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Sample records for cheeses electronic resource

  1. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  2. Surface decontamination of cheddar cheese by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1991-01-01

    Cheddar cheese samples inoculated with two different levels of Penicillium cyclopium or Aspergillus ochraceus spores were vacuum-packed and irradiated at various doses up to 3.5 kGy with electrons from a 10-MeV linear accelerator. Unirradiated cheese showed visible mold growth in 8-25 d at 10 degrees C, and 7-12 d at 15 degrees C, depending on species and spore concentration. Only marginal extension of shelf life at 15 degrees C was achieved with cheese inoculated with 10 2 cfu per sample of either of the mold spores, followed by irradiation at 0.21 or 0.52 kGy. However, at these doses the average shelf life at 10 degrees C was extended by 41.5 and 50.5 d respectively when the inoculum was A. ochraceus. When the inoculum level was increased tenfold, irradiation at 1.2 and 3.5 kGy extended the average shelf life of cheese containing P. cyclopium by 44.5 and >262 d respectively at 10 degrees C, and by 3 and >166 d respectively at 15 degrees C. The shelf life of samples containing A. ochraceus and irradiated at 1.2 or 3.5 kGy was extended by at least 255.5 d at 10 degrees C and at least 160 d at 15 degrees C. The results clearly showed that low radiation doses are effective in the mold decontamination of cheese. The results also suggest that P. cyclopium in Cheddar cheese is more radiation-resistant than A. ochraceus. This was supported by determination of radiation survival curves for the two species incorporated into Cheddar cheese: D 10 values for P. cyclopium and A. ochraceus were found to be 0.40 and 0.21 kGy respectively. The radiation sensitivity of the two organisms was found not to vary with pH in the pH range 5.0-6.2

  3. Scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on bethlehem st. Nectaire cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, S N; Benson, D R

    1992-11-01

    St. Nectaire cheese is a semisoft cheese of French origin that, along with Brie and Camembert cheeses, belongs to the class of surface mold-ripened cheese. The surface microorganisms that develop on the cheese rind during ripening impart a distinctive aroma and flavor to this class of cheese. We have documented the sequential appearance of microorganisms on the cheese rind and in the curd over a 60-day ripening period. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the development of surface fungi and bacteria. Light microscopy of stained paraffin sections was used to study cross sections through the rind. We also monitored the development of bacterial and yeast populations in and the pH of the curd and rind. The earliest stage of ripening (0 to 2 days) is dominated by the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus cremoris and multilateral budding yeasts, primarily Debaryomyces and Torulopsis species. Geotrichum candidum follows closely, and then zygomycetes of the genus Mucor develop at day 4 of ripening. At day 20, the deuteromycete Trichothecium roseum appears. From day 20 until the end of the ripening process, coryneforms of the genera Brevibacterium and Arthrobacter can be seen near the surface of the cheese rind among fungal hyphae and yeast cells.

  4. Use of electron beam irradiation for mold decontamination on cheddar cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, G.; Shamsuzzaman, K.; Sohal, S.

    1992-01-01

    Cheddar cheese slices, surface-inoculated with either Penicillium cyclopium or Aspergillus ochraceus spores, were vacuum packaged and irradiated using an electron beam accelerator. Following treatment at 0.21 and 0.52 kGy, the shelf-life of cheese containing P. cyclopium was extended by 3 and 5.5 d, respectively, in comparison with inoculated, untreated samples. Under similar treatment and storage conditions, cheese containing A. ochraceus exhibited average shelf-life extensions of 42.5 and 52.2 d, respectively. Increasing the postirradiation storage temperature to 15 degrees C reduced the shelf-life of cheese, especially with samples containing A. ochraceus. The lowest dose required to inactivate ca. 50 to 60 spores/cm2 of either A. ochraceus or P. cyclopium on the surface of cheese was ca. 0.42 and 0.95 kGy, respectively. Irradiation survival curves of A. ochraceus and P. cyclopium spores in cheese yielded average values (the dose required to reduce initial population by 90%) of 0.21 and 0.42 kGy, respectively

  5. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  6. Discriminating aging and protein-to-fat ratio in Cheddar cheese using sensory analysis and a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkowitz, Jackie B; Ross, Carolyn F; Diako, Charles; Smith, Denise M

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the flavor and taste attributes of full-fat Cheddar cheeses with different protein-to-fat ratios (PFR) over aging time using a descriptive sensory analysis panel and a consumer panel, and to correlate these attributes with instrumental parameters obtained by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Three Cheddar cheese formulations (PFR of 0.74, 0.85, and 1.01) were produced in triplicate and composition was verified. Cheese was aged at 7.2°C and evaluated at 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 mo by a trained panel (n = 10) for 8 flavor and 5 taste attributes and using an electronic tongue for 7 nonvolatile taste attributes. Cheese aged for 12 mo was also evaluated by a consumer sensory panel for liking and intensity attributes. Principal component analysis was performed to discriminate cheese based on aging time and PFR, whereas correlation between sensory and instrumental attributes was assessed using partial least squares regression. Descriptive sensory analysis of flavor and taste attributes differentiated Cheddar cheeses over aging time, but not among PFR formulations. The electronic tongue distinguished changes among cheese samples due to PFR formulation and aging time. The electronic tongue proved successful in characterizing the nonvolatile flavor components in Cheddar cheese and correlated with taste perceptions measured by descriptive sensory analysis. Consumer evaluations showed distinctive attribute profiles for the 3 PFR Cheddar cheese formulations. Overall, higher fat content was associated with increased flavor intensities in Cheddar cheese and drove consumer acceptability and purchase intent ratings. The electronic tongue detected smaller changes in tastes (bitter, metallic, salty, sour, spicy, sweet, and umami) of the 3 PFR formulations over time when compared with the trained panelists, who detected no differences, suggesting that the electronic tongue may be more sensitive to tastants than humans and may have the

  7. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  8. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-Do [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.k [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10{sup 1} CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D{sub 10} values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  9. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  10. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens ( Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  11. Cheese whey: A potential resource to transform into bioprotein, functional/nutritional proteins and bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Yan, Song; Pilli, Sridhar; Kumar, Lalit; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2015-11-01

    The byproduct of cheese-producing industries, cheese whey, is considered as an environmental pollutant due to its high BOD and COD concentrations. The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. These technological advancements have enhanced whey utilization and about 50% of the total produced whey is now transformed into value-added products such as whey powder, whey protein, whey permeate, bioethanol, biopolymers, hydrogen, methane, electricity bioprotein (single cell protein) and probiotics. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding. The main important factor which is attractive for transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory status of whey. Whey and whey permeate are biotransformed into proteinaceous feed and food-grade bioprotein/single cell protein through fermentation. On the other hand, whey can be directly processed to obtain whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and individual whey proteins. Further, whey proteins are also transformed into bioactive peptides via enzymatic or fermentation processes. The proteinaceous products have applications as functional, nutritional and therapeutic commodities. Whey characteristics, and its transformation processes for proteinaceous products such as bioproteins, functional/nutritional protein and bioactive peptides are covered in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  13. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  14. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  15. Krcki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Prpić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production, the quality of whey (as the material for production of albumin cheese quargs and Krčki cheese, as well as the technology of Krčki cheese production on family farms on the island of Krk. Results of the composition and characteristics analyses of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production were as follows: milk fat 7.81%; proteins 5.59%; lactose 4.97%; total solids 19.04%; non-fat dry matter 11.06%; pH 6.66; titratable acidity 9.41 °SH, and freezing point –0.555 °C. Somatic cell count (SCC was 407 000 cells/ml and total bacterial count (cfu was 950 000/mL. Average composition of Krčki cheese was as follows: fat 37.38%; protein 23.24%; total solids 63.22%; moisture in solid non-fat 57.36%; fat in total solids 54.38%; salt 1.97%; pH 5.78; lactic acid content 1.216%; WSN/TN 10.15%, and TCASN/TN 6.28%. Microbiological analyses of Krčki cheese showed that only 55% of analysed samples were hygienically acceptable according to the Regulations of Microbial Standards for Foods (NN 46/94.. Therefore, the necessary modifications have to be introduced into technology of production of sheep′s milk and Krčki cheese in order to increase microbiological quality and to reduce variability in composition and quality of Krčki cheese between family farms. These are necessary for preparing the Krčki cheese for Protection Geographical Indication (PGI.

  16. Lecevacki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Matutinović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have significant potential due to the fact that high value raw material - sheep milk produced from breed with very extensively management using natural pasture with characteristic botanical composition consisting aromatic Mediteranean plants, is used in their production. This milk is characterized with high percentage of some chemical components, especially fat and protein. Considering that fact, this milk represents the best material especially for hard cheese production. In this paper the review of milk chemical composition of the most important Croatian sheep breeds which milk is used for production of hard cheeses, was performed. The review of basic technological parameters in production of hard traditional cheeses considering type, standardization and heat treatment of milk, renneting, curd cutting and drying, dimension, salting and ripening is represented. Characterization parameters of cheese, considering chemical and physical composition, biochemical changes, dominant microflora which dominates in technological production procedure and determines taste and odour of mature cheese, are shown. The basic characteristics and technology of Lecevacki cheese production was described too, as the most important traditional cheese from Split area surroundings. This cheese type was produced on family farms as well as on industrial level for some time. Its sensory characteristics are described in the paper.

  17. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  18. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  19. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  20. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  1. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  2. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  3. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  4. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  5. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  6. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  7. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  8. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  9. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  10. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  11. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  12. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  13. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  14. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  15. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  16. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... to contain high amounts of SFA. However, cheese also contributes with several nutrients in the diet such as essential amino acids and calcium. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of cheese intake on CVD risk through evidence from both observational, intervention and explorative studies....... By reviewing results from published observational studies it was concluded that cheese does not seem to increase CVD risk, despite of the high SFA content of most cheeses. A human cross-over intervention study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of hard cheese intake on risk markers...

  17. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  18. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  19. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  20. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  1. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  2. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  3. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  4. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  5. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  6. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  7. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  8. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  9. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  10. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  11. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  12. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  13. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  14. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  15. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  16. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared by..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either made... ___ cheese”, the name of the cheese filling the blank. (ii) If only parmesan and romano cheeses are used and...

  17. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is... two or more varieties, except cream cheese, neufchatel cheese, cottage cheese, lowfat cottage cheese...

  18. Effect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Mona A M; Ahmed, Nawal S; El-Abd, M M; Abd El-Rafee, S

    2012-04-02

    The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA). Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese firmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that cheese made from homogenized milk is smoother and has a finer texture than

  19. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  20. Proteolysis in soft cheese, studied on Meshanger cheese and cheese models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, A.

    1978-01-01

    Enzymes predominantly responsible for the primary degradation of protein in soft cheese and for the related changes in consistency were studied. Reconstructed Noordhollandse Meshanger cheese and preserved simulated soft cheeses of different composition were used as models in the

  1. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Sarić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are produced in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are : Travnički cheese, Masni (fat cheese, Presukača, Sirac, Livanjski cheese, Posni (lean cheese, "Suvi" (dry cheese or "Mješinski" full fat cheese matured in sheepskin bag, fresh sour milk cheese "Kiseli" and dried sour milk cheese "Kiseli", Zajednica, Basa, Kalenderovački cheese and goat's milk cheeses (Hard and White soft goat's milk cheese, "Zarica" and Urda. Besides above-mentioned types of cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina some other autochthonous dairy products are produced: Kajmak (Cream, Maslo (Rendered butter and Zimsko kiselo mlijeko (Winter sour milk. The specificity in Bosnia and Herzegovina is that autochthonous dairy products are still mainly both produced and consumed in small rural households. Exceptions are Travnički cheese and Kajmak that are significantly sold at market. Only Livanjski cheese is manufactured as industry dairy product.

  2. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  3. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  4. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  5. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  6. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  7. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  8. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  9. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  11. Bacteriological studies on Limburger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Erian, A.F.M.

    1969-01-01

    A study has been made of the ripening process of Limburger cheese, including microbiological investigations of the surface flora and chemical analyses of the cheese during the different stages of ripening. The microbial flora was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to the

  12. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  13. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  14. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  15. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  16. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  17. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  18. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  19. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  20. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  1. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  2. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  3. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  4. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  5. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  6. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  7. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  8. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  9. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  10. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  11. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  12. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 133.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It may be... culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set...

  13. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  15. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  16. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  17. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  18. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  19. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the transference of the lutein (dye, added to the milk, in the whey, and cheese, to evaluate the effect of the lutein addition, light exposure, and storage time on the cheese color, and to verify the sensory acceptance of Prato cheese with addition of lutein. The lutein recovery of cheese was 95.25%. Color saturation (chrome increased during storage time resulting in a cheese with more intense color, but there were no changes in the hue of the cheese. Adjusting the amount of lutein added to Prato cheese may lead to greater acceptance. The high recovery of lutein in the cheese and the fact that the hue remained unchanged during storage under light showed that the incorporation of lutein into Prato cheese is feasible from a technical point of view.

  20. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  1. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  2. [Formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Keshavarz, A; Lafont, P; Hardy, J; Debry, G

    1980-01-01

    Several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. The concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. The results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of Penicillium camemberti, which favors very much the synthesis of nitrosamines. The amount of nitrosodimethylamine formed in this cheese increases from 5 to 20 ppb during ripening. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of formation is outlined.

  3. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  4. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  5. Methane production from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J Q; Liao, P H; Lo, K V

    1988-01-01

    Cheese whey was treated in a 17.5-litre laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor operated over a range of hydraulic retention times and organic loading rates. The reactor performance was determined in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. At a constant influent strength, the methane production rate decreased with decreasing hydraulic retention time. At constant hydraulic retention time the methane production rate increased as the influent strength was increased up to a concentration of 28.8 g COD litre/sup -1/. The methane production rate was similar for two influent concentrations studied at hydraulic retention times longer than 10 days. The effect of short hydraulic retention times on methane production rate was more pronounced for the higher influent concentration than for the lower influent concentration. The highest methane production rate of 9.57 litres CH/sub 4/ litre/sup -1/ feed day/sup -1/ was obtained at a loading rate of 5.96 g/sup -1/ COD litre/sup -1/ and an influent concentration of 28.8 g COD litre/sup -1/. A high treatment efficiency in terms of chemical oxygen demand reduction was obtained. In general, over 98% removal of chemical oxygen demand was achieved. The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using an upflow sludge blanket reactor could reduce pollution strength and produce energy for a cheese plant.

  6. Cheese whey management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  8. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  9. The effect of rework content addition on the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černíková, Michaela; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos; Popková, Romana; Buňka, František

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to add various amounts of rework (0.0 to 20.0% wt/wt) to processed cheeses with a dry matter content of 36% (wt/wt) and fat with a dry matter content of 45% (wt/wt). The effect of the rework addition on the viscoelastic properties and microstructure of the processed cheeses was observed. The addition of rework (in this case, to processed cheese with a spreadable consistency) in the amounts of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (wt/wt) increased the firmness of the processed cheese. With the further addition of rework, the consistency of the processed cheeses no longer differed significantly. The conclusions obtained by the measurement of viscoelastic properties were supported by cryo-scanning electron microscopy, where fat droplets in samples with added rework of over 10.0% (wt/wt) were smaller than fat droplets in processed cheeses with lower additions of rework. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  11. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  12. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  13. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  15. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contains spices, in a minimum amount of 0.015 ounce per pound of cheese, and may contain spice oils. If the... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2..., spices are added so as to be evenly distributed throughout the finished cheese. One or more of the other...

  16. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    Cottage cheese is a mixture of cheese curd with pH 4.5-4.8 and an uncultured or cultured cream dressing with a pH as high as 7.0. This results in a final product with microenvironments and a bulk pH of about 4.8 to 5.5. As for other lightly preserved foods microbial contamination and growth...... of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... on product spoilage and shelf-life remains poorly described. The present study used a quantitative microbial ecology approach to model and predict the effect of product characteristics and storage conditions on growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in cottage cheese. The effect of temperature (5-15˚C) and p...

  17. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  18. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  19. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  20. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed.

  1. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  2. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  3. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  5. Sampling and farm stories prompt consumers to buy specialty cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Barbara A.; Bruhn, Christine M.

    2003-01-01

    California specialty cheese makers need information on what drives product sales so they can effectively market their products. Focus group and telephone research revealed that specialty cheese consumers have a strong preference for sampling cheese before making a purchase. Consumers also rely heavily on staff recommendations to select cheese. They appreciate unlimited sampling in an unhurried, low-pressure environment. Specialty cheese consumers consider themselves “food experimenters”; they...

  6. The use of spices in the production of traditional cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Josipović; Ksenija Markov; Jadranka Frece; Damir Stanzer; Ante Cvitković; Jasna Mrvčić

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is a highly valued dairy product worldwide, with a special focus on traditional cheeses, not only for their basic nutritive purposes but also as a part of the culture and characteristics of a certain country. Owing to the geographical location as well as the climate and vegetation diversity, in certain regions of Croatia the production of various traditional cheeses using spices was developed. Spices are either added to the cheese curd which is then formed, or cheese is wrapped into pl...

  7. From local strains to specific starters: the process structuring a research program on the activation and management of a biotechnological resource

    OpenAIRE

    Casalta, Erick; Bona, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a research-action program carried out in Corsica with a group of cheese makers to develop specific starters. Based on the direct participation of the cheese makers, this study consisted in designing starters with lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from milks and cheeses of this group of cheese makers. This process modified an individually and empirically used resource, local strains, into a shared and collectively managed resource, specific starters. Patrimonial featur...

  8. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  9. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  10. Functional properties of Mozzarella cheese for its end use application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah, Jana; Tagalpallewar, Govind P

    2017-11-01

    Cheese is an extremely versatile food product that has a wide range of flavor, textures and end uses. The vast majority of cheese is eaten not by itself, but as part of another food. As an ingredient in foods, cheese is required to exhibit functional characteristics in the raw as well as cooked forms. Melting, stretching, free-oil formation, elasticity and browning are the functional properties considered to be significant for Mozzarella cheese. When a cheese is destined for its end use, some of its unique characteristics play a significant role in the products acceptability. For instance pH of cheese determines the cheese structure which in turn decides the cheese shredability and meltability properties. The residual galactose content in cheese mass determines the propensity of cheese to brown during baking. Development of 'tailor-made cheese' involves focusing on manipulation of such unique traits of cheese in order to obtain the desired characteristics for its end use application suiting the varied consumer's whims and wishes. This comprehensive review paper will provide an insight to the cheese maker regarding the factors determining the functional properties of cheese and also for the pizza manufacturers to decide which age of cheese to be used which will perform well in baking applications.

  11. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  12. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of Prato cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, MTK; Maus, D; Xavier, AAO; Mercadante, AZ; Viotto, WH

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine...

  13. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  14. Biotechnological Utilization with a Focus on Anaerobic Treatment of Cheese Whey: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia A. Chatzipaschali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey utilization is of major concern nowadays. Its high organic matter content, in combination with the high volumes produced and limited treatment options make cheese whey a serious environmental problem. However, the potential production of biogas (methane, hydrogen or other marketable products with a simultaneous high COD reduction through appropriate treatment proves that cheese whey must be considered as an energy resource rather than a pollutant. The presence of biodegradable components in the cheese whey coupled with the advantages of anaerobic digestion processes over other treatment methods makes anaerobic digestion an attractive and suitable treatment option. This paper intends to review the most representative applications of anaerobic treatment of cheese whey currently being exploited and under research. Moreover, an effort has been made to categorize the common characteristics of the various research efforts and find a comparative basis, as far as their results are concerned. In addition, a number of dairy industries already using such anaerobic digestion systems are presented.

  15. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    Ripening of cheddar cheese is a time taking process, duration of the ripening may be as long as one year. Long ripening time is a big hindrance in the popularity of cheese in developing countries. Further, energy resources in these countries are either insufficient or very expensive. Therefore, those methods of cheese ripening should be discovered which can significantly reduce the ripening time without compromising the quality characteristics of cheddar cheese. In accelerated ripening, cheese is usually ripened at higher temperature than traditional ripening temperatures. Ripening of cheddar cheese at high temperature with the addition of vitamin E and selenium is not previously studied. This investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity of selenium and vitamin E in accelerated ripening using cheddar cheese as an oxidation substrate. The ripening of cheddar cheese was performed at 18 °C and to prevent lipid oxidation, vitamin E and selenium were used alone and in combination. The treatments were as: cheddar cheese without any addition of vitamin E and selenium (T1), cheddar cheese added with 100 mg/kg vitamin E (T 2 ), 200 mg/kg vitamin E (T 3 ), 800 μg/kg selenium (T 4 ), 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 5 ), vitamin E 100 mg/kg + 800 μg/kg selenium (T 6 ) and vitamin E 200 mg/kg + 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 7 ). Traditional cheddar cheese ripne ripened at 4-6 °C for 9 months was used as positive control. Cheese samples were ripened at 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of storage. All these treatments were compared with a cheddar cheese without vitamin E, selenium and ripened at 4 °C or 12 weeks. Vacuum packaged cheddar cheese was ripened 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of storage period. Addition of Vitamin E and selenium did not have any effect on moisture, fat and

  16. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  17. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  18. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  19. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  20. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  1. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  2. Investigation of the activity of the microorganisms in a Reblochon-style cheese by metatranscriptomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eMonnet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum. RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated approximately 75 million reads per sample. Except for Brevibacterium aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to day 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The

  3. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  4. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  5. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  6. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  7. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  8. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  9. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  10. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  11. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  13. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  14. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Investigation on the Protein Degradation, Free Fatty Acid Content and Area Fraction of Poosti Cheese, Iranian Traditional Cheese Ripened in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Hemmatian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, the proteolysis and lipolysis of Poosti cheese produced from raw sheep milk in mountainous eastern regions of Iran were investigated during 90 days of ripening. Materials and Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for proteolysis (SDS-PAGE and gas chromatography (GC for free fatty acids (FFAs were applied to investigate the intensity of lipid degradation. To evaluate the Poosti cheese microstructural changes, the area fraction parameter of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs was also calculated by the Image J software. Results: The most alteration in protein profile was occurred in the first month of aging for high activity of the proteolytic microorganisms in this period. The amount of free fatty acids was depended on their length due to the variety of involved mechanisms. In addition, the microstructural parameter was considerably affected by the aging as a consequence of the effect of salt on the activity of raw milk and skin micro flora. Conclusions: The decline in proteolysis rate during the last stage of aging could be correlated with the inhibitory effects of salt on the engaged microorganisms, and increase in the pore fraction of the microstructure during the first month of Poosti cheese aging could be due to casein rearrangement and gas release by the fermentative activity of microorganisms. Keywords: Proteolysis, Lipolysis, Poosti cheese, Raw sheep milk.

  16. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  17. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Characteristics of cheeses manufactured using pepsin from adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... (VP) was assessed using three types of cheeses namely Alpine, Tilister and Pastafilata (Pasta). ... pepsin waa an apprqpriate renner substitute for the small scale cheese processors.

  19. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese......, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semi-hard cheese. Growth experiments on the substrate were repeatable and reproducible. The substrate was also suitable for the starter P. camemberti. Mineral elements in cheese were shown to have strong effect on growth, mycotoxin production and colour...... formation of fungi. For P. roqueforti, P. discolor, P. verrucosum and Aspergillus versicolor the substrate was less suitable as a model cheese substrate, which indicates great variation in nutritional demands of the fungi. Substrates suitable for studies of specific cheese types was found for P. roqueforti...

  20. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  1. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  2. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  3. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk

  4. The effect of quality properties on Tulum cheese using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese samples produced from pasteurized milk were found to have higher dry matter, fat and protein contents and acidity values than cheese samples produced from raw milk. No significant difference was found in the sensory properties of cheese produced from raw and pasteurized milk. In view of these findings, the use ...

  5. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  7. Factors affecting proteolytic action of Lactococcus lactis in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Y.B.

    1992-01-01

    Model cheeses were developed to study the behaviour of proteolytic agents involved in cheese maturation under conditions that closely resemble those in normal cheese. The models were applied to study protein breakdown by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris HP , as a

  8. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  9. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  10. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  11. Cheese milk low homogenization enhanced early lipolysis and volatiles compounds production in hard cooked cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María A; Hynes, Erica R; Meinardi, Carlos A; Wolf, Verónica I; Perotti, María C

    2017-06-01

    Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis. An acceleration of the lipolysis reaction was clearly noticed in cheeses made with homogenized milk at the beginning of ripening, while both type of cheeses reached similar levels at 90days. We found the level of several compounds derived from fatty acid catabolism were noticeably influenced by the treatment applied: straight-chain aldehydes such as hexanal, heptanal and nonanal and methylketones from C 5 to C 9 were preferentially formed in experimental cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  13. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of bluish... section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or...

  14. Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Croatian Fresh Soft Cheese and Serbian White Pickled Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Uroić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to gain insight into the probiotic potential of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses. Eleven out of 86 LAB isolates from traditionally produced artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses which survived the most rigorous simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and did not show resistance to antibiotics were subjected to further evaluation for functional probiotic properties. The ability of the examined strains to assimilate cholesterol in the presence of bile salts was strain dependent, with the highest percentage of cholesterol assimilated by strain Lactobacillus brevis BGGO7-28 possessing S-layer proteins on its cell surface. The growth of strains with mannitol or lactulose as the only carbon source was better than with fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin as prebiotic substrates, which should be considered in the production of synbiotics. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the strains were highly adhesive to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and to a lesser extent to HT29-MTX cells, with the exception of strain Lb. brevis BGGO7-28, which showed similar percentage of adhesion to both cell lines. This strain was the only one with the acidic cell surface, while other examined strains have the cell surfaces with electron donor and basic properties. In addition, all selected strains decreased the proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT cells, suggesting possible immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Finally, the number of viable cells in dry active preparations after lyophilisation depended on the lyoprotectant used (inulin, FOS or skimmed milk, as well as on the strain subjected to lyophilisation. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that particular dairy LAB isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties. Thus, they could be further examined as part of mixed autochthonous starter cultures for

  15. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkçi, N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF with a vegetable fat (VF blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affecte d by the vegetable fat blend.

    La posibilidad de usar una mezcla de grasas vegetales comerciales en queso Kashar fue investigada. Los quesos Kashar fueron elaborados con una mezcla de grasas vegetales (VF en lugar de grasa de leche (MF. Quesos Kashar con leche entera fueron también elaborados para comparar las características sensoriales, de color, de fusión, microestructurales y de textura durante el periodo de maduración de 90 días. El uso de grasas vegetales decreció la dureza y las propiedades de fusión, de cohesión, de gomosidad y de masticación e incremento la adhesividad mientras que la elasticidad no fue afectada. Las diferencias se hicieron menos notables hacia el final de la maduración. La micrografía electrónica de barrido de quesos VF mostro una red compacta con pequeños y uniformes glóbulos de grasa embebidos en la matriz de proteínas. Los quesos MF exhibieron una matriz de proteínas abierta conteniendo glóbulos de grasa de leche de varios

  17. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  18. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....

  19. Fungal growth and the presence of sterigmatocystin in hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northolt, M D; van Egmond, H P; Soentoro, P; Deijll, E

    1980-01-01

    Molds isolated from visibly molded cheeses in shops, households, and warehouses have been identified. Mold flora of cheeses in shops and households consisted mainly of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. On cheeses ripening in warehouses, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus repens, and Enicillium verrucosum var. verrucosum were the dominant mold species. Cheese ripening in warehouses and molded with A. versicolor were examined for sterigmatocystin. Nine of 39 cheese samples contained sterigmatocystin in the surface layer in concentrations ranging from 5 to 600 micrograms/kg.

  20. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  1. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  2. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  3. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  4. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  5. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  6. Water mobility and thermal properties of smoked soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Maria Baranowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study was to characterize the functional parameters of smoked soft cheese, with the emphasis on the behavior of water and milk fat, as analyzed by DSC, which was used to directly measure the melting/freezing phase transitions in the cheese. This study was complemented by NMR measurements of the organization and distribution of the aqueous phase within the emulsions constituting the cheese. The smoked and unsmoked cheeses were characterized by similar compositions in terms of protein (19.08-19.12 g∙100 g-1, fat (18.86-19.02 g∙100 g-1, and water content (59.86-60.27 g∙100 g-1. The water activity was higher in the unsmoked cheese (aw = 0.9736 than in the smoked cheese (aw = 0.9615. This result was confirmed by DSC (higher ice melting enthalpy and NMR (higher T1 value measurements. The smoking process led to differences in the distribution and binding of water to the lipid-protein matrix of the cheese. There was more non-freezed bound water in the smoked cheese which resulted in a more fragile and loosened structure in the smoked cheese than the unsmoked, which manifested in lower values of stretching and meltability. The meltability of the mozzarella smoked cheese was 1.5 times less than that of the unsmoked cheese (tube test and Schreiber test.

  7. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  8. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumer’s preference for artisanal raw milk cheeses has been growing steadily, because of its taste intensity and variation compared to pasteurized cheese. The development of flavor and aroma in raw milk cheese is governed mainly by diversified endogenous microbiota and naturals milk enzymes. The weather, altitude, native pasture and others regional characteristics allow the artisanal Minas cheese to have a typical and unique flavor. However, most of artisanal cheeses are manufactured in a rudimentary way, following technologies used by their ancestor, and this fact can cause defects in cheeses, thus resulting in economic losses for producers. Many defects may be originated from the quality of milk for manufacture, as well as quality and quantity of the ingredients used, manufacturing and ripening procedures. In this review will be presented the major defects that arise specifically in artisanal cheeses, as well as their origins, prevention and repair.

  9. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  10. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  11. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  12. Probiotic white cheese production using coculture with Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehsani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the viability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional cheeses and cocultured in Iranian white cheese during ripening. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 samples were isolated from 8 types of traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan, Iran. Isolated species were cocultured with starter bacteria during the production of Iranian white cheese, and their viability was investigated up to 60 days of the refrigerated storage. Results: Of 118 isolates of Lactobacillus, 73 isolates (62% were confirmed as facultative heterofermentative and 45 isolates (38% as obligate homofermentative. Of the facultative heterofermentatives, 28 isolates (24% were Lactobacillus plantarum, 24 isolates (20% were Lactobacillus casei, and 21 isolates (18% were Lactobacillus agilis. Obligate homofermentatives were Lactobacillus delbrueckii (21%, Lactobacillus helveticus (14%, and Lactobacillus salivarius (3%. L. plantarum, L. casei and L. helveticus were found in high enough levels (106 CFU/g. Conclusion: According to the obtained data, it is recommended that complex starters such as L. helveticus, L. plantarum, and L. casei can be used in industrial productions of cheese to obtain exclusive properties of traditional cheeses.

  13. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  14. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of creamy... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  15. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is... acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of...

  16. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The...) The dairy ingredients are subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. The...

  17. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  18. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is 50 percent by... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in...

  19. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The milkfat content... this section is subjected to the action of a harmless lactic acid-producing bacterial culture, with or...

  20. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is... and is subjected to the action of lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting...

  1. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... other method which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a..., and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the...

  2. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a small amount of eye formation of... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  3. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  4. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  5. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... of enzymes of animal or plant origin capable of aiding in the curing or development of flavor of.../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added...

  6. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  7. Marketing of the autochthonous dried cheese in Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, value added food products is constantlyincreasing. In order to prepare such products for the market it is necessary to understand consumers’ attitudes and preferences towards food products. Dried cheese, one of the traditional products of wider Zagreb region is produced nowadays exclusively on the family farms without proper control of the used inputs and final product, and without any marketing activities. It is possible to add value and to increase the control of dried cheese production bydeveloping county brand of the cheese. The introduction of county brand of dried cheese in the market requires very good preparation in terms of fulfilling consumers’ needs and wishes. In this paper the results of the consumer survey are presented and could be used for the determination of the technological parameters of production and especially for marketing of the cheese and its distribution. The results showed that majority of the consumers prefer harder, compact, bright yellow cheese, with less intensive odour, packed in transparent plastic foil. Certain number of the respondents confused dried cheese with other cheeses sold in the market and therefore it is necessary to educate consumers about dried cheese and its characteristics compared to other cheeses.

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  9. Effect of Persian and almond gums as fat replacers on the physicochemical, rheological, and microstructural attributes of low-fat Iranian White cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooyandeh, Hossein; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Rostamabadi, Hadis; Hojjati, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    The effect of Persian and almond gums (0, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w)) as fat replacers and milk fat (0.4, 0.9, and 1.4% (w/w)) on physicochemical and rheological characteristics and microstructure of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied. Persian and almond gums both effectively increased moisture-to-protein (M:P) ratio of low-fat cheese samples which in turn led to a significant reduction in the hardness parameters fracture stress and Young's and storage (G') moduli ( p  Persian gum was more pronounced ( p  Persian gum and 0.12% almond gum would result in a low-fat cheese with textural properties similar to its full-fat counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the fat replacers produced full-fat-like structure in the low-fat Iranian White cheese, when incorporated at the optimum levels.

  10. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  11. A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E

    2017-12-01

    In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microstructure and textural and viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese with different dry matter and fat in dry matter content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černíková, M.; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, R. N.; Řiháčková, L.; Buňka, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2017), s. 4300-4307 ISSN 0022-0302 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : processed cheese * texture * rheology * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  13. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  14. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  15. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable...... for developing new cheese products with enhanced flavour. The aim of this Ph.D. study was to investigate the importance of strain variation of Lb. helveticus in relation flavour formation in cheese related to amino acid catabolism. Aspects of using Lb. helveticus as starter as well as adjunct culture in cheese...

  17. Response of Edam cheese to non-destructive impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the Edam cheese during its maturation under dynamic loading has been studied. The block of tested cheese has been loaded by the impact of an aluminium bar. The force between bar and cheese has been recorded. The surface displacements as well as the surface velocities have been obtained at the different points from the point of the bar impact using of the laser vibrometers. Response functions have been evaluated both in the time and frequency domains. It has been found that the degree of the cheese maturity is well characterized by the attenuation of the surface displacement maximum. This maturation is also described by the maximum of the impact force. The spectral analysis of the response functions revealed that there was a dominant frequency, which depends only on the degree of the cheese maturity. The developed method represents a promising procedure for the continuous recording of the cheese ripening.

  18. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  19. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  20. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  1. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  2. Sensory shelf life of mantecoso cheese using accelerated testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-González, Jesús A.; Pérez, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate sensory shelf life of "huacariz" and "cefop" mantecoso cheese, vacuum packaging: "cefop" and packaging to the atmospheric pressure: "huacariz"; brands marketed in Cajamarca, using accelerated shelf life testing. For this purpose, "huacariz" cheese was stored at 20, 28, 35 y 40 °C, while it was set at 20, 28, 35 °C storage for "cefop" cheese, performing acceptability sensory tests according to time storage with both 41 consumers constants. The results f...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...

  4. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures below...

  5. Physical, chemical and texture characteristics of Aro cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, Mexico’s total annual production of cheese was 375,181 tons. Cheese is widely consumed among all socioeconomic groups, and the decision to purchase this product is based on income, with a wide variety of cheeses, brands, and styles available. The fresco cheese is the most popular type and is mostly produced according to traditional or artisanal methods in small family businesses, and small and medium-sized enterprises. It is made with the milk of the producers' livestock, giving it an added value. In Mexico, however, there is not enough scientific information related to the characterization of various dairy products of artisanal production, for example, Aro cheese. The aim of the present study was to define the physical, chemical, and rheological characteristics of the Aro cheese that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-four samples of Aro cheese were collected in four establishments with high sales in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, for analysis physical (Diameter, weight, height and color, chemical (pH, acidity, aw, chlorides, moisture, ashes, protein and fat, and texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness. No difference was found in weight, diameter, height, and color (L* and b*. However, differences in hardness and cohesiveness were found. Although Aro cheese is characterized as an enzymatically coagulated cheese, pH values of 5.82 to 6.08 were recorded, and the data relating to moisture, protein, fat, and chlorides are similar to other Mexican fresh cheeses. The cheese of Aro that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, presents similar physical, chemical and texture characteristics to other fresh cheeses of artisanal production.

  6. Cheese Consumption and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz

    -fat cheese for 12 weeks did not modify LDL-C concentrations or MetS risk factors differently than equal amounts of reduced-fat cheese. The same was true when regular-cheese was compared with carbohydrate-rich foods, although regular-fat cheese tended to increase HDL-C concentrations compared...... that lipoprotein response is gender-specific. In men, regular-fat cheese intake reduced total LDL particle number compared with reduced-fat cheese, whereas regular-fat cheese consumption tended to increase total LDL particle number compared with reduced-fat cheese in women. Overall, the data from the large human...

  7. Improving quality of some types of cheese by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.E.A

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation as a food preservation technique has been recognized for many years as a means to reduce food losses, improve food safety, and extend shelf life. Furthermore, irradiation can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food borne disease and treating a variety of potential problems in food supplies. The treatment of food with ionizing radiation is one of the most thoroughly researched techniques available to the food processing industry. In view of the afore mentioned the objective of this study were to study the effect of irradiation time and dose on Ras cheese quality, investigate the effect of irradiation after ripening on cheese quality and possibility of prolonging the shelf-life of Ras cheese, study the effect of irradiation dose on Kareish cheese quality and its shelf- life and to monitor the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during ripening and storage of Ras and Kareish cheeses .The results of this study will be presented in three parts: Part I: Effect of irradiation dose and time on some properties of Ras cheese:Part II: Effect of irradiation on some properties during storage of ripened Ras cheese.Part III: Effect of irradiation on the quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese: It could be concluded that irradiation caused a significant reduction of cheese ripening indices, and count of total viable,proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and mould and yeast. Using irradiation doses of 3 and 4 kGy were able to stop the ripening factors and these safety dose were used to prevent the ripened Ras cheese irradiation of ripened Ras cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Ras cheese to about 32 months compared with control cheese, which showed only 18 months. The obtained results revealed that the best irradiation treatment was at the end of ripening period. Also safety irradiation of Kareish cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Kareish cheese to about 54 days compared with 12 days only control cheese.

  8. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  9. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, pasteurized or un-pasteurized milk. Data from a total of 130,604 samples were analysed. Mean prevalence for presence during 2005-2015 estimated from scientific literature (2.3% with confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.8%) was more than three times higher than results from EFSA reports (0.7%; CI: 0.......05) for cheeses produced from pasteurized (0.9%; CI: 0.4-1.9%) or un-pasteurized (1.0%; CI: 0.4-2.2%) milk. For cheese samples reported by EFSA 0.2% CI: 0.1-0.4% had concentration of L. monocytogenes above the critical European limits of 100 cfu/g. In addition, this systematic review focused on groups...

  10. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  11. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  12. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  13. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  15. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  16. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  17. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  18. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  19. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  20. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  1. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of prato cheese during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... consumer usually evaluates the colour and aroma prior to ... parameters influence the texture of cheeses because the ... Quality of refrigerated milk used to process prato cheese ... Centre for Food Research of the School of Veterinary and Animal.

  2. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  3. Physiological characterization of common fungi associated with cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method (PLS) was used for a physiological characterization of fungi associated with the cheese environment. The combined effects of pH, salt content, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels on growth and sporulation were studied. Significant factors affecting growth were salt...... may aid in eliminating unwanted fungal growth during cheese production....

  4. [Yeast microbiota in artisanal cheeses from Corrientes, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marina C; Fusco, Ángel J V; Carrasco, Marta S

    The artisanal cheese from Corrientes (from the Spanish acronym QAC-Queso Artesanal de Corrientes/Artisanal Cheese from Corrientes) is a soft cheese elaborated with raw cow milk and an artisanal coagulant agent. Lactic bacteria contitute the main flora of this cheese although yeasts are also present in high quantities as secondary microbiota and might play a relevant role in cheese ripening. The aim of this work was to evaluate yeast occurrence during QAC elaboration and ripening, and the effect of seasonal variation. Yeasts were isolated and purified from raw materials and cheese at different ripening stagesl elaborated during the different seasons. Yeast sample counts were in the order of 10 3 - 10 7 UFC/ml o UFC/g. Ninety yeast strains were classified: 9 from milk, 28 from the coagulant agent, 10 from curd and 43 from cheese. Candida predominated in milk samples while other yeast genera had low incidence. Candida also predominated in the coagulant agent samples, followed by genera Myxozyma and Debaryomyces. The isolates obtained from cheese belonged to the same genera predominating in the coagulant agent, and showed the same order of prevalence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Cheese samples treated with Honey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control treatment (A) was cheese kept in the whey, while Treatments B and C were cheese samples kept in Thyme and Honey solutions respectively. ... The crude protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Treatment B, then treatment A and least for treatment C. The ether extract followed the same trend as crude ...

  6. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  7. The use of spices in the production of traditional cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Josipović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is a highly valued dairy product worldwide, with a special focus on traditional cheeses, not only for their basic nutritive purposes but also as a part of the culture and characteristics of a certain country. Owing to the geographical location as well as the climate and vegetation diversity, in certain regions of Croatia the production of various traditional cheeses using spices was developed. Spices are either added to the cheese curd which is then formed, or cheese is wrapped into plant leaves. Sometimes spices are also applied onto the surface of the cheese, and only in rare cases spices are added into the curd. Spices added to cheese improve sensory characteristics, increase the stability and shelf life but also increase the nutritional value. The chemical composition of spices is very complex and every spice has a specific and dominant ingredient that contributes to the flavour of the product and/or its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. This paper provides an overview of spices and aromatic herbs as natural preservatives that are used in the production of traditional cheeses.

  8. PROTEIN & SENSORY ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE MEXICAN CHIHUAHUA CHEESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including Queso Chihuahua, a Mexican cheese variety, contributes to the development of unique flavors through degradation of milk proteins resulting in the release of free amino acids and short peptides that influence the taste and ...

  9. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  10. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  11. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  12. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  13. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cheese food with fruits, vegetables or meats is “Cold-pack cheese food with ___”, the blank being filled...

  14. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  16. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  17. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (pIMCs, but similar (pIMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consensus categorization of cheese based on water activity and pH-A rational approach to systemizing cheese diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Ralyea, R; Meunier-Goddik, L; Donnelly, C; Glass, K; D'Amico, D; Meredith, E; Kehler, M; Tranchina, N; McCue, C; Wiedmann, M

    2017-01-01

    Development of science-based interventions in raw milk cheese production is challenging due to the large diversity of production procedures and final products. Without an agreed upon categorization scheme, science-based food safety evaluations and validation of preventive controls would have to be completed separately on each individual cheese product, which is not feasible considering the large diversity of products and the typically small scale of production. Thus, a need exists to systematically group raw milk cheeses into logically agreed upon categories to be used for food safety evaluations. This paper proposes and outlines one such categorization scheme that provides for 30 general categories of cheese. As a base for this systematization and categorization of raw milk cheese, we used Table B of the US Food and Drug Administration's 2013 Food Code, which represents the interaction of pH and water activity for control of vegetative cells and spores in non-heat-treated food. Building on this table, we defined a set of more granular pH and water activity categories to better represent the pH and water activity range of different raw milk cheeses. The resulting categorization scheme was effectively validated using pH and water activity values determined for 273 different cheese samples collected in the marketplace throughout New York State, indicating the distribution of commercially available cheeses among the categories proposed here. This consensus categorization of cheese provides a foundation for a feasible approach to developing science-based solutions to assure compliance of the cheese processors with food safety regulations, such as those required by the US Food Safety Modernization Act. The key purpose of the cheese categorization proposed here is to facilitate product assessment for food safety risks and provide scientifically validated guidance on effective interventions for general cheese categories. Once preventive controls for a given category have

  19. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  20. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  1. Iron effect on the fermentative metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using cheese whey as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rosalía Durán-Padilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Butanol is considered a superior liquid fuel that can replace gasoline in internal combustion engines. It is produced by acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation using various species of solventogenic clostridia. Performance of ABE fermentation process is severely limited mostly by high cost of substrate, substrate inhibition and low solvent tolerance; leading to low product concentrations, low productivity, low yield, and difficulty in controlling culture metabolism. In order to decrease the cost per substrate and exploit a waste generated by dairy industry, this study proposes using cheese whey as substrate for ABE fermentation. It was observed that the addition of an iron source was strictly necessary for the cheese whey to be a viable substrate because this metal is needed to produce ferredoxin, a key protein in the fermentative metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum serving as a temporary electron acceptor. Lack of iron in the cheese whey impedes ferredoxin synthesis and therefore, restricts pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity leading to the production of lactic acid instead of acetone, butanol and ethanol. Moreover, the addition of FeSO4 notably improved ABE production performance by increasing butanol content (7.13 ± 1.53 g/L by 65% compared to that of FeCl3 (4.32 ± 0.94 g/L under the same fermentation conditions.

  2. Porous (Swiss-Cheese Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Abrahamson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous graphite was prepared without the use of template by rapidly heating the carbonization products from mixtures of anthracene, fluorene, and pyrene with a CO2 laser. Rapid CO2 laser heating at a rate of 1.8 × 106 °C/s vaporizes out the fluorene-pyrene derived pitch while annealing the anthracene coke. The resulting structure is that of graphite with 100 nm spherical pores. The graphitizablity of the porous material is the same as pure anthracene coke. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the interfaces between graphitic layers and the pore walls are unimpeded. Traditional furnace annealing does not result in the porous structure as the heating rates are too slow to vaporize out the pitch, thereby illustrating the advantage of fast thermal processing. The resultant porous graphite was prelithiated and used as an anode in lithium ion capacitors. The porous graphite when lithiated had a specific capacity of 200 mAh/g at 100 mA/g. The assembled lithium ion capacitor demonstrated an energy density as high as 75 Wh/kg when cycled between 2.2 V and 4.2 V.

  3. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  4. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  5. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  6. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  8. Technological Strategies to Preserve Burrata Cheese Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out to extend its shelf life. Different headspace gas compositions (MAP-1 30:70 CO2:N2; MAP-2 50:50 CO2:N2 and MAP-3 65:35 CO2:N2 were firstly tested. To further promote product preservation, a coating was also optimized. Then, antimicrobial compounds in the filling of the burrata cheese (lysozyme and Na2-EDTA and later in the coating (enzymatic complex and silver nanoparticles were analyzed. To evaluate the quality of the samples, in each step headspace gas composition, microbial population, and pH and sensory attributes were monitored during storage at 8 ± 1 °C. The results highlight that the antimicrobial compounds in the stracciatella, coating with silver nanoparticles, and packaging under MAP-3 represent effective conditions to guarantee product preservation, moving burrata shelf life from three days (control sample to ten days.

  9. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  10. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11 was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8 to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens

  11. Modified starches or stabilizers in preparation of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dias dos Anjos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese bread is a Brazilian product which originated in Minas Gerais and which is highly consumed. In industrial production, there is increasing use of additives which enrich and enhance the physical of this product, adding value in the eyes of the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of addition of modified starch and stabilizers on the physical-chemical of cheese bread. For this reason, measures taken so moisture, pH and acidity, volume, density, coefficient of expansion, and compression resistance (texturometer Results show that the stabilizers used improve these characteristics in the cheese bread, showing better physicochemical characteristics.

  12. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction. Composition of cheese was estimated using a predictive formula; actual yield was needed for estimation of composition. Adjusted formulas are recommended for estimating target yields and cheese yield efficiency. Constants for solute exclusion

  13. Selection of Leuconostoc strains isolated from artisanal Serrano Catarinense cheese for use as adjuncts in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Felipe Nael; Rios, Edson Antônio; Martinez de Oliveira, André Luiz; Beloti, Vanerli; Poveda, Justa Maria

    2018-08-01

    Serrano Catarinense cheese is a raw bovine milk cheese produced in the region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twelve representative strains of Leuconostoc isolated from 20 samples of this artisanal cheese were selected and submitted for evaluation of the acidifying, proteolytic, autolytic, aminopeptidase and lipolytic activities, NaCl and acid resistance, production of dextran and biogenic amines and antimicrobial activity. The aim was to genetically and technologically characterize the Leuconostoc strains in order to use them in mixed starter cultures for cheese manufacture. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was the species that accounted for the largest proportion of isolates of Leuconostoc genus. Two leuconostoc isolates stood out in the acidifying activity, with reduction in pH of 1.12 and 1.04 units. The isolates showed low proteolytic and autolytic activity. Most of the isolates were dextran producers, presented good resistance to the salt and pH conditions of the cheese and showed antimicrobial activity against cheese pathogen bacteria, and none of them produced biogenic amines. These results allowed the selection of five strains (UEL 04, UEL 12, UEL 18, UEL 21 and UEL 28) as good candidates for use as adjunct cultures for cheese manufacture. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Traditional Cheese Production and an EU Labeling Scheme: The Alpine Cheese Producers’ Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the European Union introduced two optional quality terms (OQT as new tools for the enhancement of food products. Two years later, the requirements for the use of the OQT “mountain product” were defined to enhance agricultural production in harsh environments, such as mountain areas. This new tool aimed at promoting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistributing wealth. The present research aims at understanding if farmers perceived this tool as useful and evaluates their level of awareness. To this aim, a sample of 68 traditional cheese producers from the North West Alpine Arch was interviewed. The results show that some cheese producers have a positive attitude towards the concepts set out in the OQT “mountain product” and consider it a useful tool to promote and enhance their products. Some critical elements are also discussed.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  16. Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic strain in Swiss- and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Aljewicz, Marek; Nalepa, Beata

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products (milk fat is substituted by stearin fraction of palm fat) during manufacture, ripening, and storage. The use of the probiotic L. rhamnosus HN001 in Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products significantly (P = 0.1) changed their chemical composition (protein and fat content) and an insignificant increase (approximately 1.6% in cheese-like products and approximately 0.3% in cheese) in yield. L. rhamnosus HN001 did not affect the rate of changes in the pH of ripened cheese and cheese-like products. A minor increase in probiotic counts was observed in initial stages of production and were partially removed with whey. Ripened cheese and cheese-like products were characterized by high survival rates of probiotic bacteria which exceeded 8 log CFU/g after ripening. An insignificant reduction in the number of viable probiotic cells was noted during storage of Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese, whereas a significant increase in probiotic cell counts was observed in cheese-like products during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitro characterization and performance in two model cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggiler-Marcó, M; Capra, M L; Quiberoni, A; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J A; Hynes, E

    2007-10-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are the main uncontrolled factor in today's industrial cheese making and may be the cause of quality inconsistencies and defects in cheeses. In this context, adjunct cultures of selected lactobacilli from nonstarter lactic acid bacteria origin appear as the best alternative to indirectly control cheese biota. The objective of the present work was to study the technological properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese by in vitro and in situ assays. Milk acidification kinetics and proteolytic and acidifying activities were assessed, and peptide mapping of trichloroacetic acid 8% soluble fraction of milk cultures was performed by liquid chromatography. In addition, the tolerance to salts (NaCl and KCl) and the phage-resistance were investigated. Four strains were selected for testing as adjunct cultures in cheese making experiments at pilot plant scale. In in vitro assays, most strains acidified milk slowly and showed weak to moderate proteolytic activity. Fast strains decreased milk pH to 4.5 in 8 h, and continued acidification to 3.5 in 12 h or more. This group consisted mostly of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Approximately one-third of the slow strains, which comprised mainly Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus curvatus, were capable to grow when milk was supplemented with glucose and casein hydrolysate. Peptide maps were similar to those of lactic acid bacteria considered to have a moderate proteolytic activity. Most strains showed salt tolerance and resistance to specific phages. The Lactobacillus strains selected as adjunct cultures for cheese making experiments reached 10(8) cfu/g in soft cheeses at 7 d of ripening, whereas they reached 10(9) cfu/g in semihard cheeses after 15 d of ripening. In both cheese varieties, the adjunct culture population remained at high counts during all ripening, in some cases overcoming or equaling primary starter. Overall

  18. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  20. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  1. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  2. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  3. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was approximately 90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were camembert, cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC(eq)) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively.

  4. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  5. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  6. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., malt sirup, and hydrolyzed lactose, in a quantity necessary for seasoning. (4) Water. (5) Salt. (6... propionate. (9) Pasteurized process cheese spread in consumer-sized packages may contain lecithin as an...

  7. Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of several bioactive amines in cheese and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G B; Wong, J T; Coutts, R T; Pasutto, F M

    1987-04-17

    A method is described for simultaneous extraction and quantitation of the amines 2-phenylethylamine, tele-methylhistamine, histamine, tryptamine, m- and p-tyramine, 3-methoxytyramine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine. This method is based on extractive derivatization of the amines with a perfluoroacylating agent, pentafluorobenzoyl chloride, under basic aqueous conditions. Analysis was done on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron-capture detector and a capillary column system. The procedure is relatively rapid and provides derivatives with good chromatographic properties. Its application to analysis of the above amines in cheese and chocolate products is described.

  8. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  9. Effect of multiple substrates in ethanol fermentations from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C J; Jayanata, Y; Bajpai, R K

    1987-01-01

    Ethanol fermentations from cheese whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 were investigated. Cheese whey, which contains lactose as the major sugar, has been found to have small amounts of glucose and galactose, depending on the source and operating conditions. Fermentation performance was strongly influenced by the presence of glucose and galactose. However, lactose did not significantly affect the cell growth and product formation even at a high concentration. A logistical model was proposed to take into account the effect of lactose. (Refs. 6).

  10. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  11. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  12. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  13. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  14. [The homogeneity of a population of yeasts from Camembert cheeses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J L; Daudin, J J

    1983-01-01

    Yeasts are found to a large extent in cheeses, more particularly in soft cheeses such as Camembert. The proximity between two species previously identified by standard methods was studied using a factorial discriminant analysis on 326 strains. Twenty-three fermentation and assimilation tests (discriminant variables) gave a fairly good discrimination between species. This treatment has allowed us to confirm the present tendencies noticed in yeast classification and has also enabled us to group some of the species.

  15. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-05

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS WITH INGREDIENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the use of feijoa as a filler for cheese products. Distinctive at-sign feijoa is a high content of watersoluble compounds in the fruits of iodine. According to their content feijoa can match with seafood, no plant does not accumulate a large number of iodine compounds (about 0.2 1 mg per 100 g of product. Feijoa is very useful for people living in iodine deficiency regions, as well as for preventers of thyroid diseases. The rind of the fruit is rich in antioxidants. The technology of GUT-goad product feijoa. Feature of the technology is that the finished cheese is made in the form of a mixture of filler pureed fruit pulp and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, and the powder dry skin. Objects of research a filler in the form of syrup (pineapple guava pulp and sugar and the rind of the fruit in the form of crushed dry cottage cheese. Compatible with cream cheese filling sensory determined by the following indicators appearance, consistency, color, smell, taste. Syrup dosage ranged from 1 to 10%, dry filler from 0.5 to 3.5%. A mixture of fillers were added to the finished curd product in the ratio of syrup fairies feijoa and dry powder peel 8: 1.5. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations of preparation of fillers and incorporation in the finished cheese. Determined the antioxidant activity syrup feijoa 1,963 mg / dm3 . It was found that the cheese product is rich in antioxidants, iodine, which helps to eliminate free radicals from the body and strengthen health care. Herbal additive allows to obtain a product with a new taste characteristics. The shelf life of cottage cheese products 5 days.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmeť, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum β-lactamases were detected.

  18. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  19. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  20. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  1. Formation of Flavor Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism in Cheese (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical reactions which contribute flavor formation occur in result of proteolysis during cheese ripening. Casein as the main protein of cheese has a significant effect on the flavor and textural properties of cheeses via its degradation to small peptides and free amino acids by various factors like coagulant enzymes. Specific flavors of cheeses occur as a result of amino acid catabolism by starter and non-starter bacteria. Some flavor compounds are formed by enzymatic transformations as well as by non-enzymatic, chemical changes in cheese. In this paper, formation of flavor compounds by amino acid catabolism during cheese ripening reviewed.

  2. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    be the need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high....... lactis subsp lactis, 10 thermophilic Lactobacillus strains and 15 frozen direct vat set strains of thermopholic Lactobacillus) to hydrolyse αS1-CN, candidates were selected for cheese-making experiments. None of the selected proteolytic strains contributed significantly to softening the cheese structure...

  3. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-02-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed.

  4. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  5. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  6. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  7. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  8. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type.

  9. Serrano Cheese: a cultural, quality and legal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Nardi Pretto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serrano cheese is an artisanal product, from the region of Campos de Cima da Serra in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and from the Planalto Sul in the state of Santa Catarina. Objective: The objective of the present work is to discuss some cultural, legal and food safety aspects related to the quality of serrano cheese, a product made of raw milk. Method: This manuscript carries out a bibliographical review of the serrano cheese, using updated scientific and legal documents, to analyze the production, quality and cultural aspects of this product. Results: Results presented in the literature and current legislation indicate that the production of these cheeses can be safe for commercialization, having as main requirements: adoption of good manufacturing practices, care of the dairy herd and due maturation of the product. Current national legislation indicates that the minimum maturation time should be 60 days. The publication of a law that regulates the production of serrano cheese in Rio Grande do Sul allows it to be matured for a shorter time, if its microbiological safety is assured. Conclusions: Additionally to revisions in the laws for the production and marketing of cheeses such as serrano, legal reviews are essential in the area of science, technology and health surveillance to provide a scientific basis to the improvement of the production of those who live on the commercialization of these products.

  10. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of Clostridium activities in silage and cheese using anticlostridial Lactobacillus Isolated from Danish semi-hard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia

    Growth of Clostridium, originating mainly from silage, may cause serious late blowing defects in semi-hard cheeses during ripening. In the present project, the possibilities were investigated to use anticlostridial non-starter Lactobacillus (mainly Lb. paracasei), isolated from Danish semi......-hard cheeses of high quality, as protective adjunct cultures against clostridia activities in silage and cheese. Screening for anticlostridial activity among non-starter Lactobacillus isolates against selected Clostridium strains showed that almost half (44%) of the naturally occurring non......-starter Lactobacillus in Danish semi-hard cheeses possessed anticlostridial activities and 10% possessed a broad anticlostridial activity, and these were selected for further investigations. Antagonistic antimicrobial interactions between some of the selected anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains were demonstrated...

  12. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  13. Use of cold microfiltration retentates produced with polymeric membranes for standardization of milks for manufacture of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Wang, T; Lucey, J A

    2007-10-01

    Pizza cheese was manufactured with milk (12.1% total solids, 3.1% casein, 3.1% fat) standardized with microfiltered (MF) and diafiltered retentates. Polymeric, spiral-wound MF membranes were used to process cold (pizza. Nitrogen recoveries were significantly higher in MF standardized cheeses. Fat recoveries were higher in the pH6.3MF cheese than the control or pH6.4MF cheese. Moisture-adjusted cheese yield was significantly higher in the 2 MF-fortified cheeses compared with the control cheese. Maximum loss tangent (LT(max)) values were not significantly different among the 3 cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar meltability. The LT(max) values increased during ripening. The temperature at which the LT(max) was observed was highest in control cheese and was lower in the pH6.3MF cheese than in the pH6.4MF cheese. The temperature of the LT(max) decreased with age for all 3 cheeses. Values of 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen levels were similar in all cheeses. Performance on pizza was similar for all cheeses. The use of MF retentates derived with polymeric membranes was successful in increasing cheese yield, and cheese quality was similar in the control and MF standardized cheeses.

  14. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  15. Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara V. Galmarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL. Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations, bitter (six out of nine and astringent (five out of nine. Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited.

  16. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  17. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheeses manufactured in the Canastra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2017-08-01

    been proposed and described in this article. It has also been verified that most of the cheese producers did not follow the minimum maturation period of 22 days required by de legislation and marketed the cheese still fresh.

  18. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of the cheese; should have body and texture characteristics which will impart the desired body and texture...

  19. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  20. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  1. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

  2. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  3. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  4. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  5. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  6. Expression and release of proteolytic enzymes of Lactococcus lactis : ripening of UF-cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Semi-hard cheese types, such as Gouda, cannot be satisfactorily produced when using ultrafiltration technology. Although the cheese yield increases using this method, the higher financial return is completely lost by the (poor) quality of the cheese. The work described in this thesis is

  7. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  8. Determination of lactic acid bacteria in Kaºar cheese and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) arise in Kaşar cheese, an artisanal pasta filata cheese produced in Turkey from raw milk without starter addition or pasteurized milk with starter culture. In this study, 13 samples of Kaşar cheese that were produced from raw milk were used as reference materials. LAB were characterized by using ...

  9. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  10. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  11. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  12. Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poulopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk as well as in the final product (cheese. Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C and treatment (T group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (α-pinene, limonene and β-caryophyllene was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and α-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while β-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

  13. Increasing stringiness of low-fat mozzarella string cheese using polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, E N; Oberg, C J; Motawee, M M; Martini, S; McMahon, D J

    2015-07-01

    When fat content of pasta filata cheese is lowered, a loss of fibrous texture occurs and low-fat (LF) mozzarella cheese loses stringiness, making it unsuitable for the manufacture of string cheese. We investigated the use of various polysaccharides that could act as fat mimetics during the stretching and extruding process to aid in protein strand formation and increase stringiness. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd was made, salted, and then 3.6-kg batches were heated in hot (80°) 5% brine, stretched, and formed into a homogeneous mass. Hot (80°C) slurries of various polysaccharides were then mixed with the hot cheese and formed into LF string cheese using a small piston-driven extruder. Polysaccharides used included waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, polydextrose, xanthan gum, and guar gum. Adding starch slurries increased cheese moisture content by up to 1.6% but was not effective at increasing stringiness. Xanthan gum functioned best as a fat mimetic and produced LF string cheese that most closely visually resembled commercial string cheese made using low-moisture part skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheese without any increase in moisture content. Extent of stringiness was determined by pulling apart the cheese longitudinally and observing size, length, and appearance of individual cheese strings. Hardness was determined using a modified Warner-Bratzler shear test. When LF string cheese was made using a 10% xanthan gum slurry added at ~1%, increased consumer flavor liking was observed, with scores after 2wk of storage of 6.44 and 6.24 compared with 5.89 for the LF control cheese; although this was lower than an LMPS string cheese that scored 7.27. The 2-wk-old LF string cheeses containing xanthan gum were considered still slightly too firm using a just-about-right (JAR) test, whereas the LMPS string cheese was considered as JAR for texture. With further storage up to 8wk, all of the LF string cheeses softened (JAR score was closer to 3

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum as a Probiotic Potential from Kouzeh Cheese (Traditional Iranian Cheese) and Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Vahid; Khiabani, Mahmoud Sowti; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Hassanzadeh, Azad Mohammad; Ahmadi, Elham; Gharenaghadeh, Sasan; Karimi, Nayyer; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and identify Lactobacillus plantarum isolates from traditional cheese, Kouzeh, and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens. In total, 56 lactic acid bacteria were isolated by morphological and biochemical methods, 12 of which were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by biochemical method and 11 were confirmed by molecular method. For analyzing the antimicrobial activity of these isolates properly, diffusion method was performed. The isolates were identified by 318 bp band dedicated for L. plantarum. The isolated L. plantarum represented an inhibitory activity against four of the pathogenic bacteria and showed different inhibition halos against each other. The larger halos were observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (15 ± 0.3 and 14.8 ± 0.7 mm, respectively). The inhibition halo of Escherichia coli was smaller than that of other pathogen and some L. plantarum did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli, which were resistant to antimicrobial compounds produced by L. plantarum. The isolated L. plantarum isolates with the antimicrobial activity in this study had strong probiotic properties. These results indicated the nutritional value of Kouzeh cheese and usage of the isolated isolates as probiotic strains.

  15. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  16. Comparing the Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: A Case Study of Cheese Products in Switzerland and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Schmitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Local food has recently gained popularity under the assumption that it is more sustainable than food from distant locations. However, evidence is still lacking to fully support this assumption. The goal of this study is to compare local and global food chains in five dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, ethical and health, covering all stages of the chain. In particular, four cheese supply chains are compared in detail: a local (L’Etivaz and global (Le Gruyère case in Switzerland and a local (Single Gloucester and global (Cheddar case in the UK. A multi-dimensional perspective is adopted to compare their sustainability performance. Eight attributes of performance (affordability, creation and distribution of added value, information and communication, consumer behaviour, resource use, biodiversity, nutrition and animal welfare are used to frame the comparative analysis. The results suggest that local cheese performs better in the field of added value creation and distribution, animal welfare and biodiversity. Global chains, by contrast, perform better in terms of affordability and efficiency and some environmental indicators. This analysis needed to be expressed in qualitative terms rather than quantified indicators and it has been especially useful to identify the critical issues and trade-offs that hinder sustainability at different scales. Cheese supply chains in Switzerland and the UK also often present hybrid arrangements in term of local and global scales. Comparison is therefore most meaningful when presented on a local (farmhouse/global (creamery continuum.

  17. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  18. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  19. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  20. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula, E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ecuador 3769, Santiago (Chile); Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEP 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 {sup o}C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  1. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 o C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  2. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  3. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  4. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  5. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  6. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry leas used for quantifying 28 volatile organic compounds at eight stages during tree storage period. Through principal component analysis, three important storage parameters could be identified. Principal components 1, 2 and 3 reflected storage tinge, conditions of light...

  7. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was ∼90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were eq ) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively

  8. Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Haiyan; Xi, Xiaoxia; Hou, Qiangchuan; Feng, Shuzhen; Wuri, Laga; Bian, Yanfei; Yu, Zhongjie; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong

    2017-01-09

    In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy. Across the Kazakhstan cheese samples, a total of 238 bacterial species belonging to 14 phyla and 140 genera were identified. Lactococcus lactis (28.93%), Lactobacillus helveticus (26.43%), Streptococcus thermophilus (12.18%) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (12.15%) were the dominant bacterial species for these samples. To further evaluate the cheese bacterial diversity of Kazakhstan cheeses in comparison with those from other geographic origins, 16S rRNA datasets of 36 artisanal cheeses from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy were retrieved from public databases. The cheese bacterial microbiota communities were largely different across sample origins. By principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), the structure of the Kazakhstan artisanal cheese samples was found to be different from those of the other geographic origins. Furthermore, the redundancy analysis (RDA) identified 16 bacterial OTUs as the key variables responsible for such microbiota structural difference. Our results together suggest that the diversity of bacterial communities in different groups is stratified by geographic region. This study does not only provide novel information on the bacterial microbiota of traditional artisanal cheese of Kazakhstan at species level, but also interesting insights into the bacterial diversity of artisanal

  9. Interaction between sodium chloride and texture in semi-hard Danish cheese as affected by brining time, DL-starter culture, chymosin type and cheese ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Marije; Søndergaard Kristensen, Lise; Jespersen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Reduced NaCl in semi-hard cheeses greatly affects textural and sensory properties. The interaction between cheese NaCl concentration and texture was affected by brining time (0-28 h), . dl-starter cultures (C1, C2, and C3), chymosin type (bovine or camel), and ripening time (1-12 weeks). Cheese Na...... is reducible without significant textural impact using well-defined starter cultures and camel chymosin....

  10. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  11. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lydia; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. PMID:28239117

  12. Morphological, molecular, and mycotoxigenic identification of dominant filamentous fungi from moldy civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Cetin, Bulent; Gurses, Mustafa; Dagdemir, Elif; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2012-11-01

    Moldy Civil is a mold-ripened variety of cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. This cheese is produced with Civil cheese and whey curd cheese (Lor). Civil cheese has had a geographical presence since 2009 and is manufactured with skim milk. In the production of Moldy Civil cheese, Civil cheese or a mixture of Civil and Lor cheese is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and ripened for 3 months or longer. During the ripening period, natural contaminating molds grow on the surface of and inside the cheese. In this study, 186 mold strains were isolated from 41 samples of Moldy Civil cheese, and 165 of these strains were identified as Penicillium roqueforti. Identification and mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using morphotypic and molecular methods. PCR amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region were subjected to sequence analysis. This research is the first using molecular methods on Moldy Civil cheese. Mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using thin-layer chromatography, and random amplified polymorphic DNA genotypes were determined using the ari1 primer. Of 165 isolates, only 28 produced no penicillic acid, P. roqueforti toxin, or roquefortine.

  13. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaqh Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05. White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05. Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods.

  14. Manufacturing of Camembert type cheese made from goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Tonković

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures on the quality of the Camembert type cheese within 30 days of its preservation. Cheeses were made of a mixture of goat's and cow's milk in the following ratios: 0:100, 30:70, 50:50, 80:20 and 100:0. They were analysed on the twelfth and thirtieth day of the cheese production. The chemical analysis of milk for cheese production, as well as the chemical composition, pH and sensorial evaluation of cheeses have been determined. It has been proven that the chemical content and type of milk influencesm sensorial evaluation of cheeses and their shelf life. The analysed cheeses, after 12th day of processing, obtained better sensorial scores than those after the 30th day. Cheeses made of goat's milk have obtained the best sensorial evaluation, although their shelf life was shorter than the rest of the cheese samples made of cow's milk and mixtures of goat's and cow's milk. The chosen storage temperature (10-11 ºC was not adequate for Camembert cheeses. Therefore, in order to prolong the shelf life above the 30-day-period and to preserve sensorial properties of the cheeses, the temperature should be lower, i.e. 5 ºC.

  15. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  16. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Camembert and other soft cheeses at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, J P; Langford, S A; Kroll, R G

    1993-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes survived and, under most conditions, multiplied when inoculated directly into the cheese milk of laboratory made Camembert cheeses. The rate and extent of growth was reduced at lower storage temperatures. Significantly higher rates of growth occurred at the surface compared with the centre of the cheeses, and these were probably associated with increased pH and proteolysis at the cheese surface due to the mould ripening process. Similar results were obtained with Camenbert cheeses surface inoculated after manufacture. There was also temperature-dependent growth of List. monocytogenes on a range of inoculated commercially manufactured soft cheeses. Significant growth occurred in Cambazola, French and English Brie, blue and white Lymeswold, French Camembert and Brie with garlic. Little if any growth occurred in blue and white Stilton, Mycella, Chaume and full fat soft cheese with garlic and herbs at the temperatures examined.

  17. Rheological and sensory properties and aroma compounds formed during ripening of soft brined cheese made from camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    over a ripening period of 60 d. Casein degradation in soft brined camel milk cheese significantly (p fracture significantly (p ... during ripening. However, cheese made with 85 IMCU L−1 coagulant resulted in softening of cheese texture and higher salt uptake. Using descriptive sensory analysis, the experimental cheeses were described as salty, sour and firm. The volatile aroma compounds formed in soft ripened camel milk cheese...

  18. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains inoculated in cheese matrix during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Cross, Kathryn L; Parker, Mary L; Bisignano, Carlo; Wickham, Martin S J; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Caggia, Cinzia

    2012-08-01

    Survival of probiotic bacteria during transit through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is influenced by a number of environmental variables including stomach acidity, bile salts, digestive enzymes and food matrix. This study assessed survival of seven selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains delivered within a model cheese system to the human upper GI tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM). Good survival rates for all tested strains were recorded during both simulated gastric and duodenal digestion. Strains H12, H25 and N24 demonstrated higher survival capacities during gastric digestion than L. rhamnosus GG strain used as control, with H12 and N24 continuing to grow during duodenal digestion. Strains L. rhamnosus F17, N24 and R61 showed adhesion properties to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. The ability to attach to the cheese matrix during digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, also indicating production of extracellular polysaccharides as a response to acid stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  20. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  1. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  2. Production of Gouda cheese and Camembert with probiotic cultures: the suitability of some commercial probiotic cultures to be implemented in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, S; Ruyssen, T; Vanheuverzwijn, T; Van Assche, P

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of 10 probiotic cultures (L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium sp., L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei) was examined during the production and ripening of Gouda cheese and Camembert. The overall objective of this research project was to obtain a product (cheese) containing at least 10(7) probiotic cfu/g. In general 10(6) cfu of a probiotic culture must be implemented per ml cheese milk, together with the cheesestarter, to reach this objective. L. paracasei sp. have the ability to grow more than 2 log units during cheese ripening. A lower inoculation value can be considered for these cultures.

  3. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-01-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses. PMID:9406400

  4. Wine and cheese: two products or one association? A new method for assessing wine-cheese pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Dufau, Lucie; Loiseau, Anne-Laure; Visalli, Michel; Schlich, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource) were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique ...

  5. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  6. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  7. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K V; Liao, P H

    1986-01-01

    A two-stage digestion of cheese whey was studied using two anaerobic rotating biological contact reactors. The second-stage reactor receiving partially treated effluent from the first-stage reactor could be operated at a hydraulic retention time of one day. The results indicated that two-stage digestion is a feasible alternative for treating whey. 6 references.

  8. The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, H.

    1988-01-01

    The rheological and fracture behaviour of Gouda cheese was studied. Methods for determining these properties of visco-elastic materials are described. Application of the theory of fracture mechanics, after modification and expansion, to visco-elastic materials with a

  9. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  10. Investigation of enzyme modified cheese production by two species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(4), pp. 508-511, 25 ... were used in this study for production of enzyme modified cheese. The results showed that ... Wheat bran was used as the substrate for cultivation of the molds and ...

  11. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified...

  12. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2...

  13. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 133.144 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... this section or by any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and... hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  14. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  15. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavors; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  16. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used. It... purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent, calculated as anhydrous calcium... of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate; but the weight of...

  17. Microbiological and proximate analyses of unripened cheese 'Wara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be attributed to poor hygiene of the handlers and manufacturing practices. A careful appraisal of these procedures and the use of pasteurized milk is suggested to reduce the exposure of consumers to health hazard. Key words: Raw milk, Pathogens, Coliforms, Cheese, food borne pathogens, Proximate composition.

  18. Isolation and characterization of bifidobacteria from ovine cheese

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Musilová, S.; Tomáška, M.; Rada, V.; Kmeť, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-30 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacterium sp. * ovine cheese * cultivation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2014

  19. original article microbial contamination of locally produced cheese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. E-Mail: ... identifié fromage local (' wara ') comme un aliment à haut risque au Nigeria en raison du taux élevé de contamination, car ils sont ... automatically has been conferred to the soft cheese.

  20. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries...

  1. Cheese Matrix Microstructure Studied by Advanced Microscopic Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burdiková, Z.; Hickey, C.; Auty, M. A. E.; Pala, J.; Švindrych, Z.; Steinmetz, I.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Sheehan, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, S3 (2014), s. 1336-1337 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cheese matrix * cryo-SEM * confocal laser scanning microscopy Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  2. The formation mechanism of lactones in Gouda cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Smit, B.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Lactones are fat-derived aroma compounds, but the formation mechanism of these compounds during ripening of Gouda cheese is unknown. Both enzymatic and chemical formation pathways were investigated in this study. Lactone formation from milk triglycerides or free fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria

  3. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol...

  4. Irradiation of 'minas frescal' cheese: physical-chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Domardo, Raquel E.; Gutierrez, Erica Maria Roel

    2000-01-01

    The present work studied the viability of gamma radiation as alternative method of conservation 'minas frescal' cheese through by determining its effect on the physical-chemical properties of this product after irradiation. Cheese elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation CENA/USP, were exposed to doses of 0 (it controls); 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy and stored under refrigeration (±5 deg C). The analysis were accomplished in the 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage considered the following parameters: acidity, pH, moisture and level of proteolysis according to methodology of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C.),1995. The results revealed that the dose of 2 kGy was the most indicated for irradiation of that type of cheese, because after this treatment, the product maintained in good conditions for consumption after 14 days of storage. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as a method of conservation of 'minas frescal' cheese, without causing alterations in its physical-chemical characteristics. (author)

  5. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (PCamembert cheeses.

  6. Mycotoxicogenic fungal inhibition by innovative cheese cover with aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Armando; Librán, Celia M; Berruga, M Isabel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel

    2013-03-30

    The use of aromatic plants and their extracts with antimicrobial properties may be compromised in the case of cheese, as some type of fungal starter is needed during its production. Penicillium verrucosum is considered a common cheese spoiler. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innovative use of certain aromatic plants as natural cheese covers in order to prevent mycotoxicogenic fungal growth (P. verrucosum). A collection of 12 essential oils (EOs) was obtained from various aromatic plants by solvent-free microwave extraction technology, and volatile characterisation of the EOs was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most effective EOs against P. verrucosum were obtained from Anethum graveolens, Hyssopus officinalis and Chamaemelum nobile, yielding 50% inhibition of fungal growth at concentration values lower than 0.02 µL mL⁻¹. All EOs showed high volatile heterogeneity, with α-phellandrene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, α-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol and trans-anethole being found to be statistically significant in the antifungal model. The use of these aromatic plants as natural covers on cheese can satisfactorily inhibit the growth of some mycotoxicogenic fungal spoilers. Among the volatile compounds present, α- and β-phellandrene were confirmed as the most relevant in the inhibition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  8. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  9. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  10. Comparison of two methods to explore consumer preferences for cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2009-12-01

    In the past 2 decades, total sales of cottage cheese have declined 17% despite increases in sales for low-fat cottage cheese. There are no recent published studies investigating consumer preferences for cottage cheese. This study was conducted to identify and define sensory characteristics of commercial cottage cheese and to compare 2 approaches for characterizing consumer preferences: traditional preference mapping and a new composite qualitative approach, qualitative multivariate analysis (QMA). A sensory language was identified to document the sensory properties (visual, flavor, and texture) of cottage cheeses. Twenty-six commercial cottage cheeses with variable fat contents (4, 2, 1, and 0% fat) were evaluated by trained panelists using the sensory language. Eight representative cottage cheeses were selected for consumer acceptance testing (n = 110) and QMA with consumer home usage testing (n = 12), followed by internal and external preference mapping to identify key drivers. Principal component analysis of descriptive data indicated that cottage cheeses were primarily differentiated by cooked, milkfat, diacetyl, and acetaldehyde flavors and salty taste, and by firmness, smoothness, tackiness, curd size, and adhesiveness texture attributes. Similar drivers of liking (diacetyl and milkfat flavors, smooth texture, and mouthcoating) were identified by both consumer research techniques. However, the QMA technique identified controversial distinctions among the cottage cheeses and the influence of brand and pricing. These results can be used by processors to promote cottage cheese sales.

  11. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  12. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimized enrichment for the detection of Escherichia coli O26 in French raw milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, F; Rozand, C; Bouvier, M; Gleizal, A; Thevenot, D

    2011-06-01

    Our main objective was to optimize the enrichment of Escherichia coli O26 in raw milk cheeses for their subsequent detection with a new automated immunological method. Ten enrichment broths were tested for the detection of E. coli O26. Two categories of experimentally inoculated raw milk cheeses, semi-hard uncooked cheese and 'Camembert' type cheese, were initially used to investigate the relative efficacy of the different enrichments. The enrichments that were considered optimal for the growth of E. coli O26 in these cheeses were then challenged with other types of raw milk cheeses. Buffered peptone water supplemented with cefixim-tellurite and acriflavin was shown to optimize the growth of E. coli O26 artificially inoculated in the cheeses tested. Despite the low inoculum level (1-10 CFU per 25 g) in the cheeses, E. coli O26 counts reached at least 5.10(4) CFU ml(-1) after 24-h incubation at 41.5 °C in this medium. All the experimentally inoculated cheeses were found positive by the immunological method in the enrichment broth selected. Optimized E. coli O26 enrichment and rapid detection constitute the first steps of a complete procedure that could be used in routine to detect E. coli O26 in raw milk cheeses. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. The changes of flavour and aroma active compounds content during production of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of flavour of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheese with low heat curd. The cheese samples were produced in dairy MILTRA B, Ltd., Městečko Trnávka.A number of volatile substances contribute to flavour of cheese including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. The development of these components during production was monitored in chosen Edam cheese (fat 30% w/w using headspace-SPME-GC method. The samples were taken from cheesemilk up to technologically ripe cheese. In total 37 various organic compounds belonging to five chemical groups were identified in milk and cheese samples. Their total content increased during production. The first increase was observed after pressing and then especially in last part of ripening. Ethanol (185.8 ± 15.85 mg.kg−1, acetoin (97.7 ± 3.78 mg.kg−1, 2-methylpropanol (71.2 ± 5.23 mg.kg−1, acetic acid (54.4 ± 1.70 mg.kg−1 and acetaldehyde (36.4 ± 10.17 mg.kg−1 were the most abundant in ripened cheeses. The flavour and other organoleptic properties (appearance, texture of Edam cheese samples were also sensorially evaluated during ripening. The five point ordinal scale and profile tests were used for evaluation. The sensory quality was improved during ripening, until the final marked flavour characteristic for these cheese types.

  15. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  16. Camembert-type cheese ripening dynamics are changed by the properties of wrapping films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M N; Guillemin, H; Perret, B; Cattenoz, T; Provost, J J; Corrieu, G

    2010-12-01

    Four gas-permeable wrapping films exhibiting different degrees of water permeability (ranging from 1.6 to 500 g/m(2) per d) were tested to study their effect on soft-mold (Camembert-type) cheese-ripening dynamics compared with unwrapped cheeses. Twenty-three-day trials were performed in 2 laboratory-size (18L) respiratory-ripening cells under controlled temperature (6 ± 0.5°C), relative humidity (75 ± 2%), and carbon dioxide content (0.5 to 1%). The films allowed for a high degree of respiratory activity; no limitation in gas permeability was observed. The wide range of water permeability of the films led to considerable differences in cheese water loss (from 0.5 to 12% on d 23, compared with 15% for unwrapped cheeses), which appeared to be a key factor in controlling cheese-ripening progress. A new relationship between 2 important cheese-ripening descriptors (increase of the cheese core pH and increase of the cheese's creamy underrind thickness) was shown in relation to the water permeability of the wrapping film. High water losses (more than 10 to 12% on d 23) also were observed for unwrapped cheeses, leading to Camembert cheeses that were too dry and poorly ripened. On the other hand, low water losses (from 0.5 to 1% on d 23) led to over-ripening in the cheese underrind, which became runny as a result. Finally, water losses from around 3 to 6% on d 23 led to good ripening dynamics and the best cheese quality. This level of water loss appeared to be ideal in terms of cheese-wrapping film design. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  18. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...

  19. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, Simone [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was {approx}90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were <0.002-0.29% of total lipids from camembert, <0.002-0.12% of total lipids from mozzarella, and <0.002-0.18% of total lipids in a goat cream cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC{sub eq}) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese

  20. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  1. Quantum confinement effect in cheese like silicon nano structure fabricated by metal induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Shailendra K., E-mail: phd1211512@iiti.ac.in; Sahu, Gayatri; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh [Material Research Laboratory, Discipline of Physics & MSEG, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh-452017 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Quantum confinement effect has been studied in cheese like silicon nano-structures (Ch-SiNS) fabricated by metal induced chemical etching using different etching times. Scanning electron microscopy is used for the morphological study of these Ch-SiNS. A visible photoluminescence (PL) emission is observed from the samples under UV excitation at room temperature due to quantum confinement effect. The average size of Silicon Nanostructures (SiNS) present in the samples has been estimated by bond polarizability model using Raman Spectroscopy from the red-shift observed from SiNSs as compared to its bulk counterpart. The sizes of SiNS present in the samples decreases as etching time increase from 45 to 75 mintunes.

  2. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Sandoval

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  3. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  4. Overview of a surface-ripened cheese community functioning by meta-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dugat-Bony

    Full Text Available Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a long time on surface-ripened cheeses, but only limited knowledge has been acquired about its in situ metabolic activities. We applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and biochemical analyses to an experimental surface-ripened cheese composed of nine microbial species during four weeks of ripening. By combining all of the data, we were able to obtain an overview of the cheese maturation process and to better understand the metabolic activities of the different community members and their possible interactions. Furthermore, differential expression analysis was used to select a set of biomarker genes, providing a valuable tool that can be used to monitor the cheese-making process.

  5. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    -starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low....... A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria...... with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL...

  6. Optimization of pH, temperature and CaCl2 concentrations for Ricotta cheese production from Buffalo cheese whey using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul Ahid; Huma, Nuzhat; Zahoor, Tahir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The recovery of milk constituents from cheese whey is affected by various processing conditions followed during production of Ricotta cheese. The objective of the present investigation was to optimize the temperature (60-90 °C), pH (3-7) and CaCl2 concentration (2·0-6·0 mm) for maximum yield/recovery of milk constituents. The research work was carried out in two phases. In 1st phase, the influence of these processing conditions was evaluated through 20 experiments formulated by central composite design (CCD) keeping the yield as response factor. The results obtained from these experiments were used to optimize processing conditions for maximum yield using response surface methodology (RSM). The three best combinations of processing conditions (90 °C, pH 7, CaCl2 6 mm), (100 °C, pH 5, CaCl2 4 mm) and (75 °C, pH 8·4, CaCl2 4 mm) were exploited in the next phase for Ricotta cheese production from a mixture of Buffalo cheese whey and skim milk (9 : 1) to determine the influence of optimized conditions on the cheese composition. Ricotta cheeses were analyzed for various physicochemical (moisture, fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH and acidity indicated) parameters during storage of 60 d at 4 ± 2 °C after every 15 d interval. Ricotta cheese prepared at 90 °C, pH 7 and CaCl2 6 mm exhibited the highest cheese yield, proteins and total solids, while high fat content was recorded for cheese processed at 100 °C, pH 5 and 4 mm CaCl2 concentration. A significant storage-related increase in acidity and NPN was recorded for all cheese samples.

  7. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of salers-type cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Callon, Cecile; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    The sensory characteristics of Salers Protected Denomination of Origin raw-milk cheeses are linked to the biochemical composition of the raw material (milk) and to the resultant microbial community. To evaluate the influence of the microbial community on sensory characteristics, Salers-type cheeses were manufactured with the same pasteurized milk, reinoculated with 3 different microbial communities from 3 different filtrates from microfiltered milks. Each cheese was subjected to microbial cou...

  8. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  9. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive, catalase-negative and asporogenous bacterial strains were selected for a more detailed characterization. Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were determined to be homofermentative cocci and four heterofermentative lactobacilli. Further phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed that those were two different LAB strains with high acidifying and proteolytic activity, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These two autochthonous strains, alone or in combination with commercial starter, were used to produce different types of fresh cheese, which were evaluated by a panel. Conventional culturing, isolation, identification and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE procedures, applied to the total fresh cheese DNA extracts, were employed to define and monitor the viability of the introduced LAB strains and their effect on the final product characteristics. Production of fresh cheese using a combination of commercial starter culture and selected autochthonous strains resulted in improved sensorial properties, which were more similar to the ones of spontaneously fermented fresh cheese than to those of cheese produced with only starter culture or selected strains. After 10 days of storage, that cheese retained the best sensorial properties in comparison with all other types of cheese. The presence of inoculated autochthonous and starter cultures and their identification was demonstrated by DGGE analysis. The obtained

  11. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Hulak; Ana Žgomba Maksimović; Ana Kaić; Andrea Skelin; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2016-01-01

    Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may resul...

  12. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  13. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  15. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polimerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. The LAB isolates from cheese BGPT9 (four days old belonged to the eight species of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc garlicum, while in the BGPT10 cheese (eight months old only two species were present (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Proteolytic activity showed 30 LAB from BGPT9 cheese, mainly enterococci. From BGPT10 cheese only one isolate (which belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species possessed partial ability to hydrolyze β-casein. Seven enterococci from BGPT9 cheese and four enterococci from BGPT10 cheese produced antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Production of Mozzarella Cheese Using Rennin Enzyme from Mucor miehei Grown at Rice Bran Molasses Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdan, I. H.; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to study the characteristic and yield of Mozzarella cheese produced by using rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei which is grown at rice bran and molasses medium. The popularity of Mozzarella cheese in Indonesia is increased caused by the spreading of western foods in Indonesia such as pizza and spaghetti that use Mozzarella cheese for ingredient. In Italy, Mozzarella and pizza cheeses are dominating 78% of the total Italian Cheese products. In producing Mozzarella cheese, rennin enzyme is always used as milk coagulant. Even now, Indonesia has not produced the rennin enzyme yet. The rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei growing at rice bran and molases medium which have the availability can be managed purposively within short period of time. The completly randomized design methode used to get the best crude extracts of Mucor miehei rennin enzyme, then is employed to produce mozzarella cheese. The result of Mozzarella cheese has various characteristics such as the yield’s weight is 9.1%, which consists of 50% moisture content, 36.64% peotein levels, 0.1 melting ability and 82.72% stretch ability or 0.79/N. With that characteristic it is concluded that rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei grown at rice bran molasses medium has the potential to alternatively subtitute calf rennin to produce Mozzarella cheese, and the characteristics fulfill the standart.

  17. Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerheijm, K L; Groen, H J; Beentjes, V E; Poorterman, J H

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands, first permanent molars with idiopathic enamel disturbances (IED) are called cheese molars. Though concern is expressed about their prevalence, adequate figures on the subject are missing. The porous enamel of cheese molars can be very sensitive to cold air and can decay rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence in eleven-year-old Dutch children of cheese molars (IED). During an epidemiological study performed in four cities in the Netherlands, the first permanent molars and central incisors of eleven-year-old children were examined for hypoplasia, opacities, posteruptive enamel loss, premature extraction, and atypical restorations. The observation of a hypoplasia excluded the possibility of cheese molar. A total of 497 children were examined. Six percent (n = 128) of the molars (n = 1988) showed signs of IED (cheese molars), 10 percent of the children had cheese molars of which 8 percent two or more. Incisors (4 percent) with opacities were found in 3 percent in combination with two or more cheese molars. Among the four cities, no significant differences in occurrence were found. The results of this study showed that in 10 percent of the Dutch children eleven years of age, cheese molars (IED) were found. The cause for the phenomenon called cheese molars appears to be child centered. Further studies on prevalence, causes and prevention are mandatory.

  18. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  19. Effect of type of concentrated sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield, and functionality of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lin, T; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2007-06-01

    Sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) is a rich source of phospholipids (PL). Most SCB is sold in a concentrated form. This study was conducted to determine if different concentration processes could affect the behavior of SCB as an ingredient in cheese. Sweet cream buttermilk was concentrated by 3 methods: cold ( pizza cheese was manufactured using the 3 different types of concentrated SCB as an ingredient in standardized milk. Cheesemilks of casein:fat ratio of 1.0 and final casein content approximately 2.7% were obtained by blending ultrafiltered (UF)-SCB retentate (19.9% solids), RO-SCB retentate (21.9% solids), or EVAP-SCB retentate (36.6% solids) with partially skimmed milk (11.2% solids) and cream (34.6% fat). Control milk (11.0% solids) was standardized by blending partially skimmed milk with cream. Cheese functionality was assessed using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology, UW Meltprofiler (degree of flow after heating to 60 degrees C), and performance of cheese on pizza. Initial trials with SCB-fortified cheeses resulted in approximately 4 to 5% higher moisture (51 to 52%) than control cheese (approximately 47%). In subsequent trials, procedures were altered to obtain similar moisture content in all cheeses. Fat recoveries were significantly lower in RO- and EVAP-SCB cheeses than in control or UF-SCB cheeses. Nitrogen recoveries were not significantly different but tended to be slightly lower in control cheeses than the various SCB cheeses. Total PL recovered in SCB cheeses ( approximately 32 to 36%) were lower than control ( approximately 41%), even though SCB is high in PL. From the rheology test, the loss tangent curves at temperatures > 40 degrees C increased as cheese aged up to a month and were significantly lower in SCB cheeses than the control, indicating lower meltability. Degree of flow in all the cheeses was similar regardless of the treatment used, and as cheese ripened, it increased for all cheeses. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble N levels were

  20. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  1. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  2. Food safety hazards in Georgian Tushuri Guda cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil Korakhashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific-research work provides a timely and valuable review of the progress being made in the greater understanding of the factors contributing to Tushuri Guda cheese making and how this experience may be applied to producing better and more consistent products with food safety HACCP system requirements. The HACCP study in this variety of cheese covers all types of food safety hazards, like biological, chemical and physical, but unfortunately it needs a more precise definition. It did not include clarification of cleaning and sanitation operations in accordance with modern standards, sanitation of grasslands and meadows. All of that are covered by the plant Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs procedures and Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs for the obtaining of maximal food safety results.

  3. Solar water heating for small cheese factories in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros Donohue, A A

    1982-03-01

    Plans are described for the implementation of 40 small plants to be used for cheese production. As a start, a demonstration plant has been built in San Juan de Chuquibambilla-Puno, Peru. Design and testing of a flat plate solar collector, to be used for water heating purposes, are described. The cheese making process is discussed. Essentially two pots are required, one at 32/sup 0/C and one at 80/sup 0/. Two flat plate collectors (1.12 m/sup 2/ each) are connected to a 150 l storage tank. Instrumentation and results are discussed. Total efficiency of the process is given as 40%. It is concluded that future installations should consider using biogas digesters and wind driven water pumps in addition to the solar collectors. A brief discussion of the climate, population distribution, and economy of Peru is given. (MJJ)

  4. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  5. Development of an autochthonous starter culture for spreadable goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia FRAU

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to select strains of LAB autochthonous from Santiago del Estero to formulate a starter culture for making spreadable goat cheese. Four strains were selected: CRL1799 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high acidifying activity, CRL1803 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high proteolytic activity, CRL1808 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus with production of exopolysaccharide and CRL1785 (Enterococcus faecium with diacetyl-acetoin production. The selected strains showed qualities that make them useful as starter culture in the elaboration of spreadable cheese. This starter culture is an alternative that allows obtaining differentiated products. The inclusion of CRL1808 strains seems to improve the rheology and texture, excluding the use of additives.

  6. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  7. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  8. Efficient lactulose production from cheese whey using sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Park, Gwon Woo; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-15

    An economical method of lactulose production from cheese whey was developed using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Three parameters such as temperature, reaction time, and Na2CO3 concentration were identified as experimental factors, and yield was selected as a response parameter. The experimental factors were optimised employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum yield of 29.6% was obtained at reaction time of 20.41 min, Na2CO3 of 0.51% at 90 °C. To overcome this limited lactulose yield, due to the conversion of lactulose to galactose, fed batch system was applied using dried cheese whey as lactose source. By this system, limit was broken, and 15.8 g/L of lactulose is produced in hour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Batch cultivation of kluyveromyces fragilis in cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausejour, D; Leduy, A; Ramalho, R S

    1981-08-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was cultivated batchwise in an open pond rectangular bioreactor at 30 degrees Centigrade, 2vvm of aeration, under non-sterile conditions and uncontrolled pH. The culture medium contained 7% cheese whey powder, 0.25% KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, 0.5% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and was adjusted to an initial pH of 4.0 with phosphoric acid. The lactose was almost completely consumed after 16 hours and COD reduction attained 80% after 64 hours. The maximum suspended solids concentration obtained was 11.7 g/L. The cheese whey which had initially low protein and high lactose contents was converted by this system into a high protein and low lactose carbohydrate product. (Refs. 26).

  10. Batch cultivation of kluyveromyces fragilis in cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausejour, D; Leduy, A; Ramalho, R S

    1981-01-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was cultivated batchwise in an open pond rectangular bioreactor at 30 degrees Celcius with aeration, under non-sterile conditions and uncontrolled pH. The culture medium contained 7% cheese whey powder, 0.25% KH2PO4, and 0.5% (NH4)2SO4 and was adjusted to an initial pH of 4.0 with H3PO4. The lactose was almost completely consumed after 16 hours and COD reduction attained 80% after 64 hours. The maximum suspended solids concentration obtained was 11.7 g/L. The cheese whey which had initially low protein and high lactose contents was converted by this system into a high protein and low lactose carbohydrate product.

  11. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  12. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  13. Microstructure of cheese: Processing, technological and microbiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cláudia I.; Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance and texture; hence, a renewed interest in its microstructure has been on the rise, as sophisticated techniques of analysis become more and more informative and widely available. Processing parameters that affect microstructure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product as perceived by the consumer; rational relationships between microstructure (which includes biochem...

  14. Sequencing of the Cheese Microbiome and Its Relevance to Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya. R. Yeluri Jonnala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of cheese plays a key role in determining its organoleptic and other physico-chemical properties. It is essential to understand the various contributions, positive or negative, of these microbial components in order to promote the growth of desirable taxa and, thus, characteristics. The recent application of high throughput DNA sequencing (HTS facilitates an even more accurate identification of these microbes, and their functional properties, and has the potential to reveal those microbes, and associated pathways, responsible for favorable or unfavorable characteristics. This technology also facilitates a detailed analysis of the composition and functional potential of the microbiota of milk, curd, whey, mixed starters, processing environments, and how these contribute to the final cheese microbiota, and associated characteristics. Ultimately, this information can be harnessed by producers to optimize the quality, safety, and commercial value of their products. In this review we highlight a number of key studies in which HTS was employed to study the cheese microbiota, and pay particular attention to those of greatest relevance to industry.

  15. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  16. The use of bacconcentrate Herobacterin in brine cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Slyvka:

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article a comparative analysis of the use of the bacterial preparation Herobacterin and the starter RSF-742 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark in the technology of brine cheese was conducted. Herobacterin is a bacterial preparation created using bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus garvieae, isolated from traditional Carpathian brine cheese brynza and identified using classical microbiological and modern molecular genetic methods (RAPD-PCR, RFLP-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The results of investigations of organoleptic, physico-chemical, syneretical and microbiological parameters of cheese brynza with use of preparation Herobacterin are presented in comparison with the starter RSF-742, which includes cultures: Lactococcus lactis subsp. сremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus. The use of Herobacterin has a positive effect on organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, all parameters complied with the requirements of DSTU 7065:2009. The level of survival of lactic acid bacteria in brynza during maturation and storage is high, which confirms the correctness of the selection of strains to preparation Herobakterin, which demonstrated good adaptability to the composition and properties of ewe's milk.

  17. CULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF CHEESE TYPE FOR KINGDOM PERNAMBUCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa Shinohara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is one of the great achievements in the preservation of milk, using simple techniques and preserving important protein source in different food crops. Originally from the Netherlands, Edam cheese was introduced in Brazil in 1880 by the Portuguese colonizers, hence the name "kingdom." Currently, in the industrial production, the legislation determines that it is classified as "kingdom type ". Due to the high lipid and sodium content, this product that is most suitable in the composition of sandwiches, in sauces added to pasta and composition along with the desserts, these associations are part of the tradition, flavors and knowledge of Pernambuco’s cooking. A ball of Kingdom cheese is something that you have to give to families, especially in Christmas time and St. John, because it symbolizes the wish for happiness and prosperity in the northeastern important religious festivals calendar, where relatives and friends gather to celebrate the dates in question, putting on their tables this precious culinary heritage of Pernambuco.

  18. Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Conrado; Millán, Rafael; Saavedra, Pedro; Jaber, José Raduán; Raposo, António; Sanjuán, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate, by statistical analyses, risk factors on cheese farms that can influence the microbial contamination of their products. Various assessment tools, such as cheese production questionnaires, food handlers' knowledge testing, and hygiene assessment system surveys, were used on 39 cheese farms on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. The microbiological status of 773 raw milk and cheese samples from the cheese farms was assessed by enumerating total viable counts and 4 pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. The results revealed that the highest contamination by Staph. aureus (4.39%, >10(5)cfu/mL) was found in milk, and the highest contamination by E. coli (5.18%, >10(3) cfu/mL) was found in cheese. Very few samples (0.52%) were contaminated by L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. The factors associated with any tested microorganism were "handling," "knowledge," and "type of milk." Subsequently, multidimensional logistic analysis for contamination by E. coli showed an independent association for factors "cleaning and disinfection test" and "type of milk." The probability of total aerobic contamination of milk increased with lower hygiene assessment system survey scores. These results emphasize the need to apply and maintain good hygiene practices, and to study risk factors to prevent contamination and bacterial growth. Further research is required in other areas with different cheese farm types to reinforce the validity of these results. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of wild strains used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures on the volatile compounds of the Pecorino Siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Pitino, I; De Luca, S; Scifò, G O; Caggia, C

    2008-03-20

    The effect of six wild strains on the volatile profile of the PS cheese was investigated and compared to that generated from industrial starters generally used to produce PS cheese. All cheeses were subjected to microbiological, physicochemical, and volatile compounds analyses. The DGGE of the 16S rDNA analysis was also applied. The volatile compounds generated during ripening were studied through the SPME and the GC-MS methods. No difference was detected between the experimental and control cheeses throughout chemical and microbiological analyses, while the DGGE results showed the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus in all cheeses, and the dominance of Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus casei in most of the experimental cheeses. Moreover, the presence of Lactococcus lactis species as in the control and in the experimental P2 and P4 cheeses was also revealed. The SPME results showed more pronounced volatile compounds in the experimental cheese samples than in the control ones.

  20. Technological properties of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Pico cheese an artisanal cow's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S C; Coelho, M C; Todorov, S D; Franco, B D G M; Dapkevicius, M L E; Silva, C C G

    2014-03-01

    Evaluate technologically relevant properties from bacteriocin-producing strains to use as starter/adjunct cultures in cheese making. Eight isolates obtained from Pico cheese produced in Azores (Portugal) were found to produce bacteriocins against Listeria monocytogenes and three isolates against Clostridium perfringens. They were identified as Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecalis and submitted to technological tests: growth at different conditions of temperature and salt, acid production, proteolysis, lipolysis, coexistence, enzymatic profile and autolytic capacity. Safety evaluation was performed by evaluating haemolytic, gelatinase and DNase activity, resistance to antibiotics and the presence of virulence genes. Some isolates presented good technological features such as high autolytic activity, acid and diacetyl production. Lactococcus lactis was negative for all virulence genes tested and inhibit the growth of all Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates. Enterococci were positive for the presence of some virulence genes, but none of the isolates were classified as resistant to important antibiotics. The bacteriocin-producing Lc. lactis present good potential for application in food as adjunct culture in cheese production. The study also reveals good technological features for some Enterococcus isolates. Bacteriocin-producing strains presented important technological properties to be exploited as new adjunct culture for the dairy industry, influencing flavour development and improve safety. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. A fast and simple method for quantitative determination of fat-derived medium and low-volatile compounds in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cheese flavour is a mixture of many (volatile) compounds, mostly formed during ripening. The current method was developed to qualify and quantify fat-derived compounds in cheese. Cheese samples were extracted with acetonitrile, which led to a concentrated solution of potential favour compounds,

  2. Acceptability and purchase intention of goat’s Coalho cheese seasoned with cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bonfim da Silva

    2017-08-01

    addition, 76,3% of the judges affirmed that they would buy the goat cheese seasoned with cachaça. Thus, the elaborated cheese obtained good acceptability and purchase intention, indicating that the cachaça can be used

  3. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of Salers-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, C; Berdagué, J L; Dufour, E; Montel, M C

    2005-11-01

    The sensory characteristics of Salers Protected Denomination of Origin raw-milk cheeses are linked to the biochemical composition of the raw material (milk) and to the resultant microbial community. To evaluate the influence of the microbial community on sensory characteristics, Salers-type cheeses were manufactured with the same pasteurized milk, reinoculated with 3 different microbial communities from 3 different filtrates from microfiltered milks. Each cheese was subjected to microbial counts (on selective media), biochemical tests, and volatile and sensory component analyses at different times of ripening. Adding different microbial communities to specimens of the same (biochemically identical) pasteurized milk lead to different sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Cheeses with fresh cream, hazelnut, and caramel attributes were opposed to those with fermented cream, chemical, and garlic flavors. The aromatic compounds identified (esters, acids, alcohols, and aldehydes) in these cheeses were quite similar. Nevertheless, one milk was distinguished by a higher content of acetoin, and lower 2-butanone and 3-methylpentanone concentrations. Over the production period of 1 mo, the different cheeses were characterized by the same balance of the microbial population assessed by microbial counts on different media. This was associated with the stability of some sensory attributes describing these cheeses. Nevertheless, there was no linear correlation between microbial flora data and sensory characteristics as measured in this study.

  4. Dynamics of complex microbiota and enzymes in Divle Cave cheese and their biochemical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturkoglu Budak, S.

    2016-01-01

    Divle Cave cheese is a raw ewe’s milk cheese ripened with the aid of a rich microbiota and a wide range of protease and lipase enzymes secreted by individual strains belong to this microbial community. The study presented in this thesis mainly aims to define the diversity and evolution of the

  5. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  6. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  7. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  8. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  9. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  10. Eco-efficiency in the production chain of Dutch semi-hard cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Dolman, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable cheese production chain, not only its ecological impact must be minimized, but economic value must be added along the chain also. The objectives of this study were to gain insight into ecological hotspots of the cheese chain, and to judge the ecological impact of chain

  11. Microbiota of an unpasteurised cellar-stored goat cheese from northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Båth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study reports on lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and moulds isolated from three artisanal Swedish cellar-stored goat cheeses aged for 1, 3 and 5 months. Starter culture LAB dominated in the younger cheeses, and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, common in raw goats’ milk, had persisted from the unpasteurised milk into all the cheeses. Non-starter LAB dominated in the 5 month cheese, in particular, Lactobacillus sakei, a meat-associated LAB not previously isolated from cheese. Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium and Mucor species were dominant among the yeasts and moulds, respectively. The cheese rind was not formed primarily from Penicillium species as in traditional cheeses such as Camembert – rather, mycelium from Mucor mucedo contributed to rind formation. Mould species known to produce sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins or ochratoxin A in cheese were not isolated in this study; growth of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli may have been inhibited by the cool conditions in the earth-cellar (4–6 °C.

  12. Complexity and Uniqueness of the Aromatic Profile of Smoked and Unsmoked Herreño Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Palencia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile fraction of unsmoked and smoked Herreño cheese, a type of soft cheese from the Canary Islands, has been characterized for the first time. In order to evaluate if the position in the smokehouse could influence the volatile profile of the smoked variety, cheeses smoked at two different heights were studied. The volatile components were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/ polydimethylsiloxane fiber, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. In total, 228 components were detected. The most numerous groups of components in the unsmoked Herreño cheese were hydrocarbons, followed by terpenes and sesquiterpenes, whereas acids and ketones were the most abundant. It is worth noticing the high number of aldehydes and ketones, and the low number of alcohols and esters in this cheese in relation to others, as well as the presence of some specific unsaturated hydrocarbons, terpenes, sesquiterpenes and nitrogenated derivatives. The smoking process enriches the volatile profile of Herreño cheese with ketones and diketones, methyl esters, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenes, nitrogenated compounds, and especially with ethers and phenolic derivatives. Among these, methylindanones or certain terpenes like α-terpinolene, have not been detected previously in other types of smoked cheese. Lastly, the results obtained suggest a slightly higher smoking degree in the cheeses smoked at a greater height.

  13. Managing a sustainable and resilient cheese supply chain for the dynamic market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Quan; Krikke, Harold; Pawar, K.S.; Tsai, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cheese has a long production time, but is as perishable as other fresh food. If it is not delivered to customers in time, it does not have value any more. Any product shortage causes customers to seek alternative sources. To manage a sustainable and resilient cheese supply chain for the

  14. Activity of autoinducer two (AI-2) in bacteria isolated from surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    ). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....

  15. Consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. A comparative study in France and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Valérie Lengard; Naes, Tormod; Enderli, Géraldine; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-08-01

    This study explores consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese in France (n=120) and Norway (n=119). The respondents were presented with 16 photographs of a traditional cheese from their respective countries, varying according to six factors: pasteurisation, organic production, omega-3, packaging, price and appropriateness. For each of the scenarios the consumers indicated their willingness to buy the cheese on a nine-point scale. Results show that consumers' willingness to buy traditional cheese is highly driven by price, appropriateness and pasteurisation in both countries. However, on average consumers in the French sample prefer buying raw milk cheese, while consumers in the Norwegian sample prefer buying pasteurised cheese. These general trends are led by a pro-raw milk segment in France and a pro-pasteurised milk segment in Norway. Several interaction effects involving appropriateness are detected, indicating the importance of the consumption context on the acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. On a general level, the results indicate that well-accepted innovations in traditional cheese are those that reinforce the traditional and authentic character of the product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  17. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure... purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent (calculated as anhydrous calcium... benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate; but the weight of the...

  18. The diversity and evolution of microbiota in traditional Turkish Divle Cave cheese during ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budak, S. O.; Figge, M. J.; Houbraken, J.; de Vries, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The microbial diversity of traditional Turkish Divle Cave cheese was evaluated in three independent batches. Using molecular techniques, twenty three bacterial species were identified in the interior and outer part of the cheese on days 60 and 120. Bacilli and Gammaproteobacteria classes were

  19. Selection of dairy culture and changes of Podravec cheese acidity during production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection and characteristics of dairy culture play a basic role in all types of cheese production process. The most important characteristic is acidification ability i.e. lactic acid formation, which regulates manufacturing and maturing conditions of cheese, thus affecting its organoleptic characteristics as well. In this work the results on control of acidity increase in Podravec cheeseproduction are presented. In the production process, a technical culture as well as identical frozen and concentrated culture, with and without auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus for direct milk inoculation, were used. It was established that the acidity, expressed as pH value, is more intensively developed in cheeses produced with culture for direct inoculation. This was especially evident in the first phases of production i.e. before cheese salting. During salting the acidity of cheeses, in both cases, was almoust identical. Cheeses produced with identical frozen culture and auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus culture had more pronounced acidity before salting and lower after salting in comparison with cheeses with the mentioned two cultures. Organoleptic and other characteristics of mature cheeses were identical.

  20. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gareis, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P...

  1. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  2. Cheddar cheese ripening affects plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum insulin concentrations in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  3. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruits, vegetables, or meats is “Pasteurized process cheese food with ___”, the blank being filled in...

  4. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  5. Survival of bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soft cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, H; Chen, J; Brunke, B; Hill, A; Griffiths, M W

    1998-07-01

    Pasteurized and raw milks that had been inoculated at 10(4) cfu/ml with bioluminescent strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used in the manufacture of Camembert and Feta cheeses with or without nisin-producing starter culture. Survival of both organisms was determined during the manufacture and storage of Camembert and Feta cheeses at 2 +/- 1 degree C for 65 and 75 d, respectively. Bacterial bioluminescence was used as an indicator to enumerate the colonies plated on selective Listeria agar and on MacConkey agar. Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived the manufacturing process of both cheeses and was present at the end of the storage period in greater numbers than in the initial inoculum. At the end of 75 d of storage, E. coli O157:H7 was found in the brine of Feta cheese. The counts of L. monocytogenes increased as the pH of the Camembert cheese increased, and there were significant differences between the counts from samples taken from the inside and the counts from samples obtained near the surface of the cheese. The Feta cheese that contained nisin was the only cheese in which L. monocytogenes was at the level of the initial inoculum after 75 d of storage.

  6. MINERAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD SERUM AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF MILK AND CHEESE OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hrković-Porobija

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plan of research included two Pramenka sheep-breeding family farms producing Livno and Travnik cheese in the traditional ways. The experiment included 117 animals of the Pramenka strain. The serum concentrations of the minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were followed over time. Based on the physical-chemical analysis of the sheep milk, we evaluated the milk parameters (milk fat, protein and lactose and cheese parameters (dry matter, moisture, grease and pH that can be indicative of the cheese milk quality. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the serum minerals to the sheep milk quality, and the Livno and Travnik cheese quality, being the final products. Blood, milk and cheese samples were taken in the summer during the summer grazing of sheep. The results were analyzed using the software package/Program SPSS 15.00. Differences were considered statistically significant at p <0.05. Influence of serum minerals on the quality of milk and cheese was determined by calculating the correlation factor.Analysis of mineral blood components and basic milkand cheese parameters showed variations, wich may be acceptable considering the influence of lactation, climate and botanic quality.Keywords: sheep, mineral components of serum, milk, cheese, correlation

  7. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  8. Extra Cheese, Please! Mozzarella's Journey from Cow to Pizza [and] Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris

    This book traces Annabelle the dairy cow's milk from the farm to the top of a Friday night pizza. The book relates that when Annabelle gives birth to her calf she also begins to produce milk; the milk is then processed into cheese, and from the cheese, pizza is made (recipe included). The book features color photographs of the entire process which…

  9. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  10. Cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay as affected by information about organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (Pexpected liking was significantly higher (Pexpected liking was significantly lower (Pexpectations, as the difference actual vs. perceived liking was significant (Pexpected liking was significant (Ppay OC (mean+/-se=4.20+/-0.13 euro/100 g) higher than the local retail price for conventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms.

  11. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  12. Molecular systematics in the genus Mucor with special regards to species encountered in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermet, Antoine; Méheust, Delphine; Mounier, Jérôme; Barbier, Georges; Jany, Jean-Luc

    2012-06-01

    The genus Mucor, a member of the order Mucorales, comprises different species encountered in cheeses. Although fungi play a fundamental role in cheese manufacturing and ripening, the taxonomy of many fungal species found in cheese is poorly defined; indeed, this is the case for Mucor spp. In the present study, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships among 70 Mucor strains, including 36 cheese isolates, by using a five gene phylogenetic approach combined with morphological analyses. Overall, at least six species of Mucor were identified among the cheese isolates including a possible new taxon. The present study also suggests that the genus Mucor comprises undescribed taxa and needs to be properly defined. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper.

  14. Effect of feeding systems on aromatic characteristics of buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Di Napoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluated the effect of feeding systems (hay vs ray-grass silage on volatile compounds profiles of mozzarella cheese. Three mozzarella cheese making trials for each experimental group were conducted at our dairy technology laboratory. Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from whole raw water buffalo milk with the addition of natural starter. Volatile compounds were extracted by “purge and trap” system coupled to a gas chromatograph and detected operating with a mass-selective detector (Ciccioli et al., 2004 A total of 84 compounds of the following chemical families were detected: hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. The data overall indicated difference between the aromatic profiles of mozzarella cheese as consequence of feeding systems. Thus, differences in mozzarella cheese flavour are primarily caused by concentration differences of a common set of flavour compounds, rather than by the occurrence of compounds uniquely associated with a particular feed.

  15. Do consumers from Međimurje region recognize their autochthonous Turoš cheese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Valkaj

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether consumers from the Međimurje region recognise and distinguish the autochthonous cheese called Turoš from similar cheeses like Prgica and Kvargl originating from regions neighbouring to Međimurje. Chemical, textural and microbiological properties of all three cheeses were given. Preference tests with 200 consumers using a face-to-face survey and a two-step procedure were performed. The blind taste test showed that 97 % of the respondents recognised differences between the tasted samples, and almost half of them preferred the Turoš cheese. Similarly, the informed test showed that a significantly higher number of the respondents preferred the Turoš cheese in comparison to Kvargl and Prgica. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences between respondents’ preferences in the blind and the informed tests.

  16. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  17. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  18. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  19. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  20. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  2. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trost Eva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex

  3. Metatranscriptome analysis of fungal strains Penicillium and Geotrichum reveal cheese matrix breakdown and potential development of sensory properties of ripened Camembert-type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Viel, Catherine; Boyle, Brian; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Camembert-type cheese ripening is driven mainly by fungal microflora including Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium camemberti. These species are major contributors to the texture and flavour of typical bloomy rind cheeses. Biochemical studies showed that G. candidum reduces bitterness, enhances sulphur flavors through amino acid catabolism and has an impact on rind texture, firmness and thickness, while P. camemberti is responsible for the white and bloomy aspect of the rind, and p...

  4. Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Rhoades, J R; Sagoo, S K; Harris, J; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2008-04-01

    Two studies of retail fresh, ripened and semi-hard cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk were undertaken in the UK during 2004 and 2005 to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Using microbiological criteria in European Commission Recommendations 2004/24/EC and 2005/175/EC, 2% of both raw, thermized (37/1819 samples) and pasteurized (51/2618 samples) milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4)cfu g(-1), Escherichia coli at 10(5)cfu g(-1), and/or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(2)cfu g(-1), whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S. aureus at 10(3)cfu g(-1) and/or E. coli at 10(3)cfu g(-1). Salmonella was not detected in any samples. Cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality more frequently when sampled from premises rated as having little or no confidence in management and control systems, and stored/displayed at above 8 degrees C. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were also more likely to be of unsatisfactory quality when they were unripened types, and pasteurized milk cheeses when they were: semi-hard types; from specialist cheese shops or delicatessens; cut to order. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food chain to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  5. THE PRODUCTION OF THE CHEESE IN SERTÃO SERGIPANO EXCHANGE OF HANDS: A MATTER OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Souza Mendonça MENEZES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study is to present the changes in rural areas of the Sertão Sergipano of San Francisco under the food system, highlighting the issue of gender in the process of the production of cheese. With the inclusion of public policies were introduced new practices providing a rapid deforestation of the original vegetation caatinga. Introduce itself grasses resistant to estiagem reducing itself agricultural activities as the production of foods: beans, cassava and maize. Expands to livestock by building financial resources released by the "state" in incessant search to achieve the modernization of agriculture. Alongside the changes in the environment, changes occur in the context of social relations and cultural practices. Traditionally the family farmers had to produce milk intended for self-consumption in the form in natura or producing derivatives such as cheese and homemade butter on the responsibility of women. With the advancement of livestock this activity becomes going to be the responsibility of the males in unique spaces, there are new types of networks are built and marketing. Keywords: cultural identity, gender, livestock, public policies.

  6. Effect of curd washing on the properties of reduced-calcium and standard-calcium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia; McSweeney, Paul L H; Beresford, Thomas P; Guinee, Timothy P

    2014-10-01

    Washed (W) and nonwashed (NW) variants of standard (SCa) and reduced-calcium (RCa) Cheddar cheeses were made in triplicate, ripened for a 270-d period, and analyzed for composition and changes during maturation. Curd washing was applied to cheeses to give a target level of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture of 3.9 g/100 g in the W cheese, compared with a value of 5.3 g/100 g of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture in the control NW cheeses. The 4 cheese types were denoted standard calcium nonwashed (SCaNW), standard calcium washed (SCaW), reduced-calcium nonwashed (RCaNW), and reduced-calcium washed (RCaW). The mean calcium level was 760 mg/100 g in the SCaNW and SCaW and 660 mg/100 g in the RCaNW and RCaW cheeses. Otherwise the gross composition of all cheeses was similar, each with protein, fat, and moisture levels of ~26, 32, and 36 g/100 g, respectively. Curd washing significantly reduced the mean level of lactic acid in the SCaW cheese and residual lactose in both SCaW and RCaW cheeses. The mean pH of the standard-calcium cheese over the 270-d ripening period increased significantly with curd washing and ripening time, in contrast to the reduced-calcium cheese, which was not affected by the latter parameters. Otherwise curd washing had little effect on changes in populations of starter bacteria or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, proteolysis, rheology, or color of the cheese during ripening. Descriptive sensory analysis at 270 d indicated that the SCaW cheese had a nuttier, sweeter, less fruity, and less rancid taste than the corresponding SCaNW cheese. In contrast, curd washing was not as effective in discriminating between the RCaW and RCaNW cheeses. The RCaW cheese had a more buttery, caramel odor and flavor, and a more bitter, less sweet, and nutty taste than the SCaW cheese, whereas the RCaNW had a more pungent and less fruity flavor, a less fruity odor, a saltier, more-bitter, and less acidic taste, and a more astringent mouthfeel than

  7. PRODUCTION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS OF “CASU MARZU” CHEESE: EFFECT OF THE Piophila Casei COLONIZATION ON MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coinu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Piophila casei colonization under controlled conditions on “casu marzu”, a typical Sardinian sheep milk cheese. Three batches of two different kind of cheese (PO, holed paste and PC, firm paste were produced in duplicate (test and control. Test cheeses were exposed to the Piophila casei colonization in a conditioned store room, while control cheeses were suitably protected. All the samples were analyzed at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days from the production. The pH and aw, the chemical composition and the microbiological parameters (food safety and process hygiene criteria were determined. The colonization was unhomogeneous between the batches: PO cheeses were more easily colonized and showed more intense proteolysis and lipolysis respect to PC cheeses. The microbiological parameters were strongly affected by the experimental process conditions. The authors discuss about the opportunity of a controlled production of “casu marzu” and the implications to the health of consumers.

  8. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  9. Biomethanation of salty cheese whey using multichamber anaerobic bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Chirag; Madamwar, Datta [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India)

    1998-07-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey after diluting with total dairy waste water, a multichamber anaerobic bioreactor has been developed using different combination of bedding materials in different chambers. Best performance has been obtained at 37''oC under the combination of polystyrene chips, pumice stones and PVC beads as supporting materials, and operating at 2 day hydraulic retention time. Maximum gas production of 3.2 litre/litre of digester/day with methane content of 68% and 83% reduction in COD have been noticed. (Author)

  10. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  12. Recovering traditional raw-milk Tetilla cheese flavour and sensory attributes by using Kocuria varians and Yarrowia lipolytica adjunct cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I; Docampo, F; Lorenzo, J M; Carballo, J

    2017-06-19

    The rationale of the present study was to evaluate the potential of microbial adjunct cultures including Kocuria varians and/or Yarrowia lipolytica strains in the recovery of the typical sensory profile of traditional (raw-milk) Tetilla cheese. Four batches of Tetilla cheese, a short ripened cows' milk cheese produced in Galicia (NW Spain), were made in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with different microbial cultures. A control batch was manufactured by adding a mesophilic commercial D-starter only. The other three batches were made with the same starter after a cheese-milk pre-ripening step carried out with (i) an adjunct culture of K. varians, (ii) an adjunct culture of Y. lipolytica, or (iii) a combination of both adjunct cultures. The highest pH and water activity values, associated with softer textures were determined in the cheeses manufactured with the Y. lipolytica adjunct after 21days of ripening. The contents of the volatile compounds 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were higher in the cheeses made with only the K. varians adjunct than in the cheeses made with the only yeast adjunct and in the control cheeses. The contents of hexanoic and octanoic acids were highest in the cheeses made with the Y. lipolytica adjunct, and levels of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate were higher in the cheeses made with only the yeast adjunct than in the other batches of cheese. The cheeses manufactured with both adjunct cultures were awarded the highest scores for flavour and overall sensory parameters (considering the standards of the traditional product) and were considered very similar to 'good quality' artisanal raw-milk cheeses. We conclude that use of selected Micrococcaceae and Y. lipolytica strains as adjunct cultures would differentiate the sensory properties and contribute to the quality and typicality of the short-ripened rennet-curd Galician Tetilla and Arzúa-Ulloa cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  13. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  14. Multi-detection of preservatives in cheeses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Fabio; Guarino, Chiara; La Mantia, Alessandro; Longo, Lucia; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    The incorrect use of preservatives in cheeses may compromise food safety and damage consumers. According to the law, more than one preservative may be contemporarily used in cheeses. So a method for their contemporary detection may be useful for both manufacturers and control agencies quality control. In this research a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for the multi-determination of seven preservatives (benzoic acid, citric acid, hexamethylenetetramine, lysozyme, natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid) in cheese was developed. The preservatives were contemporarily extracted from cheese by a single procedure, and analyzed by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS (Ion Trap) in positive ionization mode, with single reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. Three sample types (hard, pasta filata and fresh cheese) were used for method evaluation. Recoveries were mostly higher than 90%; MDLs ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mgkg(-1), and MQLs were included between 0.07 and 0.88 mgkg(-1). Due to matrix effect, quantitation was performed by referring to a matrix matched calibration curve, for each cheese typology. This method was also applied to commercial cheese samples, with good results. It appears fast, reliable and suitable for both screening and confirmation of the presence and quantitation of the preservatives in a single, multi-detection analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of UHPLC for the determination of free amino acids in different cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Helmut K; Fiechter, Gregor

    2013-10-01

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) protocol for the determination of amino acids as their respective 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatives was successfully applied for assessing free amino acid levels in commercial cheese samples representing typical product groups (ripening protocols) in cheesemaking. Based on the Waters AccQ.Tag™ method as a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amino acid solution designed for hydrolyzate analyses, method adaptation onto UHPLC was performed, and detection of AQC derivatives was changed from former fluorescence (λ(Ex) 250 nm/λ(Em) 395 nm) to UV (254 nm). Compared to the original HPLC method, UHPLC proved to be superior by facilitating excellent separations of 18 amino acids within 12 min only, thus demonstrating significantly shortened runtimes (>35 min for HPLC) while retaining the original separation chemistry and amino acid elution pattern. Free amino acid levels of the analyzed cheese samples showed a high extent of variability depending on the cheese type, with highest total amounts found for original Italian extra-hard cheeses (up to 9,000 mg/100 g) and lowest for surface mold- or bacterial smear-ripened soft cheeses (200-600 mg/100 g). Despite the intrinsic variability in both total and specific concentrations, the established UHPLC method enabled reliable and interference-free amino acid profiling throughout all cheese types, thus demonstrating a valuable tool to generate high quality data for the characterization of cheese ripening.

  16. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activities – work outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  17. Chemical composition in Parmesan cheese marketed in Paranavaí - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Duarte Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grated Parmesan cheese is among the most consumed cheese in the country and also among the most fraudulent, since the fragmentation facilitates the incorporation of various adulterants. Brazilian law establishes as the parameters to be evaluated in grated cheese only the moisture content and the fat content in dry matter (GES. However, it is important to analyze other parameters, in order to characterize the products commercialized in Brazil, as quality can be compromised. The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and presence of starch in different samples of grated Parmesan cheese, commercialized in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná. Fifteen samples were analyzed, being three different batches of five brands. The chemical composition (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differed from one sample to another; however, all samples were in compliance with Brazilian legislation, considering the moisture content. For the GES content, 60% of the samples showed values higher than those established by Brazilian legislation for semi-fat cheese, such as grated Parmesan cheese. One sample showed a high carbohydrate content, however, starch was not detected by the lugol test. It is concluded that 60% of grated cheese commercialized in the city of Paranavaí present disagreement with Brazilian law, because they had higher fat content in the dry matter than the established.

  18. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  19. Molecular Identification and Quantification of Tetracycline and Erythromycin Resistance Genes in Spanish and Italian Retail Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Flórez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large antibiotic resistance gene pools in the microbiota of foods may ultimately pose a risk for human health. This study reports the identification and quantification of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant populations, resistance genes, and gene diversity in traditional Spanish and Italian cheeses, via culturing, conventional PCR, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The numbers of resistant bacteria varied widely among the antibiotics and the different cheese varieties; in some cheeses, all the bacterial populations seemed to be resistant. Up to eight antibiotic resistance genes were sought by gene-specific PCR, six with respect to tetracycline, that is, tet(K, tet(L, tet(M, tet(O, tet(S, and tet(W, and two with respect to erythromycin, that is, erm(B and erm(F. The most common resistance genes in the analysed cheeses were tet(S, tet(W, tet(M, and erm(B. The copy numbers of these genes, as quantified by qPCR, ranged widely between cheeses (from 4.94 to 10.18log⁡10/g. DGGE analysis revealed distinct banding profiles and two polymorphic nucleotide positions for tet(W-carrying cheeses, though the similarity of the sequences suggests this tet(W to have a monophyletic origin. Traditional cheeses would therefore appear to act as reservoirs for large numbers of many types of antibiotic resistance determinants.

  20. Potential of nisin-incorporated sodium caseinate films to control Listeria in artificially contaminated cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Hoang, Lan; Chaine, Aline; Grégoire, Lydie; Waché, Yves

    2010-10-01

    A sodium caseinate film containing nisin (1000 IU/cm(2)) was produced and used to control Listeria innocua in an artificially contaminated cheese. Mini red Babybel cheese was chosen as a model semi-soft cheese. L. innocua was both surface- and in-depth inoculated to investigate the effectiveness of the antimicrobial film as a function of the distance from the surface in contact with the film. The presence of the active film resulted in a 1.1 log CFU/g reduction in L. innocua counts in surface-inoculated cheese samples after one week of storage at 4 degrees C as compared to control samples. With regard to in-depth inoculated cheese samples, antimicrobial efficiency was found to be dependent on the distance from the surface in contact with the active films to the cheese matrix. The inactivation rates obtained were 1.1, 0.9 and 0.25 log CFU/g for distances from the contact surface of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Our study demonstrates the potential application of sodium caseinate films containing nisin as a promising method to overcome problems associated with post-process contamination, thereby extending the shelf life and possibly enhancing the microbial safety of cheeses. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.