23 ml type I glass containers autoclaved according to EP or USP for 1 hour at 121°C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature and the unfavourable surface/volume ratio. 0,048 M or 0.024 M (moles/liter) solutions of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ± 0,05 units at fixed values 5,5-6,6-7-7,4-8-9 by LiOH diluted solution. Since silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by ICPAES. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions, of moulded glass, soda lime type II and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by SEM was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  7. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  8. Cellular automaton model of coupled mass transport and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karapiperis, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mass transport, coupled with chemical reactions, is modelled as a cellular automaton in which solute molecules perform a random walk on a lattice and react according to a local probabilistic rule. Assuming molecular chaos and a smooth density function, we obtain the standard reaction-transport equations in the continuum limit. The model is applied to the reactions a + b ↔c and a + b →c, where we observe interesting macroscopic effects resulting from microscopic fluctuations and spatial correlations between molecules. We also simulate autocatalytic reaction schemes displaying spontaneous formation of spatial concentration patterns. Finally, we propose and discuss the limitations of a simple model for mineral-solute interaction. (author) 5 figs., 20 refs

  9. On-bead combinatorial synthesis and imaging of chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging agents to identify factors that influence water exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Roberta; Soesbe, Todd C; De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Sherry, A Dean; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

    2011-08-24

    The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is highly dependent on the rate of water exchange between the inner sphere of a paramagnetic ion and bulk water. Normally, identifying a paramagnetic complex that has optimal water exchange kinetics is done by synthesizing and testing one compound at a time. We report here a rapid, economical on-bead combinatorial synthesis of a library of imaging agents. Eighty different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-tetraamide peptoid derivatives were prepared on beads using a variety of charged, uncharged but polar, hydrophobic, and variably sized primary amines. A single chemical exchange saturation transfer image of the on-bead library easily distinguished those compounds having the most favorable water exchange kinetics. This combinatorial approach will allow rapid screening of libraries of imaging agents to identify the chemical characteristics of a ligand that yield the most sensitive imaging agents. This technique could be automated and readily adapted to other types of MRI or magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography agents as well.

  10. The preventive Control of White Root Rot Disease in Small Holder Rubber Plantation Using Botanical, Biological and Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The preventive control of white root rot disease in small holder plantation using botanical, biological, and chemical agents. A field and laboratory experiment were conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 in Panumangan, Tulang Bawang - Lampung. The  field experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of  botanical plants (Alpinia galanga, Sansiviera auranthii, and Marantha arundinacea, biological agents (organic matter and Trichoderma spp., and chemical agents (lime and natural sulphur on the incidence of white root rot disease and population of some soil microbes. The laboratory experiment was conducted  to observe the mechanism of botanical agents  in controlling white root rot disease. In the field experiment, the treatments were applied  in the experimental plot with cassava plant infection as the indicator. The variables  examined were the incidence of  white root rot and population of soil microbes. In the laboratory experiment, culture of R. microporus was grown in PDA containing root exudate of the antagonistic plant (botanical agent. The variable examined was colony diameter of R. microporus growing in the PDA plates. The results of the  field experiment  showed that planting of the botanical agents, and application of Trichoderma spp., as well as natural sulphur, decreased the incidence of white root rot disease. The effectiveness of M. arundinacea and Trichoderma spp. was comparable to natural  sulphur. The laboratory experiment showed only root exudate of  A. galanga and  S. auranthii that were significantly inhibit the growth of R. microporus.

  11. The use of the dusty-gas model for the description of mass transport with chemical reaction in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, mass transport accompanied by chemical reactions in porous media is studied according to the Fick model and the dusty-gas model. For mass transport accompanied by a chemical reaction in catalyst structures showing a plane, line, or point of symmetry, the approximate analytical

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  13. Accounting for chemical kinetics in field scale transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of column experiments has shown that the humic acid mediated transport of metal ions is dominated by the non-exchangeable fraction. Metal ions enter this fraction via the exchangeable fraction, and may transfer back again. However, in both directions these chemical reactions are slow. Whether or not a kinetic description of these processes is required during transport calculations, or an assumption of local equilibrium will suffice, will depend upon the ratio of the reaction half-time to the residence time of species within the groundwater column. If the flow rate is sufficiently slow or the reaction sufficiently fast then the assumption of local equilibrium is acceptable. Alternatively, if the reaction is sufficiently slow (or the flow rate fast), then the reaction may be 'decoupled', i.e. removed from the calculation. These distinctions are important, because calculations involving chemical kinetics are computationally very expensive, and should be avoided wherever possible. In addition, column experiments have shown that the sorption of humic substances and metal-humate complexes may be significant, and that these reactions may also be slow. In this work, a set of rules is presented that dictate when the local equilibrium and decoupled assumptions may be used. In addition, it is shown that in all cases to a first approximation, the behaviour of a kinetically controlled species, and in particular its final distribution against distance at the end of a calculation, depends only upon the ratio of the reaction first order rate to the residence time, and hence, even in the region where the simplifications may not be used, the behaviour is predictable. In this way, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the migration of these species, without the need for a complex transport calculation. (orig.)

  14. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  15. Intestinal transport of gentamicin with a novel, glycosteroid drug transport agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, H. R.; Kim, J. S.; Longley, C. B.; Lipka, E.; Amidon, G. L.; Kakarla, R.; Hui, Y. W.; Weber, S. J.; Choe, S.; Sofia, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the ability of a glycosteroid (TC002) to increase the oral bioavailability of gentamicin. METHODS: Admixtures of gentamicin and TC002 were administered to the rat ileum by injection and to dogs by ileal or jejunal externalized ports, or PO. Bioavailability of gentamicin was determined by HPLC. 3H-TC002 was injected via externalized cannulas into rat ileum or jejunum, or PO and its distribution and elimination was determined. The metabolism of TC002 in rats was evaluated by solid phase extraction and HPLC analysis of plasma, urine and feces following oral or intestinal administration. RESULTS: The bioavailability of gentamicin was substantially increased in the presence of TC002 in both rats and dogs. The level of absorption was dependent on the concentration of TC002 and site of administration. Greatest absorption occurred following ileal orjejunal administration. TC002 was significantly more efficacious than sodium taurocholate, but similar in cytotoxicity. TC002 remained primarily in the GI tract following oral or intestinal administration and cleared rapidly from the body. It was only partly metabolized in the GI tract, but was rapidly and completely converted to its metabolite in plasma and urine. CONCLUSIONS: TC002 shows promise as a new drug transport agent for promoting intestinal absorption of polar molecules such as gentamicin.

  16. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboril, Radek; Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek; Sharma, Virender K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10 −2 s −1 ) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10 −8 –10 −6 s −1 ). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  17. Synthesis and serotonin transporter activity of sulphur-substituted alpha-alkyl phenethylamines as a new class of anticancer agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Keating, John J.; Butler, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that some serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) ligands have the potential to act as pro-apoptotic agents in the treatment of cancer adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a selective ligand for SERT over other monoamine...

  18. Effects of anesthetic agents on cellular 123I-MIBG transport and in vivo 123I-MIBG biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Bong-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Bae, Jun-Sang; Lee, Eun Jung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2008-01-01

    Small animal imaging with meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) allows characterization of animal models, optimization of tumor treatment strategies, and monitoring of gene expression. Anesthetic agents, however, can affect norepinephrine (NE) transport and systemic sympathetic activity. We thus elucidated the effects of anesthetic agents on MIBG transport and biodistribution. SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were measured for 123 I-MIBG uptake after treatment with ketamine (Ke), xylazine (Xy), Ke/Xy, or pentobarbital (Pb). NE transporters were assessed by Western blots. Normal ICR mice and PC-12 tumor-bearing mice were injected with 123 I-MIBG 10 min after anesthesia with Ke/Xy, Ke, Xy, or Pb. Plasma NE levels and MIBG biodistribution were assessed. Cellular 123 I-MIBG uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by Ke and Xy but not by Pb. Treatment for 2 h with 300 μM Ke, Xy, and Ke/Xy decreased uptake to 46.0 ± 1.6, 24.8 ± 1.5, and 18.3 ± 1.6% of controls. This effect was completely reversed by fresh media, and there was no change in NE transporter levels. In contrast, mice anesthetized with Ke/Xy showed no decrease of MIBG uptake in target organs. Instead, uptakes and organ-to-blood ratios were increased in the heart, lung, liver, and adrenals. Plasma NE was notably reduced in the animals with corresponding decreases in blood MIBG, which partly contributed to the increase in target organ uptake. In spite of their inhibitory effect at the transporter level, Ke/Xy anesthesia is a satisfactory method for MIBG imaging that allows favorable target tissue uptake and contrast by reducing circulating NE and MIBG. (orig.)

  19. Modelling the Molecular Transportation of Subcutaneously Injected Salubrinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the subcutaneous administration of a chemical agent (salubrinal, we constructed a mathematical model of molecule transportation and subsequently evaluated the kinetics of diffusion, convection, and molecular turnover. Salubrinal is a potential therapeutic agent that can reduce cellular damage and death. The understanding of its temporal profiles in local tissue as well as in a whole body is important to develop a proper strategy for its administration. Here, the diffusion and convection kinetics was formulated using partial and ordinary differential equations in one- and three-dimensional (semi-spherical coordinates. Several key parameters including an injection velocity, a diffusion coefficient, thickness of subcutaneous tissue, and a permeability factor at the tissue-blood boundary were estimated from experimental data in rats. With reference to analytical solutions in a simplified model without convection, numerical solutions revealed that the diffusion coefficient and thickness of subcutaneous tissue determined the timing of the peak concentration in the plasma, and its magnitude was dictated by the permeability factor. Furthermore, the initial velocity, induced by needle injection, elevated an immediate transport of salubrinal at t < 1h. The described analysis with a combination of partial and ordinary differential equations contributes to the prediction of local and systemic effects and the understanding of the transportation mechanism of salubrinal and other agents.

  20. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  1. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  2. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  3. Chemical Transport Knockout for Oxidized Vitamin C, Dehydroascorbic Acid, Reveals Its Functions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its transport by glucose transporters (GLUTs in vitro, it is unknown whether dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized vitamin C, DHA has any in vivo function. To investigate, we created a chemical transport knockout model using the vitamin C analog 6-bromo-ascorbate. This analog is transported on sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters but its oxidized form, 6-bromo-dehydroascorbic acid, is not transported by GLUTs. Mice (gulo−/− unable to synthesize ascorbate (vitamin C were raised on 6-bromo-ascorbate. Despite normal survival, centrifugation of blood produced hemolysis secondary to near absence of red blood cell (RBC ascorbate/6-bromo-ascorbate. Key findings with clinical implications were that RBCs in vitro transported dehydroascorbic acid but not bromo-dehydroascorbic acid; RBC ascorbate in vivo was obtained only via DHA transport; ascorbate via DHA transport in vivo was necessary for RBC structural integrity; and internal RBC ascorbate was essential to maintain ascorbate plasma concentrations in vitro/in vivo.

  4. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  5. The impacts of pore-scale physical and chemical heterogeneities on the transport of radionuclide-carrying colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WU, Ning

    2018-04-24

    Independent of the methods of nuclear waste disposal, the degradation of packaging materials could lead to mobilization and transport of radionuclides into the geosphere. This process can be significantly accelerated due to the association of radionuclides with the backfill materials or mobile colloids in groundwater. The transport of these colloids is complicated by the inherent coupling of physical and chemical heterogeneities (e.g., pore space geometry, grain size, charge heterogeneity, and surface hydrophobicity) in natural porous media that can exist on the length scale of a few grains. In addition, natural colloids themselves are often heterogeneous in their surface properties (e.g., clay platelets possess opposite charges on the surface and along the rim). Both physical and chemical heterogeneities influence the transport and retention of radionuclides under various groundwater conditions. However, the precise mechanisms how these coupled heterogeneities influence colloidal transport are largely elusive. This knowledge gap is a major source of uncertainty in developing accurate models to represent the transport process and to predict distribution of radionuclides in the geosphere.

  6. Enhancing Transportation Education through On-line Simulation using an Agent-Based Demand and Assignment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shanjiang Zhu; Feng Xie; David Levinson

    2005-01-01

    This research explores the effectiveness of using simulation as a tool for enhancing classroom learning in the Civil Engineering Department of the University of Minnesota at Twin Cities. The authors developed a modern transportation planning software package, Agent-based Demand and Assignment Model (ADAM), that is consistent with our present understanding of travel behavior, that is platform independent, and that is easy to learn and is thus usable by students. An in-class project incorporate...

  7. Trace Detection of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents in Wastewater and Plants by Luminescent UIO-67(Hf) and Evaluating the Bioaccumulation of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing

    2018-05-02

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OPCWAs) are a group of organic pollutants characterized by high toxicity and chemical stability, and they are very difficult to be degraded. The trace quality of OPCWAs in water and food will cause great harm to the human body. Therefore, the detection of OPCWAs is a difficult challenge, which has become the research hotspot over the world. In this work, a Hf-based luminescent metal-organic framework (Eu@1) is prepared, and the reactivity of Hf 12 results in a methanephosphonic acid (MPA)-induced luminescence quenching and the charge transfer from MPA to Hf(IV) and generated exciplexes which are responsible for this quenching effect. The excellent performance of Eu@1 in the detection of MPA, with its finer selectivity, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.4 ppm), and large linear range (10 -7 to 10 -3 M), is encouraging for application in wastewater detection. Importantly, MPA is a pollutant that can be absorbed by plants and causes the bioaccumulation effect, and thus, the detection of MPA in real plant samples is a purposeful topic. Eu@1 also achieved satisfactory results in actual plant sample testing, and the bioaccumulation of MPA in onions, turnips, and cabbages is determined via our sensor. This fabricated detector provides a feasible path for the detection of ppm-level OPCWAs in a complex environment, which will help humans to avoid OPCWA-contaminated foods.

  8. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboril, Radek, E-mail: zboril@prfnw.upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek [Military Institute VOP-026 Sternberk, Division in Brno, Rybkova 8, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Sharma, Virender K., E-mail: vsharma@fit.edu [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Center of Ferrate Excellence, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3 Prime -imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants ({approx}10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} s{sup -1}). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  9. MISTRAL: A game-theoretical model to allocate security measures in a multi-modal chemical transportation network with adaptive adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, Luca; Reniers, Genserik; Sörensen, Kenneth; Springael, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-modal security-transportation model to allocate security resources within a chemical supply chain which is characterized by the use of different transport modes, each having their own security features. We consider security-related risks so as to take measures against terrorist acts which could target critical transportation systems. The idea of addressing security-related issues, by supporting decisions for preventing or mitigating intentional acts on transportation infrastructure, has gained attention in academic research only recently. The decision model presented in this paper is based on game theory and it can be employed to organize intelligence capabilities aimed at securing chemical supply chains. It enables detection and warning against impending attacks on transportation infrastructures and the subsequent adoption of security countermeasures. This is of extreme importance for preventing terrorist attacks and for avoiding (possibly huge) human and economic losses. In our work we also provide data sources and numerical simulations by applying the proposed model to a illustrative multi-modal chemical supply chain. - Highlights: • A model to increase the security in a multimodal chemical supply chain is proposed. • The model considers adaptive opponents having multi-attribute utility functions. • The model is based on game theory using an attacker–defender schema. • The model provides recommendations about where to allocate security measures. • Numerical simulations on a sample multimodal chemical supply chain are shown

  10. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidi Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility.

  11. Effects of chemical and physical agents on recombination events in cells of the germ line of male and female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würgler, F E

    1991-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can induce mutations as well as recombination in the genetic material. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was one of the first assay systems to test physical and chemical agents for recombinogenic effects. Such effects can be observed in cells of the germ line as well as in somatic cells. At present information is available on 54 agents, among them 48 chemicals that have been tested in cells of the germ line of males and/or females. Effects on meiotic recombination in female germ cells cannot simply be classified as positive or negative since for a number of agents, depending on the chromosome region studied, recombination frequencies may be increased, unaffected or decreased. The male germ line of D. melanogaster represents a unique situation because meiotic recombination does not occur. Among 25 agents tested in male germ cells 24 did induce male recombination, among them alkylating, intercalating and cross-linking agents, direct-acting ones as well as compounds needing metabolic activation. With several compounds the frequency of induced recombination is highest in the heterochromatic regions near the centromeres. In brood pattern analyses, e.g., after exposure of adult males to ionizing radiation, the first appearance of crossover progeny is indicative of the sampling of exposed spermatocytes. In premeiotic cells of the male and the female germ line mitotic recombination can occur. Upon clonal expansion of the recombinant cells, clusters of identical crossovers can be observed.

  12. Structural characterization of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with proton band-selective (1)H-(31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Hakala, Ullastiina; Vanninen, Paula

    2010-06-15

    Decontamination solutions, which are usually composed of strong alkaline chemicals, are used for efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The analysis of CWA degradation products directly in decontamination solutions is challenging due to the nature of the matrix. Furthermore, occasionally an unforeseen degradation pathway can result in degradation products which could be eluded to in standard analyses. Here, we present the results of the application of proton band-selective (1)H-(31)P NMR spectroscopy, i.e., band-selective 1D (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and band-selective 2D (1)H-(31)P HSQC-total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), for ester side chain characterization of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products in decontamination solutions. The viability of the approach is demonstrated with a test mixture of typical degradation products of nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX. The proton band-selective (1)H-(31)P NMR spectroscopy is also applied in characterization of unusual degradation products of VX in GDS 2000 solution.

  13. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are

  15. Biasing hydrogen bond donating host systems towards chemical warfare agent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Jennifer R; Wells, Neil J; Ede, Jayne A; Gale, Philip A; Sambrook, Mark R

    2016-10-12

    A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions. The introduction of a negative charge on the host structure is shown to decrease anion affinity, whilst still allowing for high stability host-GD complex formation. Importantly, the affinity of the host for the neutral CWA GD is greater than for anionic guests, thus demonstrating the potential for selectivity reversal based on charge repulsion.

  16. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1979-10-30

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  18. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-26

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  19. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  20. Effect of chemical degradation on fluxes of reactive compounds – a study with a stochastic Lagrangian transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the analyses of VOC fluxes measured above plant canopies, one usually assumes the flux above canopy to equal the exchange at the surface. Thus one assumes the chemical degradation to be much slower than the turbulent transport. We used a stochastic Lagrangian transport model in which the chemical degradation was described as first order decay in order to study the effect of the chemical degradation on above canopy fluxes of chemically reactive species. With the model we explored the sensitivity of the ratio of the above canopy flux to the surface emission on several parameters such as chemical lifetime of the compound, friction velocity, stability, and canopy density. Our results show that friction velocity and chemical lifetime affected the loss during transport the most. The canopy density had a significant effect if the chemically reactive compound was emitted from the forest floor. We used the results of the simulations together with oxidant data measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 campaign at a Scots pine site to estimate the effect of the chemistry on fluxes of three typical biogenic VOCs, isoprene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. Of these, the chemical degradation had a major effect on the fluxes of the most reactive species β-caryophyllene, while the fluxes of α-pinene were affected during nighttime. For these two compounds representing the mono- and sesquiterpenes groups, the effect of chemical degradation had also a significant diurnal cycle with the highest chemical loss at night. The different day and night time loss terms need to be accounted for, when measured fluxes of reactive compounds are used to reveal relations between primary emission and environmental parameters.

  1. The influence of water disposal method on the property of chemical oil-displacement agent--taking Guan 109-1 area of Dagang oilfield as example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwang Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the actual demand of Guan 109-1 block in Dagang oilfield, by means of instrumental analysis, chemical analysis, modern physical simulation, viewing polymer viscosity and seepage characteristic as evaluation index, the experimental research on the influence of water disposal method on the property of chemical oil-displacement agent was carried out. Results showed that through adding scaling agent, scale was formed because of the reaction between scaling agent and Ca2+, Mg2+ in the flooding water, which could enhance the viscosity of polymer solution. Through comparing the resistance factor and residual resistance factor of polymer solution which was respectively prepared with flooding water, softened water and scale, the resistance factor and residual resistance factor of polymer solution with scale was the largest, that of polymer solution prepared with softened water was second and that of polymer solution prepared with flooding water came last. Furthermore, scaling agent weakened the gelling effect between cross-linking agent Cr3+ and polymer molecule chains. The earlier the cross-linking agent Cr3+ was added, the larger the polymer viscosity, resistance factor and residual resistance factor of Cr3+ polymer were.

  2. Directed transport by surface chemical potential gradients for enhancing analyte collection in nanoscale sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Amit; Hess, Henry

    2015-05-13

    Nanoscale detectors hold great promise for single molecule detection and the analysis of small volumes of dilute samples. However, the probability of an analyte reaching the nanosensor in a dilute solution is extremely low due to the sensor's small size. Here, we examine the use of a chemical potential gradient along a surface to accelerate analyte capture by nanoscale sensors. Utilizing a simple model for transport induced by surface binding energy gradients, we study the effect of the gradient on the efficiency of collecting nanoparticles and single and double stranded DNA. The results indicate that chemical potential gradients along a surface can lead to an acceleration of analyte capture by several orders of magnitude compared to direct collection from the solution. The improvement in collection is limited to a relatively narrow window of gradient slopes, and its extent strongly depends on the size of the gradient patch. Our model allows the optimization of gradient layouts and sheds light on the fundamental characteristics of chemical potential gradient induced transport.

  3. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  4. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  5. Pore-scale modeling of vapor transport in partially saturated capillary tube with variable area using chemical potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addassi, Mouadh; Schreyer, Lynn; Johannesson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters and the nu......Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters...... and the numerical solutions to the equation are compared with experimental results with excellent agreement. We demonstrate that isothermal vapor transport can be accurately modeled without modeling the details of the contact angle, microscale temperature fluctuations, or pressure fluctuations using a modification...

  6. Electrical resistivity tomography as monitoring tool for unsaturated zone transport: an example of preferential transport of deicing chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Lissner, Heidi; Bloem, Esther; French, Helen; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive spatially resolved monitoring techniques may hold the key to observe heterogeneous flow and transport behavior of contaminants in soils. In this study, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during an infiltration experiment with deicing chemical in a small field lysimeter. Deicing chemicals like potassium formate, which frequently impact soils on airport sites, were infiltrated during snow melt. Chemical composition of seepage water and the electrical response was recorded over the spring period 2010. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs are able to show the infiltration of the melt water loaded with ionic constituents of deicing chemicals and their degradation product hydrogen carbonate. The tomographs indicate early breakthrough behavior in parts of the profile. Groundtruthing with pore fluid conductivity and water content variations shows disagreement between expected and observed bulk conductivity. This was attributed to the different sampling volume of traditional methods and ERT due to a considerable fraction of immobile water in the soil. The results show that ERT can be used as a soil monitoring tool on airport sites if assisted by common soil monitoring techniques.

  7. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  8. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Gabi; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill D; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    We report the synthesis of new polymers based on a dimethylacrylamide-methacrylate (DMAA-MA) co-polymer backbone that support both chemical and biological agent decontamination. Polyurethanes containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. New materials combining those biopolymers with a family of N-alkyl 4-pyridinium aldoxime (4-PAM) halide-acrylate co-polymers offer both nucleophilic activity for the detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents and internal sources of halide ions for generation of biocidal activity. Generation of free bromine and iodine was observed in the combined material resulting in bactericidal activity of the enzymatically formed free halogens that caused complete kill of E. coli (>6 log units reduction) within 1 h at 37 degrees C. Detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) by the polyDMAA MA-4-PAM iodide component was dose-dependent reaching 85% within 30 min. A subset of 4-PAM-halide co-polymers was designed to serve as a controlled release reservoir for N-hydroxyethyl 4-PAM (HE 4-PAM) molecules that reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Release rates for HE 4-PAM were consistent with hydrolysis of the HE 4-PAM from the polymer backbone. The HE 4-PAM that was released from the polymer reactivated DFP-inhibited AChE at a similar rate to the oxime antidote 4-PAM. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrical properties of zirconium diselenide single crystals grown by iodine transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.G.; Agarwal, M.K.; Batra, N.M.; Lakshminarayana, D.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystals of zirconium diselenide (ZrSe 2 ) were grown by chemical vapour transport method using iodine as the transporting agent. The crystals were found to exhibit metallic behaviour in the temperature range 77-300 K and semiconducting nature in 300-443 K range. The measurements of thermoelectric power and conductivity enabled the determination of both carrier mobility and carrier concentration. The variation of carrier mobility and carrier concentration with temperature indicates the presence of deep trapping centres and their reduction with temperature in these crystals. (author)

  10. Metal-Organic Framework Modified Glass Substrate for Analysis of Highly Volatile Chemical Warfare Agents by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhummakupt, Elizabeth S; Carmany, Daniel O; Mach, Phillip M; Tovar, Trenton M; Ploskonka, Ann M; Demond, Paul S; DeCoste, Jared B; Glaros, Trevor

    2018-03-07

    Paper spray mass spectrometry has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e., sarin, soman) CWAs, analysis from an untreated paper substrate proved difficult. To extend the analytical lifetime of these G-agents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully integrated onto the paper spray substrates to increase adsorption and desorption. In this study, several MOFs and nanoparticles were tested to extend the analytical lifetimes of sarin, soman, and cyclosarin on paper spray substrates. It was found that the addition of either UiO-66 or HKUST-1 to the paper substrate increased the analytical lifetime of the G-agents from less than 5 min detectability to at least 50 min.

  11. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-03-20

    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  12. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  13. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  14. Binding of chemical warfare agent simulants as guests in a coordination cage: contributions to binding and a fluorescence-based response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher G P; Piper, Jerico R; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-07

    Cubic coordination cages act as competent hosts for several alkyl phosphonates used as chemical warfare agent simulants; a range of cage/guest structures have been determined, contributions to guest binding analysed, and a fluorescent response to guest binding demonstrated.

  15. Chemiresistor Devices for Chemical Warfare Agent Detection Based on Polymer Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John F; Hamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yoon, Bora; Swager, Timothy M

    2017-04-28

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. We demonstrate that a pendant hexafluoroisopropanol group on the polymer that enhances sensitivity to a nerve agent mimic, dimethyl methylphosphonate, in both nitrogen and air environments to concentrations as low as 5 ppm and 11 ppm, respectively. Additionally, these PEDOT/SWCNT derivative sensor systems experience negligible device performance over the course of two weeks under ambient conditions.

  16. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-03-20

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust–ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol–cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42−), bisulfate

  17. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G

    2011-09-30

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11β; flow cytometry studies showed that 11β exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11β inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11β blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11β enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11β, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11β, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death.

  18. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  19. Effects of anesthetic agents on cellular {sup 123}I-MIBG transport and in vivo {sup 123}I-MIBG biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Bong-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Bae, Jun-Sang; Lee, Eun Jung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    Small animal imaging with meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) allows characterization of animal models, optimization of tumor treatment strategies, and monitoring of gene expression. Anesthetic agents, however, can affect norepinephrine (NE) transport and systemic sympathetic activity. We thus elucidated the effects of anesthetic agents on MIBG transport and biodistribution. SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were measured for {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake after treatment with ketamine (Ke), xylazine (Xy), Ke/Xy, or pentobarbital (Pb). NE transporters were assessed by Western blots. Normal ICR mice and PC-12 tumor-bearing mice were injected with {sup 123}I-MIBG 10 min after anesthesia with Ke/Xy, Ke, Xy, or Pb. Plasma NE levels and MIBG biodistribution were assessed. Cellular {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by Ke and Xy but not by Pb. Treatment for 2 h with 300 {mu}M Ke, Xy, and Ke/Xy decreased uptake to 46.0 {+-} 1.6, 24.8 {+-} 1.5, and 18.3 {+-} 1.6% of controls. This effect was completely reversed by fresh media, and there was no change in NE transporter levels. In contrast, mice anesthetized with Ke/Xy showed no decrease of MIBG uptake in target organs. Instead, uptakes and organ-to-blood ratios were increased in the heart, lung, liver, and adrenals. Plasma NE was notably reduced in the animals with corresponding decreases in blood MIBG, which partly contributed to the increase in target organ uptake. In spite of their inhibitory effect at the transporter level, Ke/Xy anesthesia is a satisfactory method for MIBG imaging that allows favorable target tissue uptake and contrast by reducing circulating NE and MIBG. (orig.)

  20. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  1. Metal Ion-Catalyzed Alcoholysis as a Strategy for the High Loading Destruction of Chemical Warfare Organophosphorus Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    agents (CWAs). Whether these inhibitors are used as pesticides or CWAs, all act in the same way by inhibiting an enzyme (a cholinesterase ), thereby...phosphinate, and phosphonate esters are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that are used as animal and crop protectants and chemical warfare...for these inhibitors are used annually, accounting for 70% of all insecticides used for agriculture, in homes and gardens, and for government

  2. Iron oxide functionalized graphene nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of chemical warfare agents from aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Goud, D Raghavender; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-05-15

    Present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of graphene based magnetic nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) relevant chemicals from aqueous samples. Nano-composite, Fe3O4@SiO2-G was synthesized by covalently bonding silica coated Fe3O4 onto the graphene sheets. Nerve agents (NA), Sulfur mustard (SM) and their non-toxic environmental markers were the target analytes. Extraction parameters like amount of sorbent, extraction time and desorption conditions were optimized. Dispersion of 20 milligram of sorbent in 200mL of water sample for 20min. followed by methanol/chloroform extraction produced average to good recoveries (27-94%) of targeted analytes. Recoveries of real agents exhibited great dependency upon sample pH and ionic strength. Sarin produced maximum recovery under mild acidic conditions (56% at pH 5) while VX demanded alkaline media (83% at pH 9). Salts presence in the aqueous samples was found to be advantageous, raising the recoveries to as high as 94% for SM. Excellent limits of detection (LOD) for sulphur mustard and VX (0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19ngmL(-1) respectively) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications.

  4. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Akherati, Ali; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hayes, Patrick L.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Cui, Yu Yan; Kim, Si-Wan; Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Harley, Robert A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Trainer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)—including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products—now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.

  5. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-01-01

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  6. Inhibitory effect of the reversal agents V-104, GF120918 and Pluronic L61 on MDR1 Pgp-, MRP1- and MRP2-mediated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, R.; Kool, M.; Smith, A. J.; van Deemter, L.; de Haas, M.; Borst, P.

    2000-01-01

    The human multidrug transporter MDR1 P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2 transport a range of cytotoxic drugs, resulting in multidrug resistance in tumour cells. To overcome this form of drug resistance in patients, several inhibitors (reversal agents) of these

  7. Degradation of Paraoxon and the Chemical Warfare Agents VX, Tabun, and Soman by the Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66-NH2, MOF-808, NU-1000, and PCN-777

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, M.C. de; Grol, M. van; Breijaert, T.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been developed that facilitate catalytic degradation of toxic organophosphate agents, such as chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Because of strict regulations, experiments using live agents are not possible for most laboratories and, as a

  8. Degradation of Paraoxon and the Chemical Warfare Agents VX, Tabun, and Soman by the Metal−Organic Frameworks UiO-66-NH2, MOF-808, NU-1000, and PCN-777

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, M.C. de; Grol, M. van; Breijaert, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Zr-based metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) have been developed that facilitate catalytic degradation of toxic organophosphate agents, such as chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Because of strict regulations, experiments using live agents are not possible for most laboratories and, as a

  9. Complexing Agents and pH Influence on Chemical Durability of Type I Molded Glass Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents present in aqueous solution have the main role. Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue causing glass particles' appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed. The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on borosilicate glass chemical durability.Hydrolytic attack was performed in small-volume 23 mL type I glass containers autoclaved according to the European Pharmacopoeia or United States Pharmacopeia for 1 h at 121 °C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature, and the unfavorable surface/volume ratio. Solutions of 0.048 M or 0.024 M (M/L) of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), together with sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ±0.05 units at fixed values 5.5, 6.6, 7, 7.4, 8, and 9 by LiOH diluted solution.Because silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions of molded glass, soda lime type II glass, and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. LAY ABSTRACT: Glass, like every packaging material, can have some usage limits, mainly in basic pH solutions. The issue of glass surface degradation particles that appear in vials (delamination) has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years

  10. Air Activated Self-Decontaminating Polydicyclopentadiene PolyHIPE Foams for Rapid Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Christopher L; Daniels, Grant C; Giles, Spencer L; Balow, Robert B; Miranda-Zayas, Jorge L; Lundin, Jeffrey G; Wynne, James H

    2018-06-01

    The threat of chemical warfare agents (CWA) compels research into novel self-decontaminating materials (SDM) for the continued safety of first-responders, civilians, and active service personnel. The capacity to actively detoxify, as opposed to merely sequester, offending agents under typical environmental conditions defines the added value of SDMs in comparison to traditional adsorptive materials. Porous polymers, synthesized via the high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating, provide a facile fabrication method for materials with permeable open cellular structures that may serve in air filtration applications. PolyHIPEs comprising polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD) networks form stable hydroperoxide species following activation in air under ambient conditions. The hydroperoxide-containing polyDCPD materials react quickly with CWA simulants, Demeton-S and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, forming oxidation products as confirmed via gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The simplicity of the detoxification chemistry paired with the porous foam form factor presents an exciting opportunity for the development of self-decontaminating filter media. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E.; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  12. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-21

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  13. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  14. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  15. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 2: evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using undamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Christopher H; Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Jenner, John; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The risk of penetrating, traumatic injury occurring in a chemically contaminated environment cannot be discounted. Should a traumatic injury be contaminated with a chemical warfare (CW) agent, it is likely that standard haemostatic treatment options would be complicated by the need to decontaminate the wound milieu. Thus, there is a need to develop haemostatic products that can simultaneously arrest haemorrhage and decontaminate CW agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a number of candidate haemostats for efficacy as skin decontaminants against three CW agents (soman, VX and sulphur mustard) using an in vitro diffusion cell containing undamaged pig skin. One haemostatic product (WoundStat™) was shown to be as effective as the standard military decontaminants Fuller's earth and M291 for the decontamination of all three CW agents. The most effective haemostatic agents were powder-based and use fluid absorption as a mechanism of action to sequester CW agent (akin to the decontaminant Fuller's earth). The envisaged use of haemostatic decontaminants would be to decontaminate from within wounds and from damaged skin. Therefore, WoundStat™ should be subject to further evaluation using an in vitro model of damaged skin. Copyright © 2014 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Specificity enhancement by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry--a valuable tool for differentiation and identification of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberg, Avi; Tzanani, Nitzan; Dagan, Shai

    2013-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents has become an issue of emerging concern. One of the challenges in analytical monitoring of the extremely toxic 'V'-type chemical weapons [O-alkyl S-(2-dialkylamino)ethyl alkylphosphonothiolates] is to distinguish and identify compounds of similar structure. MS analysis of these compounds reveals mostly fragment/product ions representing the amine-containing residue. Hence, isomers or derivatives with the same amine residue exhibit similar mass spectral patterns in both classical EI/MS and electrospray ionization-MS, leading to unavoidable ambiguity in the identification of the phosphonate moiety. A set of five 'V'-type agents, including O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (RVX) and O-ethyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VM) were studied by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/MS, utilizing a QTRAP mass detector. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans and multistage MS(3) experiments were carried out. Based on the results, possible fragmentation pathways were proposed, and a method for the differentiation and identification of structural isomers and derivatives of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents was obtained. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans at various collision energies provided information-rich spectra, although many of the product ions obtained were at low abundance. Employing MS(3) experiments enhanced the selectivity for those low abundance product ions and provided spectra indicative of the different phosphonate groups. Study of the fragmentation pathways, revealing some less expected structures, was carried out and allowed the formulation of mechanistic rules and the determination of sets of ions typical of specific groups, for example, methylphosphonothiolates versus ethylphosphonothiolates. The new group-specific ions elucidated in this work are also useful for screening unknown 'V'-type agents and related

  17. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  18. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  19. The role of genetic background in susceptibility to chemical warfare nerve agents across rodent and non-human primate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; McCarren, Hilary S; Cadieux, C Linn; Cerasoli, Douglas M; McDonough, John H

    2018-01-15

    Genetics likely play a role in various responses to nerve agent exposure, as genetic background plays an important role in behavioral, neurological, and physiological responses to environmental stimuli. Mouse strains or selected lines can be used to identify susceptibility based on background genetic features to nerve agent exposure. Additional genetic techniques can then be used to identify mechanisms underlying resistance and sensitivity, with the ultimate goal of developing more effective and targeted therapies. Here, we discuss the available literature on strain and selected line differences in cholinesterase activity levels and response to nerve agent-induced toxicity and seizures. We also discuss the available cholinesterase and toxicity literature across different non-human primate species. The available data suggest that robust genetic differences exist in cholinesterase activity, nerve agent-induced toxicity, and chemical-induced seizures. Available cholinesterase data suggest that acetylcholinesterase activity differs across strains, but are limited by the paucity of carboxylesterase data in strains and selected lines. Toxicity and seizures, two outcomes of nerve agent exposure, have not been fully evaluated for genetic differences, and thus further studies are required to understand baseline strain and selected line differences. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Applying radiation approaches to the control of public risks from chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    risks from chemical and biological agents, the technical people involved should make certain that the major scientific considerations have a prominent role in the decision-making processes, not just assumptions, hypotheses and axioms adopted in lieu of facts

  1. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  2. Low environmental radiation background impairs biological defence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to chemical radiomimetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satta, L.; Augusti-Tocco, G.; Ceccarelli, R.; Paggi, P.; Scarsella, G.; Esposito, A.; Fiore, M.; Poggesi, I.; Ricordy, R.; Cundari, E.

    1995-01-01

    Background radiation is likely to constitute one of the factors involved in biological evolution since radiations are able to affect biological processes. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that organisms are adapted to environmental background radiation and that this adaptation could increase their ability to respond to the harmful effects of ionizing radiations. In fact, adaptive responses to alkylating agents and to low doses of ionizing radiation have been found in many organisms. In order to test for effects of adaptation, cell susceptibility to treatments with high doses of radiomimetic chemical agents has been studied by growing them in a reduced environmental radiation background. The experiment has been performed by culturing yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7) in parallel in a standard background environment and in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, with reduced environmental background radiation. After a conditioning period, yeast cells were exposed to recombinogenic doses of methyl methanesulfonate. The yeast cells grown in the Gran Sasso Laboratory showed a higher frequency of radiomimetic induced recombination as compared to those grown in the standard environment. This suggests that environmental radiation may act as a conditioning agent

  3. Meta-analysis of studies on chemical, physical and biological agents in the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estelita Pereira; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca; Rolim Neto, Modesto Leite

    2015-09-04

    Aedes aegypti is a vector of international concern because it can transmit to humans three important arboviral diseases: yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya. Epidemics that are repeated year after year in a variety of urban centers indicate that there are control failures, allowing the vector to continue expanding. To identify the most effective vector control strategies and the factors that contributed to the success or failure of each strategy, we carried out a systematic review with meta-analysis of articles published in 12 databases, from 1974 to the month of December 2013. We evaluated the association between the use of whatever chemical substance, mechanical agent, biological or integrated actions against A. aegypti and the control of the vector, as measured by 10 indicators. We found 2,791 articles, but after careful selection, only 26 studies remained for analysis related to control interventions implemented in 15 countries, with 5 biological, 5 chemical, 3 mechanical and 13 integrated strategies. The comparison among all of them, indicated that the control of A. aegypti is significantly associated with the type of strategy used, and that integrated interventions consist of the most effective method for controlling A. aegypti. The most effective control method was the integrated approach, considering the influence of eco-bio-social determinants in the virus-vector-man epidemiological chain, and community involvement, starting with community empowerment as active agents of vector control.

  4. Sorption and Transport of Pharmaceutical chemicals in Organic- and Mineral-rich Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulava, V. M.; Schwindaman, J.; Murphey, V.; Kuzma, S.; Cory, W.

    2011-12-01

    OC, again indicating that these PhACs preferentially partition into the soil OM. Such a correlation was absent for cetirizine. Breakthrough curves of PhACs measured in homogeneous packed soil columns indicated that PhAC transport was affected by chemical nonequilibrium processes depending on the soil and PhAC chemistry. The shape of the breakthrough curves indicated that there were two distinct sorption sites - OM and clay minerals - which influence nonequilibrium transport of these compounds. The retardation factor estimated using the distribution coefficient, Kd, measured from the sorption experiments was very similar to the measured value. While the sorption and transport data do not provide mechanistic information regarding the nature of PhAC interaction with chemical reactive components within geological materials, they do provide important information regarding potential fate of such compounds in the environment. The results also show the role that soil OM and mineral surfaces play in sequestering or transporting these chemicals. These insights have implications to the quality of the water resources in our communities.

  5. Chemical Protection Testing of Sorbent-Based Air Purification Components (APCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    handling and storing the chemical materials of interest. Testing facilities intending to use chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and nontraditional agents...handling, and decontamination capabilities for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) quantities of chemical agents. Chemical agent...and decontaminated IAW the test plan and all test documentation will be archived. All recoverable chemical test materials will be accounted for and

  6. Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of cloud convection and tracer transport in a global off-line 3-D chemical transport model. Various model simulations are performed using different meteorological (reanalyses (ERA-40, ECMWF operational and ECMWF Interim to diagnose the updraft mass flux, convective precipitation and cloud top height.

    The diagnosed upward mass flux distribution from TOMCAT agrees quite well with the ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim below 200 hPa. Inclusion of midlevel convection improves the agreement at mid-high latitudes. However, the reanalyses show strong convective transport up to 100 hPa, well into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, which is not captured by TOMCAT. Similarly, the model captures the spatial and seasonal variation of convective cloud top height although the mean modelled value is about 2 km lower than observed.

    The ERA-Interim reanalyses have smaller archived upward convective mass fluxes than ERA-40, and smaller convective precipitation, which is in better agreement with satellite-based data. TOMCAT captures these relative differences when diagnosing convection from the large-scale fields. The model also shows differences in diagnosed convection with the version of the operational analyses used, which cautions against using results of the model from one specific time period as a general evaluation.

    We have tested the effect of resolution on the diagnosed modelled convection with simulations ranging from 5.6° × 5.6° to 1° × 1°. Overall, in the off-line model, the higher model resolution gives stronger vertical tracer transport, however, it does not make a large change to the diagnosed convective updraft mass flux (i.e., the model results using the convection scheme fail to capture the strong convection transport up to 100 hPa as seen in the archived convective mass fluxes. Similarly, the resolution of the forcing winds in the higher resolution CTM does not make a

  7. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  8. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  9. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lomazzi, Eleonora [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Passoni, Alice [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Bagnati, Renzo [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lodi, Marco [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna [Department of Sciences and Technological Innovation (DiSIT), University of Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fanelli, Roberto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach was applied to study three foaming agents. • Several compounds not reported on the safety data sheets were identified by HRMS. • Environmental impacts were investigated with a battery of biological assays. • An ecotoxicological ranking of the products was obtained. - Abstract: The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity

  10. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated approach was applied to study three foaming agents. • Several compounds not reported on the safety data sheets were identified by HRMS. • Environmental impacts were investigated with a battery of biological assays. • An ecotoxicological ranking of the products was obtained. - Abstract: The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity

  11. Vadose Zone Fate and Transport Simulation of Chemicals Associated with Coal Seam Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunek, J.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2017-12-01

    The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D) computer software packages are widely used finite element models for simulating the one-, and two- or three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media, respectively. While the standard HYDRUS models consider only the fate and transport of individual solutes or solutes subject to first-order degradation reactions, several specialized HYDRUS add-on modules can simulate far more complex biogeochemical processes. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the HYDRUS models and their add-on modules, and to demonstrate applications of the software to the subsurface fate and transport of chemicals involved in coal seam gas extraction and water management operations. One application uses the standard HYDRUS model to evaluate the natural soil attenuation potential of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their transformation products in case of an accidental release. By coupling the processes of retardation, first-order degradation and convective-dispersive transport of the biocide bronopol and its degradation products, we demonstrated how natural attenuation reduces initial concentrations by more than a factor of hundred in the top 5 cm of the vadose zone. A second application uses the UnsatChem module to explore the possible use of coal seam gas produced water for sustainable irrigation. Simulations with different irrigation waters (untreated, amended with surface water, and reverse osmosis treated) provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, notably SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. A third application uses the coupled HYDRUS-PHREEQC module to analyze trace metal transport involving cation exchange and surface complexation sorption reactions in the vadose zone leached with coal seam gas produced water following some accidental water release scenario. Results show that the main process responsible for trace metal migration is complexation of

  12. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Chorover, Jon D.; Ewing, Robert P.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, E.; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G.

    2016-03-16

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments and soil aggregates. These domains, which we term internal domains in porous media (IDPM), contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse porous media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and hydrocarbon storage. Traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM. In this review we: discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate what has been learned about their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Three key findings are noteworthy. 1) A combination of methods now allows complete characterization of the porosity spectrum of natural materials and its connectivity; while imaging microscopies are providing three dimensional representations of the interconnected pore network. 2) Chemical reactivity in pores <10 nm is expected to be different from micro and macropores, yet research performed to date is inconclusive on the nature, direction, and magnitude of effect. 3) Existing continuum reactive transport models treat IDPM as a sub-grid feature with average, empirical, scale-dependent parameters; and are not formulated to include detailed information on pore networks. Overall we find that IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydrofracking systems, organic matter stabilization and recalcitrance in soil, weathering and soil formation, and long term inorganic and organic contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. We conclude with an assessment of impactful research opportunities to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their important effects in reactive transport models

  13. NMR chemical shift and J coupling parameterization and quantum mechanical reference spectrum simulation for selected nerve agent degradation products in aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Anđelković, Boban

    2017-10-01

    The spectral parameters of selected nerve agent degradation products relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention, namely, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate and methylphosphonic acid, were studied in wide range of pH conditions and selected temperatures. The pH and temperature dependence of chemical shifts and J couplings was parameterized using Henderson-Hasselbalch-based functions. The obtained parameters allowed calculation of precise chemical shifts and J coupling constants in arbitrary pH conditions and typical measurement temperatures, thus facilitating quantum mechanical simulation of reference spectra in the chosen magnetic field strength for chemical verification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

  15. Chemical Equilibrium And Transport (CET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Powerful, machine-independent program calculates theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Aids in design of compressors, turbines, engines, heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment.

  16. Review of decontamination technologies for chemical counter-terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, K.; Boudreau, L.; Hornof, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fingas, M.F.; Gamble, R.L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The two categories of chemical agents that could be used in acts of chemical terrorism are conventional chemical warfare agents and commercial toxic chemicals. Industrial chemicals are easier to access than warfare agents, and must therefore be considered when evaluating decontamination techniques. This study involved a search of public-domain documents to identify decontamination technologies including: physical/mechanical treatment or removal; chemical treatment; and, biological methods including natural degradation and attenuation. The technologies were analyzed with reference to their effectiveness for specific groups of chemical agents, state of development, availability and costs. Results indicate that there are many decontamination methods available, both developed and under development, that work effectively for most agents. The two most common decontamination methods are oxidation and alkali hydrolysis followed by dehalogenation. Technology limitations and gaps were also identified, suggesting a need for more research to further the development of promising processes. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshisuke; Miyanaga, Kumiko; Sato, Sei-ichi; Inui, Naomichi

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60 Co γ-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for γ-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than γ-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

  18. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Yoshisuke (Japan Tobacco Inc., Yokohama (Japan). Central Research Inst.); Miyanaga, Kumiko; Sato, Sei-ichi (Japan Tobacco Inc., Hatano, Kanagawa (Japan). Toxicology Research Lab.); Inui, Naomichi (Japan Tobacco Inc., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for {gamma}-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than {gamma}-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author).

  19. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H., E-mail: junghs@add.re.kr; Lee, H.W.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event.

  20. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event

  1. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  2. Simulating Transport and Land Use Interdependencies for Strategic Urban Planning—An Agent Based Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Huynh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agent based modelling has been widely accepted as a promising tool for urban planning purposes thanks to its capability to provide sophisticated insights into the social behaviours and the interdependencies that characterise urban systems. In this paper, we report on an agent based model, called TransMob, which explicitly simulates the mutual dynamics between demographic evolution, transport demands, housing needs and the eventual change in the average satisfaction of the residents of an urban area. The ability to reproduce such dynamics is a unique feature that has not been found in many of the like agent based models in the literature. TransMob, is constituted by six major modules: synthetic population, perceived liveability, travel diary assignment, traffic micro-simulator, residential location choice, and travel mode choice. TransMob is used to simulate the dynamics of a metropolitan area in South East of Sydney, Australia, in 2006 and 2011, with demographic evolution. The results are favourably compared against survey data for the area in 2011, therefore validating the capability of TransMob to reproduce the observed complexity of an urban area. We also report on the application of TransMob to simulate various hypothetical scenarios of urban planning policies. We conclude with discussions on current limitations of TransMob, which serve as suggestions for future developments.

  3. The TOMCAT global chemical transport model v1.6: description of chemical mechanism and model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Monks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the tropospheric chemical mechanism scheme used in the TOMCAT 3-D chemical transport model. The current scheme includes a more detailed representation of hydrocarbon chemistry than previously included in the model, with the inclusion of the emission and oxidation of ethene, propene, butane, toluene and monoterpenes. The model is evaluated against a range of surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite measurements. The model is generally able to capture the main spatial and seasonal features of high and low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs and reactive nitrogen. However, model biases are found in some species, some of which are common to chemistry models and some that are specific to TOMCAT and warrant further investigation. The most notable of these biases are (1 a negative bias in Northern Hemisphere (NH winter and spring CO and a positive bias in Southern Hemisphere (SH CO throughout the year, (2 a positive bias in NH O3 in summer and a negative bias at high latitudes during SH winter and (3 a negative bias in NH winter C2 and C3 alkanes and alkenes. TOMCAT global mean tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations are higher than estimates inferred from observations of methyl chloroform but similar to, or lower than, multi-model mean concentrations reported in recent model intercomparison studies. TOMCAT shows peak OH concentrations in the tropical lower troposphere, unlike other models which show peak concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere. This is likely to affect the lifetime and transport of important trace gases and warrants further investigation.

  4. Recovery of rare earths from used polishes by chemical vapor transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Machida, K.; Adachi, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth oxide polishes are widely used in the glass industry because of its mechanical and chemical polishing action. The Japanese glass industry use 2000 tons per year of the polishes, and a large portion of them are thrown away after their polishing lifetime. A dry recovery processes for rare earths from the used polishes have been investigated by using a chemical vapor transport method via the formation of vapor complexes RAl n Cl 3+3n (R = rare earths). A flow type reactor with various temperature gradients was employed for the process. The used polishes were mixed with active carbon, and chlorinated with N 2 + Cl 2 mixture at 1273 K. Aluminium oxide were also chlorinated at lower temperature and the resulting AlCl 3 were introduced to the reactor. The rare earth chlorides and AlCl 3 were converted to the vapor complexes. These were driven along the temperature gradient, decomposed according to the reverse reaction, and regenerated RCl 3 . About 90 % of the used polish were chlorinated after 2 hours. Rare earth chlorides, AlCl 3 , and FeCl 3 were fully transported after 82 hours. The rare earth chlorides were mainly condensed over the temperature range 1263-903 K. On the other hand, AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 were deposited at the temperature range below 413 K. CaCl 2 and SrCl 2 were hardly transported and remained in the residue. When the temperature gradient with the smaller slope was used, mutual separation efficiencies among the rare earths was improved. The highest CeCl 3 purity of 80% was obtained in the process

  5. Evaluation of chemical and biological agents for control of Phytophthora species on intact plants or detached leaves of rhododendron and lilac

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; E.A. Davis

    2006-01-01

    The recent incidence of Ramorum blight, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, on many nursery crops has focused attention on improving management strategies against Phytophthora diseases in nurseries. We evaluated several chemical agents that target Oomycete pathogens for their capacity to inhibit infection of rhododendron or lilac...

  6. Research on removing reservoir core water sensitivity using the method of ultrasound-chemical agent for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Huang, Jiehao

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of water sensitivity often occurs in the oil reservoir core during the process of crude oil production, which seriously affects the efficiency of oil extraction. In recent years, near-well ultrasonic processing technology attaches more attention due to its safety and energy efficient. In this paper, the comparison of removing core water sensitivity by ultrasonic wave, chemical injection and ultrasound-chemical combination technique are investigated through experiments. Results show that: lower ultrasonic frequency and higher power can improve the efficiency of core water sensitivity removal; the effects of removing core water sensitivity under ultrasonic treatment get better with increase of core initial permeability; the effect of removing core water sensitivity using ultrasonic treatment won't get better over time. Ultrasonic treatment time should be controlled in a reasonable range; the effect of removing core water sensitivity using chemical agent alone is slightly better than that using ultrasonic treatment, however, chemical injection could be replaced by ultrasonic treatment for removing core water sensitivity from the viewpoint of oil reservoir protection and the sustainable development of oil field; ultrasound-chemical combination technique has the best effect for water sensitivity removal than using ultrasonic treatment or chemical injection alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  8. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  9. Mineral-leaching chemical transport with runoff and sediment from severely eroded rare-earth tailings in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huizhong; Cao, Longxi; Liang, Yin; Yuan, Jiuqin; Zhu, Yayun; Wang, Yi; Gu, Yalan; Zhao, Qiguo

    2017-08-01

    Rare-earth mining has led to severe soil erosion in southern China. Furthermore, the presence of the mineral-leaching chemical ammonium sulfate in runoff and sediment poses a serious environmental threat to downstream water bodies. In this paper, the characteristics of mineral-leaching chemicals in surface soil samples collected in the field were studied. In addition, NH4+ and SO42- transport via soil erosion was monitored using runoff and sediment samples collected during natural rainfall processes. The results demonstrated that the NH4+ contents in the surface sediment deposits increased from the top of the heap (6.56 mg kg-1) to the gully (8.23 mg kg-1) and outside the tailing heap (13.03 mg kg-1). The contents of SO42- in the different locations of the tailing heaps ranged from 27.71 to 40.33 mg kg-1. During typical rainfall events, the absorbed NH4+ concentrations (2.05, 1.26 mg L-1) in runoff were significantly higher than the dissolved concentrations (0.93, 1.04 mg L-1), while the absorbed SO42- concentrations (2.87, 1.92 mg L-1) were significantly lower than the dissolved concentrations (6.55, 7.51 mg L-1). The dissolved NH4+ and SO42- concentrations in runoff displayed an exponentially decreasing tendency with increasing transport distance (Y = 1. 02 ṡ exp( - 0. 00312X); Y = 3. 34 ṡ exp( - 0. 0185X)). No clear trend with increasing distance was observed for the absorbed NH4+ and SO42- contents in transported sediment. The NH4+ and SO42- contents had positive correlations with the silt and clay ratio in transported sediment but negative correlations with the sand ratio. These results provide a better understanding of the transport processes and can be used to develop equations to predict the transport of mineral-leaching chemicals in rare-earth tailings, which can provide a scientific foundation for erosion control and soil management in rare-earth tailing regions in southern China.

  10. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang@semi.ac.cn; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua [Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integrated Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  11. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-03-01

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  12. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity and the predicted environmental concentrations based on the conditions of use are lower than the NOAEC for soils but higher than the NOAEC for water, posing a potential risk to the waters due to the levels of foaming agents in the muck. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutation and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster V79 cells with forty chemical and physical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Y.; Hasegawa, M.M.; Taketomi, M.; Ohkawa, Y.; Inui, N.

    1984-01-01

    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and mutation at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus and toxicities of 40 different chemical and physical agents were examined on Chinese hamster V79 cells. These agents included mono-, di-, tri-, and polyfunctional alkylating agents, intercalators, gamma-rays, and UV light irradiation. Mutation was measured as resistance to 6-thioguanine and toxicity as loss of cell-plating efficiency. SCE were examined 29 hr after treatment. With the agents examined, a highly positive correlation existed between SCE-inducing and mutagenic potencies, when expressed as increase in the number per a unit dose over the control values. But the great difference of the ratios of mutagenic potencies versus SCE-inducing potencies among agents was observed, the maximal difference in the ratios being about 200-fold. The agents that showed the higher values of the ratio (agents producing more mutations than SCE) were bleomycin, cobalt-60 gamma-rays, all ethylating agents (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and diethylsulfate), N-propyl-N-nitrosourea, N-butyl-N-nitrosourea, isopropyl methanesulfonate, intercalating acridine compounds (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(ethyl-2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino]-acridine X 2HCl and 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(chloroethyl)-aminopropylamino]acridine 2HCl) and UV light at 254 nm

  14. Domestic Preparedness Program: Evaluation of the Agilent Gas Chromatograph - Flame Photometric Detector/Mass Selective Detector (GC-FPD/MSD) System Against Chemical Warfare Agents Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longworth, Terri

    2003-01-01

    This report characterizes the chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection potential of the commercially available Agilent gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector/mass selective detector (GC-FPD/MSD...

  15. Explosives and chemical warfare agents - detection and analysis with PTR-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Juerschik, Simone; Jaksch, Stefan; Jordan, Alfons; Hanel, Gernot; Hartungen, Eugen; Seehauser, Hans; Maerk, Lukas; Haidacher, Stefan; Schottkowsky, Ralf [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Petersson, Fredrik [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We utilized a recently developed high sensitivity PTR-MS instrument equipped with a high resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer for detailed investigations on explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We show that with this so called PTR-TOF 8000 it is possible to identify solid explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, PETN and Semtex A) by analyzing the headspace above small quantities of samples at room temperature and from trace quantities not visible to the naked eye placed on surfaces. As the mentioned solid explosives possess very low vapor pressures, the main challenge for detecting them in the gas phase is to provide an instrument with a sufficient sensitivity. CWAs on the other side have very high vapor pressures but are difficult to identify unambiguously as their nominal molecular masses are usually comparably small and therefore hard to distinguish from harmless everyday-compounds (e.g. mustard gas: 159 g/mol). In the present work we demonstrate that we can detect a broad range of dangerous substances, ranging from the CWA mustard gas to the explosive HMX.

  16. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  17. Carrier-facilitated transport of Cd(II) through a supported liquid membrane containing thiacalix[4]arene derivatives as ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghbani, Asma; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a facilitated transport process of cadmium ions through a SLM system incorporating new extractant agents, thiacalix[4]arenes, was studied. These molecules have sulfur atoms instead of usual methylene bridges. The chemical modification of the upper or the lower rim provides a great variety of supra molecules having different complexation ability and different conformational behaviour. The efficiency of the transport across the inner membrane organic liquid phase is shown to depend on the chemical (affinity) and structural (conformational states possible) parameters of these complexing molecules. In this work, two different thiacalix[4]arenes were selected as effective ionophore for the treatment of liquid media loaded in Cd(II). The results show that these thiacalix[4]arenes derivative ensure facilitated transport of cadmium cations through supported liquid membranes. Especially, the non-substituted thiacalix[4]arene can be considered as an effective extractant agent. The incidence of several parameters on transport efficiency such as pH of both aqueous solutions and carrier concentration was studied. The permeation of the species is due to a proton potential gradient (the driving force of the process) existing between the two opposite sides of the SLM. The initial flux, J, is found to be equal to 6.7.10 -7 mol.m -2 .s -1 , under optimal experimental conditions.

  18. Ion transport by gating voltage to nanopores produced via metal-assisted chemical etching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Inomata, Naoki; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we report a simple and low-cost way to create nanopores that can be employed for various applications in nanofluidics. Nano sized Ag particles in the range from 1 to 20 nm are formed on a silicon substrate with a de-wetting method. Then the silicon nanopores with an approximate 15 nm average diameter and 200 μm height are successfully produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching method. In addition, electrically driven ion transport in the nanopores is demonstrated for nanofluidic applications. Ion transport through the nanopores is observed and could be controlled by an application of a gating voltage to the nanopores.

  19. Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vaněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent based simulation platform is introduced that focuses on legitimate and illegitimate aspects of maritime traffic, mainly on intercontinental transport through piracy afflicted areas. The extensible architecture presented here comprises several modules controlling the simulation and the life-cycle of the agents, analyzing the simulation output and visualizing the entire simulated domain. The simulation control module is initialized by various configuration scenarios to simulate various real-world situations, such as a pirate ambush, coordinated transit through a transport corridor, or coastal fishing and local traffic. The environmental model provides a rich set of inputs for agents that use the geo-spatial data and the vessel operational characteristics for their reasoning. The agent behavior model based on finite state machines together with planning algorithms allows complex expression of agent behavior, so the resulting simulation output can serve as a substitution for real world data from the maritime domain.

  20. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. I. Common molecular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of molecular mechanisms common to radiation and chemical carcinogenesis are discussed, particularly the DNA damage done by these agents. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological considerations and on dose-response models used in risk assessment to extrapolate from experimental data obtained at high doses to the effects from long-term, low-level exposures. 3 references, 6 figures

  1. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. I. Common molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of molecular mechanisms common to radiation and chemical carcinogenesis are discussed, particularly the DNA damage done by these agents. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological considerations and on dose-response models used in risk assessment to extrapolate from experimental data obtained at high doses to the effects from long-term, low-level exposures. 3 references, 6 figures. (ACR)

  2. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: implications for health care providers and community emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, N B; Watson, A P; Ambrose, K R; Griffin, G D

    1990-01-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the U.S. atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanolol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers. PMID:2088748

  3. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an

  4. Graphene Nanoplatelet-Polymer Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Discrimination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederoder, Michael S; Nallon, Eric C; Weiss, Matt; McGraw, Shannon K; Schnee, Vincent P; Bright, Collin J; Polcha, Michael P; Paffenroth, Randy; Uzarski, Joshua R

    2017-11-22

    A cross-reactive array of semiselective chemiresistive sensors made of polymer-graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite coated electrodes was examined for detection and discrimination of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The arrays employ a set of chemically diverse polymers to generate a unique response signature for multiple CWA simulants and background interferents. The developed sensors' signal remains consistent after repeated exposures to multiple analytes for up to 5 days with a similar signal magnitude across different replicate sensors with the same polymer-GNP coating. An array of 12 sensors each coated with a different polymer-GNP mixture was exposed 100 times to a cycle of single analyte vapors consisting of 5 chemically similar CWA simulants and 8 common background interferents. The collected data was vector normalized to reduce concentration dependency, z-scored to account for baseline drift and signal-to-noise ratio, and Kalman filtered to reduce noise. The processed data was dimensionally reduced with principal component analysis and analyzed with four different machine learning algorithms to evaluate discrimination capabilities. For 5 similarly structured CWA simulants alone 100% classification accuracy was achieved. For all analytes tested 99% classification accuracy was achieved demonstrating the CWA discrimination capabilities of the developed system. The novel sensor fabrication methods and data processing techniques are attractive for development of sensor platforms for discrimination of CWA and other classes of chemical vapors.

  5. Lagrangian transport model forecasts and a transport climatology for the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) measurement campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Caroline; Cooper, Owen; Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; James, Paul; Dunlea, Edward; Nicks, Dennis K.; Holloway, John S.; Hübler, Gerd; Parrish, David D.; Ryerson, Tom B.; Trainer, Michael

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of Lagrangian tracer transport simulations this study presents an intercontinental transport climatology and tracer forecasts for the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) aircraft measurement campaign, which took place at Monterey, California, in April-May 2002 to measure Asian pollution arriving at the North American West Coast. For the climatology the average transport of an Asian CO tracer was calculated over a time period of 15 years using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. To determine by how much the transport from Asia to North America during ITCT 2K2 deviated from the climatological mean, the 15-year average for April and May was compared with the average for April and May 2002 and that for the ITCT 2K2 period. It was found that 8% less Asian CO tracer arrived at the North American West Coast during the ITCT 2K2 period compared to the climatological mean. Below 8-km altitude, the maximum altitude of the research aircraft, 13% less arrived. Nevertheless, pronounced layers of Asian pollution were measured during 3 of the 13 ITCT 2K2 flights. FLEXPART was also successfully used as a forecasting tool for the flight planning during ITCT 2K2. It provided 3-day forecasts for three different anthropogenic CO tracers originating from Asia, North America, and Europe. In two case studies the forecast abilities of FLEXPART are analyzed and discussed by comparing the forecasts with measurement data and infrared satellite images. The model forecasts underestimated the measured CO enhancements by about a factor of 4, mainly because of an underestimation of the Asian emissions in the emission inventory and because of biomass-burning influence that was not modeled. Nevertheless, the intercontinental transport and dispersion of pollution plumes were qualitatively well predicted, and on the basis of the model results the aircraft could successfully be guided into the polluted air masses.

  6. Simulating the Fate and Transport of Coal Seam Gas Chemicals in Variably-Saturated Soils Using HYDRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Mallants

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D computer software packages are widely used finite element models for simulating the one-, and two- or three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media, respectively. While the standard HYDRUS models consider only the fate and transport of individual solutes or solutes subject to first-order degradation reactions, several specialized HYDRUS add-on modules can simulate far more complex biogeochemical processes. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the HYDRUS models and their add-on modules, and to demonstrate possible applications of the software to the subsurface fate and transport of chemicals involved in coal seam gas extraction and water management operations. One application uses the standard HYDRUS model to evaluate the natural soil attenuation potential of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their transformation products in case of an accidental release. By coupling the processes of retardation, first-order degradation and convective-dispersive transport of the biocide bronopol and its degradation products, we demonstrated how natural attenuation reduces initial concentrations by more than a factor of hundred in the top 5 cm of the soil. A second application uses the UnsatChem module to explore the possible use of coal seam gas produced water for sustainable irrigation. Simulations with different irrigation waters (untreated, amended with surface water, and reverse osmosis treated provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, notably SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. A third application uses the HP1 module to analyze trace metal transport involving cation exchange and surface complexation sorption reactions in a soil leached with coal seam gas produced water following some accidental water release scenario. Results show that the main process responsible for trace metal migration in soil is complexation of

  7. Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattana, Monica; Bey, Tareg

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a member of the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering to the skin and mucous membranes. There is no specific antidote, and treatment consists of systematically alleviating symptoms. Historically, sulfur mustard was used extensively in inter-governmental conflicts within the trenches of Belgium and France during World War I and during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Longitudinal studies of exposed victims show that sulfur mustard causes long-term effects leading to high morbidity. Given that only a small amount of sulfur mustard is necessary to potentially cause an enormous number of casualties, disaster-planning protocol necessitates the education and training of first-line healthcare responders in the recognition, decontamination, triage, and treatment of sulfur mustard-exposed victims in a large-scale scenario.

  8. Properties of zinc selenide grown by chemical vapor transport and its application to room-temperature radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Toney, J.E.; Schlesinger, T.E.; Yoon, H.; Goorsky, M.S.; Rudolph, P.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have characterized ZnSe material grown by chemical vapor transport in iodine using triple-axis X-ray diffraction (TAD), photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS), photoluminescence (PL), current-voltage measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The material was found to have inadequate carrier transport for nuclear spectrometer use, but there was a discernible difference in performance between crystals which could be correlated with crystallinity as determined by the TAD rocking curves

  9. Comparison of Three Sample Preparation Methods for Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agent Stimulants in Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Sassolini

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chemistry in CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear explosive) context requires not only high quality data; quickness, ruggedness and robustness are also mandatory. In this work, three samples preparation methods were compared using several organophosphorus pesticides as test compounds, used as stimulants of nerve CWA (Chemical Warfare Agents) to choose the one with best characteristics. Result was obtained better with the Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction (DLLME), relatively new in CBRNe field, obtaining uncertainty for different simulants between 8 and 15 % while a quantification limit between 0.01 and 0.08 μg/ l. To optimize this extraction method, different organo chlorinated solvents also tested but not relevant difference in these tests was obtained. In this work, all samples were analyzed by using a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and also with Gas Chromatograph coupled with Nitrogen Phosphorous Detector (NPD) for DLLME samples to evaluate a low cost and rugged instrument adapt to field analytical methods with good performance in terms of uncertainty and sensibility even if poorer respect to the mass spectrometry. (author)

  10. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  11. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  12. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  13. Preparation of a dopamine transporter imaging agent 18F-FP-β-CIT and its biodistribution in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhengping; Wu Chunying; Li Xiaomin; Zhang Tongxing; Wang Songpei; Lu Chunxiong; Fu Ronggeng; Zhang Zhengwei; Guan Yihui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple and easy protocol of preparing 18 F-N-3-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-β-CIT) as a dopamine transporter imaging agent, and to study the distribution of this agent in rat brain. Methods: 18 F-FP-β-CIT was prepared by direct reaction in CH 3 CN between K 18 F and the labeling precursor, N-(3-(mesyloxy) propyl )-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (MsOP-CIT), in which Kryptofix 222 was used as phase transfer catalyst. 18 F-FP-β-CIT was purified through a Sep-Pak SiO 2 cartridge and eluted with ethyl ether. The purified 18 F-FP-β-CIT was injected into the rat's tail vein. These rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at different time points (5, 30, 60, 120, 180 min) after injection. The brain tissue of interest was removed, weighed, and radiocounted. Results: The radiochemical purity of 18 F-FP-β-CIT was over 95%, and the radiochemical yield from starting 18 F-fluoride was about 10%. 18 F-FP-β-CIT was absorbed rapidly in rat brain and was cleaned gradually (1.49, 0.59, 0.31, 0.21, 0.17%ID at 5, 30, 60, 120, 180 min, respectively). Radiouptake of striatum was more than that of other tissues and was cleaned slower than in other tissues at 60 min. Ratios of radiouptake of striatum /cerebellum were 1.75, 3.38, 3.73, 3.71 and 3.20 at 5, 30, 60, 120, 180 min, respectively. Conclusions: 18 F-FP-β-CIT is synthesized by a one-step protocol in which the preparative high performance liquid chromatography is not necessary in purifying procedure. The dominant distribution of 18 F-FP-β-CIT in rat striatum indicates that it is a potential dopamine transporter imaging agent

  14. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Binding affinity and decontamination of dermal decontamination gel to model chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yachao; Elmahdy, Akram; Zhu, Hanjiang; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2018-05-01

    Six chemical warfare agent simulants (trimethyl phosphate, dimethyl adipate, 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide, diethyl adipate, chloroethyl phenyl sulfide and diethyl sebacate) were studied in in vitro human skin to explore relationship between dermal penetration/absorption and the mechanisms of simulant partitioning between stratum corneum (SC) and water as well as between dermal decontamination gel (DDGel) and water. Both binding affinity to and decontamination of simulants using DDGel were studied. Partition coefficients of six simulants between SC and water (Log P SC/w ) and between DDGel and water (Log P DDGel/w ) were determined. Results showed that DDGel has a similar or higher binding affinity to each simulant compared to SC. The relationship between Log P octanol/water and Log P SC/w as well as between Log P octanol/water and Log P DDGel/w demonstrated that partition coefficient of simulants correlated to their lipophilicity or hydrophilicity. Decontamination efficiency results with DDGel for these simulants were consistent with binding affinity results. Amounts of percentage dose of chemicals in DDGel of trimethyl phosphate, dimethyl adipate, 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide, diethyl adipate, chloroethyl phenyl sulfide and diethyl sebacate were determined to be 61.15, 85.67, 75.91, 53.53, 89.89 and 76.58, with corresponding amounts absorbed in skin of 0.96, 0.65, 1.68, 0.72, 0.57 and 1.38, respectively. In vitro skin decontamination experiments coupled with a dermal absorption study demonstrated that DDGel can efficiently remove chemicals from skin surface, back-extract from the SC, and significantly reduced chemical penetration into skin or systemic absorption for all six simulants tested. Therefore, DDGel offers a great potential as a NextGen skin Decon platform technology for both military and civilian use. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  18. ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION SPIKING CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS RELATED TO CHEMICAL WEAPON CONVENTION IN UNKNOWN WATER SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTRON IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Budiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification and analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products is one of important component for the implementation of the convention. Nowadays, the analytical method for determination chemical warfare agent and their degradation products has been developing and improving. In order to get the sufficient analytical data as recommended by OPCW especially in Proficiency Testing, the spiking chemical compounds related to Chemical Weapon Convention in unknown water sample were determined using two different techniques such as gas chromatography and gas chromatography electron-impact ionization mass spectrometry. Neutral organic extraction, pH 11 organic extraction, cation exchanged-methylation, triethylamine/methanol-silylation were performed to extract the chemical warfare agents from the sample, before analyzing with gas chromatography. The identification of chemical warfare agents was carried out by comparing the mass spectrum of chemicals with mass spectrum reference from the OPCW Central Analytical Database (OCAD library while the retention indices calculation obtained from gas chromatography analysis was used to get the confirmation and supported data of  the chemical warfare agents. Diisopropyl methylphosphonate, 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroacetic acid and 3-quinuclidinol were found in unknown water sample. Those chemicals were classified in schedule 2 as precursor or reactant of chemical weapons compound in schedule list of Chemical Weapon Convention.   Keywords: gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, retention indices, OCAD library, chemical warfare agents

  19. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J; Scholtz, M Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  20. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Scholtz, M Trevor, E-mail: sloanj@connect.uwaterloo.ca [ORTECH Environmental, 2395 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON L5K 1B3 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  1. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Scholtz, M. Trevor; Yang, Fuquan; Sloan, James J.

    2011-07-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  2. Mineral-leaching chemical transport with runoff and sediment from severely eroded rare-earth tailings in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth mining has led to severe soil erosion in southern China. Furthermore, the presence of the mineral-leaching chemical ammonium sulfate in runoff and sediment poses a serious environmental threat to downstream water bodies. In this paper, the characteristics of mineral-leaching chemicals in surface soil samples collected in the field were studied. In addition, NH4+ and SO42− transport via soil erosion was monitored using runoff and sediment samples collected during natural rainfall processes. The results demonstrated that the NH4+ contents in the surface sediment deposits increased from the top of the heap (6.56 mg kg−1 to the gully (8.23 mg kg−1 and outside the tailing heap (13.03 mg kg−1. The contents of SO42− in the different locations of the tailing heaps ranged from 27.71 to 40.33 mg kg−1. During typical rainfall events, the absorbed NH4+ concentrations (2.05, 1.26 mg L−1 in runoff were significantly higher than the dissolved concentrations (0.93, 1.04 mg L−1, while the absorbed SO42− concentrations (2.87, 1.92 mg L−1 were significantly lower than the dissolved concentrations (6.55, 7.51 mg L−1. The dissolved NH4+ and SO42− concentrations in runoff displayed an exponentially decreasing tendency with increasing transport distance (Y = 1. 02 ⋅ exp( − 0. 00312X; Y = 3. 34 ⋅ exp( − 0. 0185X. No clear trend with increasing distance was observed for the absorbed NH4+ and SO42− contents in transported sediment. The NH4+ and SO42− contents had positive correlations with the silt and clay ratio in transported sediment but negative correlations with the sand ratio. These results provide a better understanding of the transport processes and can be used to develop equations to predict the transport of mineral-leaching chemicals in rare-earth tailings, which can provide a scientific foundation for erosion control and soil management in rare

  3. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... It has been revised to update responsibilities, Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) procedures, transportation policies, chemical event notification, chemical accident or incident response and assistance (CAIRA...

  4. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  5. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  6. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  7. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  8. Single gold nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy for study of chemical-dependent efflux function of single ABC transporters of single live Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lauren M; Lee, Kerry J; Cherukuri, Pavan K; Huang, Tao; Songkiatisak, Preeyaporn; Warren, Seth; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2018-03-26

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters serve as self-defense transport apparatus in many living organisms and they can selectively extrude a wide variety of substrates, leading to multidrug resistance (MDR). The detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Single nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy highly depends upon their sizes, shapes, chemical and surface properties. In our previous studies, we have used the size-dependent plasmonic spectra of single silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to study the real-time efflux kinetics of the ABC (BmrA) transporter and MexAB-OprM transporter in single live cells (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium), respectively. In this study, we prepared and used purified, biocompatible and stable (non-aggregated) gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) (12.4 ± 0.9 nm) to study the efflux kinetics of single BmrA membrane transporters of single live Bacillus subtillis cells, aiming to probe chemical dependent efflux functions of BmrA transporters and their potential chemical sensing capability. Similar to those observed using Ag NPs, accumulation of the intracellular Au NPs in single live cells (WT and ΔBmrA) highly depends upon the cellular expression of BmrA and the NP concentration (0.7 and 1.4 nM). The lower accumulation of intracellular Au NPs in WT (normal expression of BmrA) than ΔBmrA (deletion of bmrA) indicates that BmrA extrudes the Au NPs out of the WT cells. The accumulation of Au NPs in the cells increases with NP concentration, suggesting that the Au NPs most likely passively diffuse into the cells, similar to antibiotics. The result demonstrates that such small Au NPs can serve as imaging probes to study the efflux function of the BmrA membrane transporter in single live cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the accumulation rate of intracellular Au NPs in single live cells upon the expression of BmrA and the concentration of the NPs is about twice higher than that of the same sized Ag NPs. This interesting finding

  9. Evaluation of some microbial agents, natural and chemical compounds for controlling tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Ghany Nesreen M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanaceous plants have a great economic impact in Egypt. These groups of plants include potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants. The new invasive pest of tomatoes, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick causes the greatest crop losses which can range from 60 to 100%. After its detection in Egypt during the last half of 2009, it spread quickly to all provinces in the country. We aiming to propose a sustainable control program for this devastating pest. In this research we tested three groups of control agents. The first was microbial and natural, the second - plant extracts and the third - chemical insecticides. Our results showed that the impact of T. absoluta can be greatly reduced by the use of sustainable control measures represented by different insecticide groups. Bioassay experiments showed that this devastating pest can be controlled with some compounds that give high mortality rates. Of these compounds, spinosad and Beauveria bassiana, microbial control agents, followed by azadirachtin, gave the best results in controlling T. absoluta. Of the chemical insecticides, lambda-cyhalotrin was the most effective, followed by lufenuron and profenofos. In conclusion we encourage farmers to use microbial and natural control measures in combating the tomato leafminer, T. absoluta, in Integrated Pest Mangement (IPM programs.

  10. Chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1-induced male sterility in Triticum aestivum L.: a comparative analysis of the anther proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhan; Zhang, Gaisheng; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Jingjing; Song, Yulong; Qiao, Lin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai; Li, Lili

    2018-01-05

    Heterosis is widely used to increase the yield of many crops. However, as wheat is a self-pollinating crop, hybrid breeding is not so successful in this organism. Even though male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents is an important aspect of crossbreeding, the mechanisms by which these agents induce male sterility in wheat is not well understood. We performed proteomic analyses using the wheat Triticum aestivum L.to identify those proteins involved in physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent CHA SQ-1. A total of 103 differentially expressed proteins were found by 2D-PAGE and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS. In general, these proteins had obvious functional tendencies implicated in carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative stress and resistance, protein metabolism, photosynthesis, and cytoskeleton and cell structure. In combination with phenotypic, tissue section, and bioinformatics analyses, the identified differentially expressed proteins revealed a complex network behind the regulation of PHYMS and pollen development. Accordingly, we constructed a protein network of male sterility in wheat, drawing relationships between the 103 differentially expressed proteins and their annotated biological pathways. To further validate our proposed protein network, we determined relevant physiological values and performed real-time PCR assays. Our proteomics based approach has enabled us to identify certain tendencies in PHYMS anthers. Anomalies in carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress, together with premature tapetum degradation, may be the cause behind carbohydrate starvation and male sterility in CHA SQ-1 treated plants. Here, we provide important insight into the mechanisms underlying CHA SQ-1-induced male sterility. Our findings have practical implications for the application of hybrid breeding in wheat.

  11. Modelling stratospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Numerical modelling of atmospheric chemistry aims to increase the understanding of the characteristics, the behavior and the evolution of atmospheric composition. These topics are of utmost importance in the study of climate change. The multitude of gases and particulates making up the atmosphere and the complicated interactions between them affect radiation transfer, atmospheric dynamics, and the impacts of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Chemical processes are fundamental factors in global warming, ozone depletion and atmospheric pollution problems in general. Much of the prevailing work on modelling stratospheric chemistry has so far been done with 1- and 2-dimensional models. Carrying an extensive chemistry parameterisation in a model with high spatial and temporal resolution is computationally heavy. Today, computers are becoming powerful enough to allow going over to 3-dimensional models. In order to concentrate on the chemistry, many Chemical Transport Models (CTM) are still run off-line, i.e. with precalculated and archived meteorology and radiation. In chemistry simulations, the archived values drive the model forward in time, without interacting with the chemical evolution. This is an approach that has been adopted in stratospheric chemistry modelling studies at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In collaboration with the University of Oslo, a development project was initiated in 1993 to prepare a stratospheric chemistry parameterisation, fit for global 3-dimensional modelling. This article presents the parameterisation approach. Selected results are shown from basic photochemical simulations

  12. Modelling stratospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1995-12-31

    Numerical modelling of atmospheric chemistry aims to increase the understanding of the characteristics, the behavior and the evolution of atmospheric composition. These topics are of utmost importance in the study of climate change. The multitude of gases and particulates making up the atmosphere and the complicated interactions between them affect radiation transfer, atmospheric dynamics, and the impacts of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Chemical processes are fundamental factors in global warming, ozone depletion and atmospheric pollution problems in general. Much of the prevailing work on modelling stratospheric chemistry has so far been done with 1- and 2-dimensional models. Carrying an extensive chemistry parameterisation in a model with high spatial and temporal resolution is computationally heavy. Today, computers are becoming powerful enough to allow going over to 3-dimensional models. In order to concentrate on the chemistry, many Chemical Transport Models (CTM) are still run off-line, i.e. with precalculated and archived meteorology and radiation. In chemistry simulations, the archived values drive the model forward in time, without interacting with the chemical evolution. This is an approach that has been adopted in stratospheric chemistry modelling studies at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In collaboration with the University of Oslo, a development project was initiated in 1993 to prepare a stratospheric chemistry parameterisation, fit for global 3-dimensional modelling. This article presents the parameterisation approach. Selected results are shown from basic photochemical simulations

  13. Chemical sensing underclothing system for testing PPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabotinsky, J.; Kralik, L.; Bradka, S.; Castulik, P.

    2009-01-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) when worn is subjected to pressure differentials across the garment due to ambient wind flow, by body movement and breathing creating the bellows effect, which may force hazardous chemicals vapor or aerosol through the closures, joints, outlet valves and/or clothing protective fabric. Thus the design, fit, size or improper donning of the protective garment will influence chemical-agent penetration. In order to determine penetration of chemical-protective garments by chemical vapor or aerosol, it is necessary to test the entire suit system, including seams, closures, outlet valves and areas of transition with other protective equipment, that is, at the ankles, waist, wrists, neck etc. In order to identify penetration of chemical vapor or aerosol through protective assembly, the Man-in-Simulant Test (MIST) with passive adsorptive devices (PADs) is used, when adsorbed challenging agent (simulant) is desorbed from the PAD and quantified. The current MIST method is failing in complexity of leak detection, due to limited number of passive collection points fixed on human body or a mannequin and very labor extensive work associated with allocation of 20-40 PADs and quantification of adsorbed agent. The Czech approach to detect and quantify penetration/permeation of chemical agent is based on chemical sensing underclothing enable to change the color when exposed with simulant or even with real CW agent. Color intensity and shape of stains on sensing fabric are processed with Laboratory Universal Computer Image Analysis (LUCIA) allowing determining the quantity and the allocation of the penetrating noxious agent(s). This method allows for example calculate individual doses of exposure, the breakthrough coefficient of protective garment as whole and uniquely precise allocation of penetration/permeation shortfalls. Presentation is providing detailed description of imaging system with nickname 'LUCY' in combination with testing mannequin

  14. Report on NCI symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. II. Cellular and animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The point at which the common final pathway for induction of cancer by chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation has not been identified. Although common molecular targets are suggested by recent findings about the role of oncogenes, the mechanism by which the deposition of radiation energy and the formation of adducts or other DNA lesions induced by chemicals affects the changes in the relevant targets may be quite different. The damage to DNA that plays no part in the transformation events, but that influences the stability of the genome, and therefore, the probability of subsequent changes that influence tumorigenesis may be more readily induced by some agents than others. Similarly, the degree of cytotoxic effects that disrupt tissue integrity and increase the probability of expression of initiated cells may be dependent on the type of carcinogen. Also, evidence was presented that repair of the initial lesions could be demonstrated after exposure to low-LET radiation but not after exposure to chemical carcinogens

  15. Report on NCI symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. II. Cellular and animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The point at which the common final pathway for induction of cancer by chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation has not been identified. Although common molecular targets are suggested by recent findings about the role of oncogenes, the mechanism by which the deposition of radiation energy and the formation of adducts or other DNA lesions induced by chemicals affects the changes in the relevant targets may be quite different. The damage to DNA that plays no part in the transformation events, but that influences the stability of the genome, and therefore, the probability of subsequent changes that influence tumorigenesis may be more readily induced by some agents than others. Similarly, the degree of cytotoxic effects that disrupt tissue integrity and increase the probability of expression of initiated cells may be dependent on the type of carcinogen. Also, evidence was presented that repair of the initial lesions could be demonstrated after exposure to low-LET radiation but not after exposure to chemical carcinogens.

  16. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki

    2017-01-01

    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design—wearable APP (WAPP)—that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents.

  17. Benzotriazole as a passivating agent during chemical mechanical planarization of Ni–P alloy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yan; Zhong, Mingjie; Rushing, Kenneth J.; Li, Yuzhuo; Shipp, Devon A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Benzotriazole (BTA) is used to passivate the Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Ni-P alloys. • BTA significantly decreases the average R a of the polished surfaces at low concentrations. • XPS, AFM and electrochemical studies are used to probe passivation effects of BTA on Ni–P surfaces. • Findings potentially impact hard disk drive manufacturing processes. - Abstract: With the rapid increase of data storage density on computer hard disk drives (HDDs), the operation distance between read/write head and disk surface has fallen to just a few nanometers. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been selected as the best process to produce high quality surface finish during the manufacturing of Ni–P alloy substrates for HDD applications. Herein we report, for the first time, the use of benzotriazole (BTA) as a passivating agent in CMP slurries to decrease the surface roughness (R a ). Results show that the average R a of the polished surfaces is decreased to 0.2 nm in a 5 μm × 5 μm scan area with the adding of 2 mM BTA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical studies results further prove the interaction between BTA and Ni–P surface and the formation of an effective passivating layer on Cu in CMP slurries containing BTA

  18. Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-12-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1998-11-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  20. Evaluation of Veriox as a Skin Decontamination Product after Dermal Exposure to the Nerve Agent VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    was to determine whether Veriox® had efficacy as a decontamination product (DC) after skin exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX. This study...countermeasure, decontamination , RSDL, VX, nerve agent, cutaneous exposure, chemical warfare agent 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...invested considerable resources in developing detectors, protective garments, and products to remove and/or decontaminate chemical agent exposure on

  1. Morphological, Chemical Surface, and Diffusive Transport Characterizations of a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Vázquez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of a nanoporous alumina membrane (NPAM by the two-step anodization method and its morphological and chemical surface characterization by analyzing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM micrographs and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS spectra is reported. Influence of electrical and diffusive effects on the NaCl transport across the membrane nanopores is determined from salt diffusion measurements performed with a wide range of NaCl concentrations, which allows the estimation of characteristic electrochemical membrane parameters such as the NaCl diffusion coefficient and the concentration of fixed charges in the membrane, by using an appropriated model and the membrane geometrical parameters (porosity and pore length. These results indicate a reduction of ~70% in the value of the NaCl diffusion coefficient through the membrane pores with respect to solution. The transport number of ions in the membrane pores (Na+ and Cl−, respectively were determined from concentration potential measurements, and the effect of concentration-polarization at the membrane surfaces was also considered by comparing concentration potential values obtained with stirred solutions (550 rpm and without stirring. From both kinds of results, a value higher than 0.05 M NaCl for the feed solution seems to be necessary to neglect the contribution of electrical interactions in the diffusive transport.

  2. Interaction of Physical and Chemical Processes Controlling the Environmental Fate and Transport of Lampricides Through Stream-Hyporheic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2016-12-01

    The transport and fate of contaminants of emerging concern through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of natural systems and the unique reaction pathways of individual compounds. Our current evaluation of risk is often simplified to controls assumed to be homogeneous in space and time. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reaction rates complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and therefore risk. These complications are the result of the interactions between the physical and chemical systems and the time-variable equilibrium that exists between the two. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  3. Alkalisation agent measurement with differential conductivity method in secondary water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuhrmann, Peter; Lendi, Marco

    2012-09-01

    Besides ammonia hydroxide, also morpholine and ethanol-amine (ETA) are mainly used as a pH regulating agent on the secondary water side [1]. The concentration of the alkalisation agent can only be calculated if the chemical composition in the sample is known [2]. Therefore, for a reliable alkalisation agent measurement, there are three major steps to take: A reliable specific and (degassed) acid conductivity measurement, pH calculation and the selection of the chemical model for concentration calculation of the alkalisation agent (authors)

  4. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.; Clark, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves

  5. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Computer-Chemistry-Center and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Jordan, Meredith J. T. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Clark, Timothy, E-mail: tim.clark@fau.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Computer-Chemistry-Center and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Centre for Molecular Design, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-28

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves.

  6. A cloud-scale chemical-transport simulation during EULINOX. A case study for July 21 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues addressed by the European project EULINOX covered mainly the quantification of NOx production from lightning, the transport of NOx and surface emissions (e.g. CO) by convective systems, and the lightning distribution around thunderstorms. O3, CO, CO2, NOx, CN concentrations, J(NO2), meteorological variables and lightning have been observed and measured using ground systems and aircraft platforms during the project. Two aircraft have been operated: the DLR Falcon and the Do-228 providing the distribution of species in the PBL and at higher altitudes across the anvil along the jet tracks. July 21st 1998 was a special day during EULINOX : strong convection system, high electrical activities and a NO pic around 23 ppbv on board Falcon in the anvil. Thunderstorms associated with strong convective systems were encountered and well covered by the network of measurement systems as well as for the meteorology than for the chemistry and lightning localization. This work focuses on two objectives: how to describe the meteorology during EULINOX and to quantify the impact of the cloud scales on tropospheric NO and CO concentration. To reach this target, 2 types of simulation have been performed. The fist one uses the MM5 model in a 4 domain-nested version (ratio =3) to simulate the convective cloud system or isolated cell with a 1.5km by 1.5km resolution for the finest grid. The second run uses an off-line chemical transport model (MEDIUM) with a detailed chemistry assimilating in input the MM5 dynamics. On a broader scale, the general synoptic meteorology over Europe is well simulated by MM5. Over the finest domain, the model was able to generate a supercell storm but rather weak (vertical characteristics) and unstable compared to the observations. The cell depth is in a good agreement with observations with a horizontal position lightly shifted spatially. The chemical-transport simulation using MEDIUM including as input the MM5 meteorology output shows a

  7. Low Level Chemical Toxicity: Relevance to Chemical Agent Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    or confirm a diagnosis of chemical sensitivity and suggest novel approaches in managing this malady. Project 4: Studies of gene expression...Lindberg I, Ugleholdt R, Holst J & Steiner DF 2002b Disruption of PC1/3 expression in mice causes dwarfism and multiple neuroendocrine peptide processing...2004;1:32- 34. [10] Diederich S,Eckmanns,T,Exner,P,Al-Saadi,N,Bahr,V,Oelkers,W. Differential diagnosis of polyuric/polydipsic syndromes with the aid

  8. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  9. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  10. Investigations of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry for a real-time threat monitoring scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebacher, Thomas; Sulzer, Philipp; Jürschik, Simone; Hartungen, Eugen; Jordan, Alfons; Edtbauer, Achim; Feil, Stefan; Hanel, Gernot; Jaksch, Stefan; Märk, Lukas; Mayhew, Chris A; Märk, Tilmann D

    2013-01-30

    Security and protection against terrorist attacks are major issues in modern society. One especially challenging task is the monitoring and protection of air conditioning and heating systems of buildings against terrorist attacks with toxic chemicals. As existing technologies have low selectivity, long response times or insufficient sensitivity, there is a need for a novel approach such as we present here. We have analyzed various chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and/or toxic industrial compounds (TICs) and related compounds, namely phosgene, diphosgene, chloroacetone, chloroacetophenone, diisopropylaminoethanol, and triethyl phosphate, utilizing a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) instrument with the objective of finding key product ions and their intensities, which will allow a low-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometry based PTR-MS system to be used with high confidence in the assignment of threat agents in the atmosphere. We obtained high accuracy PTR-TOFMS mass spectra of the six compounds under study at two different values for the reduced electric field in the drift tube (E/N). From these data we have compiled a table containing product ions, and isotopic and E/N ratios for highly selective threat compound detection with a compact and cost-effective quadrupole-based PTR-MS instrument. Furthermore, using chloroacetophenone (tear gas), we demonstrated that this instrument's response is highly linear in the concentration range of typical Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs). On the basis of the presented results it is possible to develop a compact and cost-effective PTR-QMS instrument that monitors air supply systems and triggers an alarm as soon as the presence of a threat agent is detected. We hope that this real-time surveillance device will help to seriously improve safety and security in environments vulnerable to terrorist attacks with toxic chemicals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Transport in Halobacterium Halobium: Light-Induced Cation-Gradients, Amino Acid Transport Kinetics, and Properties of Transport Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    Cell envelope vesicles prepared from H. halobium contain bacteriorhodopsin and upon illumination protons are ejected. Coupled to the proton motive force is the efflux of Na(+). Measurements of Na-22 flux, exterior pH change, and membrane potential, Delta(psi) (with the dye 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine) indicate that the means of Na(+) transport is sodium/proton exchange. The kinetics of the pH changes and other evidence suggests that the antiport is electrogenic (H(+)/Na(++ greater than 1). The resulting large chemical gradient for Na(+) (outside much greater than inside), as well as the membrane potential, will drive the transport of 18 amino acids. The I9th, glutamate, is unique in that its accumulation is indifferent to Delta(psi): this amino acid is transported only when a chemical gradient for Na(+) is present. Thus, when more and more NaCl is included in the vesicles glutamate transport proceeds with longer and longer lags. After illumination the gradient of H+() collapses within 1 min, while the large Na(+) gradient and glutamate transporting activity persists for 10- 15 min, indicating that proton motive force is not necessary for transport. A chemical gradient of Na(+), arranged by suspending vesicles loaded with KCl in NaCl, drives glutamate transport in the dark without other sources of energy, with V(sub max) and K(sub m) comparable to light-induced transport. These and other lines of evidence suggest that the transport of glutamate is facilitated by symport with Na(+), in an electrically neutral fashion, so that only the chemical component of the Na(+) gradient is a driving force.

  12. Fabrication of NdCeCuO and effects of binding agents on the growth, micro-structural and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, S., E-mail: serdar.altin@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Superiletkenlik Arastirma Grubu, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Aksan, M.A.; Turkoglu, S.; Yakinci, M.E. [Inonu Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Superiletkenlik Arastirma Grubu, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2011-12-15

    NdCeCuO system is a superconducting system which is dominated by electrons different from other HTc systems. Preparation of the NdCeCuO system under optimum conditions is very important for transport properties. Large grains can be obtained in NdCeCuO by employing wet-chemical route. NdCeCuO superconducting samples were fabricated using ethyl alcohol, acetone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as binding agents. For evaporation of binding agents, the samples were heat treated at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 24 h and then at 950 Degree-Sign C for 6-48 h under argon atmosphere to obtain the superconducting phase. The best superconducting performance was found in the sample heat treated at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 24 h and then 950 Degree-Sign C for 12 h which was fabricated by using acetone as binding agent. The T{sub c} and T{sub 0} value was found to be {approx}25 K and 23.4 K, respectively. Grain size in the samples fabricated was calculated using Scherer equation and SEM data. It was found that grain size strongly depends on the binding agents and heat treatment conditions. Some cracks and voids on the surface of the samples were observed, which influences the superconducting and electrical transport properties of the samples.

  13. Biological effects of radiation and chemical agents with special regard to repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.; Wottawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    It is reasonably certain that the introduction or increase of pollutants in the environment can augment mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. These effects are operationally definable, but the genetic organization and the underlying mechanisms of DNA repair, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are so complex as to make the extrapolation of results from mutagenicity test data to carcinogenicity somewhat uncertain. The subject is reviewed. Recent discoveries in gene organization and expression include overlapping genes in bacteriophages, split genes, processing of RNA and splicing, translocation of genes in eukaryotes, inactivation of the X-chromosome in mammals, etc. Apart from the genetic regulation, plasmids, insertion sequences and mutators can additionally affect mutation frequency. Cancers due to gene mutations, viruses, chemicals and physical agents are known. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms involved. The value of mutagenicity test data is beyond question, but in view of the extraordinary complexities encountered our extrapolations will be more sound if the data have the underpinning of basic information. (author)

  14. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Stress cracking e ataque químico do PET em diferentes agentes químicos Stress cracking and chemical attack of pet under different chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvânia T. Teófilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de resistência ao stress cracking (ESCR do PET foi feita em corpos de prova de tração moldados por injeção, utilizando vários agentes químicos (metanol, etanol, propanol, butanol e soluções de hidróxido de sódio em diferentes concentrações. Foram realizados ensaios dinâmicos e estáticos de tração. Durante os testes os corpos de prova foram mantidos em contato com os agentes e as propriedades mecânicas monitoradas. Os resultados evidenciam que todas as soluções de hidróxidos de sódio testadas são agentes agressivos de ESC por diminuírem as propriedades mecânicas do polímero, ocasionando falha catastrófica. Já os demais fluidos, apesar de não terem efeito significativo nas propriedades do PET, afetam drasticamente sua aparência superficial. Observou-se também a ocorrência de ataque químico nos ensaios com NaOH, resultando em redução nas massas molares.The investigation of stress cracking resistance (ESCR of PET was done in injection-moulded tensile test bars using different fluids as active agents. These were methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and solutions based on sodium hydroxide. Both dynamic and static tensile experiments were conducted. During the tensile experiments, the samples were kept in contact with the fluids and the mechanical properties were monitored. The results showed that all sodium hydroxide solutions were aggressive stress cracking agents for PET, reducing mechanical properties and causing catastrophic failure. On the other hand, the other fluids did not cause much influence on the mechanical behaviour but changed drastically the surface appearance. Also observed was a chemical attack when NaOH solutions were used, causing a reduction in molar mass of PET molecules.

  16. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in food products by atmospheric pressure ionization-high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Beata M; D'Agostino, Paul A; Chenier, Claude; Mester, Zoltán

    2007-11-01

    Flow injection high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS)-mass spectrometry (MS) methodology was developed for the detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) agents in spiked food products. The CW agents, soman (GD), sarin (GB), tabun (GA), cyclohexyl sarin (GF), and four hydrolysis products, ethylphosphonic acid (EPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (Pin MPA), and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) were separated and detected by positive ion and negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization-FAIMS-MS. Under optimized conditions, the compensation voltages were 7.2 V for GD, 8.0 V for GA, 7.2 V for GF, 7.6 V for GB, 18.2 V for EPA, 25.9 V for MPA, -1.9 V for PinMPA, and +6.8 V for IMPA. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum, resulting in analysis times of 3 min or less per sample. The developed methodology was evaluated by spiking bottled water, canola oil, cornmeal, and honey samples at low microgram per gram (or microg/mL) levels with the CW agents or CW agent hydrolysis products. The detection limits observed for the CW agents in the spiked food samples ranged from 3 to 15 ng/mL in bottled water, 1-33 ng/mL in canola oil, 1-34 ng/g in cornmeal, and 13-18 ng/g in honey. Detection limits were much higher for the CW agent hydrolysis products, with only MPA being detected in spiked honey samples.

  17. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  18. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Consequences Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents...control. Procedures to avoid, reduce, remove, or render harmless (temporarily or permanently) nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical...destroying, neutralizing, making harmless , or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it. (JP 1

  19. Adsorption and Desorption of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants on Silica Surfaces with Hydrophobic Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok

    2013-01-01

    Aim of our study is finding adsorbents suitable for pre-concentration of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We considered Tenax, bare silica and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica as adsorbents for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME). Tenax showed lower thermal stability, and therefore, desorption of CWA simulants and decomposition of Tenax took place simultaneously. Silica-based adsorbents showed higher thermal stabilities than Tenax. A drawback of silica was that adsorption of CWA simulant (DMMP) was significantly reduced by pre-treatment of the adsorbents with humid air. In the case of PDMS-coated silica, influence of humidity for CWA simulant adsorption was less pronounced due to the hydrophobic nature of PDMS-coating. We propose that PDMS-coated silica can be of potential importance as adsorbent of CWAs for their pre-concentration, which can facilitate detection of these CWAs

  20. Adsorption and Desorption of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants on Silica Surfaces with Hydrophobic Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Aim of our study is finding adsorbents suitable for pre-concentration of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We considered Tenax, bare silica and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica as adsorbents for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME). Tenax showed lower thermal stability, and therefore, desorption of CWA simulants and decomposition of Tenax took place simultaneously. Silica-based adsorbents showed higher thermal stabilities than Tenax. A drawback of silica was that adsorption of CWA simulant (DMMP) was significantly reduced by pre-treatment of the adsorbents with humid air. In the case of PDMS-coated silica, influence of humidity for CWA simulant adsorption was less pronounced due to the hydrophobic nature of PDMS-coating. We propose that PDMS-coated silica can be of potential importance as adsorbent of CWAs for their pre-concentration, which can facilitate detection of these CWAs.

  1. Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ott, Lesley E.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Allen, Dale J.; DeCaria, Alex J.; Ridley, Brian; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lang, Stephen; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) cloud-scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NOx on the basis of observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four

  2. Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission: Design, execution, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Crawford, James H.; Kleb, Mary M.; Connors, Vickie S.; Bendura, Richard J.; Raper, James L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gille, John C.; Emmons, Louisa; Heald, Colette L.

    2003-10-01

    The NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission was conducted in February-April 2001 over the NW Pacific (1) to characterize the Asian chemical outflow and relate it quantitatively to its sources and (2) to determine its chemical evolution. It used two aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, operating out of Hong Kong and Yokota Air Force Base (near Tokyo), with secondary sites in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, Okinawa, and Midway. The aircraft carried instrumentation for measurements of long-lived greenhouse gases, ozone and its precursors, aerosols and their precursors, related species, and chemical tracers. Five chemical transport models (CTMs) were used for chemical forecasting. Customized bottom-up emission inventories for East Asia were generated prior to the mission to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation with the aircraft data. Validation flights were conducted for the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument and revealed little bias (6 ± 2%) in the MOPITT measurements of CO columns. A major event of transpacific Asian pollution was characterized through combined analysis of TRACE-P and MOPITT data. The TRACE-P observations showed that cold fronts sweeping across East Asia and the associated warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are the dominant pathway for Asian outflow to the Pacific in spring. The WCBs lift both anthropogenic and biomass burning (SE Asia) effluents to the free troposphere, resulting in complex chemical signatures. The TRACE-P data are in general consistent with a priori emission inventories, lending confidence in our ability to quantify Asian emissions from socioeconomic data and emission factors. However, the residential combustion source in rural China was found to be much larger than the a priori, and there were also unexplained chemical enhancements (HCN, CH3Cl, OCS, alkylnitrates) in Chinese urban plumes. The Asian source of CCl4 was found to be much

  3. A Polyoxoniobate-Polyoxovanadate Double-Anion Catalyst for Simultaneous Oxidative and Hydrolytic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Hu, Jufang; Chi, Yingnan; Lin, Zhengguo; Zou, Bo; Yang, Song; Hill, Craig L; Hu, Changwen

    2017-04-10

    A novel double-anion complex, H 13 [(CH 3 ) 4 N] 12 [PNb 12 O 40 (V V O) 2 ⋅(V IV 4 O 12 ) 2 ]⋅22 H 2 O (1), based on bicapped polyoxoniobate and tetranuclear polyoxovanadate was synthesized, characterized by routine techniques and used in the catalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Under mild conditions, 1 catalyzes both hydrolysis of the nerve agent simulant, diethyl cyanophosphonate (DECP) and selective oxidation of the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). In the oxidative decontamination system 100 % CEES was transformed selectively to nontoxic 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide and vinyl ethyl sulfoxide using nearly stoichiometric 3 % aqueous H 2 O 2 with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 16 000 h -1 . Importantly, the catalytic activity is maintained even after ten recycles and CEES is completely decontaminated in 3 mins without formation of the highly toxic sulfone by-product. A three-step oxidative mechanism is proposed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Milling overrides cultivar, leavening agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Saia, Sergio; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Giovanniello, Valentina; De Vita, Pasquale

    2017-10-19

    Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs. wood-fired). Milling had the greatest impact over the other treatments for the rheological and chemical properties, including for VOCs, with great impact on the sensory traits of the flours and breads. The processing phases had great impact on smell and aroma, as defined through formation of alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, and other compounds (e.g., ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, methoxyphenyl oxime). Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. Baking mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. These data strongly undermine the belief of a 'better product' that is frequently attributed to old genotypes versus modern cultivars, and indicate that the milling and the bread-making processes determine the quality of the end product.

  5. DNA Charge Transport: From Chemical Principles to the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Anna R.; Grodick, Michael A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2016-01-01

    The DNA double helix has captured the imagination of many, bringing it to the forefront of biological research. DNA has unique features that extend our interest into areas of chemistry, physics, material science and engineering. Our laboratory has focused on studies of DNA charge transport (CT), wherein charges can efficiently travel long molecular distances through the DNA helix while maintaining an exquisite sensitivity to base pair π-stacking. Because DNA CT chemistry reports on the integrity of the DNA duplex, this property may be exploited to develop electrochemical devices to detect DNA lesions and DNA-binding proteins. Furthermore, studies now indicate that DNA CT may also be used in the cell by, for example, DNA repair proteins, as a cellular diagnostic, in order to scan the genome to localize efficiently to damage sites. In this review, we describe this evolution of DNA CT chemistry from the discovery of fundamental chemical principles to applications in diagnostic strategies and possible roles in biology. PMID:26933744

  6. Transcriptomic profiling of chemical exposure reveals roles of Yap1 in protecting yeast cells from oxidative and other types of stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhouquan; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Li; Dai, Heping; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptomic profiles are generated by comparing wild-type and the yeast yap1 mutant to various chemicals in an attempt to establish a correlation between this gene mutation and chemical exposure. Test chemicals include ClonNAT as a non-genotoxic agent, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) as an alkylating agent, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) as an oxidative agent and the mixture of t-BHP and MMS to reflect complex natural exposure. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and specific DEGs were obtained by excluding overlapping DEGs with the control group. In the MMS exposure group, deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic processes were upregulated, while oxidation-reduction processes were downregulated. In the t-BHP exposure group, metabolic processes were upregulated while peroxisome and ion transport pathways were downregulated. In the mixture exposure group, the proteasome pathway was upregulated, while the aerobic respiration was downregulated. Homologue analysis of DEGs related to human diseases showed that many of DEGs were linked to cancer, ageing and neuronal degeneration. These observations confirm that the yap1 mutant is more sensitive to chemicals than wild-type cells and that the susceptible individuals carrying the YAP1-like gene defect may enhance risk to chemical exposure. Hence, this study offers a novel approach to environmental risk assessment, based on the genetic backgrounds of susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Enforcing Integrity of Agent Migration Paths by Distribution of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, M.E.; Oey, M.A.; Timmer, R.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Brazier, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agent mobility is the ability of an agent to migrate from one location to another across a network. Though conceptually relatively straightforward, in practice security of mobile agents is a challenge: from transport layer security to preservation of integrity in open environments. This paper

  8. Building surface decontamination for chemical counter-terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S.; Thouin, G.; Kuang, W. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Volchek, K.; Fingas, M.; Li, K. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    A test method to compare and evaluate surface decontamination methods for buildings affected by chemical attacks was developed. Decontamination techniques generally depend on the nature and quantity of the weapon agent, the type of construction material and the location. Cleanup methods can be either physical, chemical or biological. This paper addressed chemical decontamination methods which use reactants to change the molecular structure of the contaminant. Peroxycarboxylic and peroxyacetic acids (PAA) are being used increasingly for both disinfection and environmental protection. In this study, 4 materials were chosen to represent common building materials. Samples were spiked with 10 mg of pesticides such as malathion and diazinon. Decontamination agents included the commercial decontamination agent CASCAD prepared in liquid form, a chemical preparation of PAA, and reagent grade peroxypropionic acid (PPA). The newly developed surface decontamination procedure can evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different chemical decontamination agents. The procedures were used on porous ceiling tile and carpet as well as on non-porous floor tile and painted steel surfaces. Rinse water was collected and analyzed in order to determine if decontamination was a result of chemical destruction or mechanical removal. The extraction efficiencies were found to be acceptable for all materials, with the exception of the highly porous ceiling tile. The extraction of diazinon from all surfaces was less efficient than the extraction of malathion. Results suggest that the performance of decontamination agents can be improved by repeated application of the decontamination agent, along with greater volumes and a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. It was also suggested that breakdown methods and wastewater treatment procedures should be developed because hazardous byproducts were detected in many samples. 18 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  9. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  10. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  11. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by bacterial phosphotriesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Eman; Raushel, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphates have been widely used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The health risks associated with these agents have necessitated the need for better detoxification and bioremediation tools. Bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the lethal organophosphate nerve agents are of special interest. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from the soil bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta displays a significant rate enhancement and substrate promiscuity for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters. Directed evolution and rational redesign of the active site of PTE have led to the identification of new variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity toward the hydrolysis of organophosphate neurotoxins. PTE has been utilized to protect against organophosphate poisoning in vivo. Biotechnological applications of PTE for detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents are developing into useful tools. In this review, the catalytic properties and potential applications of this remarkable enzyme are discussed

  12. CEST and PARACEST MR contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancu, Ileana; Dixon, W. Thomas; Woods, Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Vinogradov, Elena; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we describe the status of development for a new class of magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents, based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). The mathematics and physics relevant to the description of the CEST effect in MR are presented in an appendix published in the online version only. We discuss the issues arising when translating in vitro results obtained with CEST agents to using these MR agents in in vivo model studies and in humans. Examples are given on how these agents are imaged in vivo. We summarize the status of development of these CEST agents, and speculate about the next steps that may be taken towards the demonstration of CEST MR imaging in clinical applications

  13. [99mTc[TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Meiping; Stevenson, D.A.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K.; Beckwith, A.; Essman, W.D.; Mu, M.; Lucki, I.; Kung, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of 99m Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel 99m Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, β-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 μg per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  14. The study of thermodynamic properties and transport properties of multicomponent systems with chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samujlov E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In case of system with chemical reaction the most important properties are heat conductivity and heat capacity. In this work we have considered the equation for estimate the component of these properties caused by chemical reaction and ionization processes. We have evaluated the contribution of this part in heat conductivity and heat capacity too. At the high temperatures contribution in heat conductivity from ionization begins to play an important role. We have created a model, which describe partial and full ionization of gases and gas mixtures. In addition, in this work we present the comparison of our result with experimental data and data from numerical simulation. We was used the data about transport properties of middle composition of Russian coals and the data of thermophysical properties of natural gas for comparison.

  15. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-04

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) 30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral

  16. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lesão aguda esôfago - gástrica causada por agente químico Chemically induced esophagogastric acute injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Corsi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da ingestão de agentes químicos corrosivos continua controverso. A incidência desses episódios tem aumentado nas últimas décadas por várias razões. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ocorrência, as complicações e os resultados do tratamento da lesão esôfago - gástrica causada por agentes químicos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 21 pacientes adultos com lesão esôfago-gástrica, causada por ingestão de substância química, admitidos até 23 dias após o episódio, no Serviço de Emergência da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo num período de 12 anos. A média de idade foi 32,1 anos e 11 doentes pertenciam ao sexo feminino, as quais mais freqüentemente tinham intenções suicidas. A soda cáustica foi o produto mais ingerido (76,2%, ingestão de ácido muriático ocorreu em três casos (14,3%, amoníaco e ácido sulfúrico em um caso (4,8% cada. RESULTADOS: As lesões faríngeas e laríngeas estiveram freqüentemente associadas às lesões de esôfago, presentes em 18 casos (85,7%. As lesões esofágicas, gástricas e duodenais foram avaliadas e classificadas por endoscopia. Lesões graves esofágicas ou gástricas estiveram presentes em cinco casos cada. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento e os resultados foram variados, mas sugeriram que a sondagem esofágica foi prejudicial. A mortalidade global foi 28,6%, mais elevada na lesão esofágica grau 3.Treatment of chemical agent ingestion remain controversial. The incidence of these episodes has increased over the several last decades due to a variety reasons. PURPOSE: To analise the occurance, complications and results of the treatment of chemically induced esophagogastric injury. METHODS: Twenty-one adult patients with chemically induced esophagogastric injury were retrospectively studied. The patients were admitted up to 23 days after ingestion of a chemical agent to the Emergency Department of Santa Casa of Sao Paulo University Hospital from August, in a 12-year

  18. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing