Sample records for chemical absorption-biological reduction

  1. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib


    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  2. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malpica Galassi, Riccardo


    A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis and reduction method which employs computational singular perturbation analysis to generate simplified kinetic mechanisms, starting from a detailed reference mechanism. We model uncertain quantities in the reference mechanism, namely the Arrhenius rate parameters, as random variables with prescribed uncertainty factors. We propagate this uncertainty to obtain the probability of inclusion of each reaction in the simplified mechanism. We propose probabilistic error measures to compare predictions from the uncertain reference and simplified models, based on the comparison of the uncertain dynamics of the state variables, where the mixture entropy is chosen as progress variable. We employ the construction for the simplification of an uncertain mechanism in an n-butane–air mixture homogeneous ignition case, where a 176-species, 1111-reactions detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of n-butane is used with uncertainty factors assigned to each Arrhenius rate pre-exponential coefficient. This illustration is employed to highlight the utility of the construction, and the performance of a family of simplified models produced depending on chosen thresholds on importance and marginal probabilities of the reactions.

  3. Hazardous Chemical Discharge Prevention and Reduction. (United States)


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  4. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A


    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  5. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A


    "Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry...

  6. Chemical reduction of CO2 facilitated by C-nucleophiles. (United States)

    Janes, Trevor; Yang, Yanxin; Song, Datong


    The abundance of atmospheric CO2 presents both an opportunity and a challenge for synthetic chemists to transform CO2 into value-added products. A promising strategy involves CO2 reduction driven by the energy stored in chemical bonds and promoted by molecules containing nucleophilic carbon sites. This approach allows the synthesis of new C-C or C-H bonds from CO2-derived carbon. The first part of this Feature article deals with uncatalyzed reductions of CO2 such as insertion into metal-carbon bonds and reactivity towards multidentate actor ligands and metal-free compounds. The second part covers catalytic reduction of CO2 in which a nucleophilic C-site is involved. This review brings together two general approaches in the chemical CO2 reduction field, showing how the discovery of fundamental reactivity of CO2 leads to synthetic applications, and proposes directions for further development.

  7. Chemical state mapping of heterogeneous reduction of iron ore sinter (United States)

    Kimura, M.; Takeichi, Y.; Murao, R.; Obayashi, I.; Hiraoka, Y.; Liu, Y.


    Iron ore sinter constitutes the major component of the iron-bearing burden in blast furnaces, and its reduction mechanism is one of the keys to improving the productivity of ironmaking. Iron ore sinter is composed of multiple iron oxide phases and calcium ferrites (CFs), and their heterogeneous reduction was investigated in terms of changes in iron chemical state: FeIII, FeII, and Fe0 were examined macroscopically by 2D X-ray absorption and microscopically by 3D transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). It was shown that the reduction starts at iron oxide grains rather than at calcium ferrite (CF) grains, especially those located near micropores. The heterogeneous reduction causes crack formation and deteriorates the mechanical strength of the sinter. These results help us to understand the fundamental aspects of heterogeneous reduction schemes in iron ore sinter.

  8. Trapping succinimides in aged polypeptides by chemical reduction. (United States)

    Carter, D A; McFadden, P N


    Cyclization of aspartic acid and asparagine to succinimides is thought to be a common spontaneous aging reaction in proteins, but the instability of the succinimide ring has made it difficult to directly measure this structure. Chemical reduction has now been tested as a means of trapping succinimides as stable derivatives, homoserine and isohomoserine. Two succinimide-containing compounds were tested in this manner. First, polysuccinimide was reduced by sodium borohydride to a derivative that contained homoserine and isohomoserine in amounts that were consistent with the content of succinimide determined independently by quantitative hydrolysis. The identity of isohomoserine was confirmed by its resistance to degradation by L-amino acid oxidase, and through its synthesis by an alternate route involving borane reduction of asparagine. Second, in a test of this approach on a peptide mixture with only a trace-content of succinimide, isohomoserine and homoserine were formed as reduction products in amounts equivalent to the trace content of succinimide in the mixture. Detection of the products of the chemical reduction of polypeptides is therefore diagnostic of succinimides, and can be successfully applied at the trace sensitivity necessary for studies of naturally aging proteins. A related study of the reduction of aspartyl and beta-aspartyl residues to, respectively, homoserine and isohomoserine, is described in the accompanying manuscript (Carter and McFadden, 1994).

  9. Bond-controlled configurational entropy reduction in chemical vitrification. (United States)

    Corezzi, Silvia; Fioretto, Daniele; Rolla, Pierangelo


    Glass formation is usually viewed in terms of physical vitrification: a liquid in a metastable state is cooled or compressed so as to avoid crystallization. However, glasses may also be formed by chemical vitrification, a process involving progressive polymerization of the constituent molecules via the formation of irreversible chemical bonds. The formation of most of the materials used in engineering plastics and the hardening of natural and synthetic resins are based on chemical vitrification. Despite the differences in the molecular processes involved in chemical and physical vitrification, surprising similarities are observed in the slowing down of the dynamics and in the thermodynamical properties of the resulting glasses. Explaining such similarities would improve general understanding of the glass transition and may disclose its universal nature. Here we report dielectric and photon-correlation measurements that reveal the origin of the similarity in the dynamical behaviour of physical and chemical glass formers. We find that the evolution of their configurational restrictions proceeds in a similar manner. In particular, we make a connection between the reduction in configurational entropy and the number of chemical bonds, a quantity that can be controlled in experiments.

  10. Kinetics of cyanogen chloride destruction by chemical reduction methods. (United States)

    Shang, Chii; Qi, Yinan; Xie, Li; Liu, Wei; Yang, Xin


    In this study, membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) was applied to evaluate the kinetics of cyanogen chloride (ClCN) destruction by chemical reduction methods, using thiosulfate, sulfite, metabisulfite, ferrous ions and zero-valent iron at various concentrations and pH. The ClCN destruction followed second-order reaction kinetics in all cases of using sulfur compounds, though the second-order rate constants varied substantially from approximately 0.3-25.7 M(-1)s(-1) under different experimental conditions. The destruction of ClCN was primarily attributable to the chemical reduction pathway. Hydroxide-assisted ClCN hydrolysis was only significant at pH 9 and also when the observed reduction rate was relatively slow. The second-order rate constants achieved by sulfur(IV) compounds in the form of sulfite were found to be higher than those obtained with thiosulfate and S(IV) compounds in the form of bisulfite. Ferrous ions and zero-valent iron demonstrated slow or no ClCN reduction up to dosages of 1000 mgL(-1) and 100 gL(-1), respectively. These findings suggest that applying moderately high dosages of S(IV) compounds under neutral or alkali conditions with sufficient contact time is required for wastewater ClCN destruction. In addition, ClCN losses during long-term preservation with excess reducing sulfur compounds prior to analysis can be substantial and should be avoided.

  11. Modifier effects on chemical reduction synthesis of nanostructured copper (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaonong; Zhang, Xifeng; Yin, Hengbo; Wang, Aili; Xu, Yiqing


    Size-controlled chemical reduction synthesis of nanostructured Cu was studied in the presence of a single modifier such as polyethylene glycols, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate or a mixture of two different types of modifiers. The Cu nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average particle size and particle size distribution of the nanostructured Cu depend upon the type of modifiers and the modifier effect follows the order: PEG-2000 > SDBS > PEG-600 > SDS > PEG-6000. The experimental results indicate that due to the existence of a synergistic action, a mixture of two types of modifiers has a significant effect on the particle size and the size distribution of Cu nanoparticles.

  12. Modifier effects on chemical reduction synthesis of nanostructured copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Xiaonong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang Xifeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)]. E-mail:; Yin Hengbo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang Aili [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xu Yiqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)


    Size-controlled chemical reduction synthesis of nanostructured Cu was studied in the presence of a single modifier such as polyethylene glycols, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate or a mixture of two different types of modifiers. The Cu nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average particle size and particle size distribution of the nanostructured Cu depend upon the type of modifiers and the modifier effect follows the order: PEG-2000 > SDBS > PEG-600 > SDS > PEG-6000. The experimental results indicate that due to the existence of a synergistic action, a mixture of two types of modifiers has a significant effect on the particle size and the size distribution of Cu nanoparticles.

  13. Order reduction of the chemical master equation via balanced realisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Caamal

    Full Text Available We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ODE set that accurately approximates the probabilities of subspaces of interest with a known error bound. Our methodology is based on model reduction by balanced truncation and can be considerably more computationally efficient than solving the chemical master equation directly. We show the applicability of our method by analysing stochastic chemical reactions. First, we obtain a reduced order model for the infinitesimal generator of a Markov chain that models a reversible, monomolecular reaction. Later, we obtain a reduced order model for a catalytic conversion of substrate to a product (a so-called Michaelis-Menten mechanism, and compare its dynamics with a rapid equilibrium approximation method. For this example, we highlight the savings on the computational load obtained by means of the reduced-order model. Furthermore, we revisit the substrate catalytic conversion by obtaining a lower-order model that approximates the probability of having predefined ranges of product molecules. In such an example, we obtain an approximation of the output of a model with 5151 states by a reduced model with 16 states. Finally, we obtain a reduced-order model of the Brusselator.

  14. Order reduction of the chemical master equation via balanced realisation. (United States)

    López-Caamal, Fernando; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T


    We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ODE set that accurately approximates the probabilities of subspaces of interest with a known error bound. Our methodology is based on model reduction by balanced truncation and can be considerably more computationally efficient than solving the chemical master equation directly. We show the applicability of our method by analysing stochastic chemical reactions. First, we obtain a reduced order model for the infinitesimal generator of a Markov chain that models a reversible, monomolecular reaction. Later, we obtain a reduced order model for a catalytic conversion of substrate to a product (a so-called Michaelis-Menten mechanism), and compare its dynamics with a rapid equilibrium approximation method. For this example, we highlight the savings on the computational load obtained by means of the reduced-order model. Furthermore, we revisit the substrate catalytic conversion by obtaining a lower-order model that approximates the probability of having predefined ranges of product molecules. In such an example, we obtain an approximation of the output of a model with 5151 states by a reduced model with 16 states. Finally, we obtain a reduced-order model of the Brusselator.

  15. Chemical reactions occurring during direct solar reduction of CO2. (United States)

    Lyma, J L; Jensen, R J


    At high temperatures carbon dioxide may absorb solar radiation and react to form carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen. The CO, so produced, may be converted by well-established means to a combustible fuel, such as methanol. We intend to make a future demonstration of the solar reduction of CO2 based on these processes. This paper, however, addresses only the problem of preserving, or even enhancing, the initial photolytic CO by quenching the hot gas with colder H2O or CO2. We present model calculations with a reaction mechanism used extensively in other calculations. If a CO2 gas stream is heated and photolyzed by intense solar radiation and then allowed to cool slowly, it will react back to the initial CO2 by a series of elementary chemical reactions. The back reaction to CO2 can be terminated with the rapid addition of CO2, water, or a mixture. Calculations show that a three-fold quench with pure CO2 will stop the reactions and preserve over 90% of the initial photolytic CO. We find that water has one of two effects. It can either increase the CO level, or it can catalyze the recombination of O and CO to CO2. The gas temperature is the determining factor. If the quench gas is not sufficient to keep the temperature below approximately 1100 K, a chain-branching reaction dominates and the reaction to CO2 occurs. If the temperature stays below that level a chain terminating reaction dominates and the CO is increased. The former case occurs below approximately a fourfold quench with a water/CO2 mixture. The later case occurs when the quench is greater than fourfold. We conclude that CO2, H2O, or a mixture may quench the hot gas stream photolyzed by solar radiation and preserve the photolytic CO.

  16. Evaluation and Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing chemical kinetic mechanism reduction techniques. From here, an appropriate reduction scheme was developed to create compact yet comprehensive surrogate models for both diesel and biodiesel fuels for diesel engine applications. The reduction techni...

  17. Development and Validation of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Large-Scale Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin


    This work is an extension to a previously reported work on chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme for large-scale mechanisms. Here, Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) was added as a criterion of data source for mechanism reduction instead of using only auto-ignition condition. As a result, a re...

  18. Preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method. (United States)

    Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Obaid, Abdullah Yousif; Al-Youbi, A O


    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of AgNO(3) with aniline in dilute aqueous solutions containing cetyltrimethlyammonium bromide, CTAB. Nanoparticles growth was assessed by UV-vis spectroscopy and the average particle size and the size distribution were determined from transmission electron microscopy, TEM. As the reaction proceeds, a typical plasmon absorption band at 390-450nm appears for the silver nanoparticles and the intensities increase with the time. Effects of [aniline], [CTAB] and [Ag(+)] on the particle formation rate were analyzed. The apparent rate constants for the formation of silver nanoparticles first increased until it reached a maximum then decreased with [aniline]. TEM photographs indicate that the silver sol consist of well dispersed agglomerates of spherical shape nanoparticles with particle size range from 10 to 30nm. Aniline concentrations have no significant effect on the shape, size and the size distribution of Ag-nanoparticles. Aniline acts as a reducing as well as adsorbing agent in the preparation of roughly spherical, agglomerated and face-centered-cubic silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction Kinetics of a CasO4 Based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion (United States)

    Xiao, R.; Song, Q. L.; Zheng, W. G.; Deng, Z. Y.; Shen, L. H.; Zhang, M. Y.

    The CaSO4 based oxygen carrier has been proposed as an alternative low cost oxygen carrier for Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. The reduction of CaSO4 to CaS is an important step for the cyclic process of reduction/oxidation in CLC of coal with CaSO4 based oxygen carrier. Thermodynamic analysis of CaSO4 oxygen carrier with CO based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization show that the essentially high purity of CO2 can be obtained, while the solid product is CaS instead of CaO. The intrinsic reduction kinetics of a CaSO4 based oxygen carrier with CO was investigated in a differential fixed bed reactor. The effects of gas partial pressure (20%-70%) and temperature (880-950°C) on the reduction were investigated. The reduction was described with shrinking unreacted core model. Experimental results of CO partial pressure on the solid conversion show that the reduction of fresh oxygen carriers is of first order with respect to the CO partial pressure. Both chemical reaction control and product layer diffusion control determine the reduction rate. The dependences of reaction rate constant and effective diffusivity with temperature were both obtained. The kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data.

  20. Chemical and enzymatic reductive activation of acylfulvene to isomeric cytotoxic reactive intermediates. (United States)

    Pietsch, Kathryn E; Neels, James F; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Jiachang; Sturla, Shana J


    Acylfulvenes (AFs), a class of semisynthetic analogues of the sesquiterpene natural product illudin S, are cytotoxic toward cancer cells. The minor structural changes between illudin S and AFs translate to an improved therapeutic window in preclinical cell-based assays and xenograft models. AFs are, therefore, unique tools for addressing the chemical and biochemical basis of cytotoxic selectivity. AFs elicit cytotoxic responses by alkylation of biological targets, including DNA. While AFs are capable of direct alkylation, cytosolic reductive bioactivation to an electrophilic intermediate is correlated with enhanced cytotoxicity. Data obtained in this study illustrate chemical aspects of the process of AF activation. By tracking reaction mechanisms with stable isotope-labeled reagents, enzymatic versus chemical activation pathways for AF were compared for reactions involving the NADPH-dependent enzyme prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) or sodium borohydride, respectively. These two processes resulted in isomeric products that appear to give rise to similar patterns of DNA modification. The chemically activated isomer has been newly isolated and chemically characterized in this study, including an assessment of its relative stereochemistry and stability at varying pH and under bioassay conditions. In mammalian cancer cells, this chemically activated analogue was shown to not rely on further cellular activation to significantly enhance cytotoxic potency, in contrast to the requirements of AF. On the basis of this study, we anticipate that the chemically activated form of AF will serve as a useful chemical probe for evaluating biomolecular interactions independent of enzyme-mediated activation.

  1. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  2. In-situ chemical reduction produced graphene paper for flexible supercapacitors with impressive capacitive performance (United States)

    Ye, Xingke; Zhu, Yucan; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan; Jia, Chunyang


    For practical applications of graphene-based materials in flexible supercapacitors, a technological breakthrough is currently required to fabricate high-performance graphene paper by a facile method. Herein, highly conductive (∼6900 S m-1) graphene paper with loose multilayered structure is produced by a high-efficiency in-situ chemical reduction process, which assembles graphite oxide suspensions into film and simultaneously conducts chemical reduction. Graphene papers with different parameters (including different types and doses of reductants, different thicknesses and areas of films) are successfully fabricated through this in-situ chemical reduction method. Meanwhile, the influences of the graphene papers with different parameters upon the supercapacitor performance are systematically investigated. Flexible supercapacitor based on the graphene paper exhibits high areal capacitance (152.4 mF cm-2 at current density of 2.0 mA cm-2 in aqueous electrolyte), and excellent rate performance (88.7% retention at 8.0 mA cm-2). Furthermore, bracelet-shaped all-solid supercapacitor with fascinating cycling stability (96.6% retention after 10 000 cycles) and electrochemical stability (an almost negligible capacity loss under different bending states and 99.6% retention after 4000 bending cycles) is established by employing the graphene paper electrode material and polymer electrolyte.

  3. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.


    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  4. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens. (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M


    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fundamental limits on gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    In the plasma, the electrons do not react directly with the NOx molecules. The electrons collide mainly with the background gas molecules like N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Electron impact on these molecules result partly in dissociation reactions that produce reactive species like N, O and OH. The NOx in the engine exhaust gas initially consist mostly of NO. The ground state nitrogen atom, N, is the only species that could lead to the chemical reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The O radical oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2} leaving the same amount of NOx. The OH radical converts NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. Acid products in the plasma can easily get adsorbed on surfaces in the plasma reactor and in the pipes. When undetected, the absence of these oxidation products can often be mistaken for chemical reduction of NOx. In this paper the authors will examine the gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx. They will show that under the best conditions, the plasma can chemically reduce 1.6 grams of NOx per brake-horsepower-hour [g(NOx)/bhp-hr] when 5% of the engine output energy is delivered to the plasma.

  6. Removal of PCBs in contaminated soils by means of chemical reduction and advanced oxidation processes. (United States)

    Rybnikova, V; Usman, M; Hanna, K


    Although the chemical reduction and advanced oxidation processes have been widely used individually, very few studies have assessed the combined reduction/oxidation approach for soil remediation. In the present study, experiments were performed in spiked sand and historically contaminated soil by using four synthetic nanoparticles (Fe(0), Fe/Ni, Fe3O4, Fe3 - x Ni x O4). These nanoparticles were tested firstly for reductive transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and then employed as catalysts to promote chemical oxidation reactions (H2O2 or persulfate). Obtained results indicated that bimetallic nanoparticles Fe/Ni showed the highest efficiency in reduction of PCB28 and PCB118 in spiked sand (97 and 79 %, respectively), whereas magnetite (Fe3O4) exhibited a high catalytic stability during the combined reduction/oxidation approach. In chemical oxidation, persulfate showed higher PCB degradation extent than hydrogen peroxide. As expected, the degradation efficiency was found to be limited in historically contaminated soil, where only Fe(0) and Fe/Ni particles exhibited reductive capability towards PCBs (13 and 18 %). In oxidation step, the highest degradation extents were obtained in presence of Fe(0) and Fe/Ni (18-19 %). The increase in particle and oxidant doses improved the efficiency of treatment, but overall degradation extents did not exceed 30 %, suggesting that only a small part of PCBs in soil was available for reaction with catalyst and/or oxidant. The use of organic solvent or cyclodextrin to improve the PCB availability in soil did not enhance degradation efficiency, underscoring the strong impact of soil matrix. Moreover, a better PCB degradation was observed in sand spiked with extractable organic matter separated from contaminated soil. In contrast to fractions with higher particle size (250-500 and oxidation reactions in soils and understand the impact of soil properties on remediation performance.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Thin Films by Chemical Reduction of Exfoliated and Intercalated Graphite Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Thema


    Full Text Available Commercial flakes of graphite were prepared into functionalized graphene oxide (GO by chemical treatment. After the exfoliation and intercalation of graphene into functionalized graphene oxide that formed stable colloidal dispersion in polar aprotic solvent, the reduction process was undertaken by continuous stirring with hydrazine hydrate. The reduced material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, attenuated total reflectance (ATR FT-IR, ultraviolet visible (UV-vis, atomic force microscopy (AFM and Raman spectroscopy which confirm the oxidation of graphite and reduction of graphene oxide into graphene sheet.

  8. Sulfa Drugs Inhibit Sepiapterin Reduction and Chemical Redox Cycling by Sepiapterin Reductase (United States)

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Heindel, Ned D.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.


    Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the reduction of sepiapterin to dihydrobiopterin (BH2), the precursor for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor critical for nitric oxide biosynthesis and alkylglycerol and aromatic amino acid metabolism. SPR also mediates chemical redox cycling, catalyzing one-electron reduction of redox-active chemicals, including quinones and bipyridinium herbicides (e.g., menadione, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and diquat); rapid reaction of the reduced radicals with molecular oxygen generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using recombinant human SPR, sulfonamide- and sulfonylurea-based sulfa drugs were found to be potent noncompetitive inhibitors of both sepiapterin reduction and redox cycling. The most potent inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction (IC50s = 31–180 nM) were sulfasalazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, and chlorpropamide. Higher concentrations of the sulfa drugs (IC50s = 0.37–19.4 μM) were required to inhibit redox cycling, presumably because of distinct mechanisms of sepiapterin reduction and redox cycling. In PC12 cells, which generate catecholamine and monoamine neurotransmitters via BH4-dependent amino acid hydroxylases, sulfa drugs inhibited both BH2/BH4 biosynthesis and redox cycling mediated by SPR. Inhibition of BH2/BH4 resulted in decreased production of dopamine and dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Sulfathiazole (200 μM) markedly suppressed neurotransmitter production, an effect reversed by BH4. These data suggest that SPR and BH4-dependent enzymes, are “off-targets” of sulfa drugs, which may underlie their untoward effects. The ability of the sulfa drugs to inhibit redox cycling may ameliorate ROS-mediated toxicity generated by redox active drugs and chemicals, contributing to their anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25550200

  9. On the chemical and electrochemical one-electron reduction of peroxynitrous acid. (United States)

    Kurz, Christophe; Zeng, Xiuqiong; Hannemann, Stefan; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H


    Peroxynitrous acid was reduced by cathodic linear sweep voltammetry at a gold electrode and by iodide at pH 3.2 and 5.6. The cathodic reduction wave was identified by measuring its decay in time, which was the same as observed by optical spectroscopy. The iodide oxidation was followed by optical measurement of the triiodide formation. Both reductions show one-electron stoichiometry, with the product n(alpha)alpha = 0.23 +/- 0.04 from the electrochemical experiments, in which alpha is the transfer coefficient and n(alpha) the number of electrons transferred, and an diiodine yield of ca. 0.5 equiv per equivalent of peroxynitrous acid. The voltammetric reduction was irreversible up to scan rates of 80 V s(-1). Both reductions were pH independent in the range studied. The voltammetric reduction is most likely an irreversible elemental reaction followed by a chemical decay that cannot be observed directly. Because of the pH independence, we conclude that both reductions have a common short-lived intermediate, namely [HOONO]*-. We estimate the electrode potential of the likely ONOOH/ONOOH*- couple to be larger than 1 V. The commonly used electrode potential E degrees (ONOOH, H+/NO2*, H2O) does not describe the chemistry of peroxynitrous acid.

  10. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.


    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies.

  11. Stochastic reduction method for biological chemical kinetics using time-scale separation. (United States)

    Pahlajani, Chetan D; Atzberger, Paul J; Khammash, Mustafa


    Many processes in cell biology encode and process information and enact responses by modulating the concentrations of biological molecules. Such modulations serve functions ranging from encoding and transmitting information about external stimuli to regulating internal metabolic states. To understand how such processes operate requires gaining insights into the basic mechanisms by which biochemical species interact and respond to internal and external perturbations. One approach is to model the biochemical species concentrations through the van Kampen Linear Noise Equations, which account for the change in biochemical concentrations from reactions and account for fluctuations in concentrations. For many systems, the Linear Noise Equations exhibit stiffness as a consequence of the chemical reactions occurring at significantly different rates. This presents challenges in the analysis of the kinetics and in performing efficient numerical simulations. To deal with this source of stiffness and to obtain reduced models more amenable to analysis, we present a systematic procedure for obtaining effective stochastic dynamics for the chemical species having relatively slow characteristic time scales while eliminating representations of the chemical species having relatively fast characteristic time scales. To demonstrate the applicability of this multiscale technique in the context of Linear Noise Equations, the reduction is applied to models of gene regulatory networks. Results are presented which compare numerical results for the full system to the reduced descriptions. The presented stochastic reduction procedure provides a potentially versatile tool for systematically obtaining reduced approximations of Linear Noise Equations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Quality Reduced Graphene Oxide by a Dual-Function Chemical Reduction and Healing Process (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Yoo, HeeJoun; Lee, Saemi; Park, Younghun; Lee, Hyoyoung


    A new chemical dual-functional reducing agent, thiophene, was used to produce high-quality reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a result of a chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the healing of rGO. Thiophene reduced GO by donation of electrons with acceptance of oxygen while it was converted into an intermediate oxidised polymerised thiophene that was eventually transformed into polyhydrocarbon by loss of sulphur atoms. Surprisingly, the polyhydrocarbon template helped to produce good-quality rGOC (chemically reduced) and high-quality rGOCT after thermal treatment. The resulting rGOCT nanosheets did not contain any nitrogen or sulphur impurities, were highly deoxygenated and showed a healing effect. Thus the electrical properties of the as-prepared rGOCT were superior to those of conventional hydrazine-produced rGO that require harsh reaction conditions. Our novel dual reduction and healing method with thiophene could potentially save energy and facilitate the commercial mass production of high-quality graphene. PMID:23722643

  13. Efficient parametric analysis of the chemical master equation through model order reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldherr Steffen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stochastic biochemical reaction networks are commonly modelled by the chemical master equation, and can be simulated as first order linear differential equations through a finite state projection. Due to the very high state space dimension of these equations, numerical simulations are computationally expensive. This is a particular problem for analysis tasks requiring repeated simulations for different parameter values. Such tasks are computationally expensive to the point of infeasibility with the chemical master equation. Results In this article, we apply parametric model order reduction techniques in order to construct accurate low-dimensional parametric models of the chemical master equation. These surrogate models can be used in various parametric analysis task such as identifiability analysis, parameter estimation, or sensitivity analysis. As biological examples, we consider two models for gene regulation networks, a bistable switch and a network displaying stochastic oscillations. Conclusions The results show that the parametric model reduction yields efficient models of stochastic biochemical reaction networks, and that these models can be useful for systems biology applications involving parametric analysis problems such as parameter exploration, optimization, estimation or sensitivity analysis.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of risk-reduction strategies for consumer chemical products. (United States)

    Riley, D M; Fischhoff, B; Small, M J; Fischbeck, P


    Communication about risks offers a voluntary approach to reducing exposure to pollutants. Its adequacy depends on its impact on behavior. Estimating those impacts first requires characterizing current activities and their associated risk levels, and then predicting the effectiveness of risk-reduction strategies. Characterizing the risks from chemical consumer products requires knowledge of both the physical and the behavioral processes that influence exposures. This article presents an integrated approach that combines consumer interviews, users' beliefs and behaviors, and quantitative exposure modeling. This model was demonstrated in the context of consumer exposure to a methylene chloride-based paint stripper, showing how it could be used to evaluate current levels of risk and predict the effectiveness of proposed voluntary risk-reduction strategies.

  15. Graphite oxide platelets functionalized by poly(ionic liquid) brushes and their chemical reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jintao, E-mail:; Yan Xiaohui; Chen Feng; Fan Ping; Zhong Mingqiang [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology (China)


    In this paper, graphite oxide (GO) platelets functionalized by poly(ionic liquid) brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The chemical reduction of these functionalized platelets was also investigated. The functionalized platelets and their reduced products were characterized and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, {zeta} potential measurements, four-probe electrical measurements, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results demonstrated that the poly(ionic liquid) brushes could be grafted from the GO surface by SI-ATRP. The surface charges of the GO platelets surface transformed from negative to positive. Upon reduction by hydrazine, the functionalized platelets were partially reduced, as suggested by the observation that reduced GO exhibits electrical conductivity three magnitudes higher than that of original GO. Although partially reduced GO platelets were not as conductive as reduced GO without functionalization, they can be homogenously dispersed in water due to the presence of poly(ionic liquids) brushes.

  16. Visible light Cr(VI) reduction and organic chemical oxidation by TiO2 photocatalysis. (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Reddy, Ettireddy P; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G


    Here we report the simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) oxidation in water under visible light (wavelength > 400 nm) using commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. This remarkable observation was attributed to a synergistic effect among TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP. It is well known that TiO2 alone cannot remove either 4-CP or Cr(VI) efficiently under visible light. Moreover, the interaction between Cr(VI) and 4-CP is minimal if not negligible. However, we found that the combination of TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP together can enable efficient Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation under visible light. The specific roles of the three ingredients in the synergistic system were studied parametrically. It was found that optimal concentrations of Cr(VI) and TiO2 exist for the Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation. Cr(VI) was compared experimentally with other metals such as Cu(ll), Fe(lll), Mn(IV), Ce(IV), and V(V). Among all these metal ions, only Cr(VI) promotes the photocatalytic oxidation of 4-CP. The amount of 4-CP removed was directly related to the initial concentration of Cr(VI). The system was also tested with four other chemicals (aniline, salicylic acid, formic acid, and diethyl phosphoramidate). We found that the same phenomenon occurred for organics containing acid and/or phenolic groups. Cr(VI) was reduced at the same time as the organic chemicals being oxidized during photoreaction under visible light. The synergistic effect was also found with pure anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. This study demonstrates a possible economical way for environmental cleanup under visible light.

  17. Reduction kinetics of iron-based oxygen carriers using methane for chemical-looping combustion (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Shuzhong; Wang, Longfei; Lv, Mingming


    The performance of three iron-based oxygen carriers (pure Fe2O3, synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 and iron ore) in reduction process using methane as fuel is investigated in thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The reaction rate and mechanism between three oxygen carriers and methane are investigated. On the basis of reactivity in reduction process, it may be concluded that Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 has the best reactivity with methane. The reaction rate constant is found to be in the following order: Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 > pure Fe2O3 > iron ore and the activation energy varies between 49 and 184 kJ mol-1. Reduction reactions for the pure Fe2O3 and synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 are well represented by the reaction controlling mechanism, and for the iron ore the phase-boundary controlled (contracting cylinder) model dominates. The particles of iron ore and synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 have better stability than that of pure Fe2O3 when the reaction temperature is limited to lower than 1223 K. These preliminary results suggest that iron-based mixed oxygen carrier particles are potential to be used in methane chemical looping process, but the reactivity of the iron ore needs to be increased.

  18. Ni removal from aqueous solutions by chemical reduction: Impact of pH and pe in the presence of citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chi-Wang, E-mail: [Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151 Yingzhuan Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City, 25137, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151 Yingzhuan Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City, 25137, Taiwan (China); Department of Marine Leisure and Tourism, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, No. 150, Sec. 3, Binhai Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City, 251, Taiwan (China); Liang, Yang-Min; Chou, Yi-Hsuan [Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151 Yingzhuan Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City, 25137, Taiwan (China); Park, Hyung-June [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Kwang-Ho, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Shiao-Shing [Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)


    The chemical precipitation of Ni ions from industrial wastewater at alkaline pH values creates waste chemical sludge (e.g., Ni(OH){sub 2}). We herein focused on Ni removal via chemical reduction using dithionite, by converting Ni(II) to its elemental or other valuable forms. Without the presence of a chelator (e.g., citrate), the nickel reduction efficiency increased with increasing dithionite:Ni molar ratio, reaching 99% at ratios above 3:1. The effect of pH on Ni reduction was in agreement with the standard redox potentials (pe{sup 0}) of dithionite, which became more negative with an increase in pH leading to greater Ni reduction efficiencies. With the formation of Ni-citrate chelates, however, the Ni reduction deteriorated. Elevated pH and temperature improved nickel reduction, due to the greater reducing power of dithionite. The optimal pH value for Ni(II) reduction was found to be 8. Injecting Cu seed particles enhanced the rate and amount of Ni reduced. NiS and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} were identified in the crystal of the resulting solids by X-ray crystallography, and the presence of elemental Ni was explained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical reduction of actual printed circuit board wastewater with the dithionite:Ni(II) molar ratio dose of 12:1 retrieved 99% nickel after 30-min reaction at 40 °C.

  19. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration (United States)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.


    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  20. Reduction and Uncertainty Analysis of Chemical Mechanisms Based on Local and Global Sensitivities (United States)

    Esposito, Gaetano

    Numerical simulations of critical reacting flow phenomena in hypersonic propulsion devices require accurate representation of finite-rate chemical kinetics. The chemical kinetic models available for hydrocarbon fuel combustion are rather large, involving hundreds of species and thousands of reactions. As a consequence, they cannot be used in multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic calculations in the foreseeable future due to the prohibitive computational cost. In addition to the computational difficulties, it is also known that some fundamental chemical kinetic parameters of detailed models have significant level of uncertainty due to limited experimental data available and to poor understanding of interactions among kinetic parameters. In the present investigation, local and global sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to develop a systematic approach of reducing and analyzing detailed chemical kinetic models. Unlike previous studies in which skeletal model reduction was based on the separate analysis of simple cases, in this work a novel strategy based on Principal Component Analysis of local sensitivity values is presented. This new approach is capable of simultaneously taking into account all the relevant canonical combustion configurations over different composition, temperature and pressure conditions. Moreover, the procedure developed in this work represents the first documented inclusion of non-premixed extinction phenomena, which is of great relevance in hypersonic combustors, in an automated reduction algorithm. The application of the skeletal reduction to a detailed kinetic model consisting of 111 species in 784 reactions is demonstrated. The resulting reduced skeletal model of 37--38 species showed that the global ignition/propagation/extinction phenomena of ethylene-air mixtures can be predicted within an accuracy of 2% of the full detailed model. The problems of both understanding non-linear interactions between kinetic parameters and

  1. The Effect of Thickness and Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide on Nanoscale Friction. (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Hyunsoo; Koh, Sang Joon; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Park, Jeong Young


    The tribological properties of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are quite different from three-dimensional continuum materials because of the unique mechanical responses of 2D layers. It is known that friction on graphene shows a remarkable decreasing behavior as the number of layers increases, which is caused by the puckering effect. On other graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the thickness dependence of friction is important because of the possibilities for technical applications. In this report, we demonstrate unexpected layer-dependent friction behavior on GO and rGO layers. Friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on GO does not depend on the number of layers; however, after reduction, friction on rGO shows an inverse thickness dependence compared with pristine graphene. We show that the friction on rGO is higher than that on SiO2 at low load, and that an interesting crossover behavior at higher load occurs because of the lower friction coefficient and higher adhesion of the rGO. We provide a relevant interpretation that explains the effect of thickness and chemical reduction on nanoscale friction.

  2. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles in Ethylene Glycol by Chemical Reduction with Vanadium (+2 Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pietro Reverberi


    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG using copper sulphate as a precursor and vanadium sulfate as an atypical reductant being active at room temperature. We have described a technique for a relatively simple preparation of such a reagent, which has been electrolytically produced without using standard procedures requiring an inert atmosphere and a mercury cathode. Several stabilizing agents have been tested and cationic capping agents have been discarded owing to the formation of complex compounds with copper ions leading to insoluble phases contaminating the metallic nanoparticles. The elemental copper nanoparticles, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, have been characterized for composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and for size by dynamic light scattering (DLS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, giving a size distribution in the range of 40–50 nm for both stabilizing agents. From a methodological point of view, the process described here may represent an alternative to other wet-chemical techniques for metal nanoparticle synthesis in non-aqueous media based on conventional organic or inorganic reductants.

  3. In situ self-assembly of mild chemical reduction graphene for three-dimensional architectures. (United States)

    Chen, Wufeng; Yan, Lifeng


    Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of graphene are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, and sensors. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate macroscopic all-graphene 3D architectures under mild conditions. Here, a simple method for the preparation of 3D architectures of graphene is developed via the in situ self-assembly of graphene prepared by mild chemical reduction at 95 °C under atmospheric pressure without stirring. No chemical or physical cross-linkers or high pressures are required. The reducing agents include NaHSO(3), Na(2)S, Vitamin C, HI, and hydroquinone. Both graphene hydrogels and aerogels can be prepared by this method, and the shapes of the 3D architectures can be controlled by changing the type of reactor. The 3D architectures of graphene have low densities, high mechanical properties, thermal stability, high electrical conductivity, and high specific capacitance, which make them candidates for potential applications in supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and as supports for catalysts. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  4. Facile Synthesis of Mono-Dispersed Polystyrene (PS/Ag Composite Microspheres via Modified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu


    Full Text Available A modified method based on in situ chemical reduction was developed to prepare mono-dispersed polystyrene/silver (PS/Ag composite microspheres. In this approach; mono-dispersed PS microspheres were synthesized through dispersion polymerization using poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP as a dispersant at first. Then, poly-dopamine (PDA was fabricated to functionally modify the surfaces of PS microspheres. With the addition of [Ag(NH32]+ to the PS dispersion, [Ag(NH32]+ complex ions were absorbed and reduced to silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of PS-PDA microspheres to form PS/Ag composite microspheres. PVP acted both as a solvent of the metallic precursor and as a reducing agent. PDA also acted both as a chemical protocol to immobilize the silver nanoparticles at the PS surface and as a reducing agent. Therefore, no additional reducing agents were needed. The resulting composite microspheres were characterized by TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, XRD, UV-Vis and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The results showed that Ag nanoparticles (NPs were homogeneously immobilized onto the PS microspheres’ surface in the presence of PDA and PVP. PS/Ag composite microspheres were well formed with a uniform and compact shell layer and were adjustable in terms of their optical property.

  5. Systematic reduction of complex tropospheric chemical mechanisms, Part I: sensitivity and time-scale analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Whitehouse


    Full Text Available Explicit mechanisms describing the complex degradation pathways of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are important, since they allow the study of the contribution of individual VOCS to secondary pollutant formation. They are computationally expensive to solve however, since they contain large numbers of species and a wide range of time-scales causing stiffness in the resulting equation systems. This paper and the following companion paper describe the application of systematic and automated methods for reducing such complex mechanisms, whilst maintaining the accuracy of the model with respect to important species and features. The methods are demonstrated via application to version 2 of the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism. The methods of Jacobian analysis and overall rate sensitivity analysis proved to be efficient and capable of removing the majority of redundant reactions and species in the scheme across a wide range of conditions relevant to the polluted troposphere. The application of principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix was computationally expensive due to its use of the decomposition of very large matrices, and did not produce significant reduction over and above the other sensitivity methods. The use of the quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA proved to be an extremely successful method of removing the fast time-scales within the system, as demonstrated by a local perturbation analysis at each stage of reduction. QSSA species were automatically selected via the calculation of instantaneous QSSA errors based on user-selected tolerances. The application of the QSSA led to the removal of a large number of alkoxy radicals and excited Criegee bi-radicals via reaction lumping. The resulting reduced mechanism was shown to reproduce the concentration profiles of the important species selected from the full mechanism over a wide range of conditions, including those outside of which the reduced mechanism was

  6. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and acetaminophen oxidation using the continuous-flow chemical-less VUV process as an integrated advanced oxidation and reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza, E-mail:; Shekoohiyan, Sakine


    Highlights: • Simultaneous advanced oxidation and reduction processes were explored in VUV system. • Complete reduction of nitrate to N{sub 2} was achieved at the presence of acetaminophen. • Complete degradation of acetaminophen was achieved at the presence of nitrate. • Over 95% of acetaminophen was mineralized in the VUV photoreactor. • VUV is a chemical-less advanced process for treating water emerging contaminants. - Abstract: This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the continuous-flow VUV photoreactor as a novel chemical-less advanced process for simultaneously oxidizing acetaminophen (ACT) as a model of pharmaceuticals and reducing nitrate in a single reactor. Solution pH was an important parameter affecting the performance of VUV; the highest ACT oxidation and nitrate reduction attained at solution pH between 6 and 8. The ACT was oxidized mainly by HO· while the aqueous electrons were the main working agents in the reduction of nitrate. The performance of VUV photoreactor improved with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT); the complete degradation of ACT and ∼99% reduction of nitrate with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity achieved at HRT of 80 min. The VUV effluent concentrations of nitrite and ammonium at HRT of 80 min were below the drinking water standards. The real water sample contaminated with the ACT and nitrate was efficiently treated in the VUV photoreactor. Therefore, the VUV photoreactor is a chemical-less advanced process in which both advanced oxidation and advanced reduction reactions are accomplished. This unique feature possesses VUV photoreactor as a promising method of treating water contaminated with both pharmaceutical and nitrate.

  7. Flow Alteration and Chemical Reduction: Air Stripping to Lessen Subsurface Discharges of Mercury to Surface Water (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Bogle, M.; Liang, L.; Miller, C. L.; Peterson, M.; Southworth, G. R.; Spalding, B. P.


    process water. Greater than 90% of the mercury in that discharge was converted to the highly volatile dissolved Hg(0) by dechlorinating the streamflow with ascorbic acid and then treating it with a near stoichiometric concentration of the chemical reductant stannous chloride. Preliminary engineering evaluations indicate that once converted to Hg(0), mercury in the stream discharge could be removed by in-situ air stripping at the discharge point or perhaps within the enclosed stormdrain network upstream. If chemical reduction:air stripping was eventualy able to remove 80% or more of Hg from water, input to the stream from that source could be lowered from 6 - 8 g/d to 1 - 2 g/d. Together, these two strategies have the potential to eliminate much of the remaining dissolved Hg input to the creek.

  8. Ultrasound improves chemical reduction of natural contaminant microbiota and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica on strawberries. (United States)

    do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Peixoto, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Carneiro, Joel Camilo Souza; de São José, Jackline Freitas Brilhante; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos


    New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica intentionally inoculated onto strawberries were analyzed. Ultrasound increased the effect of all chemical compounds in the reduction of aerobic mesophilic, molds and yeasts. The best treatment for those groups of microorganisms was ultrasound combined with peracetic acid (US+PA) that reduced 1.8 and 2.0logcfu/g during 9days of storage. Bactericidal effect of peracetic acid was also improved by ultrasound inactivation of S. enterica, reaching a decimal reduction of 2.1logcfu/g. Moreover, synergistic effects were observed in contaminant natural microbiota inactivation for all tested compounds during storage, without any major physicochemical or sensory alteration to the strawberries. Therefore, ultrasound treatment can improve the effect of sanitizers that are substitutes of chlorine compounds without altering the quality of strawberries during storage. Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176); Peracetic acid (PubChem CID: 6585); Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PubChem CID: 18372154). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Chemical Reduction of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Photocatalytic Activity in Degrading Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Pau Ping Wong


    Full Text Available Textile industries consume large volumes of water for dye processing, leading to undesirable toxic dyes in water bodies. Dyestuffs are harmful to human health and aquatic life, and such illnesses as cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and hinder the photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants. To overcome this environmental problem, the advanced oxidation process is a promising technique to mineralize a wide range of dyes in water systems. In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO was prepared via an advanced chemical reduction route, and its photocatalytic activity was tested by photodegrading Reactive Black 5 (RB5 dye in aqueous solution. rGO was synthesized by dispersing the graphite oxide into the water to form a graphene oxide (GO solution followed by the addition of hydrazine. Graphite oxide was prepared using a modified Hummers’ method by using potassium permanganate and concentrated sulphuric acid. The resulted rGO nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Raman, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM to further investigate their chemical properties. A characteristic peak of rGO-48 h (275 cm−1 was observed in the UV spectrum. Further, the appearance of a broad peak (002, centred at 2θ = 24.1°, in XRD showing that graphene oxide was reduced to rGO. Based on our results, it was found that the resulted rGO-48 h nanoparticles achieved 49% photodecolorization of RB5 under UV irradiation at pH 3 in 60 min. This was attributed to the high and efficient electron transport behaviors of rGO between aromatic regions of rGO and RB5 molecules.

  10. Ni removal from aqueous solutions by chemical reduction: Impact of pH and pe in the presence of citrate. (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Yu, Jui-Hsuan; Liang, Yang-Min; Chou, Yi-Hsuan; Park, Hyung-June; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Chen, Shiao-Shing


    The chemical precipitation of Ni ions from industrial wastewater at alkaline pH values creates waste chemical sludge (e.g., Ni(OH)2). We herein focused on Ni removal via chemical reduction using dithionite, by converting Ni(II) to its elemental or other valuable forms. Without the presence of a chelator (e.g., citrate), the nickel reduction efficiency increased with increasing dithionite:Ni molar ratio, reaching ∼99% at ratios above 3:1. The effect of pH on Ni reduction was in agreement with the standard redox potentials (pe(0)) of dithionite, which became more negative with an increase in pH leading to greater Ni reduction efficiencies. With the formation of Ni-citrate chelates, however, the Ni reduction deteriorated. Elevated pH and temperature improved nickel reduction, due to the greater reducing power of dithionite. The optimal pH value for Ni(II) reduction was found to be ∼8. Injecting Cu seed particles enhanced the rate and amount of Ni reduced. NiS and Ni3S2 were identified in the crystal of the resulting solids by X-ray crystallography, and the presence of elemental Ni was explained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical reduction of actual printed circuit board wastewater with the dithionite:Ni(II) molar ratio dose of 12:1 retrieved ∼99% nickel after 30-min reaction at 40°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens. (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur


    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chemical waste risk reduction and environmental impact generated by laboratory activities in research and teaching institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento


    Full Text Available The environmental impact caused by teaching and research with regard to chemical waste is of increasing concern, and attempts to solve the issue are being made. Education and research-related institutions, in most laboratory and non-laboratory activities, contribute to the generation of small quantities of waste, many of them highly toxic. Of this waste, some is listed by government agencies who are concerned about environmental pollution: disposal of acids, metals, solvents, chemicals and toxicity of selected products of synthesis, whose toxicity is often unknown. This article presents an assessment of the problem and identifies possible solutions, indicating pertinent laws, directives and guidelines; examples of institutions that have implemented protocols in order to minimize the generation of waste; harmonization of procedures for waste management and waste minimization procedures such as reduction, reuse and recycling of chemicals.O impacto ambiental acarretado por atividades de pesquisa e ensino no que se refere aos resíduos químicos vem sendo cada vez mais discutido e tentativas de solucionar a questão vêm sendo apresentadas. As instituições de ensino e pesquisa, em quase todas as atividades e não somente as laboratoriais, contribuem para a geração de pequenas quantidades de resíduos, muitos deles altamente tóxicos. Destes, alguns constam em listas de agências governamentais que se preocupam com a qualidade do meio ambiente: descartes de ácidos, metais, solventes, agentes químicos de elevada toxicidade e ainda os produtos de síntese, cuja toxicidade é frequentemente desconhecida. Este artigo apresenta uma avaliação do problema identificando possíveis soluções, a partir da apresentação de legislações pertinentes, exemplos de instituições que vêm implantando protocolos que minimizam a geração de resíduos, sistemas de harmonização de processos de gerenciamento de resíduos e procedimentos de minimização de

  13. Deposition of silver nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by chemical reduction process and their antimicrobial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Adawiya J., E-mail: [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Research Center, University of Technology, Baghdad, Republic of Iraq, 10066 (Iraq); Thamir, Amin D. [Production and Metallurgy department, University of Technology, University of Technology, Baghdad, Republic of Iraq, 10066 (Iraq); Ahmed, Duha S.; Mohammad, M. R. [Applied Physics department, University of Technology, University of Technology, Baghdad, Republic, of Iraq, 10066 (Iraq)


    In this paper, the functionalization of raw-MWCNTs involves oxidation reaction using concentrated acid mixture of HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1:3), via ultrasonic bath (170 W, 50 kHz) to obtain functional groups. Then Ag nanoparticles are decorated the outside over the surface of functionalized MWCNTs using a chemical reduction process resulting in the formation of(Ag/ MWCNTs) hybrid material. The results showed that outer diameter functionalized F-MWCNTs andAg nanoparticles size was about (11-80) nm and (10 to 25) nm, respectively using TEM and HRTEM. The crystallographic structure of MWCNTs using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved diffraction peaks at 38.1°, 44.3°, 64.7° and 77.4° degrees namely, Ag (111), Ag (200), Ag (220), and Ag (311) of the face-centered cubic lattice of Ag, respectively, excepting the peak at 2θ =25.6°, which correspond to the (0 0 2) reflection of the MWNTs are corresponding to Ag/MWNTs. The antimicrobial activities of Ag/MWCNTs hybrid using plate count method showed that decreasing a large number of bacteria colonies of E. coli and S. aureu with increasing the hybrid concentrations after incubation for 24 h in shaker incubator with percentage of inhibition approaching 100%.

  14. ZnO nanostructures with tunable visible luminescence: Effects of kinetics of chemical reduction and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raji


    Full Text Available Highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method. The morphology and optical properties of these nanoparticles are found to be highly sensitive to the growth parameters such as the concentration of reducing agent and annealing temperature. Indeed, the concentration of the reducing agent can alter the morphology of nanoparticles from quasi-spherical to rod-like and then to flower-like structures. Attempts were made to tune the emission wavelength over the visible region by varying the kinetics of chemical reduction and annealing. The possibility of tuning the emission in a visible range from orange to red and then to green by changing the nature of defects by annealing is also reported. Analysis of the Raman spectrum, with its intensity observed at 580 cm−1 corresponding to E1 (LO mode, revealed that the kinetics and thermodynamics of formation and growth of these nanoparticles determined the nature and density of the probable defects such as oxygen vacancies, interstitial zinc atoms and their complexes.

  15. Chemically enhanced biological NOx removal from flue gases : nitric oxide and ferric EDTA reduction in BioDeNox reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der P.M.F.


    The emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere is a major environmental problem. To abate NOx emissions from industrial flue gases, to date, mainly chemical processes like selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are applied. All these processes require high temperatures (>300 °C) and

  16. Synthesis of Nanocobalt Powders for an Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Chemical Reduction and Carbon Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeon Hong


    Full Text Available Nanosized Co powders were prepared by a chemical reduction method with and without CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, C19H42BrN and carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, and the electrochemical properties of the prepared nanosized Co powders were examined to evaluate their suitability as an anode material of Li-ion batteries. Nanosized amorphous Co-based powders could be synthesized by a chemical reduction method in which a reducing agent is added to a Co ion-dissolved aqueous solution. When the prepared nanosized Co-based powders were subjected to carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, the amorphous phase was crystallized, and a Co single phase could be obtained. The Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction with CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment had a smaller first discharge capacity (about 557 mAh/g than the Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction without CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment (about 628 mAh/g. However, the former had a better cycling performance than the latter from the third cycle. The carbon-coated layers are believed to have led to quite good cycling performances of the prepared Co-based powders from the third cycle.

  17. Photochemical modeling in California with two chemical mechanisms: model intercomparison and response to emission reductions. (United States)

    Cai, Chenxia; Kelly, James T; Avise, Jeremy C; Kaduwela, Ajith P; Stockwell, William R


    An updated version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) chemical mechanism (SAPRC07C) was implemented into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.6. CMAQ simulations using SAPRC07C and the previously released version, SAPRC99, were performed and compared for an episode during July-August, 2000. Ozone (O3) predictions of the SAPRC07C simulation are generally lower than those of the SAPRC99 simulation in the key areas of central and southern California, especially in areas where modeled concentrations are greater than the federal 8-hr O3 standard of 75 parts per billion (ppb) and/or when the volatile organic compound (VOC)/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio is less than 13. The relative changes of ozone production efficiency (OPE) against the VOC/NOx ratio at 46 sites indicate that the OPE is reduced in SAPRC07C compared with SAPRC99 at most sites by as much as approximately 22%. The SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C mechanisms respond similarly to 20% reductions in anthropogenic VOC emissions. The response of the mechanisms to 20% NOx emissions reductions can be grouped into three cases. In case 1, in which both mechanisms show a decrease in daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentration with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 decrease in SAPRC07C is smaller. In case 2, in which both mechanisms show an increase in O3 with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 increase is larger in SAPRC07C. In case 3, SAPRC07C simulates an increase in O3 in response to reduced NOx emissions whereas SAPRC99 simulates a decrease in O3 for the same region. As a result, the areas where NOx controls would be disbeneficial are spatially expanded in SAPRC07C. Although the results presented here are valuable for understanding differences in predictions and model response for SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C, the study did not evaluate the impact of mechanism differences in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance for using numerical models in demonstrating air quality attainment

  18. Quantum chemical analysis of Со2+ aqua complexes electrochemical reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor F. Vargalyuk


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of quantum chemical calculations results (GAMESS, density functional theory, B3LYP method as to [Co(H2On]z(H2O6–n clusters for z = 0, 1, 2 and n=1÷6, it has been demonstrated that electrochemical reduction of [Co(H2O6]2+ aqua complexes runs stage-wise. At the first stage, an electron injected into the [Co(H2O6]2+ complex is entirely located in the orbital of the central atom, as z(Co herewith changes from +1.714 е to +0.777 е. The weakening of Со–ОН2 bonds leads to decomposition of resulting [Co(H2O6]+ particles into two energetically related forms – [Co(H2O4]+ and [Co(H2O3]+. Further reduction of these intermediates runs differently. Electron injection into the [Co(H2O3]+ intermediate terminatesthe transition of Со2+-ions to Со0 z(Co= –0.264 е. This process is accompanied by rapid decomposition of [Co(H2O3]0 product into monohydrate atom of cobalt Со(Н2О. On the contrary, electron injection into the [Co(H2O4]+ intermediate leads to emergence of a specific structure – [Co+(H2O–(Н2О3]¹0, whereby the electron is located in the atoms of cobalt only by 28%, and by 72% in cobalt-coordinated water molecules, clearly focusing on one of the. In this molecule, z(H2O changes from +0.148 е to –0.347 е. There is an assumption that a non-equilibrium [Co+(H2O–(Н2О3]0¹ form transits to [Co(ОH(Н2О3]0 hydroxo-form, which further disproportionates turning into Co(ОH2 hydroxide. In order to reduce the impact of this unfavorable reaction pathway on the overall reaction rate Со2+ + 2ē = Со0, we suggest raising the temperature to ensure complete dissociation of [Co(H2O4]+ to [Co(H2O3]+.

  19. Management of change: Lessons learned from staff reductions in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Gort, J.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.


    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff

  20. Hydrogen storage in multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles using laser ablation/chemical reduction methods (United States)

    Mehrabi, M.; Parvin, P.; Reyhani, A.; Mortazavi, S. Z.


    Hydrogen storage properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated by palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are investigated using laser ablation and chemical reduction methods, revealing great differences between the two techniques. In the case of laser ablation, the hydrogen uptake is elevated with the Pd content up to a certain value and then undergoes a notable drop, whereas the hydrogen content linearly scales up with the Pd loading during the chemical reduction method. When the Pd loading is low, the storage capacity of the laser treated samples is higher than those decorated via the other technique of interest. During laser ablation, the larger Pd content is accompanied by plentiful pore formation, leading to larger pore sizes at higher doses, which seriously reduces the hydrogen uptake. Moreover, the desorption temperature of hydrogen notably increases in terms of Pd loading. In comparison, the laser ablation method undergoes a relatively smaller desorption temperature, mainly due to the larger pore size/volume.

  1. Reduction of Fe(III)EDTA by Klebsiella sp. strain FD-3 in NOx scrubber solutions. (United States)

    Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua; Zheng, Xiangjiao


    Biological reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is a key step in nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal by the integrated chemical absorption-biological reduction method, which determines the concentration of Fe(II) in the scrubbing liquid. A new Fe(III)EDTA reduction strain, named as FD-3, was isolated from mixed cultures used in the integrated NOx removal process and identified as Klebsiella sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The reduction abilities of FD-3 and the influence of nitrogen-containing compounds (Fe(II)EDTA-NO, NO3(-) and NO2(-)) and sulfur-containing compounds (SO4(2-), SO3(2-)) on the Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. The results indicated that strain FD-3 could reduce Fe(III)EDTA efficiently. NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO inhibit the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA and could also serve as electron acceptor for strain FD-3. SO3(2-) inhibited Fe(III)EDTA reduction while SO4(2-) had no obviously effect on Fe(III)EDTA reduction. The relationship between cell growth and Fe(III)EDTA reduction could be described by the models based on Logistic equation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An adaptive reduction algorithm for efficient chemical calculations in global atmospheric chemistry models (United States)

    Santillana, Mauricio; Le Sager, Philippe; Jacob, Daniel J.; Brenner, Michael P.


    We present a computationally efficient adaptive method for calculating the time evolution of the concentrations of chemical species in global 3-D models of atmospheric chemistry. Our strategy consists of partitioning the computational domain into fast and slow regions for each chemical species at every time step. In each grid box, we group the fast species and solve for their concentration in a coupled fashion. Concentrations of the slow species are calculated using a simple semi-implicit formula. Separation of species between fast and slow is done on the fly based on their local production and loss rates. This allows for example to exclude short-lived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products from chemical calculations in the remote troposphere where their concentrations are negligible, letting the simulation determine the exclusion domain and allowing species to drop out individually from the coupled chemical calculation as their production/loss rates decline. We applied our method to a 1-year simulation of global tropospheric ozone-NO x-VOC-aerosol chemistry using the GEOS-Chem model. Results show a 50% improvement in computational performance for the chemical solver, with no significant added error.

  3. Reduction in Acidity by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Effect on Moslavac Wine Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Herjavec


    Full Text Available Changes in chemical composition and sensory properties caused by chemical and microbiological methods of deacidification in Moslavac (syn. Furmint wines were investigated. Alcoholic fermentation of Moslavac musts was carried out with two different strains of the yeasts Saccharomyces paradoxus. There were no marked differences in chemical composition among the wines. Compared to the control microbiological deacidification of wines by Oenococcus oeni resulted in a complete decomposition of malic acid, total acidity decrease of 1.55 g/L and pH value increase of 0.14 units. There were no significant differences in volatile acidity, tartaric and citric acid concentrations between the control and malolactically fermented wine. Chemically deacidified wines contained similar total acidity but higher pH values than malolactically fermented wines. Compared to control wines, the tartaric acid concentration decrease of 2.13 g/L and the pH value increase of 0.5 units were determined. The sensory quality of Moslavac wines of high acidity was improved by the applification of deacidification methods. Chemically deacidified wines were assessed as the best whereas the quality of the control wines was judged inferior.

  4. Modeling of Chemical Reactions in Afterburning for the Reduction of N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Glarborg, Peter; Leckner, Bo


    Full scale tests in a 12 MW fluidized bed combustor on reduction of N2O by secondary fuel injection are analyzed in terms a model that involves a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas phase chemistry as well as a description of gas-solid reactions.......Full scale tests in a 12 MW fluidized bed combustor on reduction of N2O by secondary fuel injection are analyzed in terms a model that involves a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas phase chemistry as well as a description of gas-solid reactions....

  5. Highly Stable and Tunable Chemical Doping of Multilayer WS2 Field Effect Transistor: Reduction in Contact Resistance. (United States)

    Khalil, Hafiz M W; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Eom, Jonghwa; Noh, Hwayong


    The development of low resistance contacts to 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is still a big challenge for the future generation field effect transistors (FETs) and optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a chemical doping technique to achieve low contact resistance by keeping the intrinsic properties of few layers WS2. The transfer length method has been used to investigate the effect of chemical doping on contact resistance. After doping, the contact resistance (Rc) of multilayer (ML) WS2 has been reduced to 0.9 kΩ·μm. The significant reduction of the Rc is mainly due to the high electron doping density, thus a reduction in Schottky barrier height, which limits the device performance. The threshold voltage of ML-WS2 FETs confirms a negative shift upon the chemical doping, as further confirmed from the positions of E(1)2g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra. The n-doped samples possess a high drain current of 65 μA/μm, with an on/off ratio of 1.05 × 10(6) and a field effect mobility of 34.7 cm(2)/(V·s) at room temperature. Furthermore, the photoelectric properties of doped WS2 flakes were also measured under deep ultraviolet light. The potential of using LiF doping in contact engineering of TMDs opens new ways to improve the device performance.

  6. Model Reduction in Chemical Engineering : Case studies applied to process analysis, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorneanu, B.


    During the last decades, models have become widely used for supporting a broad range of chemical engineering activities, such as product and process design and development, process monitoring and control, real time optimization of plant operation or supply chain management. Although tremendous

  7. Reduction of Allowed Inventory When Chemicals are Located in Close Proximity with Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Y P; Nguyen, S N


    The objective of this report is to determine the allowed inventory of chemicals stored in the same bay, building or magazine, i.e., in close proximity, with high explosives (HE) that would, in the event of an accident, result in acceptable risks to colocated workers and the public.

  8. Moisture-induced solid state instabilities in α-chymotrypsin and their reduction through chemical glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solá Ricardo J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein instability remains the main factor limiting the development of protein therapeutics. The fragile nature (structurally and chemically of proteins makes them susceptible to detrimental events during processing, storage, and delivery. To overcome this, proteins are often formulated in the solid-state which combines superior stability properties with reduced operational costs. Nevertheless, solid protein pharmaceuticals can also suffer from instability problems due to moisture sorption. Chemical protein glycosylation has evolved into an important tool to overcome several instability issues associated with proteins. Herein, we employed chemical glycosylation to stabilize a solid-state protein formulation against moisture-induced deterioration in the lyophilized state. Results First, we investigated the consequences of moisture sorption on the stability and structural conformation of the model enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT under controlled humidity conditions. Results showed that α-CT aggregates and inactivates as a function of increased relative humidity (RH. Furthermore, α-CT loses its native secondary and tertiary structure rapidly at increasing RH. In addition, H/D exchange studies revealed that α-CT structural dynamics increased at increasing RH. The magnitude of the structural changes in tendency parallels the solid-state instability data (i.e., formation of buffer-insoluble aggregates, inactivation, and loss of native conformation upon reconstitution. To determine if these moisture-induced instability issues could be ameliorated by chemical glycosylation we proceeded to modify our model protein with chemically activated glycans of differing lengths (lactose and dextran (10 kDa. The various glycoconjugates showed a marked decrease in aggregation and an increase in residual activity after incubation. These stabilization effects were found to be independent of the glycan size. Conclusion Water sorption leads to

  9. Heterogeneous reduction of uranyl by micas: Crystal chemical and solution controls (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Haiduc, Anca; Moses, Carl O.; Heald, Steve M.; Elbert, David C.; Veblen, David R.


    This contribution primarily uses X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to better understand mechanisms for coupled sorption-reduction of aqueous U VI by ferrous micas. Additional information was obtained with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The research is important because homogeneous reduction of aqueous U VI is sluggish compared to heterogeneous reduction pathways, and micas are important sorbents for uranium in granitic terrains, which have been proposed as potential radionuclide waste disposal sites. Three micas (high, medium and low Fe/Mg biotites), prepared as thin centimeter-sized books, were reacted with U VI solutions that contained 0-25 mM Na + or K +, at pH = 4.5, 5.0, 6.0, and 9.5. All the experiments were performed under argon at one bar. Solid samples were retrieved at timed intervals for up to 20 h. Both mica edge and basal plane orientations were analyzed by XPS. Analyses of peak positions, core satellites, and the 5f valence band indicate that U VI can be reduced by biotite and that heterogeneous reduction depends on the type and concentration of alkali cation in solution, crystallography, and mica composition. We conclude that ferrous micas can reduce U VI on edge sites, but not on exposed basal plane surfaces, and that Na + and K + facilitate and hinder the reaction, respectively. These observations pertain over a broad range of pH. X-Ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) of annite sections indicates that the interlayer region, as opposed to external basal surfaces, also offers possible sites for heterogeneous reduction of U VI. TEM of annites with high uranium coverage confirmed the presence of interlayer uranium; interestingly, this uranium is concentrated in U-rich nano-scale zones.

  10. Enhanced identification and exploitation of time scales for model reduction in stochastic chemical kinetics. (United States)

    Gómez-Uribe, Carlos A; Verghese, George C; Tzafriri, Abraham R


    Widely different time scales are common in systems of chemical reactions and can be exploited to obtain reduced models applicable to the time scales of interest. These reduced models enable more efficient computation and simplify analysis. A classic example is the irreversible enzymatic reaction, for which separation of time scales in a deterministic mass action kinetics model results in approximate rate laws for the slow dynamics, such as that of Michaelis-Menten. Recently, several methods have been developed for separation of slow and fast time scales in chemical master equation (CME) descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics, yielding separate reduced CMEs for the slow variables and the fast variables. The paper begins by systematizing the preliminary step of identifying slow and fast variables in a chemical system from a specification of the slow and fast reactions in the system. The authors then present an enhanced time-scale-separation method that can extend the validity and improve the accuracy of existing methods by better accounting for slow reactions when equilibrating the fast subsystem. The resulting method is particularly accurate in systems such as enzymatic and protein interaction networks, where the rates of the slow reactions that modify the slow variables are not a function of the slow variables. The authors apply their methodology to the case of an irreversible enzymatic reaction and show that the resulting improvements in accuracy and validity are analogous to those obtained in the deterministic case by using the total quasi-steady-state approximation rather than the classical Michaelis-Menten. The other main contribution of this paper is to show how mass fluctuation kinetics models, which give approximate evolution equations for the means, variances, and covariances of the concentrations in a chemical system, can feed into time-scale-separation methods at a variety of stages.

  11. Features in chemical kinetics. I. Signatures of self-emerging dimensional reduction from a general format of the evolution law (United States)

    Nicolini, Paolo; Frezzato, Diego


    Simplification of chemical kinetics description through dimensional reduction is particularly important to achieve an accurate numerical treatment of complex reacting systems, especially when stiff kinetics are considered and a comprehensive picture of the evolving system is required. To this aim several tools have been proposed in the past decades, such as sensitivity analysis, lumping approaches, and exploitation of time scales separation. In addition, there are methods based on the existence of the so-called slow manifolds, which are hyper-surfaces of lower dimension than the one of the whole phase-space and in whose neighborhood the slow evolution occurs after an initial fast transient. On the other hand, all tools contain to some extent a degree of subjectivity which seems to be irremovable. With reference to macroscopic and spatially homogeneous reacting systems under isothermal conditions, in this work we shall adopt a phenomenological approach to let self-emerge the dimensional reduction from the mathematical structure of the evolution law. By transforming the original system of polynomial differential equations, which describes the chemical evolution, into a universal quadratic format, and making a direct inspection of the high-order time-derivatives of the new dynamic variables, we then formulate a conjecture which leads to the concept of an "attractiveness" region in the phase-space where a well-defined state-dependent rate function ω has the simple evolution dot{ω }= - ω ^2 along any trajectory up to the stationary state. This constitutes, by itself, a drastic dimensional reduction from a system of N-dimensional equations (being N the number of chemical species) to a one-dimensional and universal evolution law for such a characteristic rate. Step-by-step numerical inspections on model kinetic schemes are presented. In the companion paper [P. Nicolini and D. Frezzato, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234102 (2013)], 10.1063/1.4809593 this outcome will be naturally

  12. Synthesis of PMA stabilized silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction process under a two-step UV irradiation (United States)

    Spadaro, D.; Barletta, E.; Barreca, F.; Currò, G.; Neri, F.


    Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) stabilized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), also used in the surface modification of clothing fibers, were fabricated via chemical reduction processes under UV irradiation. To obtain an uniform size distribution it has been designed a new "two-step" process which employs two different UV radiation densities in order to control the kinetics of NPs nucleation. The as produced nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and TEM microscopy. The results show the reduction of the Ag ions and the nanoparticles nucleation in the first step. In the second step, the final Ag NPs size distribution is controlled through a quick cross-linking of the PMA that freezes out any further modification. A narrow size distribution with more than 80% NPs smaller than 10 nm and none larger than 25 nm was obtained and the long-term stability (one month) of the colloidal solution was verified.

  13. Concurrent reduction and distillation: an improved technique for the recovery and chemical refinement of the isotopes of cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, H.H.; McBride, L.E.; McDaniel, E.W.


    The Electromagnetic Isotope Separations Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been involved in the separation, chemical recovery, and refinement of the stable isotopes of cadmium and zinc since 1946. Traditionally, the chemical refinement procedures for these elements consisted of ion exchange separations using anion exchange resins followed by pH-controlled hydrogen sulfide precipitations. The procedures were quite time-consuming and made it difficult to remove trace quantities of sulfur which interferes in subsequent attempts to prepare rolled metal foils. As demands for /sup 113/Cd and /sup 68/Zn (a precursor for the production of the radiopharmaceutical /sup 67/Ga) increased, it became evident that a quicker, more efficient refinement procedure was needed. Details of an improved method, which employs concurrent hydrogen reduction and distillation in the recovery and refinement of isotopically enriched zinc, are described. Modifications of the procedure suitable for the refinement of cadmium isotopes are also described. 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in Artificially-Contaminated Soil using Chemical Reagents (United States)

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Rao, Ennio; Reale, Daniela


    The presence of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) in soil is an environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The concern arises from the leaching and the seepage of Cr(VI) from soil to groundwater. A remediation approach that has been studied in the literature is that of reducing the hexavalent chromium to its trivalent form using a chemical reagent, namely ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H20). In this study, we compared performance of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), a less costly reductant. The means of measuring the performance of the reductants is the US EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), which states that the total chromium release from the soil must be less than 5 ppm. Because this treatment approach is pH sensitive and thus, susceptible to acid rain effects, it was studied with the intention that it be coupled with a stabilization/fixation approach so as to provide a second level of treatment; i.e., it is not intended to be the stand-alone treatment approach. In this study, the reductants were initially used to treat a contaminated, artificial soil and allowed to cure for varying time periods to determine the minimum curing time. Contaminated artificial soil were then prepared using the same percentage of white sand, kaolinite clay and potassium chromate and varying amount of water as a function of the humidity of the specimens in order to illucidate the effect of moisture on the reductant performance. Finally, the reductant (either ferrous sulfate heptahydrate or sodium thiosulfate) was added in varying doses to determine the best ratio Cr/reagent dose. Chromium release from the soil was evaluated with a modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test after allowing the samples to cure. Results indicated that chromium(VI) released from the specimens was less than 5 ppm for the samples treated with either ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (99.9% of reduction) and sodium thiosulfate (98

  15. Chemical and enzymatic reductive activation of acylfulvene to isomeric cytotoxic reactive intermediates


    Pietsch, Kathryn E.; Neels, James F.; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Jiachang; Sturla, Shana J.


    Acylfulvenes, a class of semisynthetic analogues of the sesquiterpene natural product illudin S, are cytotoxic towards cancer cells. The minor structural changes between illudin S and AFs translate to an improved therapeutic window in preclinical cell-based assays and xenograft models. AFs are, therefore, unique tools for addressing the chemical and biochemical basis of cytotoxic selectivity. AFs elicit cytotoxic responses by alkylation of biological targets, including DNA. While AFs are capa...

  16. Chemical Fouling Reduction of a Submersible Steel Spectrophotometer in Estuarine Environments Using a Sacrificial Zinc Anode. (United States)

    Tait, Zachary S; Thompson, Megan; Stubbins, Aron


    The availability of in situ spectrophotometers, such as the S::CAN spectro::lyser, has expanded the possibilities for high-frequency water quality data collection. However, biological and chemical fouling can degrade the performance of in situ spectrophotometers, especially in saline environments with rapid flow rates. A complex freshwater washing system has been previously designed to reduce chemical fouling for the S::CAN spectro::lyser spectrophotometer. In the current study, we present a simpler, cheaper alternative: the attachment of a sacrificial zinc anode. Results are presented detailing the S::CAN spectro::lyser performance with and without the addition of the sacrificial anode. Attachment of the zinc anode provided efficient corrosion protection during 2-wk deployments in a highly dynamic (average tidal range, 2.5 m) saline tidal saltmarsh creek at Groves Creek, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Facile preparation of graphene-copper nanoparticle composite by in situ chemical reduction for electrochemical sensing of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Chen, Qiwen; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang


    A novel graphene-copper nanoparticle composite was prepared by the in situ chemical reduction of a mixture containing graphene oxide and copper(II) ions using potassium borohydride as a reductant. It was mixed with paraffin oil and packed into one end of a fused capillary to fabricate microdisc electrodes for sensing carbohydrates. The morphology and structure of the graphene-copper nanoparticle composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that copper nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20.8 nm were successfully deposited on graphene nanosheets to form a well interconnected hybrid network. The analytical performance of these unique graphene-copper nanoparticle composite paste electrodes was demonstrated by sensing five carbohydrates in combination with cyclic voltammetry and capillary electrophoresis (CE). The advantages of the composite detectors include higher sensitivity, satisfactory stability, surface renewability, bulk modification, and low expense of fabrication. They should find applications in microchip CE, flowing-injection analysis, and other microfluidic analysis systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Act on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemicals (K-REACH and replacement, reduction or refinement best practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Ha


    Full Text Available Objectives Korea’s Act on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemicals (K-REACH was enacted for the protection of human health and the environment in 2015. Considering that about 2000 new substances are introduced annually across the globe, the extent of animal testing requirement could be overwhelming unless regulators and companies work proactively to institute and enforce global best practices to replace, reduce or refine animal use. In this review, the way to reduce the animal use for K-REACH is discussed. Methods Background of the enforcement of the K-REACH and its details was reviewed along with the papers and regulatory documents regarding the limitation of animal experiments and its alternatives in order to discuss the regulatory adoption of alternative tests. Results Depending on the tonnage of the chemical used, the data required ranges from acute and other short-term studies for a single exposure route to testing via multiple exposure routes and costly, longer-term studies such as a full two-generation reproducibility toxicity. The European Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals regulation provides for mandatory sharing of vertebrate test data to avoid unnecessary duplication of animal use and test costs, and obligation to revise data requirements and test guidelines “as soon as possible” after relevant, validated replacement, reduction or refinement (3R methods become available. Furthermore, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development actively accepts alternative animal tests and 3R to chemical toxicity tests. Conclusions Alternative tests which are more ethical and efficient than animal experiments should be widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals for K-REACH registration. The relevant regulatory agencies will have to make efforts to actively adopt and uptake new alternative tests and 3R to K-REACH.

  19. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry: a case study on CO2 reduction (United States)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H. N.; Bongers, W. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.


    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure stream of CO to aid in renewable energy penetration in this sector. A realistic process design is constructed to serve as a basis for an economical analysis. The manufacturing cost price of CO is estimated at 1.2 kUS ton–1 CO. A sensitivity analysis shows that separation is the dominant cost factor, so that improving conversion is currently more effective to lower the price than e.g. energy efficiency.

  20. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.


    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m-2) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m-2, Eonset = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington


    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column

  2. Photomask defect tracing, analysis, and reduction with chemically amplified resist process (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-ming; Lai, Rick; Huang, W. H.; Wang, B. C.; Chen, C. Y.; Kung, C. H.; Yoo, Chue-San; Chen, Jieh-Jang; Lee, Sheng-Cha


    The features of optical proximity correction are becoming very aggressive as production technology migrates into 90nm/130 nm regime. The complicated optical proximity correction (OPC) patterns often result in un-repairable defects, a major yield loss mechanisms in a mask production line. Defect control is increasingly important. A methodology for identifying defect sources and reduction is demonstrated in this paper. The mechanisms and causes of defect formation could be determined with corresponding process step on the strength of sequence inspections. The cause of half-etched opaque defect on negative CAR process was found from PR fragment contamination of e-beam exposure step. After clean-up of e-beam chamber, yield was increased over 20%. Big pinhole defect and contact of AttPSM positive process was found on ADI step. The possible cause was poor CAR adhesion. These two type defects were decreased by modification of developing recipe, special on rinse step. Design experiment with Taguchi method was used to optimize the interactive recipe of plasma descum and rinse step on developing step of implanted layer. Average defect density was decreased from 0.99 to 0.27, and percentage of zero defect rate has been increased from 29.5 to 63.3%.

  3. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via chemical reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Alpana, E-mail:; Rangra, V. S. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla (India); Kumar, Sunil [Department of Applied Sciences, Sri Sai University, Palampur (India)


    Natural flake Graphite was used as the starting material for the graphene synthesis. In the first step flake graphite was treated with oxidizing agents under vigorous conditions to obtain graphite oxide. Layered graphite oxide decorated with oxygen has large inter-layer distance leading easy exfoliation into single sheets by ultrasonication giving graphene oxide. In the last step exfoliated graphene oxide sheets were reduced slowly with the help of reducing agent to obtain fine powder which is labeled as reduced graphene oxide (rGO). This rGO was further characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern shows peaks corresponding to (002) graphitic lattice planes indicating the formation of network of sp{sup 2} like carbon structure. SEM images show the ultrathin, wrinkled, paper-like morphology of graphene sheets. IR study shows that the graphite has been oxidized to graphite oxide with the presence of various absorption bands confirming the presence of oxidizing groups. The FTIR spectrum of rGO shows no sharp peaks confirming the efficient reduction of rGO. The Raman spectrum shows disorder in the graphene sheets.

  4. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland. (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia


    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, that is, 97.55, 97.5, 89.35, 80.75, 96.04, 91.52, and 98.6% reduction from the zero time value for COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and fecal coliforms, respectively. After 20 days' time, the treated water was free of almost all nutrients and microbial pollutants. Hence, increasing hydraulic retention time was found to ameliorate the operational competence of HCW. Thus HCW can serve as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and can be scaled up for small communities in the developing countries.

  5. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia


    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, that is, 97.55, 97.5, 89.35, 80.75, 96.04, 91.52, and 98.6% reduction from the zero time value for COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and fecal coliforms, respectively. After 20 days' time, the treated water was free of almost all nutrients and microbial pollutants. Hence, increasing hydraulic retention time was found to ameliorate the operational competence of HCW. Thus HCW can serve as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and can be scaled up for small communities in the developing countries. PMID:23724336

  6. Catalytic CO2 reduction to valuable chemicals using NiFe-based nanoclusters: a first-principles theoretical evaluation. (United States)

    Gong, Li; Chen, Jie-Jie; Mu, Yang


    Converting CO2 into valuable chemicals and fuels is one of the most practical routes for reducing CO2 emissions while fossil fuels continue to dominate the energy sector. Noble-metal-free NiFe bimetal nanoparticles have shown good catalytic activity in CO2 conversion. Herein we theoretically evaluated the catalytic performance and possible mechanisms of NiFe-based nanoclusters for hydrogenating CO2 to form formic acid and CO through bicarbonate by using a periodic and self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) simulation. The theoretical results illustrated that NiFe nanoclusters could have good catalytic activity and selectivity for HCO3- reduction to formic acid and the possible pathway is that HCO3- preferred to react with adsorbed H atoms of H2 on NiFe alloy nanoclusters through the carbon atom site. Moreover, the NiFe alloy nanoclusters with the Fe atom exposed on the surface of the Ni cluster showed better performance with a lower energy barrier compared to that with Fe doped in the corner of the Ni cluster. However, the generation of CO from HCO3- reduction was shown to be neither thermodynamically nor kinetically favorable on NiFe alloy nanoclusters. Additionally, the simulation results also suggested that it was thermodynamically unfavorable for further hydrogenated reduction of formic acid to formaldehyde on NiFe alloy nanoclusters themselves as well as supported on graphene. In summary, a molecular-level insight of CO2 reduction to valuable products on NiFe nanoclusters is offered in this study, which may provide some useful information for guiding the design of NiFe-based catalytic materials for efficient CO2 conversion to useful fuels.

  7. Determination of decimal reduction time (D value of chemical agents used in hospitals for disinfection purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da S Martins Alzira M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the selection of disinfectants for low, intermediate and high (sterilizing levels, the decimal reduction time, D-value, for the most common and persistent bacteria identified at a health care facility should be determined. Methods The D-value was determined by inoculating 100 mL of disinfecting solution with 1 mL of a bacterial suspension (104 – 105 CFU/mL for vegetative and spore forms. At regular intervals, 1 mL aliquots of this mixture were transferred to 8 mL of growth media containing a neutralizing agent, and incubated at optimal conditions for the microorganism. Results The highest D-values for various bacteria were determined for the following solutions: (i 0.1% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (pH 7.0 – E. coli and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.9 min; (ii sodium hypochlorite (pH 7.0 at 0.025% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 24 min, E. coli and E. cloacae (D = 7.5 min; at 0.05% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.4 min and E. coli (D = 6.1 min and 0.1% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 3.5 min and B. subtilis (D = 3.2 min; (iii 2.0% glutaraldehyde (pH 7.4 – B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis (D = 25 min and E. coli (D = 7.1 min; (iv 0.5% formaldehyde (pH 6.5 – B. subtilis (D = 11.8 min, B. stearothermophilus (D = 10.9 min and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.2 min; (v 2.0% chlorhexidine (pH 6.2 – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min, and at 0.4% for E. cloacae (D = 8.3 min; (vi 1.0% Minncare® (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, pH 2.3 – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min and E. coli (D = 6.7 min. Conclusions The suspension studies were an indication of the disinfectant efficacy on a surface. The data in this study reflect the formulations used and may vary from product to product. The expected effectiveness from the studied formulations showed that the tested agents can be recommended for surface disinfection as stated in present guidelines and emphasizes the importance and need to develop routine and novel programs to

  8. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh


    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  9. Chemical Stability of Conductive Ceramic Anodes in LiCl–Li2O Molten Salt for Electrolytic Reduction in Pyroprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Kim


    Full Text Available Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 in LiCl–Li2O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  10. Efficiency of some soil bacteria for chemical oxygen demand reduction of synthetic chlorsulfuron solutions under agiated culture conditions. (United States)

    Erguven, G O; Yildirim, N


    This study searches the efficiency of certain soil bacteria on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of synthetic chlorsulfuron solutions under agitated culture conditions. It also aims to determine the turbidity of liquid culture medium with chlorsulfuron during bacterial incubation for 120 hours. As a result the highest and lowest COD removal efficiency of bacteria was determined for Bacillus simplex as 94% and for Micrococcus luteus as 70%, respectively at the end of the 96th hour. It was found that COD removal efficiency showed certain differences depend on the bacterial species. It was also observed that B. simplex had the highest COD removal efficiency and it was a suitable bacterium species for bioremediation of a chlorsulfuron contaminated soils.

  11. Silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction-protection method, and their application in electrically conductive silver nanopaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianguo, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)


    Ag nanoparticles were prepared in a water-phase system with a mixture of silver-ammonia complex, sodium borohydride, and lauric acid according to molar feed ratio of approximately 6:3:1. The mechanism of preparation and separation by chemical reduction-protection method was explored. The as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that the size of high purity Ag particles was ranging from 30 to 50 nm with slight agglomeration. In addition, the as-synthesized wet Ag nanoparticles were dispersed stably in organic vehicle to formulate electrically conductive nanopaste. Upon direct-written and sintered, the array pattern of the nanopaste with the resolution of about 30 {mu}m was achieved with the electrical resistivity in the order of magnitude of 10{sup -5} {Omega} cm.

  12. Enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and flux reduction in pulp and paper wastewater treatment using laccase-polymerized membrane filtration. (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Fan, Chihhao


    The purpose of this present study is to investigate the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pulp and paper wastewater using laccase-polymerized membrane filtration process. The membranes with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 5000 and 10,000, 30,000 and 54,000 were used in a cross-flow module to treat the pulp and paper wastewater containing high phenolic constituents and COD. With 2.98 IU/L of activated laccase applied at room temperature for 180 min, the contaminants in raw wastewater and second effluent were polymerized to form larger molecules with average molecular weight of 1300 and 900 Da (Dalton), respectively. With laccase polymerization prior to filtration, over 60% removals of COD by the four investigated membranes were observed, compared with low COD removal without laccase polymerization. Moreover, the addition of laccase resulted in 4-14% reduction of membrane permeability during the first 180 min filtration operation due to gel layer formation by the polymerization. No further flux decline was observed afterwards indicating the steady state was reached and the membranes could be used to remove the polymerized pollutants without significant fouling. The maximum apparent resistance occurrence for raw wastewater treated with laccase also supported the effectiveness for COD removal with laccase polymerization before membrane filtration. Additionally, pretreatment by inactivated laccase only caused further flux reduction without additional removal of COD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In situ chemical reductive growth of platinum nanoparticles on indium tin oxide surfaces and their electrochemical applications. (United States)

    Chang, Gang; Oyama, Munetaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki


    Platinum nanoparticles directly attached to indium tin oxide (PtNP/ITO) were successfully fabricated by using an in situ chemical reductive growth method. In this method, PtNPs could be grown on the ITO surface via the one-step immersion into the growth solution containing PtCl4(2-) and ascorbic acid. The attached and grown PtNPs were spherical having an agglomerated nanostructure composed of small nanoclusters. From the morphological changes depending on the growth time, which were observed with an FE-SEM, PtNPs were found to be grown via the progressive nucleation mechanism. As the characteristics of the PtNP/ITO were those of a working electrode, it was found that the charge transfer resisivity was significantly lowered due to the grown PtNPs. Hence, for a typical redox system of [Fe(CN)6]3-/[Fe(CN)6]4-, the PtNP/ITO electrode exhibited the electrochemical responses similar to those of the bulk Pt electrode. Furthermore, it was clarified that the PtNP/ITO electrode had significant electrocatalytic properties for the oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation. The present PtNPs that had the agglomerated nanostructure may be promising for a new type of electrode material.

  14. Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Its Effects on Psychoimmunological Factors of Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans. (United States)

    Arefnasab, Zahra; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Alipour, Ahmad; Panahi, Yunes; Shams, Jamal; Riazi Rad, Farhad; Khaze, Vahid; Ghanei, Mostafa


    Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a treatment program for relieving stress and coping with chronic illnesses. In recent three decades, studies have shown that MBSR has a positive effect on physical and psychological dimensions of chronic illnesses. Chemically pulmonary injured veterans have chronic pulmonary and psychological problems due to mustard gas exposure and complications of Iran-Iraq war. These stresses have negative effects on their general health and immune system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted on psychoneuroimmunology and MBSR in these patients. Forty male pulmonary injured veterans were randomly divided in two groups with 20 participants (MBSR and wait-list control). Then MBSR group received 8 weekly sessions of intervention. We tested mental health based on general health questionnaire (GHQ)-28 questionnaire, health-related quality of life (based on St. George respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) ) and immunity in MBSR groups; before and after intervention "mixed factorial analyses of variance" test was used for analyzing data fpr each dependent variable and appropriate t-tests were done in The necessary condition. Results showed that mental health and health- related quality of life, in MBSR group compared to wait-list control improved [F (1,38)=26.46, pMBSR may be a new treatment approach for improving immunity and overall health in chemically pulmonary injured veterans.

  15. Reduction of uranyl carbonate and hydroxyl complexes and neptunyl carbonate complexes studied with chemical-electrochemical methods and rixs spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butorin, Sergei; Nordgren, Joseph [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Ollila, Kaija [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Albinsson, Yngve [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Werme, Lars [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)


    . Once these actinides have been mobilised through oxidation, they can migrate away from this potentially oxidising region and will encounter an oxygen free, reducing environment caused by the anaerobic corrosion of the cast iron insert. The actinyl species are no longer thermodynamically stable and reduction to the tetravalent state will be possible. There is, however, an open question whether the reduction kinetics will be sufficiently high to cause reduction in solution and if sorption onto the corroding iron surface will be accompanied by an electron transfer sufficiently rapid to reduce the actinide back to the tetravalent state. This report contains the results of experimental studies of uranium reduction-depletion from water solutions in the presence of corroding iron and spectroscopic studies of the oxidation state of uranium and neptunium sorbed/precipitated onto iron under oxygen free conditions using resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy. The RIXS measurements show that at least partial reduction of both uranyl carbonate complexes and neptunyl carbonate complexes take place on the corroding iron surface. The chemical/electrochemical measurements indicate that reduction of uranyl carbonate complexes also take place in solution in a system containing corroding iron, i.e. sorption onto the iron/iron oxide surface may not be necessary in order for reduction to take place. Reduction of uranyl hydroxyl complexes was also found to take place in solution, but at a rate that was noticeably lower than for the uranyl carbonate complexes.


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  17. Improved magnetic and electrical properties of Cu doped Fe–Ni invar alloys synthesized by chemical reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Sajjad, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ziya, Amer Bashir [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ibrahim, Ather; Atiq, Shabbar [Institute of Advanced Materials, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Naseeb [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Shakeel, Muhammad [Institute of Advanced Materials, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)


    Fe–Ni–Cu invar alloys of various compositions (Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35−x}Cu{sub x}, x=0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.4 and 1.8) were synthesized via chemical reduction route. These alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The lattice parameter and the crystallite size of the investigated alloys were calculated and the line broadening indicated the nano-crystallites size of alloy powder. The particle size was estimated from SEM and it decreases by the incorporation of Cu and found to be in the range of 24–40 nm. The addition of Cu in these alloys appreciably enhances the saturation magnetization and it increases from 99 to 123 emu/g. Electrical conductivity has been improved with Cu addition. The thermal conductivity was calculated using the Wiedemann–Franz law. - Graphical abstract: M–H loops of Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35−x}Cu{sub x} x =0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.4, 1.8 nano-invar alloys. - Highlights: • A simple method has been employed for the synthesis of invar alloys. • The magnetic properties has been enhanced by the Cu content. • The electrical conductivity has been improved.

  18. Investigating the Formation Process of Sn-Based Lead-Free Nanoparticles with a Chemical Reduction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Zhang


    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of a promising lead-free solder alloy (Sn3.5Ag (wt.%, SnAg and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt.%, SAC were synthesized through a chemical reduction method by using anhydrous ethanol and 1,10-phenanthroline as the solvent and surfactant, respectively. To illustrate the formation process of Sn-Ag alloy based nanoparticles during the reaction, X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to investigate the phases of the samples in relation to the reaction time. Different nucleation and growth mechanisms were compared on the formation process of the synthesized nanoparticles. The XRD results revealed different reaction process compared with other researchers. There were many contributing factors to the difference in the examples found in the literature, with the main focus on the formation mechanism of crystal nuclei, the solubility and ionizability of metal salts in the solvent, the solid solubility of Cu in Ag nuclei, and the role of surfactant on the growth process. This study will help define the parameters necessary for the control of both the composition and size of the nanoparticles.

  19. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))


    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Application of integrated ozone and granular activated carbon for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand reduction of vinasse from alcohol distilleries. (United States)

    Hadavifar, Mojtaba; Younesi, Habibollah; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar; Mahdad, Faezeh; Li, Qin; Ghasemi, Zahra


    This study investigates the treatment of the distilleries vinasse using a hybrid process integrating ozone oxidation and granular activated carbons (GAC) in both batch and continuous operation mode. The batch-process studies have been carried out to optimize initial influent pH, GAC doses, the effect of the ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal of the distilleries vinasse. The continuous process was carried out on GAC and ozone treatment alone as well as the hybrid process comb both methods to investigate the synergism effectiveness of the two methods for distilleries vinasse COD reduction and color removal. In a continuous process, the Yan model described the experimental data better than the Thomas model. The efficiency of ozonation of the distilleries vinasse was more effective for color removal (74.4%) than COD removal (25%). O3/H2O2 process was not considerably more effective on COD and color removal. Moreover, O3/GAC process affected negatively on the removal efficiency by reducing COD and color from distilleries vinasse. The negative effect decreased by increasing pH value of the influent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ chemical reductive growth of platinum nanoparticles on glass slide for the mass fabrication of biosensors. (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Hui; Qu, Feng-Li; Lu, Ya-Shuang; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin


    Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) attached to glass slide surface was successfully prepared by using a simple in situ chemical reduction method. In this method, a approximately 10nm gold layer was first sputtered uniformly onto the glass slide surface, PtNPs could be grown directly on the gold layer by immersing the glass slide into the grown solution containing H(2)PtCl(4) and ascorbic acid. The gold layer sputtered uniformly serves as "seed" for the following growth of PtNPs and high dense of PtNP modified film can be prepared. Control experiment without the gold layer found no obvious formation of PtNPs indicating the importance of the "seed". The electrocatalytic effect of the PtNP film was investigated with the detection of hydrogen peroxide and for the fabrication of biosensors. Glucose oxidase was selected and directly electrodeposited onto the PtNPs modified surface. The resulting biosensor has a fast response time (nanoparticle and find electrochemical applications as well as for optical uses.

  2. The efficacy of chemical sanitizers on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli affected by bacterial cell history and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Fels, van der Ine; Nierop Groot, M.N.


    Washing fresh produce with potable water helps to remove microorganisms, providing about a 1- to 2-log reduction, but this process can also pose an opportunity for cross-contamination of bacteria in the washing tank. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three chemical

  3. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction on Quality of Life (SF-36) and Spirometry Parameters, in Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans (United States)

    AREFNASAB, Zahra; GHANEI, Mostafa; NOORBALA, Ahmad Ali; ALIPOUR, Ahmad; BABAMAHMOODI, Farhang; BABAMAHMOODI, Abdolreza; SALEHI, Maryam


    Abstract Background Studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has positive effect on physical and psychological dimensions of chronic illnesses. In this study for the first time we examine the effect of this new technique on quality of life and pulmonary function in chemically pulmonary injured veterans who have chronic pulmonary problem, psychological problems and low quality of life. Methods Forty male pulmonary injured veterans were randomly replaced in two groups with 20 participants (MBSR and control Wait List (WL)). Then MBSR group received 8-weekly sessions intervention. We evaluate quality of life (used SF-36 questionnaire) and Spirometry parameters two times; before and after intervention in two group. We used “mixed factorial analyses of variance” test for analyzing data in each dependent variables. Then if we have significant interactional effect, we used –paired- sample t-test” for comparing before and after intervention data of each group, and “Independent-Sample t-test” for comparing after intervention data of two groups. Results The MBSR compare to WL group improved SF-36 total score, (F (1, 38) =12.09, P=0.001), “Role limitations due to physical problems”(F(1,38)= 6.92, P=0.01), “Role limitations due to emotional problems”(F(1,38)= 7.75, P=0.008), “Social functioning”(F(1,38)= 9.89, P=0.003), “Mental health”(F(1,38)= 15.93, P=0), “Vitality”(F(1,38)= 40.03, P≤0.001), and “Pain”(F(1,38)= 27.60, P≤0.001). MBSR had no significant effect on “FEV1” (F (1, 38) = 0.03, P=0.85),”FVC” (F (1, 38) = 0.16, P=0.69) and “FEV1/FVC” (F (1, 38) = 2.21, P=0.14). Conclusion MBSR can improve individual’s quality of life but not lung function in chemically pulmonary injured veterans. PMID:26060664

  4. Mechanochemical synthesis of Co and Ni decorated with chemically deposited Pt as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Rojas, E.; Cabañas-Moreno, J.G. [Programa de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Pérez-Robles, J.F. [Programa de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000 Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230, Queretaro (Mexico); Solorza-Feria, O., E-mail: [Programa de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Depto. Química, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360, México City (Mexico)


    High energy milling in combination with galvanic displacement were used for the preparation of bimetallic nanocatalysts. Co and Ni monometallic powders milled for 30 and 20 h, respectively were both produced in air atmosphere and used as precursors for the preparation of M-Pt (M = Co,Ni) compounds. Nanosized monometallic powders were physically supported on Vulcan carbon, and covered with 20 wt%Pt through a Galvanic Displacement Reaction (GDR) to produce Co-20Pt/C and Ni-20Pt/C electrocatalysts. XRD was used for phase identification on milled powders and for demonstrating structural transformations of Co powders during milling. Results on unmilled metallic Co powder show a predominant HCP structure modifying to a FCC structure after milling. Ni powders maintain their same FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectometry (EDX) was used for chemical composition analysis on milled powders at several milling times. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) show the formation of heterogeneous particle with ∼10 nm in size for both electrocatalysts. The electrocatalytic activity was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and steady state Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4}. The kinetic parameters on Co-20Pt/C conducted to the highest mass activity for the cathodic reaction. - Highlights: • Monometallic powders of Co, and Ni were used as precursors for the preparation of M-Pt (M = Co,Ni) electrocatalysts. • Nanosized monometallic powders were decorated with Pt by a Galvanic Displacement Reaction. • The kinetic parameters on Co-20Pt/C conducted to the highest mass activity for the ORR reaction.

  5. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik


    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  6. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes. (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo


    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11kg/m(3) of copper and 1.35kg/m(3) of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100-500nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} film for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinjuan; Pan, Likun, E-mail:; Lv, Tian; Sun, Zhuo


    Highlights: • CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} films are synthesized by microwave-assisted deposition method. • The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} film is investigated. • A high Cr(VI) reduction rate of 93% is achieved under white LED light irradiation. -- Abstract: CdS quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO{sub 2} films were successfully synthesized using one-step microwave assisted chemical bath deposition method, which allows a facile and rapid deposition and integration between CdS QDs and TiO{sub 2} films. The photocatalytic performance of the films fabricated using CdS precursor solutions with different concentrations in the reduction of Cr(VI) under white light emitting diode (LED) light irradiation was investigated. The results show that the CdS sensitization can enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} film with a maximum reduction rate of 93% for 240 min under white LED light irradiation as compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} film (31%) due to the increase of light absorption and the reduction of recombination of the injected electrons from CdS to TiO{sub 2}.

  8. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.


    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  9. Unlocking the Electrocatalytic Activity of Chemically Inert Amorphous Carbon-Nitrogen for Oxygen Reduction: Discerning and Refactoring Chaotic Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Caihong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dong


    Mild annealing enables inactive nitrogen (N)-doped amorphous carbon (a-C) films abundant with chaotic bonds prepared by magnetron sputtering to become effective for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by virtue of generating pyridinic N. The rhythmic variation of ORR activity elaborates well...... on the subtle evolution of the amorphous C−N bonds conferred by spectroscopic analysis....

  10. A controlled study of the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction technique in women with multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sampalli


    Full Text Available Tara Sampalli1, Elizabeth Berlasso1, Roy Fox1, Mark Petter21Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, Nova Scotia, Canada; 2Doctoral Candidate, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, CanadaBackground: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR program on women diagnosed with conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, and fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: The intervention group underwent a 10-week MBSR program. Symptoms Checklist Inventory (SCL-90R was used as outcome measure and was administered before the start of the program (pre-, immediately upon completion (post- and at three-month follow-up. Women on the wait list to receive treatment at the Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre were used as control subjects for the study.Results: A total of 50 participants in the intervention group and 26 in the wait-list controls group were recruited for this study. Global scores in the intervention group reached statistical significance pre-post (<0.0001 and at pre-follow-up (<0.0001 while the global scores in the control group remained the same. Five of nine and eight of nine subscales of the SCL-90R showed improvement of statistical significance in MBSR group following treatment and at three-month follow-up.Conclusions: The study showed the importance of complementary interventions such as MBSR techniques in the reduction of psychological distress in women with chronic conditions.Keywords: chronic conditions, multiple chemical sensitivity, mindfulness-based stress reduction, chemical sensitivity

  11. On the Theory of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer. V. Comparison and Properties of Electrochemical and Chemical Rate Constants (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.


    Using a theory of electron transfers which takes cognizance of reorganization of the medium outside the inner coordination shell and of changes of bond lengths inside it, relations between electrochemical and related chemical rate constants are deduced and compared with the experimental data. A correlation is found, without the use of arbitrary parameters. Effects of weak complexes with added electrolytes are included under specified conditions. The deductions offer a way of coordinating a variety of data in the two fields, internally as well as with each those in another. For example, the rate of oxidation or reduction of a series of related reactants by one reagent is correlated with that of another and with that of the corresponding electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, under certain specified conditions. These correlations may also provide a test for distinguishing an electron from an atom transfer mechanism. (auth)

  12. Reduction of Large Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Autoignition Using Joint Analyses of Reaction Rates and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylam, A; Ribaucour, M; Pitz, W J; Minetti, R


    A new technique of reduction of detailed mechanisms for autoignition, which is based on two analysis methods is described. An analysis of reaction rates is coupled to an analysis of reaction sensitivity for the detection of redundant reactions. Thresholds associated with the two analyses have a great influence on the size and efficiency of the reduced mechanism. Rules of selection of the thresholds are defined. The reduction technique has been successfully applied to detailed autoignition mechanisms of two reference hydrocarbons: n-heptane and iso-octane. The efficiency of the technique and the ability of the reduced mechanisms to reproduce well the results generated by the full mechanism are discussed. A speedup of calculations by a factor of 5.9 for n-heptane mechanism and by a factor of 16.7 for iso-octane mechanism is obtained without losing accuracy of the prediction of autoignition delay times and concentrations of intermediate species.

  13. Formaldehyde assisted reduction achieved p-type orthorhombic tin oxide film prepared by an inexpensive chemical method (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Chen, Zequn; Nie, Sha; Yu, Zhigen; Yan, Shenghui; Gong, Hao; Tang, Chunhua; Bai, Xue; Xu, Jianmei; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qing


    The fabrication of tin oxide thin film of orthorhombic phase has been succeeded under the high pressures from 1.5 GPa to 50 GPa. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of p-type tin oxide thin film at atmosphere pressure of 0.1 MPa, by a chemical method employing formaldehyde (HCHO) during the annealing process. By using formaldehyde to form formaldehyde-argon mixed reducing ambiance in the chemical sol-gel process, limited oxidation is reached and p-type tin oxide films of orthorhombic phase under ambient pressure are eventually achieved under optimized experimental conditions. Specifically, we have developed a p-type tin oxide thin film with an optimal Hall mobility of 8.6 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. Besides, our results reveal that a Sn rich environment can lead to a higher hole mobility experimentally.

  14. Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal I. Hai


    Full Text Available The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. When well designed and operated, membrane bioreactors (MBRs can consistently achieve efficient removals of suspended solids, protozoa and coliform bacteria. Under optimal conditions, MBR systems can also significantly remove various viruses and phages. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the mechanisms and influencing factors of pathogen removal by MBR and highlights practical issues, such as reduced chemical disinfectant dosing requirements and associated economic and environmental benefits. Special attention has been paid to the aspects, such as membrane cleaning, membrane imperfections/breach and microbial regrowth, in the distribution system on the overall pathogen removal performance of MBR.

  15. Electrocatalytic Reduction of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide to Chemical Fuels: Challenges and Opportunities for a Solar Fuel Device. (United States)

    Fenwick, Aidan Q; Gregoire, John M; Luca, Oana R


    Aspects of the electrochemical reduction of nitrogen and carbon dioxide at molecular and heterogeneous catalysts are discussed. We focus on recent advances in the field and touch on some of the remaining challenges in the production of solar fuels from N2 and CO2 with a direct, integrated solar fuel device. As such, we now propose metrics of catalyst assessment for non-H2 solar fuels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction and Oxidation Kinetics of a CaMn0.9Mg0.1O3-delta Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion


    Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Abad Secades, Alberto; Caballero Flores, Arturo; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez Elorza, Juan


    The objective of this study was to establish the reaction kinetics involved in redox cycles of the CaMn0.9Mg0.1O3−δ material to be used as an oxygen carrier in the chemical-looping-combustion process. The oxygen-transport capacity and reactivity of this material during consecutive reduction and oxidation steps with gaseous compounds (CH4, H2, CO, and O2) were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus. The oxygen uncoupling properties of this material were also analyzed. It was found t...

  17. One-pot wet-chemical co-reduction synthesis of bimetallic gold-platinum nanochains supported on reduced graphene oxide with enhanced electrocatalytic activity (United States)

    Chen, De-Jun; Zhang, Qian-Li; Feng, Jin-Xia; Ju, Ke-Jian; Wang, Ai-Jun; Wei, Jie; Feng, Jiu-Ju


    In this work, a simple, rapid and facile one-pot wet-chemical co-reduction method is developed for synthesis of bimetallic Au-Pt alloyed nanochains supported on reduced graphene oxide (Au-Pt NCs/RGO), in which caffeine is acted as a capping agent and a structure-directing agent, while no any seed, template, surfactant or polymer involved. The as-prepared nanocomposites display enlarged electrochemical active surface area, significantly enhanced catalytic activity and better stability for methanol and ethylene glycol oxidation, compared with commercial Pt-C (Pt 50 wt%), PtRu-C (Pt 30 wt% and Ru 15 wt%) and Pt black.

  18. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) For Monitoring Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Equilibrium During High Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Control of the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Based upon previous research, an acceptable iron REDOX ratio was defined for the DWPF melts as 0.09 Fe2/SFe 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at a REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) equilibrium ofFe2/SFe 0.33 prevents the potential for metallic and metallic sulfide species to form and accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming due to deoxygenation of manganic species is achieved by converting 66-100 of the MnO2 or Mn2O3 species in a waste feed to MnO before the waste is fed to the DWPF melter. At the lower redox limit of Fe 2/SFe 0.09 about 99 of the Mn 4/Mn 3 is converted to Mn 2. Therefore, the lower REDOX limit eliminates melter foaming from deoxygenation. Organic and nitrate concentrations in the DWPF melter feed are the major parameters influencing melt REDOX. Organics such as formates act as reductants while nitrates, nitrites, and manganic (Mn 4 and Mn 3) species act as oxidants. During melting, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe 2/SFe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., from foaming) or melter life (e.g., from metal formation and accumulation).

  19. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 3: Methods for the aimed flow separation and side load reduction (United States)

    Schmucker, R. H.


    Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.

  20. pH effect on the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by the chemical reduction-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela L. Andrade


    Full Text Available This work aimed at putting in evidence the influence of the pH on the chemical nature and properties of the synthesized magnetic nanocomposites. Saturation magnetization measurements evidenced a marked difference of the magnetic behavior of samples, depending on the final pH of the solution after reaction. Magnetite and maghemite in different proportions were the main magnetic iron oxides actually identified. Synthesis with final pH between 9.7-10.6 produced nearly pure magnetite with little or no other associated iron oxide. Under other synthetic conditions, goethite also appears in proportions that depended upon the pH of the synthesis medium.

  1. Preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets by a combined chemical and hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide. (United States)

    Long, Donghui; Li, Wei; Ling, Licheng; Miyawaki, Jin; Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho


    Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets were prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of colloidal dispersions of graphite oxide in the presence of hydrazine and ammonia at pH of 10. The effect of hydrothermal temperature on the structure, morphology, and surface chemistry of as-prepared graphene sheets were investigated though XRD, N(2) adsorption, solid-state (13)C NMR, SEM, TEM, and XPS characterizations. Oxygen reduction and nitrogen doping were achieved simultaneously under the hydrothermal reaction. Up to 5% nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with slightly wrinkled and folded feature were obtained at the relative low hydrothermal temperature. With the increase of hydrothermal temperature, the nitrogen content decreased slightly and more pyridinic N incorporated into the graphene network. Meanwhile, a jellyfish-like graphene structure was formed by self-organization of graphene sheets at the hydrothermal temperature of 160 °C. Further increase of the temperature to 200 °C, graphene sheets could self-aggregate into agglomerate particles but still contained doping level of 4 wt % N. The unique hydrothermal environment should play an important role in the nitrogen doping and the jellyfish-like graphene formation. This simple hydrothermal method could provide the synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets in large scale for various practical applications.

  2. Three-dimensional assemblies of graphene prepared by a novel chemical reduction-induced self-assembly method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin


    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) graphene assemblies are prepared from graphene oxide (GO) by a facile in situ reduction-assembly method, using a novel, low-cost, and environment-friendly reducing medium which is a combination of oxalic acid (OA) and sodium iodide (NaI). It is demonstrated that the combination of a reducing acid, OA, and NaI is indispensable for effective reduction of GO in the current study and this unique combination (1) allows for tunable control over the volume of the thus-prepared graphene assemblies and (2) enables 3D graphene assemblies to be prepared from the GO suspension with a wide range of concentrations (0.1 to 4.5 mg mL-1). To the best of our knowledge, the GO concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 is the lowest GO concentration ever reported for preparation of 3D graphene assemblies. The thus-prepared 3D graphene assemblies exhibit low density, highly porous structures, and electrically conducting properties. As a proof of concept, we show that by infiltrating a responsive polymer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into the as-resulted 3D conducting network of graphene, a conducting composite is obtained, which can be used as a sensing device for differentiating organic solvents with different polarity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO2 into chemicals using Pt-modified reduced graphene oxide combined with Pt-modified TiO2 nanotubes. (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Gai; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa


    The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reduction of CO2 into high-value chemicals is beneficial in alleviating global warming and advancing a low-carbon economy. In this work, Pt-modified reduced graphene oxide (Pt-RGO) and Pt-modified TiO2 nanotubes (Pt-TNT) were combined as cathode and photoanode catalysts, respectively, to form a PEC reactor for converting CO2 into valuable chemicals. XRD, XPS, TEM, AFM, and SEM were employed to characterize the microstructures of the Pt-RGO and Pt-TNT catalysts. Reduction products, such as C2H5OH and CH3COOH, were obtained from CO2 under band gap illumination and biased voltage. A combined liquid product generation rate (CH3OH, C2H5OH, HCOOH, and CH3COOH) of approximately 600 nmol/(h·cm(2)) was observed. Carbon atom conversion rate reached 1,130 nmol/(h·cm(2)), which were much higher than those achieved using Pt-modified carbon nanotubes and platinum carbon as cathode catalysts.

  4. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red. (United States)

    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U


    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater.

  5. Flexible graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid papers chemical-reduction-tailored by gallic acid for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storages (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhou, Chao; Hu, Nantao; Hu, Jing; Hong, Min; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei


    Mechanically robust graphene papers with both high gravimetric and volumetric capacitances are desired for high-performance energy storages. However, it's still a challenge to tailor the structure of graphene papers in order to meet this requirement. In this work, a kind of chemical-reduction-tailored mechanically-robust reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid paper has been reported for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storages. Gallic acid (GA), as an excellent reducing agent, was used to reduce graphene oxide. Through vacuum filtration of gallic acid reduced graphene oxide (GA-rGO) and carboxylic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aqueous suspensions, mechanically robust GA-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid papers were obtained. The resultant hybrid papers showed high gravimetric capacitance of 337.6 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1) and volumetric capacitance of 151.2 F cm-3 (0.25 A cm-3). In addition, the assembled symmetric device based on the hybrid papers exhibited high gravimetric capacitance of 291.6 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1) and volumetric capacitance of 136.6 F cm-3 (0.25 A cm-3). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent rate capability and cycling stability. Above all, this chemical reduction tailoring technique and the resultant high-performance GA-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid papers give an insight for designing high-performance electrodes and hold a great potential in the field of energy storages.

  6. Chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and colour reduction in slaughterhouse wastewater by unmodified and iron-modified clinoptilolite-rich tuff. (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, J; Solache-Ríos, M; Martínez-Miranda, V


    In this study, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, and total organic carbon in effluents from a slaughterhouse in central Mexico was performed using clinoptilolite-rich tuff. The experimental parameters considered were initial concentration of the adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Surface morphology of the materials was tested by using scanning electron microscopy. Specific surface area was analysed by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and phase composition was analysed by using X-ray diffraction. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The highest COD removal was observed in slightly acidic pH conditions. The maximum reduction efficiency of COD was accomplished with unmodified clinoptilolite-rich tuff at a contact time of 1440 min. In these conditions, the adsorbent was efficient for treating wastewater from a slaughterhouse. Moreover, after several regeneration cycles with Fenton reagent or hydrogen peroxide, the regenerated zeolite with H2O2 (3%) showed the best reduction efficiencies.

  7. Scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging using the chemical shift imaging sequence. Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingaertner, Sebastian; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wetterling, Friedrich [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Dublin Univ. (Ireland) Trinity Inst. of Neuroscience; Fatar, Marc [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Neumaier-Probst, Eva [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology


    To evaluate potential scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the chemical shift imaging sequence (CSI) using undersampled data of high-quality datasets, reconstructed with an iterative constrained reconstruction, compared to reduced resolution or reduced signal-to-noise ratio. CSI {sup 23}Na-images were retrospectively undersampled and reconstructed with a constrained reconstruction scheme. The results were compared to conventional methods of scan time reduction. The constrained reconstruction scheme used a phase constraint and a finite object support, which was extracted from a spatially registered {sup 1}H-image acquired with a double-tuned coil. The methods were evaluated using numerical simulations, phantom images and in-vivo images of a healthy volunteer and a patient who suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke. The constrained reconstruction scheme showed improved image quality compared to a decreased number of averages, images with decreased resolution or circular undersampling with weighted averaging for any undersampling factor. Brain images of a stroke patient, which were reconstructed from three-fold undersampled k-space data, resulted in only minor differences from the original image (normalized root means square error < 12%) and an almost identical delineation of the stroke region (mismatch < 6%). The acquisition of undersampled {sup 23}Na-CSI images enables up to three-fold scan time reduction with improved image quality compared to conventional methods of scan time saving.

  8. Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szopa


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure to generate reduced chemical schemes for the atmospheric photooxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC compounds. The procedure is based on (i the development of a tool for writing the fully explicit schemes for VOC oxidation (see companion paper Aumont et al., 2005, (ii the application of several commonly used reduction methods to the fully explicit scheme, and (iii the assessment of resulting errors based on direct comparison between the reduced and full schemes. The reference scheme included seventy emitted VOCs chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and their atmospheric degradation chemistry required more than two million reactions among 350000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the reference chemical scheme: (i use of operators, based on the redundancy of the reaction sequences involved in the VOC oxidation, (ii grouping of primary species having similar reactivities into surrogate species and (iii grouping of some secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 147, this being small enough for practical inclusion in current three-dimensional models. Comparisons between the fully explicit and reduced schemes, carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions, showed that the reduced chemical scheme accurately predicts ozone concentrations and some other aspects of oxidant chemistry for both polluted and clean tropospheric conditions.

  9. Chemical reduction of the elastic properties of zeolites: a comparison of the formation of carbonate species versus dealumination. (United States)

    Bryukhanov, I A; Rybakov, A A; Kovalev, V L; Larin, A V; Zhidomirov, G M


    The decrease in elastic moduli (Young's, bulk, and shear modulus), the variations in their asymmetries, the Poisson's ratio and the linear compressibility due to carbonate formation in NaX, have been compared to those produced by dealumination of the zeolite HY framework, from the Al-Si-Al fragment positioned in joined 4R rings. All these systems have been considered at the density functional theory (DFT) level using periodic boundary conditions. The representativeness of the models has been checked by comparison of the calculated IR spectra of carbonate and hydrocarbonate species in NaX and of hydroxyl groups in HY with the experimental equivalents. The correlation between the destabilization energy of the systems and the displacement of Na or K cations coordinated to the carbonate or hydrocarbonate species, expressed in terms of Me-O bond elongation, has been confirmed for either one or two carbonate and hydrocarbonate species per unit cell (UC). Finally, a similar reduction in elasticity in FAU zeolites has been observed, due either to carbonate/bicarbonate formation in NaX or as a step in HY dealumination.

  10. Reduction of carbon dioxide gas formation at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell using chemically enhanced solubility (United States)

    Lundin, Michael D.; McCready, Mark J.

    The production of CO 2 gas at the DMFC anode leads to dramatic increases in pumping power requirements and reduced power output because of mass transfer limitations as bubble trains form in the channels of larger stacks. Experimental observations taken in a 5 cm 2 DMFC test cell operated at 60 °C, 1 atm, and with a methanol/water fuel flow rates of 5-10 cm 3 min -1 indicate that the rate of bubble formation can be reduced by increasing the fuel flow because more liquid is available for the CO 2 to dissolve in. Further observations indicate that KOH and LiOH added to the fuel eliminates CO 2 gas formation in situ at low concentrations because of the greatly increased solubility that results. A mathematical model for the volumetric rate of CO 2 gas production that includes effects of temperature and solubility is developed and extended to include the effects of hydroxide ions in solution. The model is used to predict the onset location of gas formation in the flow field as well as the void fraction at any point in the flow field. Predictions from the model agree very well with our experiments. Model predictions explain differences in the initial location of bubble formation for fuel solutions pre-saturated with CO 2 as opposed to CO 2-free solutions. Experiments with KOH and LiOH added to fuel solutions confirm the validity of the model extension that includes solubility that is enhanced by chemical reaction. Experiments with LiOH, KOH, and ammonium hydroxide show that the long-term durability of standard Pt-Ru/Nafion ®/Pt membrane electrode assemblies is compromised because of the presence of lithium, potassium, and ammonium cations that interact with the Nafion ® membrane and result in increasing the ohmic limitations of the polymer electrolyte membrane. Experiments with Ca(OH) 2, while reducing gas formation, precipitate the product CaCO 3 out of solution too rapidly for downstream filtering, blocking channels in the flow field.

  11. A controlled study of the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction technique in women with multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia (United States)

    Sampalli, Tara; Berlasso, Elizabeth; Fox, Roy; Petter, Mark


    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on women diagnosed with conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and fibromyalgia (FM). Methods: The intervention group underwent a 10-week MBSR program. Symptoms Checklist Inventory (SCL-90R) was used as outcome measure and was administered before the start of the program (pre-), immediately upon completion (post-) and at three-month follow-up. Women on the wait list to receive treatment at the Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre were used as control subjects for the study. Results: A total of 50 participants in the intervention group and 26 in the wait-list controls group were recruited for this study. Global scores in the intervention group reached statistical significance pre-post (<0.0001) and at pre-follow-up (<0.0001) while the global scores in the control group remained the same. Five of nine and eight of nine subscales of the SCL-90R showed improvement of statistical significance in MBSR group following treatment and at three-month follow-up. Conclusions: The study showed the importance of complementary interventions such as MBSR techniques in the reduction of psychological distress in women with chronic conditions. PMID:21197347

  12. Chemical-free fabrication of N, P dual-doped honeycomb-like carbon as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. (United States)

    Zhu, Lianwen; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Qiao; Li, Xiangkui; Li, Yiming; Cao, Xuebo


    Heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbons are now emerging as alternatives to platinum and its alloys as electrocatalysts to facilitate oxygen reduction reaction in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. However, the synthesis of nanoporous carbons usually involve in complicated procedures and intensive chemicals, which may dramatically raise their manufacture cost that even surpasses that of precious platinum. Herein, we demonstrate the single-step, chemical-free fabrication of N, P dualdoped honeycomb carbon that has hierarchically porous structure and oxygen electrocatalysis activity close to the benchmark Pt/C. This material was fabricated through the direct pyrolysis of popcorn in a static, semi-opened environment. With this strategy, nitrous and phosphoric groups from proteins and phosphates within the popcorn are condensed with graphitic matrix to form NC and PC bonds, and pyrolysis byproducts (such as H2O and CO2) can etch disordered carbon domains to form hierarchical pores and edge carbons. Practical test of this honeycomb carbon as air electrode of a primary Zn-air battery shows an open-circuit potential of 1.44V and peak power density of 36.6mWcm-2 that is even better than Pt/C. The impact of this work is that it will facilitate the targeted design and cost-saved fabrication of metal-free catalysts for electrocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Split-Face Evaluation to Assess the Efficacy of a Hydrolyzed Roe Cream in the Reduction of Erythema Following Chemical Peel (United States)

    Narurkar, Vic A.


    Objective:To evaluate a hydrolyzed roe cream in the reduction of facial erythema following a chemical peel treatment. Edema was also assessed. Design:The facial cream was applied to one side of the face of 30 healthy female subjects (average age = 54.9 years, range 33–65 years) immediately following 4 to 15 minutes peel treatment. The opposite side remained untreated. Visia-CR digital photographs were taken at baseline and 8 and 24 hours post facial peel. Objective dermal irritation assessments were done by a blinded investigator, graded on severity of facial erythema and edema on a 5-point scoring scale; 0=none, 1 =slight,2=mild, 3=moderate, 4=severe. Subjects completed a perception questionnaire. Results: Reduction in erythema was greater (P≤0.05) for the treated side of the face compared to the untreated side at both 8 and 24 hours post-peel. Both sides showed reduction in erythema compared to immediate post-peel. No edema was observed. At eight hours, more than 50 percent of subjects agreed on the five attributes, and at 24 hours, 57 percent (17/30) of subjects agreed. At eight hours, ≥80 percent of subjects strongly agreed or agreed that the treated skin feels hydrated and moisturized immediately after application. At 24 hours, more than 90 percent of subjects strongly agreed or agreed that treated skin feels perfectly hydrated and moisturized. When asked about their overall impression of the product, 60 percent (18 subjects) of subjects responded”! love it.”All subjects completed the study. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Applying the facial lotion directly on post-procedure skin reduces redness after 8 and 24 hours significantly better compared to no treatment. PMID:27847550

  14. Kinetics of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by methane (CH{sub 4}) during chemical looping combustion: A global mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Carpenter, Stephen


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion which produces a sequestration ready concentrated CO{sub 2} stream in power production. A CLC system is composed with two reactors, an air and a fuel reactor. An oxygen carrier such as hematite (94%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) circulates between the reactors, which transfers the oxygen necessary for the fuel combustion from the air to the fuel. An important issue for the CLC process is the selection of metal oxide as oxygen carrier, since it must retain its reactivity through many cycles. The primary objective of this work is to develop a global mechanism with respective kinetics rate parameters such that CFD simulations can be performed for large systems. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in a continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (15, 20, and 35%) was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825{degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at the early stage of reaction and H{sub 2} and CO at the final stage of reactions. A kinetic model based on two parallel reactions, 1) first-order irreversible rate kinetics and 2) Avrami equation describing nucleation and growth processes, was applied to the reduction data. It was found, that the reaction rates for both reactions increase with, both, temperature and the methane concentration in inlet gas.

  15. Electrochemical properties of nano-cobalt powder prepared by chemical reduction with and without cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and carbon-coated at 500 °C for secondary lithium Batteries (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Jin, Yeong-Mi; Song, Myoung Youp


    X-ray diffraction patterns show that Co-based powders prepared by chemical reduction with and without Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, C19H42BrN) and carbon-coated at 500°C are not crystallized and amorphous-like as they are just after the chemical reduction. The Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction with CTAB has carbon-coated layers with thicknesses of 15-20 nm. Comparing the 20% carbon-added powders, the powder prepared by chemical reduction with CTAB and carbon-coated at 500 °C has a larger first discharge capacity (about 1,230 mAh g-1) than the powder prepared by chemical reduction without CTAB and carbon-coated at 500 °C (about 902 mAh g-1). The reason is believed to be that the carbon layer obstructs the expansion of the Co phase and the formation of the solid electrolyte interface on the surface of the Co. Comparing the powders that are carbon-coated with CTAB added, the 20% carbon-added powder has a larger first discharge capacity (about 1,230 mAh g-1) than the 10% carbon-added powder (about 1,130 mAh g-1).

  16. Evidence of chemical stimulation of hepatic metabolism by an experimental acetanilide (FOE 5043) indirectly mediating reductions in circulating thyroid hormone levels in the male rat. (United States)

    Christenson, W R; Becker, B D; Wahle, B S; Moore, K D; Dass, P D; Lake, S G; Van Goethem, D L; Stuart, B P; Sangha, G K; Thyssen, J H


    N-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl]oxy]acetamide (FOE 5043) is a new acetanilide-type herbicide undergoing regulatory testing. Previous work in this laboratory suggested that FOE 5043-induced reductions in serum thyroxine (T4) levels were mediated via an extrathyroidal site of action. The possibility that the alterations in circulating T4 levels were due to chemical induction of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism was investigated. Treatment with FOE 5043 at a rate of 1000 ppm as a dietary admixture was found to significantly increase the clearance of [125I]T4 from the serum, suggesting an enhanced excretion of the hormone. In the liver, the activity of hepatic uridine glucuronosyl transferase, a major pathway of thyroid hormone biotransformation in the rat, increased in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner; conversely, hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity trended downward with dose. Bile flow as well as the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of [125I]T4 were increased following exposure to FOE 5043. Thyroidal function, as measured by the discharge of iodide ion in response to perchlorate, and pituitary function, as measured by the capacity of the pituitary to secrete thyrotropin in response to an exogenous challenge by hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone, were both unchanged from the controlled response. These data suggest that the functional status of the thyroid and pituitary glands has not been altered by treatment with FOE 5043 and that reductions in circulating levels of T4 are being mediated indirectly through an increase in the biotransformation and excretion of thyroid hormone in the liver.

  17. Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description Oxydation et réduction des minerais de fer-titane dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Hoed P.


    Full Text Available Ilmenite (FeTiO3 is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes. Its reduction and oxidation are described by the system Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-Ti2O3. The phase diagram at 1 000°C, presented here, offers a useful tool for predicting reactions and their products. We see that Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite and TiO2 (rutile form a stable phase assemblage following the oxidation of FeTiO3 (ilmenite in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe2TiO5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10-15.5atm stabilizes Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes. We speculate that the reduction of Fe-Ti oxides in several practical instances does not reach completion (and equilibrium under the imposed atmospheres operating in fuel reactors. L’ilménite (FeTiO3 est considéré comme un transporteur d’oxygène potentiel pour les procédés en boucle chimique. Ses mécanismes de réduction et d’oxydation sont décrits à travers le système Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-TiO3. Le diagramme de phase à 1 000°C, présenté ici, est un outil utile pour prédire les réactions et les produits. Nous constatons que Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite et TiO2 (rutile forment un assemblage de phase stable après oxydation de l’ilménite (FeTiO3 dans l’air. La réduction subséquente de Fe2TiO5 à la pression partielle de 10−15,5atm stabilise vers Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, une solution solide d’ilménite. Une réduction plus poussée va produire du fer métallique et compromettre l’intégrité du transporteur d’oxygène dans la boucle chimique. Il est probable que la réduction des oxydes Fe-Ti ne soit pas, en pratique, complète et n’atteigne pas l’équilibre dans les conditions rencontrées en opération dans les réacteurs de réduction.

  18. Anaerobic stabilization of waste activated sludge at different temperatures and solid retention times: Evaluation by sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand release and dehydration capability. (United States)

    Li, Xiyao; Peng, Yongzhen; He, Yuelan; Wang, Shuying; Guo, Siyu; Li, Lukai


    Anaerobic treatment is the most widely used method of waste activated sludge (WAS) stabilization. Using a semi-continuous stirring tank with condensed WAS, we investigated effects of decreasing the solid retention time (SRT) from 32days to 6.4days on sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release and dehydration capability, along with anaerobic digestion operated at medium temperature (MT-AD) or anaerobic digestion operated at room temperature (RT-AD). Results showed that effects of temperature on SCOD release were greater at SRT of 32d and 6.4d. When SRT was less than 8d, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS) and capillary suction time (CST) did not change significantly. CST was lowest at SRT of 10.7days, indicating best condition for sludge dehydration. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the most optimum SRT was higher than 10.7d both in MT-AD or RT-AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization and study of reduction and sulfurization processing in phase transition from molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 2}) to molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) chalcogenide semiconductor nanoparticles prepared by one-stage chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomalian, K.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.M.; Ardyanian, M. [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this research, molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method using MoO{sub 3} and thiourea as a precursor. The physical properties of the synthesized MoO{sub 2}-MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles annealed at different temperatures of 200, 300, 750 C have been investigated, before and after exposure to sulfur vapor. The nanostructure of nanoparticles has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analyses and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of MoS{sub 2} single phase at annealing temperature of 750 C in the presence of sulfur vapor. The Raman spectrum of the nanoparticles revealed that the formation of MoS{sub 2} at 750 C after annealing in sulfur vapor. The values of band gap were obtained in the range of 3.64-3.17 eV and 3.47-1.95 eV for MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles before and after exposure to sulfur vapor, respectively. According to SEM images, the grain size decreases with increasing annealing temperature up to 750 C. Also, nanoplate-nanoparticles of MoS{sub 2} are formed at annealing temperature of 200-750 C. The TEM images of MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles at T{sub a} = 750 C confirm that the nanoparticles have a homogeneous distribution with a hexagonal structure. The FTIR spectra of the MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles showed the peaks at about 467 cm {sup -1} belong to the characteristic bands of Mo-S. (orig.)

  20. Use of HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry for detection of formazan in in vitro Reconstructed human Tissue (RhT)-based test methods employing the MTT-reduction assay to expand their applicability to strongly coloured test chemicals. (United States)

    Alépée, N; Barroso, J; De Smedt, A; De Wever, B; Hibatallah, J; Klaric, M; Mewes, K R; Millet, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; Templier, M; McNamee, P


    A number of in vitro test methods using Reconstructed human Tissues (RhT) are regulatory accepted for evaluation of skin corrosion/irritation. In such methods, test chemical corrosion/irritation potential is determined by measuring tissue viability using the photometric MTT-reduction assay. A known limitation of this assay is possible interference of strongly coloured test chemicals with measurement of formazan by absorbance (OD). To address this, Cosmetics Europe evaluated use of HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry as an alternative formazan measurement system. Using the approach recommended by the FDA guidance for validation of bio-analytical methods, three independent laboratories established and qualified their HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry systems to reproducibly measure formazan from tissue extracts. Up to 26 chemicals were then tested in RhT test systems for eye/skin irritation and skin corrosion. Results support that: (1) HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry formazan measurement is highly reproducible; (2) formazan measurement by HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry and OD gave almost identical tissue viabilities for test chemicals not exhibiting colour interference nor direct MTT reduction; (3) independent of the test system used, HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry can measure formazan for strongly coloured test chemicals when this is not possible by absorbance only. It is therefore recommended that HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry to measure formazan be included in the procedures of in vitro RhT-based test methods, irrespective of the test system used and the toxicity endpoint evaluated to extend the applicability of these test methods to strongly coloured chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of hydrogen-induced optical losses of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride by phosphorus doping and heat treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein, M.G.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Sengo, G.; Sengo, G.; Driessen, A.


    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition phosphoros-doped silicon oxynitride (SiON) layers with a refractive index of 1.505 were deposited from $N_{2}O$, 2% $SiH_{4}/N_{2}$, and 5% $PH_{3}/Ar$ gaseous mixtures. The $PH_{3}/Ar$ flow rate was varied to investigate the effect of the dopant to the

  2. Study of film graphene/graphene oxide obtained by partial reduction chemical of oxide graphite; Estudo de filme de grafeno/oxido de grafeno obtido por reducao quimica parcial do oxido de grafite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascho, J.L.S.; Costa, S.F.; Hoepfner, J.C.; Pezzin, S.H., E-mail: [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais


    This study investigated the morphology of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained by partial chemical reduction of graphite oxide (OG) as well as its resistance to solvents. Films of graphene/graphene oxide are great candidates for replacement of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) in photoelectric devices. The OG was obtained from natural graphite, by Hummer's method modified, and its reduction is made by using sodium borohydride. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fourier transform (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution (SEM/FEG) for the characterization of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained were performed. This film proved to be resilient, not dispersing in any of the various tested solvents (such as ethanol, acetone and THF), even under tip sonication, this resistance being an important property for the applications. Furthermore, the film had a morphology similar to that obtained by other preparation methods.(author)

  3. Impact of reduction dose, time and method of application of chemical fertilizer on mung bean under old alluvial soil, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal


    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted with mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek consecutively for three years (2009, 2010, and 2011 in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India. In the first two years, varietals screening of mung bean under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (20:40:20 were performed with five varieties with a local variety of mung bean during February to May of 2009. In the second year, one experiment was conducted with six different reduced dose of chemical fertilizer. In the third year, five different method and time of application of biofertilizer were applied to study the effects on agronomic traits and growth attributes of mung bean. The variety PDM-54 a significant higher seed yield along with other yield contributing factors, which was found to be superior to other varieties. In 2010, seed yield was found to be the best for 30% less nitrogenous and 25% less phosphate fertilizer along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. In 2011, the best yield was given by the treatment of basal @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + 1.5 kg ha-1 soil application after 21 days + 0.75 kg ha-1 as soil application + best dose of previous year.

  4. Optimal reduction of chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N from landfill leachate using a strongly resistant novel Bacillus salmalaya strain. (United States)

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Ismail, Salmah Binti


    When the unavoidable waste generation is considered as damaging to our environment, it becomes crucial to develop a sustainable technology to remediate the pollutant source towards an environmental protection and safety. The development of a bioengineering technology for highly efficient pollutant removal is this regard. Given the high ammonia nitrogen content and chemical oxygen demand of landfill leachate, Bacillus salmalaya strain 139SI, a novel resident strain microbe that can survive in high ammonia nitrogen concentrations, was investigated for the bioremoval of ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate. The treatability of landfill leachate was evaluated under different treatment parameters, such as temperature, inoculum dosage, and pH. Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation with the novel strain can potentially improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate. B. salmalaya strain 139SI showed high potential to enhance biological treatment given its maximum NH3-N and COD removal efficiencies. The response surface plot pattern indicated that within 11 days and under optimum conditions (10% v/v inoculant, pH 6, and 35 °C), B. salmalaya strain139SI removed 78% of ammonia nitrogen. At the end of the study, biological and chemical oxygen demands remarkably decreased by 88% and 91.4%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that ammonia ions covered the cell surface of B. salmalaya strain139SI. Therefore, novel resistant Bacillus salmalaya strain139SI significantly reduces the chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N content of landfill leachate. Leachate treatment by B. salmalaya strain 139SI within 11 days.

  5. Reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin for chemicals and fuels using formic acid as an in-situ hydrogen source. (United States)

    Huang, Shanhua; Mahmood, Nubla; Tymchyshyn, Matthew; Yuan, Zhongshun; Xu, Chunbao Charles


    In this study, formic acid (FA) was employed as an in-situ hydrogen donor for the reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin (KL). Under the optimum operating conditions, i.e., 300 °C, 1 h, 18.6 wt.% substrate concentration, 50/50 (v/v) water-ethanol medium with FA at a FA-to-lignin mass ratio of 0.7, KL (Mw∼10,000 g/mol) was effectively de-polymerized, producing de-polymerized lignin (DL, Mw 1270 g/mol) at a yield of ∼90 wt.% and polymerization of KL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. One-step wet chemical deposition of NiO from the electrochemical reduction of nitrates in ionic liquid based electrolytes


    Azaceta, Eneko; Tuyen, Ngo T.; Pickup, David F.; Rogero, Celia; Ortega, J. Enrique; Miguel, Óscar; Grande, Hans-Jurgen; Tena-Zaera, Ramón


    Aprotic PYR14TFSI (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)) ionic liquid served to develop a new electrochemical route for one-step deposition of NiO from PYR14NO3 reduction (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium nitrate) in a Ni(TFSI)2 (Nickel (II) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide) containing electrolyte. The high solubility of the novel PYR14NO3 salt in PYR14TFSI (>0.1 M) in comparison with other oxygenated precursors such as oxygen gas, NaNO 3 or KNO3 (i.e. 10-15 mM) allows t...

  7. Solar-chemical contributions to the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions; Solarchemische Beitraege zur Reduktion des CO{sub 2}-Ausstosses. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alxneit, I.; Gstoehl, D.; Wieckert, C.


    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the production of zinc by using concentrated solar energy to dissociate zinc oxide. The zinc can be used to produce hydrogen from water or as an electrode in zinc-air batteries or fuel cells. The project aimed to develop a thermo-chemical cycle for the production of 'solar' hydrogen. The three sub-projects - the creation of a model that describes the process, experimental determination of nucleation and condensation rates and the experimental determination of the oxidation kinetics - are described and discussed.

  8. Kinetic studies of molecular oxygen reduction on W{sub 0.013}Ru{sub 1.27}Se thin films chemically synthesized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solorza-Feria, O.; Ramirez-Raya, S.; Rivera-Noriega, R.; Ordonez-Regil, E.; Fernandez-Valverde, S.M. [IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. Quimica]|[Gerencia de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A. Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F. 11870 (Mexico)


    The reaction of molecular oxygen reduction was investigated on an amorphous W{sub 0.013}Ru{sub 1.27}Se electrocatalyst compound in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The electrocatalyst was synthesized by reacting transition metal carbonyl compounds with the elemental selenium in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (b.p.{approx}180 C), under refluxing conditions for 20 Hs. The sample was characterized by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization of the electrocatalyst indicated that the material, in a thin film form, consisted of an amorphous phase with a distribution of nano-sized particles. Electrochemical studies were carried out by a using a rotating disc electrode (RDE) and a rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE) techniques. The RDE and RRDE measurements indicated that the electrocatalyst is active for molecular oxygen reduction in acid media with multi-electron charge transfer (n=4e{sup -}), to form water. The reaction order and the heterogeneous rate constants for a simple mechanism were evaluated. (orig.) 21 refs.

  9. Synergetic effect of ZrO2 on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Fe2O3 during chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Tan, Qinliang; Qin, Wu; Chen, Qiuluan; Dong, Changqing; Li, Wenyan; Yang, Yongping


    Fe2O3/ZrO2 model oxygen carrier is constructed at atomic-level precision under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. Based on density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamical simulations, structure and energy analysis suggests that the complex Fe2O3/ZrO2 is stable and more chemically active than the pure Fe2O3, ZrO2 promotes the adsorption of CO, which is chemisorption rather than physisorption on the pure Fe2O3 surface. Interface electronic interaction of Fe2O3/ZrO2 makes Fe2O3 positive to accept electron from CO easily and hence promoting the chemisorption of CO and the formation of carbonate species, while such electronic interaction makes it relatively more difficult in oxidizing Fe2O2 supported on ZrO2. However, all reaction barrier energies are small enough for Fe2O2 oxidation to happen under high temperature in the CLC system. Both CO oxidation by Fe2O3/ZrO2 related to the fuel reactor in the chemical looping combustion (CLC) system and Fe2O2/ZrO2 oxidation by O2 related to the air reactor in CLC system illustrate the synergetic effect of ZrO2 on the CO oxidation and Fe2O2 oxidation.

  10. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.


    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  11. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kenton, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Westmont, IL (United States)


    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

  12. Quantum-chemical estimation of outersphere cations influence on charge transfer at the NbF{sub 7}{sup 2-} reduction. Pt. 1. Electronic structure of complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, Veniamin V.; Chernenko, Lyudmila A. [Poltava National Technical Univ., Poltava (Ukraine); Kremenetsky, Vyacheslav G.; Kuznetsov, Sergey A. [Inst. of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre RAS Apatity Murmansk region (Russian Federation)


    Quantum-chemical calculations of the parameters of the nM{sup +} . NbF{sub 7}{sup 2-} type particles, where M stands for Na, K, Cs; q = 2,3 and n = 0-7 have been performed. Within the framework of this approximation, compositions for the most stable particles in molten salts were obtained. It is shown that electron transfer onto the particle results in a different redistribution of the electron density with the Na and K-particles on one hand and Cs-containing particles on the other hand. Energies and some other characteristics of the electron structure and particle geometry were determined depending on the n and M values. (orig.)

  13. Enhancement of flexural stress and reduction of surface roughness through changes in gas concentrations during high-speed chemical dry thinning of silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.J. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, N.-E., E-mail: [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)


    Three-dimensional packaging using through silicon via of ultra-thin Si wafers requires very low residual stress. In this study, the effects of additive gases on root-mean-squared (RMS) surface roughness and flexural stress of Si wafers thinned by the high-speed chemical dry etching (CDE) process were investigated. Direct injection of Ar with NO gases into the reactor during the supply of F radicals from NF{sub 3} remote plasmas was effective in increasing the Si wafer thinning rate and in reducing significant surface roughness. Reduced RMS surface roughness of the thinned Si wafer resulted in high flexural stress. The additional injection of N{sub 2} gas further decreased the surface roughness of the thinned Si wafer and, in turn, increased the flexural stress of the thinned wafers. By adjusting the Ar flow and Q ratio, Q(N{sub 2}) = N{sub 2}/(N{sub 2} + NO), Si wafer thinning rates as high as 23 μm/min and RMS surface roughnesses as small as 10 nm were obtained. Furthermore, it was found that the surface roughness is a critical factor affecting the flexural stress of the thinned Si wafer. These results indicate that the high-speed CDE process using F radicals and directly injected NO/Ar/N{sub 2} gases can be applied to ultra-thin Si wafer thinning with controlled RMS surface roughness and low residual stress. - Highlights: • Chemical dry etching of Si wafers affected by N{sub 2}/(N{sub 2} + NO) flow ratio. • Increasing the flow ratio decreased the thinning rate and surface temperature. • Si wafer thinning rate as high as 23 mm/ min was obtained. • Root mean square surface roughness value drastically decreased from 91 to 1.21 nm. • The strength value of flexural stress increased from 162 to 756 MPa.

  14. Effect of chemical functionalization on the electrochemical properties of conducting polymers. Modification of polyaniline by diazonium ion coupling and subsequent reductive degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Diego F.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Miras, Maria C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 8, Km 601, X5804ZAB, Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Barbero, Cesar A., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 8, Km 601, X5804ZAB, Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)


    The electrochemical properties of polyaniline (PANI) can be altered by coupling the polymer with aryldiazonium ions. The ions are synthesized by diazotization of aromatic primary amines (1-aminoanthraquinone, sulphadiazine and 4-cyanoaniline) bearing functional groups which are then linked to the polyaniline backbone. All materials produced are electroactive, suggesting that the reaction involves coupling of the diazonium ion with the aromatic rings and not nucleophilic substitution by the aminic nitrogen of PANI on the aryl cations. The electrochemical properties of the modified polymers are different to those of PANI, likely due to electronic and steric effects of the attached groups. Reductive degradation of the azo linkages, using dithionite ion, removes the attached moieties leaving primary amino groups attached to the polyaniline backbone. In that way, the effect of the attached groups on the electrochemical properties of PANI is eliminated. FTIR spectroscopy measurement of the different polymers supports the proposed mechanism. Using the method a polymer containing redox (anthraquinone) groups, which could be used for charge storage, is obtained. Additionally a material containing sulphadiazine moieties, which can be released in vivo by bacterial activity, is also produced. The molecule is a well-known sulfa drug with bacteriostatic activity. The reaction sequence seems to be of general application to modify polyanilines, by attaching functional groups, and then to produce a PANI backbone bearing primary amino groups. Evidence is presented on the kinetic control of attached group removal.

  15. Theoretical study of oxidation-reduction reaction of Fe2O3 supported on MgO during chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Qin, Wu; Chen, Qiuluan; Wang, Yang; Dong, Changqing; Zhang, Junjiao; Li, Wenyan; Yang, Yongping


    We applied density-functional theory (DFT) in periodic system to investigate the two reactions (CO + Fe2O3/MgO → CO2 + Fe2O2/MgO, O2 + Fe2O2/MgO → O + Fe2O3/MgO) in chemical looping combustion system. While Fe2O3 was supported on MgO(1 0 0) surface Fe2O3 gathered together to form a cluster shape on MgO(1 0 0), denoted as Fe2O3/MgO, where the Fe2O3 was activated by MgO(1 0 0). Then CO interacted with Fe2O3/MgO and carbonate generated during a stepwise reaction with the calculated maximum barrier energy of 0.95 eV, far less than that of the reaction between CO and the pure Fe2O3 cluster (2.59 eV). CO was oxidized by Fe2O3/MgO and then Fe2O3/MgO transformed into the reduced state Fe2O2/MgO, corresponding to the reaction in the fuel reactor in the CLC system. Then the breaking of the adsorbed O2 molecule on Fe2O2/MgO made an O atom bind to a Fe site with the barrier energy of 0. 20 eV, which played as the key step for the oxidizing of Fe2O2/MgO by O2 into Fe2O3/MgO, corresponding to the reaction in the air reactor in the CLC system.

  16. Examination of surface phenomena of V₂O₅ loaded on new nanostructured TiO₂ prepared by chemical vapor condensation for enhanced NH₃-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) at low temperatures. (United States)

    Cha, Woojoon; Yun, Seong-Taek; Jurng, Jongsoo


    In this article, we describe the investigation and surface characterization of a chemical vapor condensation (CVC)-TiO2 support material used in a V2O5/TiO2 catalyst for enhanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity and confirm the mechanism of surface reactions. On the basis of previous studies and comparison with a commercial TiO2 catalyst, we examine four fundamental questions: first, the reason for increased surface V(4+) ion concentrations; second, the origin of the increase in surface acid sites; third, a basis for synergistic influences on improvements in SCR activity; and fourth, a reason for improved catalytic activity at low reaction temperatures. In this study, we have cited the result of SCR with NH3 activity for removing NOx and analyzed data using the reported result and data from previous studies on V2O5/CVC-TiO2 for the SCR catalyst. In order to determine the properties of suitable CVC-TiO2 surfaces for efficient SCR catalysis at low temperatures, CVC-TiO2 specimens were prepared and characterized using techniques such as XRD, BET, HR-TEM, XPS, FT-IR, NH3-TPD, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, H2-TPR, and cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained for the CVC-TiO2 materials were also compared with those of commercial TiO2.

  17. Handling Biological Complexity Using Kron Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Rao, Shodhan; Sikkema, Ward; Bakker, Barbara; Camlibel, Kanat; Julius, Agung; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Scherpen, Jacquelien


    We revisit a model reduction method for detailed-balanced chemical reaction networks based on Kron reduction on the graph of complexes. The resulting reduced model preserves a number of important properties of the original model, such as, the kinetics law and identity of the chemical species. For

  18. Chemical Emergencies (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  19. Nitrate reduction (United States)

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw


    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  20. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale


    will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

  1. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors


    Slavnić Danijela S.; Bugarski Branko M.; Nikačević Nikola M.


    Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions) is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned indust...

  2. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver


    Managing and, ideally, explaining phonetic variation has ever since been a key issue in the speech sciences. In this context, the major contribution of Lindblom's H&H theory was to replace the futile search for invariance by an explainable variance based on the tug-of-war metaphor. Recent empirical...... evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... at the heart of the tug-of-war metaphor. The author's suggestion would be to "offshore" the tug-of-war metaphor and replace it by the ocean metaphor of Bolinger (1964), with the ups and downs at the surface of the ocean representing the speaker's variation along the hypo-hyper scale and wavelength...

  3. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio


    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  4. Green Tea Cultivation at the Northern Limit of Economical Cultivation—Effects of the Reduction of Chemical Fertilizer on the Plant Growth and the Quality of the First Crop Tea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Jieqi; Hoshino, Koichi; Hirai, Hideaki; Kato, Hidemasa


      The effects of compost and coated fertilizer nitrogen on the quality of the first crop tea were investigated in order to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer nitrogen (CFN) to tea gardens...

  5. Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of graphene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on three aspects ...

  6. Chemical Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles


    Hamid Reza Ghorbani


    Metal nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest particularly because of the size dependence of physical and chemical properties and its enormous technological potential. Among different metal nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles have attracted great attention because copper is one of the most key metals in new technology. Chemical methods are used to synthesize copper nanoparticles and among them chemical reduction is the most frequently applied method for the preparation of stable, c...

  7. Formation of semiquinone radical in the reaction of embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone) with reductants as well as oxidants. Characterization by pulse radiolysis and structure investigation by quantum chemical study (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi


    Embelin, 2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone, has two intra-molecular hydrogen bonds between the quinone and hydroquinone groups present on the same ring. Therefore, it is expected to produce semiquinone radical in the oxidation as well reduction reactions. To investigate this aspect, kinetics and mechanism of reduction reactions of embelin have been studied using nanosecond electron pulse radiolysis technique and compared with the oxidation process. Two distinct transients observed in the reduction ( λmax = 450 nm) and the oxidation ( λmax = 410 nm) processes with various free radicals have been characterized and assigned to two different embelin semiquinone radicals on the basis of pulse radiolysis studies. The structures of these transients have been further ascertained using density functional theory with B3LYP functional and 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. Reduction reaction of embelin has been found to produce delocalized semiquinone anion radical. On the other hand, oxidation of embelin is expected to produce several transient species. However, the calculations suggest that oxidation of hydroquinone group is the first step, which is followed by transformation into carbon-centered radical.

  8. Chemical use (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  9. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism]. (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi


    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  10. Chemical and Electrochemical Properties of La0.58Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ (LSCF) Thin Films upon Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitscheider, Simon; Machala, Michael; Guan, Zixuan

    conditions. In particular, NAP-XPS studies of the surface chemistry evolution under operation, as well as the correlation between surface potential changes in relation to the applied overpotential are addressed, in an attempt to determine the real driving force for the oxygen reactions.For this purpose, thin......The Oxygen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions (OER/ORR), occurring at the oxygen electrode of Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) in the two possible ways of operation, require substantial overpotentials, therefore lowering the operating efficiency of the cells. The reaction mechanisms occurring...

  11. Chemical Composition (United States)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  12. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J


    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  13. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven


    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...

  14. Chemical modification (United States)

    R. M. Rowell


    Wood is a hygroscopic resource that was designed to perform, in nature, in a wet environment. Nature is programmed to recycle wood in a timely way through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradations. In simple terms, nature builds wood from carbon dioxide and water and has all the tools to recycle it back to the starting chemicals...

  15. Model-order reduction of biochemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Schaft, Arjan van der; Eunen, Karen van; Bakker, Barbara M.; Jayawardhana, Bayu


    In this paper we propose a model-order reduction method for chemical reaction networks governed by general enzyme kinetics, including the mass-action and Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The model-order reduction method is based on the Kron reduction of the weighted Laplacian matrix which describes the

  16. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian


    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively...

  17. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. Chemical Peel (United States)

    ... complications in chemical peeling. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;3:186. Langsdon PR, et al. ... Discovery's Edge Magazine Search Publications Training Grant Positions Education Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science Mayo ...

  19. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E


    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  20. Chemical Carcinogenesis


    Oliveira, Paula A.; Aura Colaço; Raquel Chaves; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; Luis F. De-La-Cruz P.; Carlos Lopes


    The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process...

  1. Chemical carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula A; Colaço, Aura; Chaves, Raquel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; De-La-Cruz P, Luis F; Lopes, Carlos


    The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair--i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.

  2. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  3. Compilation of an emissions data base for Europe, base year 1995, and development of large scale emissions reduction scenarios for the chemical transport model REM/CALGRID. Final report; Modellierung und Puefung von Strategien zur Verminderung der Belastung durch Ozon. Erstellung einer europaweiten Emissionsdatenbasis mit Bezugsjahr 1995 und die Erarbeitung von Emissionsszenarien fuer die grossraeumigen Ausbreitungsrechnungen mit REM/CALGRID. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.


    The report describes the emissions data base created by TNO, Netherlands, which is used for the chemical transport model REM/CALGRID. Base year is 1995. The data base covers Europe with grids of 0.5 x 0.25 lat long and contains the anthropogenic emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}. The data base uses CORINAIR and CEPMEIP information and the SNAP source group classifiction of CORINAIR. For emissions scenario calculations, 3 scenarios were developed based on information provided by IIASA: situation 2005, CLE-scenario 2010 and MFR-scenario 2010. The CLE-scenario is based on the current legislation and the national emissions ceilings, NEC. The MFR-scenario describes the maximum feasible reduction measures. (orig.)

  4. Redução do amaciamento de banana 'Maçã' minimamente processada pelo uso de tratamentos químicos Softening reduction of fresh-cut 'apple' banana by using of chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Adriano Martins Melo


    (AA, calcium chloride (CC, L-cysteine hydrochloride (Cis and Na2EDTA, employed in association with modified atmosphere, on prevention of the softening of minimally processed 'Apple' banana. The following combinations were used: 1 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 0,5%; 2 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1%; 3 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1,5%; 4 (Na2EDTA 1%; forming the 4 treatments of a completely randomly design. The bananas, in maturity stage 6, were treated with a sodium hypochlorite solution 500 ppm, peeled and manually sliced, submitted to the chemical treatments by dipping and wrapped with PVC 30µm films. Later, the slices were stored during 5 days at 5 ± 1ºC e 85 ± 3% UR. The mass loss was linear during the storage period and higher in Na2EDTA 1% treated slices. The firmness loss was lesser in the slices under the treatment 3, which presented lower polygalacturonase activity values until the 3rd day of storage. After the second day of storage, the slices under the treatment 4 showed the highest pectinmethylesterase activity, and those under treatments 2 and 3, the lowest. Higher content of soluble pectin and total soluble solids were observed in EDTA treated slices, mainly beginning from the 3rd day of storage. The increase in total soluble sugars was higher in the treatments 1 and 2 until the 3rd day of storage. The chemical mixture 3 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1,5% was the most effective in avoiding the softening of minimally processed 'Apple' bananas.

  5. Collaborating for Multi-Scale Chemical Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Green


    Advanced model reduction methods were developed and integrated into the CMCS multiscale chemical science simulation software. The new technologies were used to simulate HCCI engines and burner flames with exceptional fidelity.

  6. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G


    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  7. Delicious Chemicals. (United States)

    Barry, Dana M.

    This paper presents an approach to chemistry and nutrition that focuses on food items that people consider delicious. Information is organized according to three categories of food chemicals that provide energy to the human body: (1) fats and oils; (2) carbohydrates; and (3) proteins. Minerals, vitamins, and additives are also discussed along with…

  8. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.


    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  9. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    processes at the cellular level like the glycolytic pathway, peroxi- dase-catalysed reaction or the biosynthesis of certain proteins. A systematic study of oscillating chemical reactions is of consider- able interest, since these oscillating reactions can be used as prototype examples of the behaviours possible in reactions gov-.

  10. Chemical routes to discharging graphenides. (United States)

    Hodge, Stephen A; Buckley, David J; Yau, Hin Chun; Skipper, Neal T; Howard, Christopher A; Shaffer, Milo S P


    Chemical and electrochemical reduction methods allow the dispersion, processing, and/or functionalization of discrete sp(2)-hybridised nanocarbons, including fullerenes, nanotubes and graphenes. Electron transfer to the nanocarbon raises the Fermi energy, creating nanocarbon anions and thereby activating an array of possible covalent reactions. The Fermi level may then be partially or fully lowered by intended functionalization reactions, but in general, techniques are required to remove excess charge without inadvertent covalent reactions that potentially degrade the nanocarbon properties of interest. Here, simple and effective chemical discharging routes are demonstrated for graphenide polyelectrolytes and are expected to apply to other systems, particularly nanotubides. The discharging process is inherently linked to the reduction potentials of such chemical discharging agents and the unusual fundamental chemistry of charged nanocarbons.

  11. A Review on Aflatoxins Reduction in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili


    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFs are cancerous secondary metabolites produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in agricultural foodstuff such as peanuts, maize grains, cereals, and animal feeds. Food and Agricultural organization (FAO estimated that as much as 25% of the world’s agricultural commodities are contaminated with mycotoxins, leading to significant economic losses. Moreover, AFs are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. Therefore AFs reduction in food and feedstuffs is a major global concern. This review aims to bring up to date the detoxification methods applied for reduction of aflatoxins by physical (cleaning, heating, irradiation, adsorption, chemical (chemical compound, ozonization and biological (applying bacteria, yeast and nontoxigenic Aspergillus strains methods in different foods from 2000 to 2015. Papers related to aflatoxin reduction by managing aflatoxins risks, using resistant crops varieties, and good agricultural practices and papers related to other aflatoxins (M1, M2 were excluded.

  12. On model reduction (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M.; Franklin, Gene F.


    Three model reduction methods are described. These are the discrete balanced realizations of Mullis and Roberts (1976) where a characterization of the reduction error is given and a previously unknown L(infinity) norm bound on the reduction error, is obtained. Another method is a new model reduction technique for discrete time systems which has the advantage that the reduced order model is balanced and has an L(infinity) norm bound on the reduction error. The last method derived is a frequency weighting technique for continuous and discrete systems where it is possible to specify the approximation accuracy with frequency and also, for this method, an L(infinity) norm on the weighted reduction error is obtained.

  13. Quantum State Reduction


    Brody, DC; Hughston, LP


    We propose an energy-driven stochastic master equation for the density matrix as a dynamical model for quantum state reduction. In contrast, most previous studies of state reduction have considered stochastic extensions of the Schr¨odinger equation, and have introduced the density matrix as the expectation of the random pure projection operator associated with the evolving state vector. After working out properties of the reduction process we construct a general solution to the energy- driven...

  14. Drag reduction in nature (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.


    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  15. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  16. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.


    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  17. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  18. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA


    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  19. Strategies for poverty reduction


    Øyen, Else


    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  20. Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) (United States)

    Brady, D. Michael; Ford, Donnie R.


    A description of the Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) expert system and an IDARE user's manual are given. IDARE is a data reduction system with the addition of a user profile infrastructure. The system was tested on a nickel-cadmium battery testbed. Information is given on installing, loading, maintaining the IDARE system.

  1. Dirac reduction revisited


    Marciniak, Krzysztof; Blaszak, Maciej


    The procedure of Dirac reduction of Poisson operators on submanifolds is discussed within a particularly useful special realization of the general Marsden-Ratiu reduction procedure. The Dirac classification of constraints on 'first-class' constraints and 'second-class' constraints is reexamined.

  2. Reduction of Dissolved Oxygen at a Copper Rotating Disc Electrode (United States)

    Kear, Gareth; Albarran, Carlos Ponce-de-Leon; Walsh, Frank C.


    Undergraduates from chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and environmental science courses, together with first-year postgraduate research students in electrochemical technology, are provided with an experiment that demonstrates the reduction of dissolved oxygen in aerated seawater at 25°C. Oxygen reduction is examined using linear sweep…

  3. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and green chemistry approach for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets was successfully demonstrated through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using caffeine as the reductant. Without using toxic and harmful chemicals, this method is environmentally friendly and suitable for the large-scale ...

  4. Reductive Decouloristation of Dyes by Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra Dos Santos, A.


    The colour removal achieved under anaerobic conditions is also called reductive decolourisation, which is composed of a biological part, i.e. the reducing equivalents are biologically generated, and a chemical part, i.e. the formed electrons reduce chemically the dyes. The overall objective of this

  5. [Reduction of hairiness of a transsexual person]. (United States)

    Karppinen, Ari


    Reduction of male pattern hairiness--especially facial hairiness--is important for the identity of a transsexual female. Methods of treatment include epilation, waxing, chemical depilation, planing, electrolysis, eflornitine cream and methods based on optical light. Also the hormonal therapies utilized in the treatment process reduce the degree of hairiness and make the hairs thinner. Instead of hair removal, one should rather speak of reducing hairiness, since life-long hairlessness is usually not achieved even by the most effective methods of hair reduction. Aspects affecting the choice of treatment include skin type, quality of hair, tolerability and availability of treatment, among other things.

  6. Large Scale Reduction of Graphite Oxide Project (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Mackey, Paul; Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy


    This project seeks to develop an optical method to reduce graphite oxide into graphene efficiently and in larger formats than currently available. Current reduction methods are expensive, time-consuming or restricted to small, limited formats. Graphene has potential uses in ultracapacitors, energy storage, solar cells, flexible and light-weight circuits, touch screens, and chemical sensors. In addition, graphite oxide is a sustainable material that can be produced from any form of carbon, making this method environmentally friendly and adaptable for in-situ reduction.

  7. Experimental reduction of lunar mare soil and volcanic glass (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Mckay, David S.


    We have reduced high-titanium lunar mare soil and iron-rich lunar volcanic glass with hydrogen at temperatures of 900-1100 C. Ilmenite is the most reactive phase in the soil, exhibiting rapid and complete reduction at all temperatures. Ferrous iron in the glass is extensively reduced concurrent with partial crystallization. In both samples pyroxene and olivine undergo partial reduction along with chemical and mineralogical modifications. High-temperature reduction provides insight into the optical and chemical effects of lunar soil maturation, and places constraints on models of that process. Mare soil and volcanic glass are attractive feedstocks for lunar oxygen production, with achievable yields of 2-5 wt%.

  8. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  9. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  10. Waste Reduction Model (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  11. Breast Reduction Surgery (United States)

    ... to achieve a breast size proportionate to your body. Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and self-confidence and your ability to participate in physical activities. ...

  12. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L


    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  13. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ernst


    Full Text Available The application of lung volume reduction surgery in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. This has been the impetus for the development of bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction. A range of different techniques such as endobronchial blockers, airway bypass, endobronchial valves, thermal vapor ablation, biological sealants, and airway implants have been employed on both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores is a more frequent finding than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, few serious complications, and short hospital length of stay. The field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.

  14. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser. (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Kingsley, David H; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel


    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  15. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw-Wei D Tsen

    Full Text Available Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  16. CAMEO Chemicals Software (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  17. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulet, E.K.


    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  18. Microbial reduction of iron in smectite (United States)

    Stucki, Joseph W.; Kostka, Joel E.


    Bacteria-mediated changes in the oxidation state of iron in soil clay minerals play an important role in determining the chemical and physical properties of soils and sediments. As structural Fe(III) in the octahedral sheet of smectites is reduced to Fe(II) by bacteria, specific surface area decreases, cation exchange capacity (CEC) increases, swelling in water decreases, reactivity with organic chemicals and pesticides increases, and the potential for mineral dissolution and transformation increases. Changes in clay mineral structure due to bacterial reduction is, however, small. Because of the large potential for the redox state of soil minerals to change with natural environmental conditions, the chemical properties of the soil must be regarded as constantly changing. The resulting dynamic nature of soil behavior must be taken into account in management strategies to maximize soil fertility and structural performance. To cite this article: J.W. Stucki, J.E. Kostka, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  19. Harm Reduction Behind Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R. Miller


    Full Text Available We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment, most of the proposed strategies were perceived by all staff as a threat for officers and a privilege for prisoners. Addressing the underlying concerns of prison staff is essential in achieving a fully collaborative harm reduction effort. Ongoing resistance to proposed harm reduction strategies underscores the relevance of these findings for prison settings in Australia and elsewhere.

  20. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey


    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.


    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  2. Study of the reduction in detection limits of track detectors used for {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li reaction rate measure through annealing and chemical etching experiments; Estudo da reducao nos limites de deteccao de detectores de tracos utilizados na medida de taxa de reacao {sup 10}B(n, α){sup 7}Li atraves de experimentos de annealing e ataque quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Herminiane L.; Smilgys, Barbara; Guedes, Sandro, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Castro, Vinicius A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear


    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy for cancer treatment. It is based on {sup 10}B(n, α){sup 7}Li reaction, which can be measured by track detectors capable of recording events that strike them. With this recording, it is possible to determine the number of alpha particles and recoiling Lithium-7 nucleus, reaction products, and from this information, which amount of radiation dose a patient is exposed to. In this work, PADC detectors were characterized, irradiated at the IEA-R1 IPEN/CNEN reactor to assess the contribution of the{sup 10}B(n, α){sup 7}Li reaction and protons from fast neutron scattering with the elements that compounds the tissue. With the aim of reducing the proton background, the detectors were subjected to heating experiments at 80°C for periods in the range 0-100 hours. This was done in order to restore partially modified structure of the detector, causing a reduction in the size and density of tracks. This effect is known as annealing. For the visualization of tracks at microscope, detectors were made three chemical attacks with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 30, 60 and 90 minutes at 70°C. It was observed a reduction in the track density achieving a plateau heating time of 50 hours. For detectors that have not undergone annealing and were etched with another etchant, PEW solution, a reduction of 87% in track density was obtained. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana – Gabriela POPA


    Full Text Available The chemical soil degradation technologies are based on the pollutant conversion and immobilisation, or the mobilization, extraction and washing of pollutants. They use chemical agents that oxidize or reduce pollutants to less toxic or non-toxic forms and immobilize them in the underground environment in order to diminish their migration and the extent of pollution. Classification of chemical methods of depollution is based on the dominant reaction criterion: oxidation, reduction, neutralization, precipitation, chemical extraction, hydrolysis, dehalogenation, precipitation.

  4. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  5. Method I : Planar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.


    We apply the planar reduction method to a general two degree of freedom system with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. As a leading example the spring-pendulum close to 1:2 resonance is used. The resulting planar model is computed explicitly, and the bifurcation curves

  6. Students' conceptions of chemical change (United States)

    Hesse, Joseph J., III; Anderson, Charles W.

    One hundred high school chemistry students who had completed a unit on chemical change were given a written instrument in which they were shown three oxidation-reduction reactions and were asked to explain them. Eleven students representing a range of achievement levels were chosen for more intensive clinical interviews in which they explained their responses, evaluated the quality of their responses, and compared them to other hypothetical responses. Interview results revealed that students commonly experienced difficulties at three different epistemological levels:1. Chemical knowledge. Most students failed to invoke atoms and molecules as explanatory constructs, even though they had been emphasized in their chemistry course. Some students also listed substances such as heat, cold, or decay as reactants or products.2. Conservation reasoning. Many students could not predict or explain mass changes in the chemical reactions. Their most common problems included (a) a tendency to treat chemical changes such as rusting as physical changes in form or state, and (b) failure to understand the role of invisible (in this case gaseous) reactants or products in the reactions.3. Explanatory ideals. Many students demonstrated a preference for explanations based on superficial analogies with everyday events (e.g., rusting is like decay) over explanations based on chemical theories.Only one of the 11 students interviewed demonstrated mastery of the unit's contents at all three levels. Results of this and other research indicate a need for substantial revision in chemistry teaching practice.

  7. Chemical Function Predictions for Tox21 Chemicals (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Random forest chemical function predictions for Tox21 chemicals in personal care products uses and "other" uses. This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. High performance of a cobalt?nitrogen complex for the reduction and reductive coupling of nitro compounds into amines and their derivatives


    Jiang, Liang; Wang, Fan; Deng, Kejian; Lv, Kangle; Zhang, Zehui


    Replacement of precious noble metal catalysts with low-cost, non-noble heterogeneous catalysts for chemoselective reduction and reductive coupling of nitro compounds holds tremendous promise for the clean synthesis of nitrogen-containing chemicals. We report a robust cobalt?nitrogen/carbon (Co?N x /C-800-AT) catalyst for the reduction and reductive coupling of nitro compounds into amines and their derivates. The Co?N x /C-800-AT catalyst was prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt phthalocyanine?...

  9. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre


    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Guidebook for Chemical Technicians. (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is a part of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum that is developed for chemical technicians. It is intended as a handbook that will be used throughout the instruction. Safety is stressed in eight of the ten chapters under the headings: safety in the chemical laboratory, personal protective equipment, fire safety…

  11. Physical pretreatment – woody biomass size reduction – for forest biorefinery (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu


    Physical pretreatment of woody biomass or wood size reduction is a prerequisite step for further chemical or biochemical processing in forest biorefinery. However, wood size reduction is very energy intensive which differentiates woody biomass from herbaceous biomass for biorefinery. This chapter discusses several critical issues related to wood size reduction: (1)...

  12. Probing the pH dependent optical properties of aquatic, terrestrial and microbial humic substances by sodium borohydride reduction (United States)

    Chemically reducing humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) provides insight into spectroscopically identifiable structural moieties generating the optical properties of HA/FA from aquatic, microbial and terrestrial sources. Sodium borohydride reduction provides targeted reduction of carbonyl groups. The...

  13. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH


    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  14. Safer Chemicals Research (United States)

    EPA's Chemical Safety research protects human health and the environment by evaluating chemicals for potential risk and providing tools and guidance for improved chemical production that supports a sustainable environment.

  15. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab


    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  16. Singular Reduction and Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Meinrenken, E; Meinrenken, Eckhard; Sjamaar, Reyer


    Consider a compact prequantizable symplectic manifold M on which a compact Lie group G acts in a Hamiltonian fashion. The ``quantization commutes with reduction'' theorem asserts that the G-invariant part of the equivariant index of M is equal to the Riemann-Roch number of the symplectic quotient of M, provided the quotient is nonsingular. We extend this result to singular symplectic quotients, using partial desingularizations of the symplectic quotient to define its Riemann-Roch number. By similar methods we also compute multiplicities for the equivariant index of the dual of a prequantum bundle, and furthermore show that the arithmetic genus of a Hamiltonian G-manifold is invariant under symplectic reduction.

  17. Harm Reduction Behind Bars


    Emma R. Miller; Jan M. Moore; Peng Bi


    We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment,...

  18. Reductive desulfurization of dibenzyldisulfide. (United States)

    Miller, K W


    Dibenzyldisulfide was reductively degraded by a methanogenic mixed culture derived from a sewage digestor. Toluene was produced with benzyl mercaptan as an intermediate in sulfur-limited medium. Toluene production was strictly associated with biological activity; however, the reducing agent for the culture medium, Ti(III), was partially responsible for production of benzyl mercaptan. Sulfide was not detected. Additions of sodium sulfide did not inhibit toluene production. Additions of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid prevented methanogenesis but did not adversely affect toluene yields.

  19. Drag reduction strategies (United States)

    Hill, D. Christopher


    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  20. Efficient emissions reduction


    Roussillon, Beatrice; Schweinzer, Paul


    We propose a simple mechanism capable of achieving international agreement on the reduction of harmful emissions to their efficient level. It employs a contest creating incentives among participating nations to simultaneously exert efficient productive and efficient abatement efforts. Participation in the most stylised formulation of the scheme is voluntary and individually rational. All rules are mutually agreeable and are unanimously adopted if proposed. The scheme balances its budget and r...

  1. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  2. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi


    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... of potential environmental impacts occurs during the early product life cycle stages, potential impacts related to chemicals that are found as ingredients or residues directly in products can be dominated by the product use stage. Finally, methodological challenges in LCA studies in relation to chemicals...

  3. Chemical Security Analysis Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  4. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.


    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  5. Attribute Reduction and Information Granularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hong Wang


    Full Text Available In the view of granularity, this paper analyzes the influence of three attribute reducts on an information system, finding that the possible reduct and m - decision reduct will make the granule view coarser, while discernible reduct will not change the granule view. In addition, we investigate the combination of reducts from two partial information systems in parallel or in incremental data mining and urge that the union of partial possible reducts can be regarded as a possible reduct for union of partial information systems.

  6. A case of chemical assault in Hong Kong (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Leung


    Conclusion: The benefits of urgent reduction in chemical load is intuitively obvious, and by shaving tangentially to bleeding, vital tissue is preserved. Trying to prove benefit in terms of an RCT is however ethically challenging.

  7. Green reduction of graphene oxide by ascorbic acid (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Zahra; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Allafchian, Alireza


    Graphene, a single layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms in a hexagonal (two-dimensional honey-comb) lattice, has attracted strong scientific and technological interest due to its novel and excellent optical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. The solution-processable chemical reduction of Graphene oxide (GO is considered as the most favorable method regarding mass production of graphene. Generally, the reduction of GO is carried out by chemical approaches using different reductants such as hydrazine and sodium borohydride. These components are corrosive, combustible and highly toxic which may be dangerous for personnel health and the environment. Hence, these reducing agents are not promising choice for reducing of graphene oxide (GO). As a consequence, it is necessary for further development and optimization of eco-friendly, natural reducing agent for clean and effective reduction of GO. Ascorbic acid, an eco-friendly and natural reducing agents, having a mild reductive ability and nontoxic property. So, the aim of this research was to green synthesis of GO with ascorbic acid. For this purpose, the required amount of NaOH and ascorbic acid were added to GO solution (0.5 mg/ml) and were heated at 95 °C for 1 hour. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical results, GO were reduced with ascorbic acid like hydrazine with better electrochemical properties and ascorbic acid is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide process.

  8. UCAC3: Astrometric Reductions (United States)


    2010). Double star fits of blended images are based on the same Lorentz image profile model, however three more free parame- ters are used for the two...single width of the profiles for both components of a double star and a single background level parameter is used in this fit. The x, y data files also...provided with the DVD release. The UCAC3 is based on a complete re-reduction of the pixel data aiming at more completeness with the inclusion of double

  9. Transportation network reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PALÚCH


    Full Text Available Network reduction problem is formulated as follows: We are given a transportation network T, a set of important origin – destination relations R and a number q greater than 1. The goal is to find a subnetwork S of the given network T such that all shortest paths between all origin – destination pairs from R using only subnetwork S are not longer than q-multiple of the corresponding distance in original network T. A mathematical model and an exact algorithm of just mentioned task is presented.

  10. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P. [College of Mines and Earth Resources, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  11. The chemical life(1). (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan


    You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond.

  12. Microbial reduction of iodate (United States)

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.


    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  13. Planning for reduction. (United States)

    Gaines Das, Rose; Fry, Derek; Preziosi, Richard; Hudson, Michelle


    Reduction is one of the Three Rs which can be readily achieved in practice. This can be done by careful consideration of the experimental strategy and the implementation of good experimental design. Moreover, strategic planning leads to 'best' scientific practice and can have a positive impact on both refinement and replacement. The FRAME Reduction Steering Committee has developed a flow chart for an overall strategy for planning and conducting biomedical research. This, and important planning considerations for each of the steps proposed, are discussed. The strategy involves taking an initial overview and undertaking related background research, then planning a sequence of experiments expected to give satisfactory results with the least animal use and minimal severity, choosing an efficient design for each experiment in the sequence, reviewing the results of one experiment before progressing to the next, and conducting an overall analysis at the end of the programme. This approach should minimise animal use and maximise the quality of the resultant scientific output. Copyright (c) 2009 FRAME.

  14. Islam and harm reduction. (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M


    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and ... The reduction temperature did not affect the product selectivity. South African Journal of ...

  16. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and NO{sub 2}-immission contributions in Germany. Wood combustion in small combustion systems; installations of the 13th and 17th BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Act). Sub-report.; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Bewertung von Emissionsminderungsszenarien mit Hilfe chemischer Transportberechnungen. PM10- und NO{sub 2}-Immissionsbeitraege in Deutschland. Holzverbrennung in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen, Anlagen der 13. und 17. BImSchV. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung


    This report was prepared within the research project ''Particle reduction strategies - PAREST.'' In this paper with the chemical transport model REM CALGRID following questions were investigated: 1 What is the contribution of the wood-fired small combustion plants in Germany to the PM10- and NO {sub 2}-concentrations? 2 What is the contribution of the 13th and 17th BlmSchV covered installations to the PM10 and NO{sub 2} concentrations in Germany? [German] Der vorliegende Bericht wurde im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens ''Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung'' erstellt. In dem Beitrag werden mit dem chemischen Transportmodell REM-CALGRID folgende Fragestellungen untersucht: 1. Wie hoch ist der Beitrag der mit Holz beheizten Kleinfeuerungsanlagen in Deutschland zu den PM10- und den NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen? 2. Wie hoch ist der Beitrag der von der 13. und 17. BImSchV erfassten Anlagen zu den PM10-und NO-2-Konzentrationen in Deutschland?.

  17. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  18. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  19. Confluence reduction for Markov automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jaco; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette


    Markov automata are a novel formalism for specifying systems exhibiting nondeterminism, probabilistic choices and Markovian rates. As expected, the state space explosion threatens the analysability of these models. We therefore introduce confluence reduction for Markov automata, a powerful reduction

  20. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola


    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  1. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Murali Sastry. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 513-520 Physical and Theoretical. Synthesis of a stable gold hydrosol by the reduction of chloroaurate ions by the amino acid, aspartic acid · Saikat Mandal P R Selvakannan ...

  2. Effects of sodium lactate and lactic acid on chemical, microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical analysis revealed a reduction in the pH value and also in the total volatile bases nitrogen contents in treated thigh. Overall, the findings demonstrate that the addition of 1% LA in marinated chicken can delay the proliferation of spoilage microorganisms and the appearance of undesirable chemical. This LA ...

  3. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Renu Pasricha. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 513-520 Physical and Theoretical. Synthesis of a stable gold hydrosol by the reduction of chloroaurate ions by the amino acid, aspartic acid · Saikat Mandal P R ...

  4. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168, w...

  5. Abstract models of transfinite reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick


    We investigate transfinite reductions in abstract reduction systems. To this end, we study two abstract models for transfinite reductions: a metric model generalising the usual metric approach to infinitary term rewriting and a novel partial order model. For both models we distinguish between a w...

  6. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca


    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  7. Effect of nitrate on microbial perchlorate reduction (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Coates, J. D.


    Over the last decade perchlorate has been recognized as an important emerging water contaminant that poses a significant public health threat. Because of its chemical stability, low ionic charge density, and significant water solubility microbial remediation has been identified as the most feasible method for its in situ attenuation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) capable of the respiratory reduction of perchlorate into innocuous chloride are ubiquitous in soil and sedimentary environments. As part of their metabolism these organisms reduce perchlorate to chlorite which is subsequently dismutated into chloride and molecular oxygen. These initial steps are mediated by the perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase enzymes respectively. Previously we found that the activity of these organisms is dependent on the presence of molybdenum and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen and to different extents nitrate. However, to date, there is little understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of perchlorate reduction by oxygen and nitrate. As a continuation of our studies into the factors that control DPRB activity we investigated these regulatory mechanisms in more detail as a model organism, Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, transitions from aerobic metabolism through nitrate reduction to perchlorate reduction. In series of growth transition studies where both nitrate and perchlorate were present, preference for nitrate to perchlorate was observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the organism was pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate was reduced prior to perchlorate. Using non-growth washed cell suspension, perchlorate- grown D. aromatica was capable of reducing both perchlorate and nitrate concomitantly suggesting the preferentially utilization of nitrate was not a result of enzyme functionality. To elucidate the mechanism for preferential utilization of

  8. Existing chemicals: international activities. (United States)

    Purchase, J F


    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  9. Effects of reduction time on the structural, electrical and thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    catalyst support in direct methanol fuel cell. Therefore, in this paper, the RGO nanosheets were prepared via highly efficient chemical reduction reaction of exfoliated GO nanosheets using sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) as the reduc- ing agent. Extensive characterizations have been conducted in terms of structural, thermal ...

  10. Effects of reduction time on the structural, electrical and thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The production of RGO nanosheet is one of the important topics in nanotechnology disciplines due to its contribution in various applications, such as the platinum catalyst support in direct methanol fuel cell. Therefore, in this paper, the RGO nanosheets were prepared via highly efficient chemical reduction reaction of ...

  11. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 5. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters. Aamer Saeed Zaman Ashraf. Volume 118 ... Author Affiliations. Aamer Saeed1 Zaman Ashraf1. Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan ...

  12. Environmental Optimization Using the WAste Reduction Algorithm (WAR) (United States)

    Traditionally chemical process designs were optimized using purely economic measures such as rate of return. EPA scientists developed the WAste Reduction algorithm (WAR) so that environmental impacts of designs could easily be evaluated. The goal of WAR is to reduce environme...

  13. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A


    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch



    Roxana – Gabriela POPA


    The chemical soil degradation technologies are based on the pollutant conversion and immobilisation, or the mobilization, extraction and washing of pollutants. They use chemical agents that oxidize or reduce pollutants to less toxic or non-toxic forms and immobilize them in the underground environment in order to diminish their migration and the extent of pollution. Classification of chemical methods of depollution is based on the dominant reaction criterion: oxidation, reduction,...

  15. Model Reduction in Biomechanics (United States)

    Feng, Yan

    mechanical parameters from experimental results. However, in real biological world, these homogeneous and isotropic assumptions are usually invalidate. Thus, instead of using hypothesized model, a specific continuum model at mesoscopic scale can be introduced based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulations at atomistic level. Once a continuum model is established, it can provide details on the distribution of stresses and strains induced within the biomolecular system which is useful in determining the distribution and transmission of these forces to the cytoskeletal and sub-cellular components, and help us gain a better understanding in cell mechanics. A data-driven model reduction approach to the problem of microtubule mechanics as an application is present, a beam element is constructed for microtubules based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulation of the carbon backbone chain of alphabeta-tubulin dimers. The data base of mechanical responses to various types of loads from molecular simulation is reduced to dominant modes. The dominant modes are subsequently used to construct the stiffness matrix of a beam element that captures the anisotropic behavior and deformation mode coupling that arises from a microtubule's spiral structure. In contrast to standard Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam elements, the link between forces and node displacements results not from hypothesized deformation behavior, but directly from the data obtained by molecular scale simulation. Differences between the resulting microtubule data-driven beam model (MTDDBM) and standard beam elements are presented, with a focus on coupling of bending, stretch, shear deformations. The MTDDBM is just as economical to use as a standard beam element, and allows accurate reconstruction of the mechanical behavior of structures within a cell as exemplified in a simple model of a component element of the mitotic spindle.

  16. Reversibilidade de fósforo não-lábil em solos submetidos à redução microbiana e química: II - extrações sucessivas do fósforo pela resina de troca aniônica Reversibility of non-labile phosphorus in soils under microbial and chemical reduction: II - successive anion exchange resin extraction of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ernesto Fernández R.


    alteração para o grupo dos solos menos oxídicos, com menor CMAP. Todavia, nos solos mais oxídicos, com maior CMAP, o efeito prévio da sacarose foi o aumenta do P-rem (diminuição da CMAP 10 vezes em relação aos solos para o tratamento sem redução. Entretanto, a redução gerada pela sacarose não alterou a dessorção do P anteriormente adsorvido. A expectativa de que ocorreria significativa reversibilidade de P não-lábil com a redução microbiana ou química dos solos não se concretizou, demonstrando a grande estabilidade dessas formas.The formation of non-labile from labile P forms, adsorbed onto Fe and Al oxyhydroxides, is the reason for low residual of phosphate fertilization in tropical soils. The reversibility of non-labile P to labile forms in these soils may be favored by the reduction of Fe3+ and, or,by the reduced activity of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides. This study aimed to evaluate P adsorption and desorption, the transformation into non-labile forms and reversibility of these forms in soil samples from environments of microbial or chemical reduction. Samples of 11 soils were homogenized with 300 mg kg-1 P (NaH2PO4 in solution and incubated for 30 days. P was extracted in 10 successive extractions with anion-exchange resin (AER (treatment without reduction. In a second experiment, the soil samples were treated with 0.1 mol L-1 sucrose solution to create a reduction enrviroment and subsequent application of P dose (300 mg kg-1 and 10 successive P extractions (treatment microbial reduction. In a third experiment, the samples were complexed/reduced with ammonium oxalate (Ox or with citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate (CDB. The soils/residues were treated with the above P dose, incubated for 30 days and subjected to successive extractions with AER (chemical reduction. It was observed that maximum P adsorption capacity (MPAC of the soils was closer related with goethite, (which accounted for 70.8 % of the value, than gibbsite (with a contribution of 29

  17. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  18. 40 CFR 414.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  19. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 414.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  2. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  3. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)


    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  7. Finding optimal HBr reduction of inkjet printed graphene oxide for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlasny, I., E-mail: [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland); Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02 093, Warsaw (Poland); Rogala, M.; Dabrowski, P.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Busiakiewicz, A.; Kozlowski, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland); Lipinska, L.; Jagiello, J.; Aksienionek, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919, Warsaw (Poland); Sieradzki, Z. [Electrotechnological Company QWERTY Ltd., Siewna 21, 94-250, Lodz (Poland); Krucinska, I.; Puchalski, M.; Skrzetuska, E.; Draczynski, Z. [Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924, Lodz (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland)


    In this article we present the results of our investigations of reduction of graphene oxide overprints, deposited by ink-jet method, by hydrobromic acid. Our study presents impact of different parameters of reduction, such as a temperature and time of the process on the chemical composition and electrical conductivity of the resulting material – reduced graphene oxide. Our results show the outstanding potential of this method for use in the production of flexible and elastic electronics and indicate the optimal parameters of reduction, which allow producing the optimal product. - Highlights: • The process of reduction of graphene oxide inkjet printouts by HBr is investigated. • Impact of parameters of reduction on the chemical structure of printout is studied. • Impact of parameters of reduction on the sheet resistance of printout is studied. • Optimal parameters of reduction are proposed.

  8. Size reduction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, V.


    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  9. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  10. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  11. Chemical Search Web Utility (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  12. Capacitive chemical sensor (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R


    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  13. Chemical Data Reporting (United States)

    The Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) site provides information on reporting requirements under TSCA's Chemical Data Reporting Rule. The site provides instruction to data submitters on how to report and enable users to download the reported information.

  14. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  15. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    ... this page: // Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on ... the burned area from pressure and friction. Minor chemical burns will generally heal without further treatment. However, if ...

  16. Chemical burns: Diphoterine untangled. (United States)

    Alexander, K Skaria; Wasiak, Jason; Cleland, Heather


    Diphoterine is a hypertonic, amphoteric, polyvalent and chelating decontamination solution used in the treatment of cutaneous and ocular chemical burns. Due to infrequent use by emergency physicians along with the small number of available studies, its debate in the literature as to its efficacy and safety remains inconclusive. A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and TOXNET to June 2016 for original English-language studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of Diphoterine. Methodological and reporting quality of pre-clinical animal studies was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk of bias tool and Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Clinical studies were assessed using Chambers' criteria. 13 studies (seven in the pre-clinical, five in the clinical setting and one mixed) met the study inclusion criteria. Pre-clinical studies showed a faster resolution of pH and reduced tissue necrosis with Diphoterine. Clinical studies showed reduced tissue necrosis/severity of symptoms, faster pH resolution and a reduction in pain when using Diphoterine. No adverse events were attributable to Diphoterine. Reporting and methodology of the studies was poor or showed a high risk of bias. Diphoterine appears to be safe to use and is probably superior to other rinsing solutions. However, immediate decontamination is imperative and if Diphoterine is not available a different rinsing solution should be used. The methodology of the published literature for Diphoterine is generally poor and future publications should use the frameworks given as templates. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical earth models (United States)

    Javoy, Marc


    This article presents a critical review of method, concepts and prejudices used bv modelists of the Earth's chemical composition over approximate the last fifty years and of the resulting compositions. Brief descriptions are given of admitted accretion mechanisms, of the starting materials most often considered and of the major parameters and recurrent concepts: 'reduced" state, mantle homogeneity vs heterogeneity, 'low pressure' core formation, 'great impact', refractory, lithophile, siderophile, compatible, incompatible character of elements, depleted and degassed mantle, Urey ratio, as well as the description of a commonly-used instrument, possibly harmful to Iogic, the famous Ockham's razor. Differences between models are now restricted to the lower mantle composition:the 'primary' (before crust differentiation) upper mentle varies little from model to model and the idea of a 10-15% combined Si-O-S concentration as representing the necessary light elements in the core is gaining more and more ground. The dominant type of model derives more or less directly from the CI cabonaceous composition by complete devolatilization and reduction. Its mantle is homogeneous and convecting mainly in a one-level mode, in accordence with dominant geophysicists' views but in rather strong disagreement with geochemical data and models which insist on the strong decoupling between lower and upper mantle. Its low Si excess is generally supposed to have been absorbed by the core, whereas its high refractory lithophile element (RLE) content creates mass balance problems relative to presently observed mantle and crust concentrations. The alternative type is a two-lavel mantle with a Si and Fe-rich, RLE-poor, lower mantle, previously based mainly on seismic and mineral physics data, and now also on geochemical and cosmochemical arguments.

  18. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya


    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  19. Chemical Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops


    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  20. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. Fact Steroid ...

  1. Chemical Recycle of Plastics


    Sara Fatima


    Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  2. Green reduction of graphene oxide using alanine. (United States)

    Wang, Jiabin; Salihi, Elif Caliskan; Šiller, Lidija


    There remains a real need for the easy, eco-friendly and scalable preparation method of graphene due to various potential applications. Chemical reduction is the most versatile method for the large scale production of graphene. Here we report the operating conditions for a one-step, economical and green synthesis method for the reduction of graphene oxide using a biomolecule (alanine). Graphene oxide was produced by the oxidation and exfoliation of natural graphite flake with strong oxidants using Hummers method (Hummers and Offeman, 1958), but the method was revised in our laboratory to set up a safe and environmentally friendly route. The reduction of graphene oxide was investigated using alanine at various operating conditions in order to set up optimum conditions (treatment time, temperature and concentration of the reagent). Samples have been characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction. (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P


    Electrochemically reducing CO2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168......, which were not significantly different from the reduction obtained by sterile water (0.95 log). Statistically larger reductions (1.57 to 3.81 log) were caused by formic acid (2%), lactic acid (2.5%), trisodium phosphate (10%), capric acid sodium salt (5%), grapefruit seed extract (1...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  5. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  6. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.


    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  7. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A


    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  8. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A


    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  9. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A


    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  10. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty


    Lakshmi Saleem; John, Jerry R.


    Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma,...

  11. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction (United States)

    Mauger, Stefan J.; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W.


    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  12. The Nature of Reduction in Space Weathering (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Allen, C. C.


    Space weathering is a broad term that includes a number of complex effects of the exposure of materials to the environment of space. The processes that drive space weathering include micrometeorite impact, radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays, and exposure to the vacuum of space. One of the important effects caused by these processes is the tendency for chemical reduction of oxide and silicate materials (including glasses), with accompanying loss of oxygen and production of reduced metal. Such chemical reduction and accompanying metal production may have an important influence on the chemistry of the outermost volume of individual grains as well as on the optical properties of this material. Hapke [1] discussed five processes that have been suggested for producing submicroscopic iron metal in the lunar soil: (1) shock reduction, (2) heating in a thermal blanket in vacuum, (3) shock heating of solar-wind-impregnated grains, (4) coatings deposited by solar wind sputtering, and (5) coatings deposited by impact vaporization. As noted by Hapke, "Processes (1) and (2) have been refuted by laboratory experiments. Processes (4) and (5) have produced submicroscopic iron metal in laboratory simulations. Although no experiments have been done to simulate process (3), it is widely accepted." We have been performing experimental reduction of simulated and actual lunar materials [2-5] and have shown that, under conditions of exposure to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, reduction of FeO readily occurs in ilmenite and lunar composition glass, and occurs at a slower rate in pyroxene and olivine. Even plagioclase feldspar containing minor FeO is readily reduced with formation of metallic iron blebs on surfaces [4]. A comparison of natural lunar samples to hydrogen-reduced samples or simulants in which we are searching for reduction evidence in various soil phases is underway. Preliminary data for mature soils show, in agreement with earlier results, that reduced iron produced in

  13. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and percentage dispersion were found to decrease with increasing calcination temperature.

  14. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 5, 2003 ... The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and percentage dispersion were found to decrease with increasing ...

  15. An optimization approach to kinetic model reduction for combustion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lebiedz, Dirk


    Model reduction methods are relevant when the computation time of a full convection-diffusion-reaction simulation based on detailed chemical reaction mechanisms is too large. In this article, we review a model reduction approach based on optimization of trajectories and show its applicability to realistic combustion models. As most model reduction methods, it identifies points on a slow invariant manifold based on time scale separation in the dynamics of the reaction system. The numerical approximation of points on the manifold is achieved by solving a semi-infinite optimization problem, where the dynamics enter the problem as constraints. The proof of existence of a solution for an arbitrarily chosen dimension of the reduced model (slow manifold) is extended to the case of realistic combustion models including thermochemistry by considering the properties of proper maps. The model reduction approach is finally applied to three models based on realistic reaction mechanisms: 1. ozone decomposition as a small t...

  16. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen Combustion Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K


    A detailed chemical kinetic model is used to explore the flammability and detonability of hydrogen mixtures. In the case of flammability, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrogen is coupled to the CHEMKIN Premix code to compute premixed, laminar flame speeds. The detailed chemical kinetic model reproduces flame speeds in the literature over a range of equivalence ratios, pressures and reactant temperatures. A series of calculation were performed to assess the key parameters determining the flammability of hydrogen mixtures. Increased reactant temperature was found to greatly increase the flame speed and the flammability of the mixture. The effect of added diluents was assessed. Addition of water and carbon dioxide were found to reduce the flame speed and thus the flammability of a hydrogen mixture approximately equally well and much more than the addition of nitrogen. The detailed chemical kinetic model was used to explore the detonability of hydrogen mixtures. A Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) detonation model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics was used to model the detonation. The effectiveness on different diluents was assessed in reducing the detonability of a hydrogen mixture. Carbon dioxide was found to be most effective in reducing the detonability followed by water and nitrogen. The chemical action of chemical inhibitors on reducing the flammability of hydrogen mixtures is discussed. Bromine and organophosphorus inhibitors act through catalytic cycles that recombine H and OH radicals in the flame. The reduction in H and OH radicals reduces chain branching in the flame through the H + O{sub 2} = OH + O chain branching reaction. The reduction in chain branching and radical production reduces the flame speed and thus the flammability of the hydrogen mixture.

  17. NO reduction by coal reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.B.; Naja, T.A.; Hampartsoumian, E.; Gibbs, B.M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy


    In this paper coal reburning for the reduction of NO emission was investigated in a 0.2MWt pilot-scale furnace. Eight bituminous coals were selected for study over a wide range of operational parameters including primary and reburn zone stoichiometric ratios, reburn zone residence time, reburn-fuel fraction, type of coal, furnace temperature level, particle size distribution of the reburn coal and primary NO concentration. The maximum NO reduction achieved was over 60%, accomplished mainly in the reburn zone, with the burnout zone accounting for about 10% of the total NO reduction. As expected, the reburn zone stoichiometric ratio was the most important operating parameter, with the reduction increasing as operation was made increasingly fuel-rich. The NO reduction also increased with reburn-fuel fraction up to 24%, but changed little when the reburn-fuel fraction was further increased beyond that point. NO reduction increased with reburn zone residence time up to about 450ms but then only a marginal gain in NO reduction was obtained with further increase in the reburn zone residence time; NO reduction also increased with primary zone NO level up to 600ppm but was unaffected by any further increase with the primary NO. Primary zone temperature had a negative effect on NO reduction, but this effect tended to diminish when reburn zone stoichiometry was below 0.9. A finer particle size distribution resulted in higher NO reductions. It was also found that coals with a high volatile matter content and hydrogen content made the best reburn coals while nitrogen of the reburn coal had little influence on NO reduction. Although most reburn processes call for natural gas or oil as a secondary fuel, for coal-burning power plants, coal is the fuel of choice.

  18. The chemical juggernaut. (United States)

    Cadbury, D


    Man-made chemicals pervade and support every aspect of modern living. The chemical industry has become such a powerful force in the global economy, sales of synthetic chemicals and products derived from them constitute well in excess of a third of the world's gross national product. But, these man-made chemicals are also 'elixirs of death,' the symbol of human destruction. Laboratory tests have shown that a number of chemicals in common use possess a remarkable property: they can weakly mimic or modify the action of human hormones. It has been proven that some chemicals found in plastics, pesticides, and industrial products are weakly estrogenic, modifying the action of the female hormone. In addition, other chemicals affect the male hormones, androgens, or anti-androgens; others are thought to target different hormone systems, such as thyroid and adrenal glands. Many research studies are being conducted to establish the impact of chemicals on human health. Of special concern are the rising incidence of testicular cancer, decline in human sperm counts, and the sharp rise of breast cancer. In conclusion, although there is a worldwide debate on the effects of chemical exposure on humans, the significance of findings for human health, concerning testicular and breast cancer, are still unknown. An international treaty is called for to control the use of the persistent hormonally active chemicals.

  19. Effects of Polymer Parameters on Drag Reduction. (United States)

    Safieddine, Abbas Mohammad

    The effects of polymer parameters on fluid drag reduction using polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyacrylamide (PAM), guar gum (GG) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) were investigated. Due to the unavailability of high molecular weight (MW) water-soluble polymers having narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD), an aqueous preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) system capable of fractionating over wide MW ranges was constructed. An online low shear viscometer, coupled to the SEC, measured the instantaneous intrinsic viscosity of the eluting polymer solution and, therefore, served as a MW detector since Mark-Houwink "K" and "a" values for all four polymers were known. With the aid of the viscometer, the SEC system was calibrated. The preparative nature of the chromatography system allowed the collection of large volumes of nearly monodisperse fractions (MWD daltons. Also, the preparative SEC approach allowed drag reduction (DR) experiments using well-characterized, narrowly dispersed polymer solutions under controlled tube flow conditions. Correlations of drag reduction performance with primary polymer parameters (i.e., concentration, intrinsic viscosity ((eta)), volume fraction (c(eta)), number of chain links (N), and combinations thereof) were used to test the validity of several theoretical DR models. Walsh's energy model, as well as the Deborah argument, did not completely account for drag reduction behavior under all experimental conditions. Within each of the flexible or rigid polymer groups, the extensional viscosity model was successful in correlating c(eta) N with DR under all turbulent conditions. However, it failed to account for the differences in chemical structure between the two polymer groups. However, when the cellulosic repeat unit was used instead of the carbon-carbon bond as the chain link for the rigid polymers (GG and HEC), all DR versus c (eta) N curves under all turbulent conditions collapsed into a single function. This has been predicted

  20. The reduction of NO{sub x} by HNCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J.; Garay, J.


    A chemical mechanism for the reduction of NO{sub x} by HNCO has been constructed to model NO{sub x} reduction in exhausts typical of natural gas combustion with the addition of radical boosters (fuel). Variables considered were the initial concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and HNCO as well as initial temperatures. The chemical model was validated by comparing results with earlier model calculations of Miller and Bowman and with the experiments of Caton and Siebers and Lyon and Cole. Agreement with experiments was satisfactory. The reduction chemistry must be preceded by thermal ignition chemistry which generates radicals. The lowest temperature for which ignition occurs is the optimum temperature for reduction and defines the beginning of the temperature window. Reduction was not achieved for the ``natural gas exhaust`` for a reasonable residence time. Additional H{sub 2} added to the exhaust mixture enhanced reduction, but the addition of CO and CH{sub 4} did not. Under some conditions the computed sensitivity coefficient for nitrogen species and temperature exhibited self-similarity. Four reaction paths were identified which controlled the fate of the NO: the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} via HO{sub 2}, the conversion of NO{sub 2} to NO via reaction with H or O, the reduction of NO via NCO, and the reduction of NO from reactions with NH{sub i} species. The relative importance of the four was determined by the initial conditions.

  1. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents


    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.


    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction. This approach has beneficial effects on adolescents’ depressive symptoms and their cognitive performance.

  2. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.


    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  3. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael


    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...

  4. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot


    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  5. Baker’s Yeast Mediated Reduction of 2-Acetyl-3-methyl Sulfolane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Deasy


    Full Text Available The baker’s yeast mediated reduction of 2-acetyl-3-methyl sulfolane 1 to provide the corresponding alcohol 2 is described. Excellent efficiency and enantioselectivity (>98% ee has been achieved under these mild environmentally benign reaction conditions. In direct contrast, the chemical reduction of 1 proceeds with poor yield (≤25% and diastereocontrol.

  6. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel


    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  7. Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  8. Tuning of CO2 Reduction Selectivity on Metal Electrocatalysts. (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Junlang; Wang, Yifei; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Zheng, Gengfeng


    Climate change, caused by heavy CO2 emissions, is driving new demands to alleviate the rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 levels. Enlightened by the photosynthesis of green plants, photo(electro)chemical catalysis of CO2 reduction, also known as artificial photosynthesis, is emerged as a promising candidate to address these demands and is widely investigated during the past decade. Among various artificial photosynthetic systems, solar-driven electrochemical CO2 reduction is widely recognized to possess high efficiencies and potentials for practical application. The efficient and selective electroreduction of CO2 is the key to the overall solar-to-chemical efficiency of artificial photosynthesis. Recent studies show that various metallic materials possess the capability to play as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. In order to achieve high selectivity for CO2 reduction products, various efforts are made including studies on electrolytes, crystal facets, oxide-derived catalysts, electronic and geometric structures, nanostructures, and mesoscale phenomena. In this Review, these methods for tuning the selectivity of CO2 electrochemical reduction of metallic catalysts are summarized. The challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Classical quasi-steady state reduction-A mathematical characterization (United States)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva


    We discuss parameter dependent polynomial ordinary differential equations that model chemical reaction networks. By classical quasi-steady state (QSS) reduction we understand the following familiar (heuristically motivated) mathematical procedure: Set the rate of change for certain (a priori chosen) variables equal to zero and use the resulting algebraic equations to obtain a system of smaller dimension for the remaining variables. This procedure will generally be valid only for certain parameter ranges. We start by showing that the reduction is accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is what we call a QSS parameter value, and that the reduction is approximately accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is close to a QSS parameter value. The QSS parameter values can be characterized by polynomial equations and inequations, hence parameter ranges for which QSS reduction is valid are accessible in an algorithmic manner. A defining characteristic of a QSS parameter value is that the algebraic variety defined by the QSS relations is invariant for the differential equation. A closer investigation of the associated systems shows the existence of further invariant sets; here singular perturbations enter the picture in a natural manner. We compare QSS reduction and singular perturbation reduction, and show that, while they do not agree in general, they do, up to lowest order in a small parameter, for a quite large and relevant class of examples. This observation, in turn, allows the computation of QSS reductions even in cases where an explicit resolution of the polynomial equations is not possible.

  10. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France (France); Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (France); Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François [CEA Saclay - IRFU/SEDI - 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Savvidis, Ilias [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  11. Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Warren, J.


    The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Volume reduction of Clark hot water extraction fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheeran, E. D. [ed.


    The principal focus of this volume is the reduction or elimination of the accumulation of fine tailings produced by the Clark Hot Water Extraction (CHWE) process, the process which is currently employed by commercial oil sands extraction operations in Alberta. Several opportunities in the process where reduction of fine tailings accumulation might be accomplished through either chemical or mechanical modifications, have been examined. Among these are: (1) selective mining, (2) alternate extraction processes, (3) prevention of segregation of coarse and fine tailings, (4) recombination of extraction tailings and fine tailings, (5) extraction of water from mature tailings, and (6) stabilization of mature fine tailings. 77 refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens


    stage are considered. Cost analyses are conducted for different risk reduction targets and for three alternative scenarios concerning the acceptable range of interventions. Results demonstrate that using a system-wide policy approach to risk reduction can be more cost-effective than a policy focusing......An integrated microbiological-economic framework for policy support is developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative intervention methods and strategies to reduce the risk of Campylobacter in broilers. Four interventions at the farm level and four interventions at the processing...... purely on farm-level interventions. Allowing for chemical decontamination methods may enhance cost-effectiveness of intervention strategies further....

  14. Optimization of cosmetic preservation: water activity reduction. (United States)

    Kerdudo, A; Fontaine-Vive, F; Dingas, A; Faure, C; Fernandez, X


    Preservation of cosmetics is a prerequisite for industrialization, and among the proposed solutions, self-preserved cosmetics are of great interest. One key influencing parameter in self-preservation is water activity; its reduction can help to fight against microbial growth in cosmetic products. This work presents a study on the influence of humectants on water activity and its consequence on the preservation of cosmetic formulations. First, water-humectants mixtures were considered. The influence of glycol and glycerin content, glycol chemical structure, glycerin purity and formulation process on the water activity of the binary mixture was studied. Molecular modelling was performed for a better understanding of the impact of glycol chemistry. Then, the results were applied to five different cosmetic formulations to get optimized products. Challenge test on five strains was carried out in that sense. We showed that the higher the humectants concentration, the lower the water activity. Glycol chemical structure also influenced water activity: propan-1,2-diol was more efficient than propan-1,3-diol, certainly because of a better stabilization in water of propan-1,2-diol as shown by DFT calculation. A drop by drop introduction of glycol in water favoured aw reduction. The best water activity loss was 6.6% and was reached on the cream formulation whose preservation was improved as evidenced by challenge test. Fabrication process as well as humectants concentration were shown to influence water activity. The hydroxyl group positions as well as the presence of an alkyl group on the glycol carbon chain impacted water binding as suggested by DFT calculation. Reducing aw improved the preservation of a cosmetic cream, inhibiting or slowing down the growth of bacteria and fungi. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D' Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh


    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  16. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction


    International Monetary Fund


    Benin has been implementing a national poverty reduction strategy for sustainable human development. The government of Benin judiciously stressed the development of the social sector and improved governance to develop human resources and enhance the effectiveness of its actions so as to lay the foundations for sustainable human development. The sectoral strategies and policies growing out of the poverty reduction and growth strategy (SCRP) will be refined and/or readjusted to more clearly del...

  17. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions (United States)

    Liou, Larry


    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  18. Photoelectroreduction of Building-Block Chemicals. (United States)

    Chen, Fengjiao; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yeyun; Zhou, Junhua; Hu, Yongpan; Li, Yanguang; Lee, Shuit-Tong


    Conventional photoelectrochemical cells utilize solar energy to drive the chemical conversion of water or CO2 into useful chemical fuels. Such processes are confronted with general challenges, including the low intrinsic activities and inconvenient storage and transportation of their gaseous products. A photoelectrochemical approach is proposed to drive the reductive production of industrial building-block chemicals and demonstrate that succinic acid and glyoxylic acid can be readily synthesized on Si nanowire array photocathodes free of any cocatalyst and at room temperature. These photocathodes exhibit a positive onset potential, large saturation photocurrent density, high reaction selectivity, and excellent operation durability. They capitalize on the large photovoltage generated from the semiconductor/electrolyte junction to partially offset the required external bias, and thereby make this photoelectrosynthetic approach significantly more sustainable compared to traditional electrosynthesis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Capturing Chemical Identity Thinking (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah


    Chemical identity, the idea that every substance has at least one property that makes it unique and able to be differentiated from other substances, is core to the practice of chemistry. Such practice requires using properties to classify as well as to differentiate. Learning which substance properties are productive in chemical identity thinking…

  20. Dimensions of chemical science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basis of chemistry as championed by Linus Pauling became the underlying theme of much of chemical research and chemical education. I have always been surprised by the fact that it look so long for physical chemistry to be recog- nized as an integral part of chemistry. Ostwald and Van't Hoff were the early champions of.

  1. Forward chemical genetic screening. (United States)

    Choi, Hyunmo; Kim, Jun-Young; Chang, Young Tae; Nam, Hong Gil


    Chemical genetics utilizes small molecules to perturb biological processes. Unlike conventional genetics methods, which involve the alteration of genetic information mostly with lasting effects, chemical genetics allows temporary and reversible alterations of biological processes. Furthermore, it enables the alteration of biological processes in a dose-dependent manner, providing an advantage over conventional genetics. In the present chapter, the general procedures of forward chemical genetic screening are described. Forward chemical genetic screening can be performed in three steps. The first step involves the identification of small molecules that induce phenotypic or physiological changes in a biological system from a chemical library. In the second step, cellular targets that interact with the isolated chemical, which are mostly proteins, are identified. Although several methods can be applied in the second step, the most common one is affinity pull-down assay using a target protein that binds to the isolated compound. However, affinity pull-down of a target protein is a formidable barrier in forward chemical genetics. We introduced a tagged chemical library approach that significantly facilitates the identification of target proteins. The third step consists of the validation of the target protein, which should include the assessment of target specificity. This step is critical because small molecules often show pleiotropic effects due to low specificity. The specificity test may include a competition assay using cold competitors and a genetic study using mutants or transgenic lines modified for the cellular target.

  2. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution (United States)

    Alexander, M.


    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  3. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen


    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a

  4. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  5. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  6. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  7. Approximate method for stochastic chemical kinetics with two-time scales by chemical Langevin equations. (United States)

    Wu, Fuke; Tian, Tianhai; Rawlings, James B; Yin, George


    The frequently used reduction technique is based on the chemical master equation for stochastic chemical kinetics with two-time scales, which yields the modified stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). For the chemical reaction processes involving a large number of molecular species and reactions, the collection of slow reactions may still include a large number of molecular species and reactions. Consequently, the SSA is still computationally expensive. Because the chemical Langevin equations (CLEs) can effectively work for a large number of molecular species and reactions, this paper develops a reduction method based on the CLE by the stochastic averaging principle developed in the work of Khasminskii and Yin [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 56, 1766-1793 (1996); ibid. 56, 1794-1819 (1996)] to average out the fast-reacting variables. This reduction method leads to a limit averaging system, which is an approximation of the slow reactions. Because in the stochastic chemical kinetics, the CLE is seen as the approximation of the SSA, the limit averaging system can be treated as the approximation of the slow reactions. As an application, we examine the reduction of computation complexity for the gene regulatory networks with two-time scales driven by intrinsic noise. For linear and nonlinear protein production functions, the simulations show that the sample average (expectation) of the limit averaging system is close to that of the slow-reaction process based on the SSA. It demonstrates that the limit averaging system is an efficient approximation of the slow-reaction process in the sense of the weak convergence.

  8. [Particle size reduction using acoustic cavitation]. (United States)

    Bartos, Csilla; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska


    Different pharmaceutical technological processes have been used for modification of the physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs. Changes of crystal size, distribution and morphology can open up new, alternative administration routes, e.g. intranasally and the pulmonary route, where the particle size is a determining factor. A wet grinding method based on acoustic cavitation (the collapse of bubbles or voids formed by sound waves) is a novel possibility for modification of the properties of particles. During our work this wet grinding technique was studied. The effect of this method was investigated on particle size reduction. The samples were treated with extreme sonication parameters. The effect of the concentration of the polymer was examined on the particle size reduction. Meloxicam was chosen as a model crystalline drug because of its poor aqueous solubility. The structural characterization and the morphological analysis of the dried products were carried out by DSC, XRPD and SEM. It was found that the acoustic cavitation resulted in crystalline micronized product.

  9. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul


    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  10. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca


    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  11. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew


    .... Now in its sixth edition, this workbook, highly regarded by therapists and their clients, remains the "go-to" source for stress reduction strategies that can be incorporated into even the busiest lives...

  12. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew


    "The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...

  13. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project will enable a mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle...

  14. Acute IPPS - Readmissions Reduction Program (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 3025 of the Affordable Care Act added section 1886(q) to the Social Security Act establishing the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which requires CMS...

  15. semen by MTT reduction assay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    74. 76. 0. 0.2. 0.4. 0.6. 0.8. 1. 1.2. Rate of reduction of MTT (OD at 550nm). % o. f v iab le sp erm ato zo a. Figure 2 Relationship between MTT reduction rate and percentage of viable sperm as determined by eosin and nigrosin staining. The regression curve shown is y = 77.15-10.15x; r =- 0.32; n = 20; OD = optical density.

  16. Robotic Long Bone Fracture Reduction


    Graham, A. E.; Xie, S. Q.; Aw, K. C.; Xu, W.L.; Mukherjee, S.


    This research into a medical robot for realigning fractured bones aims to develop the interface, robot, and database technologies to improve the working situation for users and outcome for recipients. Compared with other approaches to fracture reduction, the system being developed here has a number of novel features. The geometric modeling has been effective in allowing a surgeon to visualize the fractured bone and has not been reported elsewhere for fracture reduction to the authors knowledg...

  17. 2dfdr: Data reduction software (United States)

    AAO software Team


    2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS. A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra.

  18. Homolytic reduction of onium salts. (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril


    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  19. Bromate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria


    Hijnen, W.; Voogt, R.; Veenendaal, H. R.; Jagt, H.; van der Kooij, D


    In the presence of bromide, ozonation as applied in water treatment results in the formation of bromate, an ion with carcinogenic properties. The reduction of bromate by mixed bacterial populations as well as pure cultures was studied under laboratory conditions. Bromate was reduced to bromide by a mixed bacterial population with and without a preceding nitrate reduction step in an anaerobically incubated medium with ethanol as the energy and carbon source at 20 and 25 deg C. The predominatin...

  20. Layer of protection analysis for reactive chemical risk assessment. (United States)

    Wei, Chunyang; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam


    Reactive chemical hazards have been a significant concern for the chemical process industries (CPI). Without sufficient control and mitigation of chemical reaction hazards, reactive incidents have led to severe consequences, such as release of flammable and toxic materials, fires and explosions, and threats to human lives, properties, and the environment. Consequence of reactive hazards can be well understood through calorimetric testing and computational techniques. However, risks of incidents caused by reactive chemicals have not been well addressed due partly to sparse failure frequency data. In this paper, the semi-quantitative layer of protection analysis (LOPA) approach is used to estimate reactive chemical risk, and the probabilities or frequencies of failure scenarios are addressed. Using LOPA, reactive risks can be evaluated with respect to predefined criteria, and the effectiveness of risk reduction measures can be assessed. The hydroxylamine (HA) production system is employed as a case study to demonstrate the application of LOPA to reactive chemical risk assessment.

  1. Coping with Complexity Model Reduction and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Alexander N


    This volume contains the extended version of selected talks given at the international research workshop 'Coping with Complexity: Model Reduction and Data Analysis', Ambleside, UK, August 31 - September 4, 2009. This book is deliberately broad in scope and aims at promoting new ideas and methodological perspectives. The topics of the chapters range from theoretical analysis of complex and multiscale mathematical models to applications in e.g., fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics.

  2. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell


    Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval......, and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...

  3. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  4. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R


    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  5. Chemical properties of transactinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)


    First investigations of chemical properties of bohrium (Z = 107) and hassium (Z = 108) showed an expected behaviour as ordinary members of groups 7 and 8 of the periodic table. Two attempts to study element 112 yielded some indication for a behaviour like a very volatile noble metal. However, a very recent experiment to confirm this preliminary observation failed. Two examples are described how chemical studies may help to support element discovery claims from purely physics experiments. The two examples are the discovery claims of the elements 112 and 115, respectively, where the progenies hassium and dubnium were chemically identified. (orig.)

  6. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge...... controls at baseline, immediately after and four hours after a controlled chemical (n-butanol) exposure, in an exposure chamber previously verified to induce symptom elicitation in MCS subjects. In manuscript III, mucosal lining fluid samples were collected and levels of 19 cytokines and chemokines were...

  7. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction]. (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo


    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  8. Comparative study of methods to determine the chemical oxygen demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellen, J.; Hild, J.


    Chemical oxygen demand is a sum parameter and as such a measure of water pollution, expressed in oxygen equivalents of the oxidant used for oxidation of these substances. The authors have developed an optimized method which is suitable for all types of water samples and does not require additions of mercury salts. The method is characterized by a small sample volume, low consumption of chemicals, oxidation without mercury salt additions, reduction of sulphuric acid concentrations, and high sensitivity.

  9. State of the direct reduction and reduction smelting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotić A.


    Full Text Available For quite a long time efforts have been made to develop processes for producing iron i.e. steel without employing conventional procedures - from ore, coke, blast furnace, iron, electric arc furnace, converter to steel. The insufficient availability and the high price of the coking coals have forced many countries to research and adopt the non-coke-consuming reduction and metal manufacturing processes (non-coke metallurgy, direct reduction, direct processes. This paper represents a survey of the most relevant processes from this domain by the end of 2000, which display a constant increase in the modern process metallurgy.

  10. Effects of Borax on the Reduction of Pre-oxidized Panzhihua Ilmenite (United States)

    Guo, Yufeng; Zheng, Fuqiang; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Qiu, Guanzhou


    The effects of borax (sodium borate) on the enhancement reduction of pre-oxidized Panzhihua ilmenite were investigated. The effects of borax on the mineral phase transformation, microstructures, crystal cell parameter, melting point and Mg distribution were studied to reveal the mechanism of enhancement reduction. Under the constant reduction conditions, the borax could reduce the reduction activation energy of pre-oxidized ilmenite. The reduction kinetics analysis indicated that the reduction rate was controlled by interfacial chemical reaction. The reduction activation energy of the pre-oxidized ilmenite with 4% borax was 80.263 kJ/mol, which was 28.585 kJ/mol less than that of the pre-oxidized ilmenite without borax. Borax could eliminate the migration of Mg into the reduced particle center. The crystal cell parameter of the reduced product was increased by adding borax. Borax could improve the growth of dendritic crystals in the pre-oxidized ilmenite.

  11. Possible domestication of uranium oxides using biological assistance reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slah Hidouri


    Full Text Available Uranium has been defined in material research engineering field as one of the most energetic radioactive elements in the entire Mendeleev periodic table. The manipulation of uranium needs higher theories and sophisticated apparatus even in nuclear energy extraction or in many other chemical applications. Above the nuclear exploitation level, the chemical conventional approaches used, require a higher temperature and pressure to control the destination of ionic form. However, it has been discovered later that at biological scale, the manipulation of this actinide is possible under friendly conditions. The review summarizes the relevant properties of uranium element and a brief characterization of nanoparticles, based on some structural techniques. These techniques reveal the common link between chemical approaches and biological assistance in nanoparticles. Also, those biological entities have been able to get it after reduction. Uranium is known for its ability to destroy ductile materials. So, if biological cell can really reduce uranium, then how does it work?

  12. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe


    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  13. A bionics chemical synapse. (United States)

    Thanapitak, Surachoke; Toumazou, Christofer


    Implementation of the current mode CMOS circuit for chemical synapses (AMPA and NMDA receptors) with dynamic change of glutamate as the neurotransmitter input is presented in this paper. Additionally, circuit realisation for receptor GABA(A) and GABA(B) with an electrical signal which symbolises γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) perturbation is introduced. The chemical sensor for glutamate sensing is the modified ISFET with enzyme (glutamate oxidase) immobilisation. The measured results from these biomimetics chemical synapse circuits closely match with the simulation result from the mathematical model. The total power consumption of the whole chip (four chemical synapse circuits and all auxiliary circuits) is 168.3 μW. The total chip area is 3 mm(2) in 0.35-μm AMS CMOS technology.

  14. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited. (United States)

    Theodore, Louis


    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  15. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K


    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  16. Chemical Engineering at NASA (United States)

    Collins, Jacob


    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  17. Chemically stabilized soils. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to conduct laboratory evaluations to quantify the effects of compaction and moisture conditions on the strength of chemically treated soils typical utilized in pavement construction in Mississippi.

  18. Elementary chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahan, Bruce H


    This text introduces thermodynamic principles in a straightforward manner. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it emphasizes chemical applications and physical interpretations and simplifies mathematical development. 1964 edition.

  19. Chemical agent recoveries (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset shows the calculation of reported decontamination efficacies from the raw data (i.e., measured amount of chemical recovered from test coupons and positive...

  20. Household Chemical Emergencies (United States)

    ... and clearly labeled. Never store hazardous products in food containers. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with ... a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. Dispose of hazardous ...

  1. Chemical Bonds II (United States)

    Sanderson, R. T.


    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  2. SAM Chemical Methods Query (United States)

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery

  3. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P


    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  4. Chemical Facility Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schierow, Linda-Jo


    .... Because few terrorist attacks have been attempted against chemical facilities in the United States, the risk of death and injury in the near future is estimated to be low, relative to the likelihood...

  5. Chemical Plant Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schierow, Linda-Jo


    .... Because few terrorist attacks have been attempted against chemical facilities in the United States, the risk of death and injury in the near future is estimated to be low, relative to the likelihood...

  6. Chemical Data Access Tool (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  7. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg


    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  8. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem


    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  9. The U.S. Chemical Industry, Foreign Chemical Industries (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972


    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry provides data on the chemical production of Japan, West Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and France, including the output of major chemical products in these nations. (PR)

  10. Chemical Safety and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sydnes, Leiv K


    ... a Conference on International Cooperation and Chemical Safety & Security in The Hague, Netherlands. The meeting was well attended, with some 350 participants on site and several hundred following the presentations through a webcast. The purpose of the conference was to promote the goals of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) by highlighting the achievements of OPCW, but more importantly, by analyzing the challenges that lie ahead and discuss with important stakeholders how these challenges can be ...

  11. Countermeasures to Hazardous Chemicals, (United States)


    of any effective community awareness and emergency response program is an informed public familiar with the operations of local chemical plants. Such systems. 2. Booklel, ’Protecting People and the Environment.’ - A concise booklet developed to familiarize the public with chemical operations and...Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion 102. Civil Defense Administation c/Evaristo San Miguel, 8 Ministry of Interior Madrid-8 Ankara ESPANA

  12. Nomenclature of chemical compounds


    Karolina Kaczmarek


    This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the organisation responsible for digesting th...

  13. Reduction-sensitive liposomes from a multifunctional lipid conjugate and natural phospholipids: reduction and release kinetics and cellular uptake. (United States)

    Goldenbogen, Björn; Brodersen, Nicolai; Gramatica, Andrea; Loew, Martin; Liebscher, Jürgen; Herrmann, Andreas; Egger, Holger; Budde, Bastian; Arbuzova, Anna


    The development of targeted and triggerable delivery systems is of high relevance for anticancer therapies. We report here on reduction-sensitive liposomes composed of a novel multifunctional lipidlike conjugate, containing a disulfide bond and a biotin moiety, and natural phospholipids. The incorporation of the disulfide conjugate into vesicles and the kinetics of their reduction were studied using dansyl-labeled conjugate 1 in using the dansyl fluorescence environmental sensitivity and the Förster resonance energy transfer from dansyl to rhodamine-labeled phospholipids. Cleavage of the disulfide bridge (e.g., by tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP), dithiothreitol (DTT), l-cysteine, or glutathione (GSH)) removed the hydrophilic headgroup of the conjugate and thus changed the membrane organization leading to the release of entrapped molecules. Upon nonspecific uptake of vesicles by macrophages, calcein release from reduction-sensitive liposomes consisting of the disulfide conjugate and phospholipids was more efficient than from reduction-insensitive liposomes composed only of phospholipids. The binding of streptavidin to the conjugates did not interfere with either the subsequent reduction of the disulfide bond of the conjugate or the release of entrapped molecules. Breast cancer cell line BT-474, overexpressing the HER2 receptor, showed a high uptake of the reduction-sensitive doxorubicin-loaded liposomes functionalized with the biotin-tagged anti-HER2 antibody. The release of the entrapped cargo inside the cells was observed, implying the potential of using our system for active targeting and delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Computational systems chemical biology. (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  15. The Chemical Revolution revisited. (United States)

    Chang, Hasok


    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebora, M. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Environmental Health and Safety Center


    The growing number of Federal and State regulations today from EPA to OSHA is putting a large burden on organizations to comply with regard to chemicals in the work place. The cornerstone of chemical information is the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). The MSDS has been a requirement for chemical manufacturers for over fifteen years. Manufacturers of hazardous materials must provide MSDSs to purchasers. However, recent additional regulations from OSHA, in particular the Right To Know and the Hazard Communication Standard (Haz-Com) require that employers who use chemicals must be capable of providing an MSDS to every employee that requests one for a material that they work with. Paper filing systems to managing MSDSs are hard to maintain, costly, and inefficient. In multifacility organizations this can result in delays in distributions of those MSDSs to employees. At AT and T Bell Laboratories the Environmental Health and Safety Center has invested over a decade of development work into producing an integrated Chemical Inventory System/MSDS System. That system meets the requirements discussed in this paper and serves six major R and D laboratory facilities in three states. The system resides on a desktop personal computer. Operation of the system relies on teamwork between several diverse organizations which are involved in management of chemical safety at AT and T Bell Laboratories. The departments represented on that team are Industrial Hygiene and Safety, Environmental Management, Facilities Operations, Purchasing, Health Services, Research, and Environmental Data Management Services.

  17. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.


    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  18. Hand chemical burns. (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby


    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty]. (United States)

    Witte, P M; van der Lei, B; van der Biezen, J J; Spronk, C A


    To determine if it is possible to successfully breastfeed after reduction mammaplasty with intact continuity between papilla and glandular tissue. Retrospective by use of a written questionnaire. Between 1986 and 2000, 994 women under the age of 35 underwent a reduction mammaplasty at the Medical Centre in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. They were all sent a questionnaire of which 585 were completed correctly and returned. Of the 585 women, 215 had had one or more children and 90 had started breastfeeding, 57 of whom were successful (63%). In non-operated women this figure is 69%. The advice to try to breastfeed was associated with a higher percentage of success than the advice not to try--78% and 42% respectively. It appears to be justified to encourage women who have had a breast reduction to attempt to breastfeed after the birth of a child.

  20. A Review on Dimension Reduction. (United States)

    Ma, Yanyuan; Zhu, Liping


    Summarizing the effect of many covariates through a few linear combinations is an effective way of reducing covariate dimension and is the backbone of (sufficient) dimension reduction. Because the replacement of high-dimensional covariates by low-dimensional linear combinations is performed with a minimum assumption on the specific regression form, it enjoys attractive advantages as well as encounters unique challenges in comparison with the variable selection approach. We review the current literature of dimension reduction with an emphasis on the two most popular models, where the dimension reduction affects the conditional distribution and the conditional mean, respectively. We discuss various estimation and inference procedures in different levels of detail, with the intention of focusing on their underneath idea instead of technicalities. We also discuss some unsolved problems in this area for potential future research.

  1. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    matrices are constructed based on the convex combinations of the generalized gramians. However this framework is less conservative than the first one, it does not guarantee the stability for all switching signals. The stability preservation is studied for this reduction technique. The third framework......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  2. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten


    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  3. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 5, 2003 ... The reduction temperature did not affect the product selectivity. KEYWORDS. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, carbon monoxide hydrogenation, syngas conversion, cobalt; titania, fixed-bed reactor. 1. Introduction. Supported cobalt catalysts have been widely employed for. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of ...

  4. Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor (United States)

    Myers, Charles R.; Nealson, Kenneth H.


    Microbes that couple growth to the reduction of manganese could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of certain anaerobic environments. Such a bacterium, Alteromonas putrefaciens MR-1, couples its growth to the reduction of manganese oxides only under anaerobic conditions. The characteristics of this reduction are consistent with a biological, and not an indirect chemical, reduction of manganese, which suggest that this bacterium uses manganic oxide as a terminal electron acceptor. It can also utilize a large number of other compounds as terminal electron acceptors; this versatility could provide a distinct advantage in environments where electron-acceptor concentrations may vary.

  5. Reduction of graphene oxide and its effect on square resistance of reduced graphene oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Yin; Li, Guang Bin; Wang, Shaohong; Wang, Mei Han; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Siming [Liaoning Province Key Laboratory of New Functional Materials and Chemical Technology, School ofMechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang (China)


    Graphite oxide was prepared via the modified Hummers’ method and graphene via chemical reduction. Deoxygenation efficiency of graphene oxide was compared among single reductants including sodium borohydride, hydrohalic acids, hydrazine hydrate, and vitamin C. Two-step reduction of graphene oxide was primarily studied. The reduced graphene oxide was characterized by XRD, TG, SEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. Square resistance was measured as well. Results showed that films with single-step N2H4 reduction have the best transmittance and electrical conductivity with square resistance of ~5746 Ω/sq at 70% transmittance. This provided an experimental basis of using graphene for electronic device applications.

  6. Preparation of Niobium Metal Powder by Two-Stage Magnesium Vapor Reduction of Niobium Pentoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Satish Kumar


    Full Text Available Magnesium vapor reduction of niobium pentoxide was studied using a laboratory system. Niobium powder was prepared by the magnesium vapor reduction at 1123 K for 5 hours and it contained about 8 mass % oxygen. However, the oxygen concentration could be decreased to 0.65% when it was prepared by double-step reduction by magnesium vapor and a chemical treatment. Controlled and diluted supply of magnesium vapor to the reaction front has averted excess heat generation at the reaction front and thereby fine particles were produced. Effects of various factors on the vapor reduction process were studied and discussed.

  7. Islamic State and Chemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rafay


    Full Text Available The article deals with topic of Islamic State and chemical weapons. The issue is analysed in three dimensions: origin of used chemical weapons and possibility of independent production; known chemical attacks and tactical regularities in their execution; and traits of future chemical terrorist attacks. By providing a thorough examination of the problem, the article aims at predicting the future development of the group’s chemical program as well as describing any prospective chemical terrorist attacks in Europe

  8. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N


    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  9. Sepiapterin Reductase Mediates Chemical Redox Cycling in Lung Epithelial Cells* (United States)

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.


    In the lung, chemical redox cycling generates highly toxic reactive oxygen species that can cause alveolar inflammation and damage to the epithelium, as well as fibrosis. In this study, we identified a cytosolic NADPH-dependent redox cycling activity in mouse lung epithelial cells as sepiapterin reductase (SPR), an enzyme important for the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. Human SPR was cloned and characterized. In addition to reducing sepiapterin, SPR mediated chemical redox cycling of bipyridinium herbicides and various quinones; this activity was greatest for 1,2-naphthoquinone followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, menadione, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. Whereas redox cycling chemicals inhibited sepiapterin reduction, sepiapterin had no effect on redox cycling. Additionally, inhibitors such as dicoumarol, N-acetylserotonin, and indomethacin blocked sepiapterin reduction, with no effect on redox cycling. Non-redox cycling quinones, including benzoquinone and phenylquinone, were competitive inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction but noncompetitive redox cycling inhibitors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the SPR C-terminal substrate-binding site (D257H) completely inhibited sepiapterin reduction but had minimal effects on redox cycling. These data indicate that SPR-mediated reduction of sepiapterin and redox cycling occur by distinct mechanisms. The identification of SPR as a key enzyme mediating chemical redox cycling suggests that it may be important in generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the lung. This activity, together with inhibition of sepiapterin reduction by redox-active chemicals and consequent deficiencies in tetrahydrobiopterin, may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:23640889

  10. How EPA Assesses Chemical Safety (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  11. Green Chemistry for Chemical Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao-Jun Li; Barry M. Trost


    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize...

  12. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Confluence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    We study confluence in the setting of higher-order infinitary rewriting, in particular for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that fully-extended, orthogonal iCRSs are confluent modulo identification of hypercollapsing subterms. As a corollary, we obtain that fully-extended,

  13. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Confluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    -extended, orthogonal iCRSs have the normal form property and the  unique normal form property (with respect to reduction). We also show that, unlike the case in first-order infinitary rewriting, almost non-collapsing iCRSs are not necessarily confluent....

  14. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano


    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  15. Palladium Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene. (United States)

    Mangravite, John A.


    Compares two palladium (Pd/C) reducing systems to iron/tin-hydrochloric acid (Fe/HCl and Sn/HCl) reductions and suggests an efficient, clean, and inexpensive procedures for the conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline. Includes laboratory procedures used and discussion of typical results obtained. (JN)

  16. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...

  17. Reduction axioms for epistemic actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; van Benthem, Johan


    Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added. In this paper we propose new versions that extend the underlying static epistemic language in such a way that dynamic completeness proofs can be obtained by perspicuous reduction axioms.

  18. Noise reduction by wavelet thresholding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Maarten


    .... I rather present new material and own insights in the que stions involved with wavelet based noise reduction . On the other hand , the presented material does cover a whole range of methodologies, and in that sense, the book may serve as an introduction into the domain of wavelet smoothing. Throughout the text, three main properties show up ever again: spar...

  19. Strategies for hospital staff reduction. (United States)

    Weil, T P; Hollingsworth, A T


    Reduced inpatient census has created an overstaffing problem in many hospitals. Managers, unfamiliar with the layoff process, are now faced with reducing staffing levels. Detailed here are the options available for and the policies, procedures, and implementation of a reduction in force.

  20. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction


    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M


    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  1. Morphologisation or Reduction by Context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård Petersen, Jan


    of regression analysis which shows that also a following sound or pause, word form frequency and social class are factors that contribute significantly to the reduction pattern of the variable (te). The study cannot find any effects of clitizisation or n-gram based contextual predictability, factors...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IMPROVING THE CHOICE OF HIGHER ORDER UNIVARIATE. KERNELS THROUGH BIAS REDUCTION TECHNIQUE. J. E. Osemwenkhae and J. I. Odiase. Department of Math ematics. University of Benin. Benin City, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Within the last two decades, higher order nnivariate kernels ha/ve been under focus ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    anions [7] and homogeneous photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds [8, 9] and pesticides [10]. All these cited properties and the physico- chemical characteristics of pyrylium salts are dependant to the substituents on the pyrylium ring. Electrochemical signal measurement is an ...

  4. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.


    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  5. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J


    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  6. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S


    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  7. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kaczmarek


    Full Text Available This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the organisation responsible for digesting the chemical nomenclature. The article contains the transcription chart and the manner of reading the structural formula, also called latero-numerical. Additionally, there is information conceming the usage of the common names given, still remaining in use next to the names compatible with those of IUPAC. Particular types of chemical compounds have served as models for description of other nomenclature formation rules from the simplest structures to the complicated compound ones. A short summary presents the relations and similarities between the names of particular types of chemical compounds.

  8. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for reduction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper subpart...

  9. Safeguard monitoring of direct electrolytic reduction (United States)

    Jurovitzki, Abraham L.

    Nuclear power is regaining global prominence as a sustainable energy source as the world faces the consequences of depending on limited fossil based, CO2 emitting fuels. A key component to achieving this sustainability is to implement a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Without achieving this goal, a relatively small fraction of the energy value in nuclear fuel is actually utilized. This involves recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)---separating fissile actinides from waste products and using them to fabricate fresh fuel. Pyroprocessing is a viable option being developed for this purpose with a host of benefits compared to other recycling options, such as PUREX. Notably, pyroprocessing is ill suited to separate pure plutonium from spent fuel and thus has non-proliferation benefits. Pyroprocessing involves high temperature electrochemical and chemical processing of SNF in a molten salt electrolyte. During this batch process, several intermediate and final streams are produced that contain radioactive material. While pyroprocessing is ineffective at separating pure plutonium, there are various process misuse scenarios that could result in diversion of impure plutonium into one or more of these streams. This is a proliferation risk that should be addressed with innovative safeguards technology. One approach to meeting this challenge is to develop real time monitoring techniques that can be implemented in the hot cells and coupled with the various unit operations involved with pyroprocessing. Current state of the art monitoring techniques involve external chemical assaying which requires sample removal from these unit operations. These methods do not meet International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) timeliness requirements. In this work, a number of monitoring techniques were assessed for their viability as online monitoring tools. A hypothetical diversion scenario for the direct electrolytic reduction process was experimentally verified (using Nd2O3 as a surrogate for PuO2

  10. Chemical Kinetics Database (United States)

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  11. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan


    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  12. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser (United States)

    Swierkowski, S.P.


    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  13. Chemical Inhibition of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Eric; Lin Kim, Che; Gyeom Kim, Mi


    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical...... autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine...... and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125...

  14. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N


    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  15. Chrysanthemum extract assisted green reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dandan, E-mail:; Liu, Qinfu, E-mail:; Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail:; Li, Kuo, E-mail:; Wang, Ding, E-mail:; Zhang, Hao, E-mail:


    The chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) usually involves highly toxic reducing agents which are injurious to the environment and human health. In the present study, chrysanthemum extract, as a natural and harmless reductant, mediated facile and green approach for the preparation of reduced GO (RGO) was reported for the first time. The reduction experiments of GO were conducted at room temperature, and the obtained RGO was few layered and exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio (4.96) as demonstrated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The mechanism for removing of oxygen-containing functional groups from GO with chrysanthemum extract was proposed. The features of environmentally friendly and cost-effectively endow this approach with great promise in the preparation of various graphene-based materials, especially for biomaterials. - Highlights: • The chrysanthemum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • The mechanism for reduction of graphene oxide with chrysanthemum was proposed. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.

  16. Electrochemical reduction of imazamethabenz methyl on mercury and carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes, E-mail: mmontoya@uhu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Quimica Fisica y Quimica Organica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus El Carmen, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Pintado, Sara; Rodriguez Mellado, Jose Miguel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, edificio ' Marie Curie' , E-14014 Cordoba (Spain)


    This paper presents polarographic and voltammetric studies of the reduction of the herbicide imazamethabenz methyl (2/3-methyl-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate), on mercury and carbon electrodes. The electrochemical studies were performed in strongly acidic media (0.1-2.7 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as well as in the pH range of 1-12. The overall reduction process involves the uptake of two electrons. The results obtained in polarography show that there is the reduction of two species, related via an acid-base equilibrium, and having very close reduction potentials. The voltammetric results obtained with a glassy carbon electrode were very similar to those observed on mercury electrodes. The reducible group in the molecule is the imidazolinone ring. In strongly acidic media (pH < pK{sub a}), the reaction mechanism proposed is the reduction of the protonated herbicide by an electrochemical-chemical-electrochemical (ECE) process, being the r.d.s. the second electron transfer. At pH > pK{sub a} the neutral form of the herbicide is reduced and the second electron transfer becomes reversible or quasi-reversible. In basic media, the species reduced is the deprotonated imazamethabenz methyl and the r.d.s. is the second electron transfer.

  17. Sludge reduction using aquatic worms under different aeration regimes. (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Wang, Kan; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wan, Xiao-Ming


    Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L-1. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L-1, while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L-1 did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L-1 and a power of 0.19 kWh t-1 water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d-1 during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.

  18. Reduction experiment of iron scale by adding waste plastics. (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao


    The special features of waste plastics in China are huge in total amount, various in type and dispersive in deposition. Therefore, it is necessary to try some new ways that are fit to Chinese situation for disposing waste plastics as metallurgical raw materials more effectively and flexibly. Owing to its high ferrous content and less impurity, the iron scale became ideal raw material to produce pure iron powder. One of the methods to produce pure iron powder is Hoganas Method, by which, after one or multistage of reduction steps, the iron scale can be reduced pure iron powder. However, combining utilization of waste plastics and iron powder production, a series of reduction experiments were arranged and investigated, which is hoped to take use of both thermal and chemical energy contained in waste plastics as well as to improve the reducing condition of iron scale, and hence to develop a new metallurgical way of disposing waste plastics. The results show that under these experimental conditions, the thermal-decomposition of water plastics can conduce to an increase of porosity in the reduction systems. Moreover, better thermodynamics and kinetics conditions for the reduction of scale can be reached. As a result, the reduction rate is increased.

  19. Recursions of Symmetry Orbits and Reduction without Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Malykh


    Full Text Available We consider a four-dimensional PDE possessing partner symmetries mainly on the example of complex Monge-Ampère equation (CMA. We use simultaneously two pairs of symmetries related by a recursion relation, which are mutually complex conjugate for CMA. For both pairs of partner symmetries, using Lie equations, we introduce explicitly group parameters as additional variables, replacing symmetry characteristics and their complex conjugates by derivatives of the unknown with respect to group parameters. We study the resulting system of six equations in the eight-dimensional space, that includes CMA, four equations of the recursion between partner symmetries and one integrability condition of this system. We use point symmetries of this extended system for performing its symmetry reduction with respect to group parameters that facilitates solving the extended system. This procedure does not imply a reduction in the number of physical variables and hence we end up with orbits of non-invariant solutions of CMA, generated by one partner symmetry, not used in the reduction. These solutions are determined by six linear equations with constant coefficients in the five-dimensional space which are obtained by a three-dimensional Legendre transformation of the reduced extended system. We present algebraic and exponential examples of such solutions that govern Legendre-transformed Ricci-flat Kähler metrics with no Killing vectors. A similar procedure is briefly outlined for Husain equation.

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.


    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  1. Experimental Constraints on Chondrule Reduction (United States)

    Libourel, G.; Chaussidon, M.


    Whether or not chondritic metal results from equilibrium condensation in the nebula [1], or reflects reduction during chondrule formation [2] is still a matter of debate. Tiny metal globules are found both in matrix of primitive meteorites and in olivine-pyroxene bearing chondrules, suggesting that reduction reactions could have been established either before or during chondrule formation. The causes of reduction processes are also controversial, either controlled by the reduced protosolar atmosphere or due to the presence of reduced carbon in the chondrule precursors [3]. These issues are of fundamental importance in understanding chondrule formation processes and conditions. In addition, because chondrules are the raw material for the Earth accretion, the understanding of the processes controlling the formation of metal (and its compositions) might be also essential for the understanding of the early differentiation of the Earth. In order to shed light on metal formation in chondrules, a series of reduction experiments were carried out to establish 1. the timing of the reduction 2. the compositional effects of reduction and 3. the causes of the reduction. San Carlos olivines, Fa16 with trace amounts of Ni, Co, P, Mn, were used as starting material, this composition being close to that of chondrules on average. Olivines were ground to 50-100 m in order to be comparable to chondrule precursors. Experiments were run in a 1 atmosphere vertical furnace, in the temperature range 1550 to 1650 C and under different oxygen fugacities (IW-1 to C-CO buffer). These reduced atmospheres were imposed by a flux of different proportions of gases (CO, CO2, H2 and Ar) or by using graphite capsules with a flux of pure CO gas. For a given T and fO2, experiments were performed with time scales of 5 mn to 8 hours, and terminated by quenching the run products in dry conditions at 500 C/sec. Each experiment produced an assemblage of olivines (Fo-rich), silicate glass and metal globules

  2. Wireless Chemical Sensing Method (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)


    A wireless chemical sensor includes an electrical conductor and a material separated therefrom by an electric insulator. The electrical conductor is an unconnected open-circuit shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the first electrical conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The material is positioned at a location lying within at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses so-generated. The material changes in electrical conductivity in the presence of a chemical-of-interest.

  3. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E


    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam


    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  5. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material...... and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling....

  6. Metrology for Chemical Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Hansen, Elo Harald


    The first full-semester course on Quality Assurance in Chemical Measurement was held at the Technical University of Denmark from September to December 1999. The course required sufficient knowledge of basic statistics to understand and apply the methods recommended in ISO 5725-1/6 Accuracy...... organizations in 1993. Chemists are notoriously reluctant to accept the BIPM philosophy, but the appearance of a new Draft Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement at the EURACHEM Workshop in Helsinki in June 1999 stimulated us to make an attempt to overcome such chemical prejudice. After...

  7. The implications of agro-chemical compounds (fertilizers, pesticides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water in Lake Chad is facing serious environmental problems from prolong drought to desertification, pollution and biodiversity reduction. ... The assessment of the Lake Chad water resource quality was therefore carried out carefully while understanding the linkage and interaction with Agro-chemicals using stratified ...

  8. Comparative studies on chemical, hot and cold water treatments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical, bot and cold-water treatments were evaluated for effectiveness in cleaning banana suckers of weevils. Preliminarily, the effectiveness of paring suckers on removal of weevils and nematodes from banana suckers was validated. Results indicated a 36.6%, 67.9% and 96.3% reduction of larvae in corms treated with ...

  9. Studies on the chemical constituents, antioxidants and membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical constituents, antioxidant and membrane stability activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) flower were determined. The total anthocyanin was 165 mg / kg with about 6 % reduction due to fermentation. Tannin, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenol were 11.8 g / kg; 478 mg / kg; and 14.4 mg / g, ...

  10. The Influence of Grinding Media on the Pulp Chemical Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media employed were stainless steel and mild steel, which created different chemical conditions in the pulp as measured by dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH. Better overall flotation performance was obtained in pulp ground by stainless steel media than by mild steel media. There was ...

  11. Chemical characterization of passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characteristics of passion fruit seeds and their oil for possible use in human food and reduction of organic waste from fruit industrialization. Passion fruit seeds were analyzed for moisture, lipids, proteins, ash, fibers, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids and antioxidant ...

  12. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca


    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  13. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.


    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.).

  14. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G


    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  15. Kinetics of Hydrogen Reduction of Chalcopyrite Concentrate (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ritayan; Ghosh, Dinabandhu


    A Ghatshila chalcopyrite concentrate (average particle size, 50 μm) containing primarily CuFeS2 and SiO2 (Cu 16 pct) was reduced by a stream of hydrogen in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at selected temperatures [1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C)], hydrogen flow rates, partial pressures of hydrogen (0.33 × 101.3 to 101.3 kPa), and sample bed heights. The product was a mixture of Cu (26 pct), SiO2, CuFeO2, and Fe. The rate equations for the three typical controlling mechanisms, namely, gas film diffusion (mass transfer), pore diffusion, and interfacial reaction, have been derived for the system geometry under study and applied to identify the rate-controlling steps. The first stage of the reduction, which extended up to the first 13 minutes, was rate controlled by the interfacial reaction. The last stage, which spanned over the last 60 to 120 minutes and accounted for a small percentage of reduction, was controlled by pore diffusion through the built-up Cu (and Fe) layer. The activation energy in the first stage was 101 kJ mol-1 and that in the second stage was 76 kJ mol-1. Subsequent acid leaching with 1 M HCl solution of the reduction product removed all soluble species, leaving a Cu (53.3 pct) + SiO2 mixture, with a small concentration (2.7 pct) of Cu2O in it. This result compares well with the predicted final mixture of Cu (59 pct)-SiO2 based on a mass balance on the starting concentrate. A follow-up heating at 1523 K (1250 °C) produced a sintered Cu-SiO2 composite with spherical copper particles of 400 µm diameter embedded in a silica matrix. Elemental chemical analyses were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy/atomic absorption spectroscopy. The phase identification and microstructural characterization of Cu-SiO2 mixtures were carried out by X-ray powder diffraction and optical microscopy.

  16. Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linden, Carol D


    Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical...

  17. XPS study of graphene oxide reduction induced by (100) and (111)-oriented Si substrates (United States)

    Priante, F.; Salim, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Perrozzi, F.


    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively studied in literature in order to let GO partially recover the properties of graphene. Most of the techniques proposed to reduce GO are based on high temperature annealing or chemical reduction. A new procedure, based on the direct reduction of GO by etched Si substrate, was recently proposed in literature. In the present work, we accurately investigated the Si–GO interaction with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to avoid external substrate oxidation factors we used EtOH as the GO solvent instead of water, and thermal annealing was carried out in UHV. We investigated the effect of Si(100), Si(111) and Au substrates on GO, to probe the role played by both the substrate composition and substrate orientation during the reduction process. A similar degree of GO reduction was observed for all samples but only after thermal annealing, ruling out the direct reduction effect of the substrate.

  18. Fast low-temperature plasma reduction of monolayer graphene oxide at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Bodik, Michal; Zahoranova, Anna; Micusik, Matej; Bugarova, Nikola; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Omastova, Maria; Majkova, Eva; Jergel, Matej; Siffalovic, Peter


    We report on an ultrafast plasma-based graphene oxide reduction method superior to conventional vacuum thermal annealing and/or chemical reduction. The method is based on the effect of non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma generated by the diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge in proximity of the graphene oxide layer. As the reduction time is in the order of seconds, the presented method is applicable to the large-scale production of reduced graphene oxide layers. The short reduction times are achieved by the high-volume power density of plasma, which is of the order of 100 W cm-3. Monolayers of graphene oxide on silicon substrate were prepared by a modified Langmuir-Schaefer method and the efficient and rapid reduction by methane and/or hydrogen plasma was demonstrated. The best results were obtained for the graphene oxide reduction in hydrogen plasma, as verified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  20. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves


    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  1. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin


    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  2. Journal of Chemical Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In the presence of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant and ascorbic acid as reductant, .... The transition metal Schiff base complexes synthesized and characterized by ... Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions and optimized to enhance the yield of the Suzuki reaction. Regular Article. Axially chiral benzimidazolium based ...

  3. Reduction of mesqa improvement costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Saad ElFetyany


    Results show that using the revised approach brings down the cost of mesqa improvement from nearly 10,000LE/fed at present to about 6000LE/fed. These reductions based on the analyses of different mesqa modelling through the adoption of certain parameters such as feasibility of the revised design, effective application of continuous flow for water distribution, and downsizing of the capacity of improved mesqas.

  4. Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yuhui


    Increasing regulatory, environmental, and customer pressure in recent years led to substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, including the remarkable breakthroughs demonstrated through the Super Truck program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). On the other hand, these improvements have translated into a reduction of exhaust gas temperatures, thus further complicating the task of controlling NOx emissions, especially in low power duty cycles. The need for improved NOx conversion over these low temperature duty cycles is also observed as requirements tighten with in-use emissions testing. Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200oC range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining a 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150oC. The project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015. Through this collaboration, we are exploring catalyst formulations and catalyst architectures with enhanced catalytic activity at 150°C; opportunities to approach the desirable ratio of NO and NO2 in the SCR feed gas; options for robust low-temperature reductant delivery; and the requirements for overall system integration. The program is expected to deliver an on-engine demonstration of the technical solution and an assessment of its commercial potential. In the SAE meeting, we will share the initial performance data on engine to

  5. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar


    of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...

  6. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.


    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  7. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  8. Chemical Utilisation of CO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Chemical Utilisation of CO2: A Challenge for the Sustainable World. Dinesh Jagadeesan Bhaskar Joshi Prashant Parameswaran. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 165-176 ...

  9. Modeling chemical kinetics graphically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.


    In literature on chemistry education it has often been suggested that students, at high school level and beyond, can benefit in their studies of chemical kinetics from computer supported activities. Use of system dynamics modeling software is one of the suggested quantitative approaches that could

  10. Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. (United States)

    Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina


    Epigenetics investigates heritable changes in gene expression occurring without changes in DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression, can change genome function under exogenous influence. Here, we review current evidence indicating that epigenetic alterations mediate toxicity from environmental chemicals. In-vitro, animal, and human investigations have identified several classes of environmental chemicals that modify epigenetic marks, including metals (cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, and methylmercury), peroxisome proliferators (trichloroethylene, dichloroacetic acid, and TCA), air pollutants (particulate matter, black carbon, and benzene), and endocrine-disrupting/reproductive toxicants (diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol A, persistent organic pollutants, and dioxin). Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied environmental chemicals in relation to histone modifications and microRNA. For several exposures, it has been proved that chemicals can alter epigenetic marks, and that the same or similar epigenetic alterations can be found in patients with the disease of concern or in diseased tissues. Future prospective investigations are needed to determine whether exposed individuals develop epigenetic alterations over time and, in turn, which such alterations increase the risk of disease. Also, further research is needed to determine whether environmental epigenetic changes are transmitted transgenerationally.

  11. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  12. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  13. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  14. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare


    and educational tools are introduced to allow initial estimates of which chemical processes could be viable. Specifically, fossil and renewables value chains are used to indicate where renewable feedstocks can be optimally valorized. Additionally, C factors are introduced that specify the amount of CO2 produced...

  15. Chemical Bonds I (United States)

    Sanderson, R. T.


    Chemical bonding is discussed from a bond energy, rather than a wave mechanics, viewpoint. This approach is considered to be more suitable for the average student. (The second part of the article will appear in a later issue of the journal.) (AL)

  16. Chemical relationship between Pinaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, G.J.; Genderen, H.H. van


    Fingerprints of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts of eleven pine species have been made by paper chromatography and HPLC. The results suggest a chemical relationship which agrees fairly well with those based on immunological and morphological characters but not always with the classification

  17. Making a Chemical Rainbow (United States)

    Angelin, Marcus; Ramstrom, Olof


    In this laboratory experiment, high school students are challenged to prepare a six-layered chemical "rainbow" in a test tube. Students start with six unknown, colorless liquids and six pigments ranging from violet to red. The experiment is problem based and forces the students to apply their knowledge of solubility and density and combine it with…

  18. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj


    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  19. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit


    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  20. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  1. Laser enhanced chemical reactions (United States)

    Included is the discussion of infrared diode lasers used to study time dependent dynamic events. Also, hot atom excitation of vibrational states of polyatomic molecules, bimolecular quenching and reactions of O(sup 1)D, bimolecular reaction studies of the OH + CO yields H + CO2 system, and the chemical dynamics of the reaction between chlorine atoms and deuterated cyclohexane are covered briefly.

  2. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) (United States)

    ... and Food Storage Materials Example EDCs: BPA, Phthalates, Phenol Electronics and Building Materials Example EDCs: Brominated Flame ... Of the hundreds of thousands of man-made chemicals, it is estimated that about 1,000 ... properties. Global production of plastics grew from 50 million ...

  3. Chemical Aspects of Dentistry. (United States)

    Helfman, Murry


    Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease are treated/prevented by procedures utilizing chemical expertise. Procedures and suggestions on how they might be incorporated into the high school chemistry curriculum are described. Specific topics discussed include dental caries, fluoride, diet, tooth decay prevention, silver amalgan,…

  4. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.


    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  5. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  6. Lung volume reduction for emphysema. (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan


    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 40320 - Risk Reduction Program (United States)


    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II RIN 2130-AC11 Risk Reduction Program AGENCY: Federal... development of a regulation requiring certain railroads to develop a Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The Rail... reduction programs. Risk reduction is a comprehensive, system-oriented approach to safety that (1...

  8. Final Report. Analysis and Reduction of Complex Networks Under Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Youssef M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Coles, T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Spantini, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tosatto, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The project was a collaborative effort among MIT, Sandia National Laboratories (local PI Dr. Habib Najm), the University of Southern California (local PI Prof. Roger Ghanem), and The Johns Hopkins University (local PI Prof. Omar Knio, now at Duke University). Our focus was the analysis and reduction of large-scale dynamical systems emerging from networks of interacting components. Such networks underlie myriad natural and engineered systems. Examples important to DOE include chemical models of energy conversion processes, and elements of national infrastructure—e.g., electric power grids. Time scales in chemical systems span orders of magnitude, while infrastructure networks feature both local and long-distance connectivity, with associated clusters of time scales. These systems also blend continuous and discrete behavior; examples include saturation phenomena in surface chemistry and catalysis, and switching in electrical networks. Reducing size and stiffness is essential to tractable and predictive simulation of these systems. Computational singular perturbation (CSP) has been effectively used to identify and decouple dynamics at disparate time scales in chemical systems, allowing reduction of model complexity and stiffness. In realistic settings, however, model reduction must contend with uncertainties, which are often greatest in large-scale systems most in need of reduction. Uncertainty is not limited to parameters; one must also address structural uncertainties—e.g., whether a link is present in a network—and the impact of random perturbations, e.g., fluctuating loads or sources. Research under this project developed new methods for the analysis and reduction of complex multiscale networks under uncertainty, by combining computational singular perturbation (CSP) with probabilistic uncertainty quantification. CSP yields asymptotic approximations of reduceddimensionality “slow manifolds” on which a multiscale dynamical system evolves. Introducing

  9. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)


    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.


    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  11. 40 CFR 414.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  12. 40 CFR 414.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  13. 40 CFR 414.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.42 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. 40 CFR 414.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  15. 40 CFR 414.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  16. 40 CFR 414.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.43 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  17. 40 CFR 414.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.41 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  18. 40 CFR 414.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  19. 40 CFR 414.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  20. 40 CFR 414.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application... (United States)


    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...