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Sample records for cheese quality sold

  1. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro; Lucas Ghedin Ghizzi; Natacha Deboni Cereser; Helenice Gonzalez de Lima; Cláudio Dias Timm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese sam...

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Y., Daniyan S.; Abalaka, M. E.; Momoh, J. A.; Adabara, N. U

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu) sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105...

  3. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Correia Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  4. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marlene Correia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  5. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  6. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

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    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  7. Microbial interactions in cheese: implications for cheese quality and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Irlinger, Françoise; Mounier, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The cheese microbiota, whose community structure evolves through a succession of different microbial groups, plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as cheese shelf-life and safety, are largely determined by the composition and evolution of this microbiota. Adjunct and surface-ripening cultures marketed today for smear cheeses are inadequate for adequately mimicking the real diversity encountered in cheese microbiota. The interactions between bacteri...

  8. Quality evaluation of Korbačik cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Juraj Čuboň; Simona Kunová; Miroslava Kačániová; Peter Haščík; Marek Bobko; Ondřej Bučko; Jana Petrová; Petronela Cviková

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was analysed the physical and chemical parameters in lump cheese and Korbáčik cheese. Sensory evaluation was performed only in Korbáčik cheese. There was compared quality of Korbáčik cheese made from lump cheese ripened one and three weeks. The statistical analysis of the moisture showed significant differences (p <0.001) among Korbáčik cheese made from raw material ripened one and three weeks. Average moisture of ...

  9. Quality of Trappist cheese from Croatian dairy plant

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    Anđela Merćep

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents technological parameters, basic chemical composition and sensory evaluation, as well as the yield of 146 samples of Trappist cheese. In terms of water content in non-fat matter (56.36-58.31 %, Trappist cheese belongs to the group of semi-hard cheeses, and in terms of content of fat in dry matter (46.06-48.63 %, it belongs to the group of full-fat cheeses. In four cheese samples E. coli was determined within microbiological parameters, whereas other researched bacteria were not determined. Cheese has a shape of a symmetrical ring and it has a homogenous yellow color of protective coating. Mean mass value of one cheese ring is from 2.50 to 2.55 kg. The body of cheese has a homogenous light yellow color, which is brighter along the edges. The cheese holes have the size of a pea; they are bright and patterned over the whole surface of cross section. Consistency of cheese body is elastic, soft and interconnected. The cheese has mild, pure lactic and acidic taste and odor, and it is moderately salty. The results of sensory score show that even 91.78 % of cheese samples from experimental production can be assigned to the first quality class, whereas 8.22 % of samples belong to the second quality class.

  10. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho

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    T.M. Seeiso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143 were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237 of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20 slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3, while the rest (n = 37 sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per mℓ in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per mℓ. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12 and Escherichia coli (n=15. During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was

  11. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that

  12. Improving quality of some types of cheese by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation as a food preservation technique has been recognized for many years as a means to reduce food losses, improve food safety, and extend shelf life. Furthermore, irradiation can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food borne disease and treating a variety of potential problems in food supplies. The treatment of food with ionizing radiation is one of the most thoroughly researched techniques available to the food processing industry. In view of the afore mentioned the objective of this study were to study the effect of irradiation time and dose on Ras cheese quality, investigate the effect of irradiation after ripening on cheese quality and possibility of prolonging the shelf-life of Ras cheese, study the effect of irradiation dose on Kareish cheese quality and its shelf- life and to monitor the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during ripening and storage of Ras and Kareish cheeses .The results of this study will be presented in three parts: Part I: Effect of irradiation dose and time on some properties of Ras cheese:Part II: Effect of irradiation on some properties during storage of ripened Ras cheese.Part III: Effect of irradiation on the quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese: It could be concluded that irradiation caused a significant reduction of cheese ripening indices, and count of total viable,proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and mould and yeast. Using irradiation doses of 3 and 4 kGy were able to stop the ripening factors and these safety dose were used to prevent the ripened Ras cheese irradiation of ripened Ras cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Ras cheese to about 32 months compared with control cheese, which showed only 18 months. The obtained results revealed that the best irradiation treatment was at the end of ripening period. Also safety irradiation of Kareish cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Kareish cheese to about 54 days compared with 12 days only control cheese.

  13. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

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    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  14. Quality evaluation of Korbačik cheese

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    Juraj Čuboň

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed the physical and chemical parameters in lump cheese and Korbáčik cheese. Sensory evaluation was performed only in Korbáčik cheese. There was compared quality of Korbáčik cheese made from lump cheese ripened one and three weeks. The statistical analysis of the moisture showed significant differences (p <0.001 among Korbáčik cheese made from raw material ripened one and three weeks. Average moisture of the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened one week was 44.73% and of the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened three weeks was 53.73%. The statistical analysis of the dry mater value showed significant differences (p <0.001 among the Korbáčik cheese made from raw material ripened one and three weeks. Average value of dry matter of the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened one week was 55.27% and of the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened three weeks was 46.27%. The statistical analysis of the fat content showed significant differences (p <0.01 among the Korbáčik cheese made from raw material ripened one and three weeks. Average fat content of the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened one week was 22.67% and of the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened three weeks was 20.20%. The statistical analysis of the fat content in dry matter showed significant differences (p <0.001 among Korbáčik cheese made from raw material ripened one and three weeks. Average NaCl content in the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened one week was 3.78% and in the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened three weeks was 2.93%. The statistical analysis of MDA content showed significant differences (p <0.05 among the Korbáčik cheese made from raw material ripened one and three weeks. Average MDA content in the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened one week was 0.29 mg.kg-1 and in the Korbáčik made from cheese ripened three weeks was 0.36 mg.kg-1. Korbáčik cheese made from cheese aged 3 weeks was practically in all sensory

  15. Quality Assessment of Cheese in Markets of Tirana City

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    YLLKA ALLARAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycological control of cheese is considered an important process related to food safety. Food borne disease in our days remains an important issue for public health because they causes infection to the consumers and an important economic damage. A mycological survey of different kind of cheeses sold at five big markets in Tirana is conducted during March - Septembre 2013, in order to identify if potentially toxicological and pathogenic fungi were or were not present. A total 140 samples of cheeses (soft, hard, semi hard, edam cheese etch, were tested for mold and yeast counts. For level (106 cfu/gr results in 24 cases or 17.1%.From the total number of 140 cases, 24 samples have resulted to be in a load thrush (> 106 cfu /gr which are considered as samples with high potential risk. In 9 samples or (37.5% Aspergillus spp gender was present in 9 samples or 37.5% , Penicillium spp was present in 7 samples or 29.1%, Fusarium was present 2 samples or 8.4% and Mucor was present 6 samples or 25% of samples. Pathogenic genders of moulds were found mostly in white cheese and in edam chesse that have been produced in craft way.

  16. Microbiological quality of kebabs sold in Palermo and Messina

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    Graziella Ziino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of kebabs retailed in Palermo and Messina. Twenty raw and 22 cooked kebab samples were analysed to determine the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, Enterobac - teriaceae, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing anaerobes, coagulase positive staphylococci, micrococci, Bacillus cereus and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In raw kebabs, AMB ranged from 4.00 to 7.34 log cfu/g and Enterobacteriaceae from 1.00 to 7.59 log cfu/g. Escherichia coli and sulphite reducing anaerobe counts were from <1.00 to 6.18 and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. Coagulase positive staphylococci ranged from <1.00 to 3.48 log cfu/g and micrococci from <1.00 to 6.00 log cfu/g. Listeria spp. was found in three raw kebab samples. In cooked kebabs, the AMB values ranged from 1.78 to 6.30 log cfu/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.00 to 4.00 log cfu/g and micrococci from <1.00 to 5.30 log cfu/g. Three samples were positive for Escherichia coli (from 1 to 1.30 log cfu/g and one for sulphite reducing anaerobes (2.00 log cfu/g. Coagulase positive staphylococci were found in two samples with loads of 2.30 and 2.78 cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not isolated in raw and cooked samples. The results of this study show that the microbiological quality of kebabs sold in Palermo and Messina is quite variable. The authors stress the importance of selection of raw material of high quality as well as the control of cooking and storage temperatures in order to minimise bacterial potential hazards.

  17. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Seeiso; C.M.E. McCrindle

    2009-01-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illega...

  18. Microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold in Skopje, Macedonia

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    Angelovski Ljupco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold directly to the consumers in Skopje, Macedonia. Sampling took place in 16 sampling points (bakeries, confectioneries with total number of 70 samples being investigated. All the samples were tested for S. aureus, nterobacteriaceae, aerobic colony count, E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The samples were tested in the Food microbiology laboratory at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje using standard ethods accredited by the Macedonian Institute for Accreditation. Results were interpreted according to the guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Analysis of Some Ready-To-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (HPA, UK. After the analysis of the results the following data was obtained: S.aureus: 68.57% (n= 48 of the samples were satisfactory, 31.42% (n=22 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Enterobacteriaceae: 60.0% (n= 42 of the samples were satisfactory, 40.0% (n=28 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Aerobic colony count: 51.42% (n= 36 of the samples were satisfactory, 45.71 (n=32 were acceptable and 2.85% (n= 2 were unsatisfactory; Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and E.coli: None of these microorganisms were detected in the samples taken. High levels of ACC, Enterobacteriaceae and S. aureus reflect unsatisfactory hygienic practice during processing of food from source to table. This often indicate contaminated raw materials or unsatisfactory processing and unsuitable time/temperature control during storage. The established level of acceptable and unsatisfactory results highlight the need for targeted inspection and education program in order to address the potential food safety risk from hygienic practice issues.

  19. The effects of different salting and preservation techniques ofkaşar cheese on cheese quality

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, Asya; ATASEVER, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effects of different salting and preservation techniques on the quality of kaşar cheese. Physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses were performed on days 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 of the maturation of 270 samples of kaşar cheese produced for this research. Additionally, sensory analyses were performed on days 30, 60, 90, and 120 of maturation. The total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Lactococcus, Staphylococcus-Micrococcus, and p...

  20. Investigating the Strategies to Improve the Quality of Low-Fat Mozzarella and Cheddar Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwani, Ranjeeta

    2011-01-01

    Low-fat cheese faces great challenges associated with its texture being hard and rubbery, desirable flavors being missing, color being undesirably intense and translucent appearing, and melting being improper. In an effort of improving the quality of low-fat cheeses, several strategies have been tried to accomplish three major objectives, 1) improving the melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese, 2) improving the color of low-fat Cheddar cheese, and 3) investigating the feas...

  1. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  2. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

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    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  3. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Konyalı; O. Dagliogli; Gumus, T

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g), coliform bacteria (83.3%of the tota...

  4. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

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    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyalı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  6. Microbiological quality of milk sold directly from producers to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyz-Łukasik, R; Paszkiewicz, W; Tatara, M R; Brodzki, P; Bełkot, Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of raw cow milk from direct sale points. Raw cow milk samples were collected from 5 randomly selected direct sale points for microbiological evaluation. The samples were analyzed to determine total aerobic bacterial count, somatic cell count (SCC), counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus, and presence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and inhibitory substances. The mean counts of total aerobic bacterial in samples from all direct sale points were between 9.2×10(4) and 3.6×10(7) cfu/mL. Milk samples collected from 5 direct sale points revealed counts Enterobacteriaceae ranging from 6.4×10(1) to 1.7×10(6) cfu/mL. Escherichia coli were detected in 12 milk samples with counts ranging from 5.0×10(0) to 1.1×10(2) cfu/mL. Staphylococcus spp. bacteria were found in all milk samples, at counts ranging from 1.6×10(3) to 5.1×10(4) cfu/mL. Listeria monocytogenes bacteria were detected in 1 sample, and SCC in all samples ranged from 78,000 to 1,730,000/mL. The examined samples did not contain Salmonella rods or inhibitory substances. In the samples examined in this study, international hygiene standards were exceeded for total aerobic bacterial count (n=48) as well as for SCC (n=19). Two milk samples contained pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) that pose a potential hazard for consumer health. PMID:25958278

  7. Variation in milk protein composition and its importance for the quality of cheese milk

    OpenAIRE

    Wedholm, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Variations within the bovine milk protein profile can have both positive and negative impacts on the quality of cheese milk. As main contributors to the cheese structure, the caseins are important for the cheese yield. During the last decades, the proportion of casein in relation to the total protein amount (the casein number) has decreased in Swedish bulk milk. This decline is unexplained and the reason for this deteriorating trend is unknown. Therefore, more knowledge in how the protein com...

  8. Krcki cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonimir Prpić; Samir Kalit; Jasmina Lukač Havranek; Mihovil Štimac; Saša Jerković

    2003-01-01

    Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese ...

  9. Quality of Trappist cheese from Croatian dairy plant

    OpenAIRE

    Anđela Merćep; Nevijo Zdolec; Željka Cvrtila Fleck; Ivana Filipović; Bela Njari; Mario Mitak; Lidija Kozačinski

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents technological parameters, basic chemical composition and sensory evaluation, as well as the yield of 146 samples of Trappist cheese. In terms of water content in non-fat matter (56.36-58.31 %), Trappist cheese belongs to the group of semi-hard cheeses, and in terms of content of fat in dry matter (46.06-48.63 %), it belongs to the group of full-fat cheeses. In four cheese samples E. coli was determined within microbiological parameters, whereas other researched bacteria wer...

  10. Production technology and some quality parameters of Njeguši cheese

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    Slavko Mirecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of agricultural production and depopulation of areas that are recognized by traditional products, reached its peak during the last few decades. This represents a significant risk that the technology of traditional agricultural products, especially cheeses, can go into oblivion. Njeguši cheese is one of the famous Montenegrin traditional dairy products which originates from the mountain Lovćen and its peripheral areas. Produced by traditional technology, it belongs to a group of full fat, hard cheeses. Owing to its characteristic, spicy taste and pleasant odour, Njeguši cheese can be compared with some of the most famous hard cheeses. Originally it is made from ewe’s milk, but also, cow’s, goat’s and their mixture in different proportions, are increasingly used, which may be the treat to the originality of Njeguši cheese. The present study offers a description of original Njeguši cheese technology, followed by analysis of the chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey. Thereat milk, cheese and whey samples were taken from 5 households located at the place of cheese origin - the Njeguši village. Chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey was determined by method of FTIR spectrophotometry. Milk fat in the dry matter and moisture in cheese non-fat basis were mathematically calculated. The average content of milk fat in ewe’s milk was 4.92 %, proteins 4.59 %, lactose 4.14 % and total solids non-fat 9.46 %. Accordingly, the analysed cheeses belonged to full fat, semi-hard cheese due to 51.73 % fat in total solids and 60.07 % moisture in non-fat basis. The only deviation from original technology was shortening of the ripening period. Apart from the main objective - the preservation of the original technology, this study could significantly contribute to the process of protection of origin of Njeguši cheese, because the technology of cheese fulfilled the requirements listed in the National Law on the

  11. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

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    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  12. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  13. Quality of casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue as affected by stabilizer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, A. H.; Patel, H. G.; Suneeta, Pinto; Prajapati, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blen...

  14. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil Características microscópicas de queijos prato, mussarela e mineiro comercializados em feiras livres da Cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Correia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.INTRODUÇÃO: Os queijos devem ser produzidos com matéria-prima de boa qualidade, processados em condições de higiene e transportados, armazenados e comercializados de forma adequada, a fim de evitar, entre outros, a incorporação de matérias estranhas (sujidades de origem biológica ou não, as quais não são permitidas pela legislação bromatológica em vigor. Foram avaliadas as condições higiênicas de queijos prato, mussarela e mineiro comercializados em feiras livres da Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MATERIAL E M

  15. The influence of different kind of milk on quality of Sjenica cheese and Sjenica type cheeses made by autohthonous technology

    OpenAIRE

    Maćej Ognjen D.; Jovanović Snežana T.; Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, influence of the composition of autohtonous Sjenica cheese and composition of cheese made from cow milk in the type of Sjenica cheese were comparatively investigated. Autohtonous Sjenica cheese, made from ewe's milk and Sjenica type cheese made from cow's milk both had high content of moisture (53.46% and 59.56% respectively), which is the result of production process (coagulation time, curd processing, drying and salting). According to moisture conten...

  16. Quality of casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue as affected by stabilizer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, A H; Patel, H G; Suneeta, Pinto; Prajapati, J P

    2010-03-01

    Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blend (1:1) was preferred over XG-CAR and CAR-LBG. PMID:23572632

  17. Krcki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Prpić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production, the quality of whey (as the material for production of albumin cheese quargs and Krčki cheese, as well as the technology of Krčki cheese production on family farms on the island of Krk. Results of the composition and characteristics analyses of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production were as follows: milk fat 7.81%; proteins 5.59%; lactose 4.97%; total solids 19.04%; non-fat dry matter 11.06%; pH 6.66; titratable acidity 9.41 °SH, and freezing point –0.555 °C. Somatic cell count (SCC was 407 000 cells/ml and total bacterial count (cfu was 950 000/mL. Average composition of Krčki cheese was as follows: fat 37.38%; protein 23.24%; total solids 63.22%; moisture in solid non-fat 57.36%; fat in total solids 54.38%; salt 1.97%; pH 5.78; lactic acid content 1.216%; WSN/TN 10.15%, and TCASN/TN 6.28%. Microbiological analyses of Krčki cheese showed that only 55% of analysed samples were hygienically acceptable according to the Regulations of Microbial Standards for Foods (NN 46/94.. Therefore, the necessary modifications have to be introduced into technology of production of sheep′s milk and Krčki cheese in order to increase microbiological quality and to reduce variability in composition and quality of Krčki cheese between family farms. These are necessary for preparing the Krčki cheese for Protection Geographical Indication (PGI.

  18. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on The Quality of Egyptian Kareash Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of kareash cheese was evaluated. Egyptian kareash cheese were subjected to gamma irradiation at different safety doses beginning from 1 kGy to a maximum of 5 kGy . The physico-chemical composition as well as microbiological quality of kareash cheese samples was monitored before and after irradiation. Soluble nitrogen, salt as well as pH values were higher in cheese samples before irradiation in comparison with the irradiated groups. Irradiation reduced population of bacteria i.e. total colony count, Total yeast and mold count, aerobic spore former count, Coliform count, total Enterobacteriacae count and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose (5 kGy). It could be concluded that increasing the dose of irradiation up to 5 kGy had high reduction percentages for bacterial count with no effect on either sensory or chemical characteristics. Our results suggest that kareash cheese manufacturer could use gamma irradiation to improve the safety of their product. (author)

  19. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  20. Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Bottini, Giorgia; Priolisi, Francesca Romana; Mari, Alberto; Antonini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy

  1. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g). PMID:8729262

  2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF MARKET MILK SOLD AT TANDOJAM, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. JAVAID, J. A. GADAHI, M. KHASKELI, M. B. BHUTTO, S. KUMBHER AND A. H. PANHWAR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of milk sold at Tandojam, Pakistan. A total of 125 milk samples (25 samples from each source collected from five milk marketing agencies viz direct seller (DS, milk collection center(MCC, milk vendor shop (MVS, hotel (HT and buffalo dairy farm (DF, which served as control. Acidity of milk obtained from DS, MCC, MVS and HT averaged 0.13, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.13, respectively compared to 0.14 for DF milk. The pH values of milk from MVS (6.54 and HT (6.53 were significantly different (P0.05 to that of DF milk i.e. 6.65. Viscosity, specific gravity and freezing point of milk procured from DS (1.48, 1.026 and –0.460, respectively, MCC (1.58, 1.026 and –0.470, respectively, MVS (1.34, 1.026 and –0.440, respectively and HT (1.46, 1.027 and –0.480, respectively were significantly (P<0.001 lower than DF milk (1.86, 1.031 and -0.551, respectively. Chemical quality of milk procured from DS, MCC, MVS and HT compared to DF milk (control averaged 13.45, 14.18, 13.19 and 14.06% vs. 16.30% for TS content, 8.25, 8.81, 8.06 and 8.51% vs. 9.79% for SNF content, 5.20, 5.41, 5.13 and 5.54% vs. 6.51% for fat content, 3.85, 3.96, 3.91 and 4.23% vs. 4.35% for protein content, 2.70, 2.77, 2.56 and 3.20% vs. 3.56% for casein content, 3.65, 4.03, 3.34 and 3.52% vs. 4.53% for lactose content and 0.75, 0.78, 0.74 and 0.76% vs. 0.91% for ash content, respectively. All the attributes of chemical quality of milk supplied through four agencies were significantly lower (P<0.05 than DF milk.

  3. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  4. Influence of milk treatment and ripening conditions on quality of Raclette cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Klantschitsch, Thorid; Bachmann, Hans-Peter; Puhan, Zdenko

    2000-01-01

    International audience The influence of ripening temperature (11, 14, 17, $20 ^\\circ$C) and ripening time (60, 90 days) on sensory properties and melting quality of Raclette cheeses made from raw milk, pasteurised milk and microfiltered milk has been investigated using the 'special cubic model' experimental design. With increased ripening temperature substantial acceleration of ripening was achieved. The higher ripening temperature led to higher counts of propionibacteria in raw milk chees...

  5. [Microbiological quality of " ice, ice cream. sorbet" sold on the streets of Phnom Penh; April 1996-April 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruy, S L; Soares, J L; Ping, S; Sainte-Marie, F F

    2001-12-01

    A study of the microbiological quality of ice lice creams/sorbets sold on the streets of Phnom Penh city was conducted from April 1996 to April 1997. Socio-demographic and environmental characteristics with two ice/ice creams samples were collected from vendors selected in the city. A total of 105 vendors and 210 ice/ice creams samples were randomly selected for the study period. Ice/ice cream vendors in the streets of Phnom Penh were adults (mean age: 28 years old) with a male predominance (86.5%). Mean educational level of vendors was 5 years with no training in mass catering. Most ice creams and sorbets (81.7%) were made using traditional methods. Microbiological analysis performed in the laboratory of Pasteur Institute of Cambodia indicated the poor bacteriological quality of the samples. The proportions of samples classified unsafe according to microbiological criteria were 83.3% for total bacterial count at 30 degrees C, 70% for total coliforms, 30% for faecal coliforms, 12.2% for Staphylococcus aureus and 1.9% for presence of Salmonella spp. These bacterial results suggest that many other food products sold in the streets may be similarly poor. Safety measures should be undertaken to avoid potential threats. Regulation of the street food sector should be part of a larger strategy for enhanced food safety and environmental quality in the city. PMID:11889944

  6. INFLUENCE OF SOME ANTIMICROBIAL FOOD ADDITIVES AND GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE FUNGAL STATUS AND ORGANOLEPTIC QUALITY OF LOCAL STORED CHEESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effectiveness of some antimicrobial food additives on the microbial status and organoleptic quality of local cheese stored at 250C for six weeks. Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger were the predominant genera isolated from cheese samples. Treatment with propionic acid (600 and 1000 ppm), potassium sorbate (2000 and 3000 ppm) and sodium chloride (4 and 8%) decrease significantly the total fungal count of cheese less than 106/g over 4 weeks of storage at 250C. Gamma irradiation with 3 kGy completely inhibited the growth of mycelia and no mycotoxins were detected. Treatment cheese with propionic acid (1000 ppm), potassium sorbate (3000 ppm) and sodium chloride (8%) developed no detectable spoilage odour during 3 weeks of storage at 250C whereas untreated cheese was spoiled between one to two weeks. The results of the present study revealed that the use of the antimicrobial food preservatives play a great role on the inhibition of microorganisms contaminating stored cheese without cussing any organoleptic quality

  7. Combating dangerous medicines: Differences in quality of medicines sold by small pharmacies and large chain pharma

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Bate

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from numerous studies shows that emerging markets have far more poor quality drugs than western markets. There are many reasons for this, but one reason, investigated in this paper, is the possibility that smaller, often privately-owned, pharmacies take greater risks with drug procurement than larger organizations, which are often franchises or major pharmacy chains.

  8. Domestic cooked cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-01-01

    The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb), and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Sensory properties, chemical...

  9. Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of ice cream sold at San Jose, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrantz, P; Arias, M L

    2000-09-01

    The presence of total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, Listeria sp and Salmonella sp. was evaluated in 65 samples of both commercial and homemade ice cream. 37.1% of homemade ice cream and 20% of commercial ice cream did not fulfill the international standard for total coliforms. At the same time 82.9% of home made samples and 56.7% of commercial ones presented fecal coliforms. E. coli was found in 51.4% of home made samples and 26.7% of commercial ones. Sixteen Listeria sp. isolates were obtained, 50% corresponded to Listeria monocytogenes and 50% to L. innocua. The overall presence of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples was of 12.3% and it was isolated in all cases, from homemade ice cream samples. Salmonella was not isolated from the samples analyzed. Although the results obtained show an important improvement in the quality of ice cream, compared with a previous work done also in Costa Rica, further efforts shall be done, in order to offer safe products to consumers. PMID:11347303

  10. Quality of eggs sold in different commercial establishments and the study of the conditions of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielli Souza Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of storage conditions on the physicochemical (mass, albumen height, pH, and Haugh unit and microbiological (Salmonella spp., determination of the Total and Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Counting of the Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria quality of eggs. In the first experiment, a questionnaire was applied, and 33 samples of eggs were collected for the Salmonella spp analysis. In the second experiment, the eggs were collected from supermarkets, open markets, and distributors for physicochemical analysis. In the third experiment, 175 eggs were collected from the distributor, packaged in cardboard boxes lined with plastic wrapping, stored at 5 °C and 28 °C, and the physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed at 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. In the first experiment, 100% of the samples analyzed showed no Salmonella spp. In the second experiment, it was found that the values of physicochemical parameters were in agreement with those in the literature. However, in the third experiment, the physicochemical parameter results showed statistical difference during storage and temperatures studied. Salmonella spp. were found in the samples stored at room temperature and in the refrigerated samples. Mesophilic microorganisms with values ranging from <10 CFU g- 1 (estimated to 8.0 × 10³ CFU g- 1 and coliforms to 4 NMP.g- 1 were also found, but the presence of E. coli was not confirmed.

  11. Quality of lipid fraction in Tuscan sheep cheese (Pecorino Toscano DOP)

    OpenAIRE

    MINIERI S.; M. ANTONGIOVANNI; A. Buccioni; S. Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Bulk milk from dairy ewes of North Tuscany was sampled and analyzed for the fatty acids profile. Cheese was then made out of milk, pasteurized and fortified with Lactobacilli. The same analysis was performed on the lipid fraction of samples of the freshly made cheese and of samples of the same cheese, but ripened for different times: 30, 60, 90, 120 days of ageing. As a result, cheese making did not affect the acidic composition of the lipid fraction of the original milk and, furthermore, age...

  12. Ability of 3 tanniferous forage legumes to modify quality of milk and Gruyère-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M; Dohme-Meier, F; Wechsler, D; Goy, D; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2016-01-01

    Condensed tannins (CT) may affect ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. A feeding experiment was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to evaluate whether diets containing CT from different forage legumes can increase polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acid content in milk and cheese, without affecting negatively their physicochemical and sensorial properties. Cows were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n=6) for 52 d, divided into 2 periods: a control period (CoP) and an experimental period (ExP). During the CoP, cows received a basal diet composed of hay, corn silage, ExtruLin (Trinova Handel & Marketing AG, Wangen, Switzerland), concentrate, and alfalfa (AF) in a ratio of 45:25:5:7:18. In the ExP, in 3 of the 4 groups AF was replaced by either sainfoin (SF; 19% CT in dry matter) or 1 of 2 cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil [Polom (BP), 3% CT; Bull (BB), 5% CT]. At the end of each period, milk was collected on 3 consecutive days and analyzed for milk gross composition and fatty acid profile and was processed to Gruyère-type cheese. A trained panel assessed the sensory quality of raw milk and cheese using discriminative and descriptive tests. This experimental design consisting of AF in both the CoP and ExP allowed us to quantify effects due to lactation stage and experimental diets. In both the CoP and ExP, dry matter intake and milk yield did not differ among treatment groups. From the CoP to the ExP, milk urea content was reduced by 23% with SF, remained unchanged with BP, and tended to increase with AF and BB. The odor of the raw BB milk was judged to be different from AF milk. With SF, switching from the CoP to the ExP resulted in a 17% increase of the 18:3n-3 proportion in milk and cheese lipids. In BP cheese, the increase was 3%, whereas it tended to decrease in BB cheese. Additionally, the 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 proportions tended to increase in SF cheese from the CoP to the ExP. Compared with the AF cheeses, cheeses from cows

  13. Microbial quality of selected sandwiches sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmul Hoque; S.M. Lutful Kabir; M. Mufizur Rahman; M. Shahidur Rahman Khan

    2012-01-01

    the experiment was designed to undertake a study on the sanitary quality of commercial fast foods sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh. One hundred sandwiches were subjected to bacteriological examinations. The mean values of total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and total staphylococcal count (TSC) in wrapped and unwrapped samples of pre-microwave oven and post-microwave oven fast foods were determined. In pre-microwave oven...

  14. Analysis of variables that influence microbiological quality in fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Sobota Šalamon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research variables which influence microbiological quality in fresh cheese productionwith respect to yeasts and moulds were analyzed. Since yeasts and moulds do not survive the process of pasteurization their isolation in the final product is a result of their supplemental contamination during fermentation and whey drainage. Following variables were monitored: total number of aerobicmesophilic bacteria AMB in rinsing water, total number of yeasts and moulds in rinsing water, total number of AMB in pasteurized milk, total number of AMB in air and total number of yeasts and mouldsin air. These variables were analysed by methods of descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and the method of artificial intelligence - decision tree. By the method of principal component analysis it is shown that the greatest impact on the quality of the final product have variables connected to microbiological cleanness of air. The method of decision tree has resulted in determination of new internal standards for total number of AMB and yeasts and moulds in the air.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K+, Ca+, Na+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K+, Ca2+, Na+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on The Microbial Load and Quality Characteristics of Baladi Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) was treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined Immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of cold storage in brine. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased the the moisture content, Ca++, Na+ , K+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased the protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on the sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  18. Assessment of hygienic quality of some types of cheese sampled from retail outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale; Paolo Calistri; Osvaldo Matteucci; Giacomo Migliorati; Vincenza Prencipe

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus enterotoxin, in 2 132 samples selected from six types of cheese on the basis of recorded consumption in Italy in 2004. In L. monocytogenes-positive samples the precise level of contamination was determined. To define the physical-chemical characteristics of the selected natural cheeses, the pH values, water activity and sodium chloride content were determined. The resul...

  19. Jersey milk suitability for Cheddar cheese production: process, yield, quality and financial impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the benefits of including Jersey milk into Holstein-Friesian milk on the Cheddar cheese making process and secondly, using the data gathered, identify the effects and relative importance of a wide range of milk components on milk coagulation properties and the cheese making process. Blending Jersey and Holstein-Friesian milk led to quadratic trends on the size of casein micelle and fat globule and on coagulation properties. However th...

  20. Assessment of hygienic quality of some types of cheese sampled from retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Migliorati, Giacomo; Matteucci, Osvaldo; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and staphylococcal enterotoxin, in 2,132 samples selected from six types of cheese on the basis of recorded consumption in Italy in 2004. In L. monocytogenes-positive samples the precise level of contamination was determined. To define the physical-chemical characteristics of the selected natural cheeses, the pH values, water activity and sodium chloride content were determined. The results suggest that blue and soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola and Taleggio) are more likely to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the six types of cheese was 2.4% (from 0.2% in Asiago and Crescenza to 6.5% in Taleggio), with contamination levels of up to 460 MPN/g. No presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157 was found in any sample. Staphylococcus enterotoxin was found in 0.6% of the samples examined. Physical and chemical parameter values confirmed that all types of cheese are considered capable of supporting the growth of L. monocytogenes. The study confirmed the need to apply effective control at production and sales levels to reduce the probability of contamination by L. monocytogenes. This micro-organism can attain high levels of contamination in food products, such as cheeses that have a long shelf-life when associated with difficulties of maintaining appropriate storage temperatures in both sales points and in the home. PMID:20560130

  1. Assessment of hygienic quality of some types of cheese sampled from retail outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus enterotoxin, in 2 132 samples selected from six types of cheese on the basis of recorded consumption in Italy in 2004. In L. monocytogenes-positive samples the precise level of contamination was determined. To define the physical-chemical characteristics of the selected natural cheeses, the pH values, water activity and sodium chloride content were determined. The results suggest that blue and soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola and Taleggio are more likely to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the six types of cheese was 2.4% (from 0.2% in Asiago and Crescenza to 6.5% in Taleggio, with contamination levels of up to 460 MPN/g. No presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157 was found in any sample. Staphylococcus enterotoxin was found in 0.6% of the samples examined. Physical and chemical parameter values confirmed that all types of cheese are considered capable of supporting the growth of L. monocytogenes. The study confirmed the need to apply effective control at production and sales levels to reduce the probability of contamination by L. monocytogenes. This micro-organism can attain high levels of contamination in food products, such as cheeses that have a long shelf-life when associated with difficulties of maintaining appropriate storage temperatures in both sales points and in the home.

  2. Bacteriological quality of some dairy products (kariesh cheese and ice cream) in alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahareem, Omar H; El-Shamy, Hoda A; Bakr, Wafaa M; Gomaa, Naglaa F

    2007-01-01

    The present study estimated the total viable bacterial density, total and faecal coliforms, and E. coli in Kariesh cheese and ice cream. The study included 160 ice cream and kariesh cheese samples (80 samples each). Ice cream samples were 47 packed (33 cup and 14 stick) and 33 open samples while kariesh cheese samples were 62 open, 18 packed samples (8 of known brand and 10 of unknown brand). Samples were collected from supermarkets, shops and street vendors. All samples were analyzed for enumeration of total viable heterotrophic bacteria using standard pour plate method, and for the determination of the total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli using multiple tube dilution method. Ice cream samples, showed that the total bacterial count was >/=1.5x105 cfu/g in 26 (32.5%) samples, total coliforms were >/= 10 MPN/g in 36 (45.0%) samples, fecal coliforms were detected in 45 (56.3%) samples ,and E. coli was detected in 34 (42.5%). kariesh cheese samples, showed a total coliforms of >/= 10 MPN/g in 54 (67.5%) samples, while fecal coliforms were detected in 64 (80%) samples, and E. coli was detected in 60 (75%). It is recommended to use and implement immediate regulatory measures like good manufacturing practices as well as distribution and retail storage practices for ensuring microbiological safety of ice cream and kariesh cheese. PMID:18706301

  3. Qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bergman Zaffari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de queijo artesanal, vendido em estabelecimentos de beira de estrada, é comum no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Geralmente estes produtos não são fabricados em acordo com as boas normas de fabricação e podem constituir perigo à saúde do consumidor. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, verificar a qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas litorâneas por meio da contagem de coliformes e pesquisa de Listeria spp. e Brucella spp. Foram analisados 80 queijos, sendo 62 do tipo Colonial, dez do tipo Provolone, seis do tipo Ricota e dois do tipo Caccio Cavallo. No momento da coleta, 71% das amostras não estavam sob refrigeração. Todas as amostras apresentaram contagens de coliformes totais e, destas, 62 foram testadas para a presença de coliformes fecais. Um total de 84% das amostras apresentou contagens de coliformes fecais acima de 2,73- 3,7 log.UFC g- 1 (de 500 a 5000UFC mL-1, previsto como limite máximo a ser encontrado em queijos. Dos 29 estabelecimentos, 27 tinham produtos fora destes limites. Das 80 amostras, 16% continham Listeria spp., sendo 3,7% identificadas como Listeria monocytogenes. As estações do ano influenciaram no isolamento de Listeria spp., sendo a primavera considerada a estação do ano com maior número de isolados. Brucella spp. não foram isoladas nas 80 amostras de queijos analisadas. A alta freqüência de coliformes fecais e a presença de L. monocytogenes revelam que o consumo destes queijos constitui perigo de infecção à população em geral e especialmente àquelas pessoas imunocomprometidas.The consumption of homemade cheese, which is sold in little shops along the road, is very common in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Generally, these products are not manufactured according to the good hygiene guidelines; and may be a risk to the consumers’ health. The aim of this research was the assessment of the bacteriological quality of homemade cheese sold in

  4. Concerns about the microbiological quality of traditional raw milk cheeses: a worldwide issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella and  “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae counts were observed in “fresh cheese” than in “pasta filata” samples. Values > 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. An evident contamination by Escherichia coli, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp. was detected in all the cheeses: the causes could be the improper hygiene of the artisanal production practices and the permanence of the cheeses on the refrigerated shelves. A careful attention to the respect of the good manufacturing practices is suggested to avoid the presence of initial high bacterial loads.

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil) on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Alsawaf; H. S. Alnaemi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g) in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator te...

  6. Qualitative evaluation of buffalo cheese using FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Coroian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf,buffalo milk cheese (Napolact and buffalo mozzarella (Italy. Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of3600-3010 cm-1, showing a high content in water for mozzarella, followed by buffalo milk cheese,traditional cheese and the lowest content being observed to mouldy cheese.

  7. The influence of the ultrafiltration on the yield and quality of cottage cheese

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    Ljubica Tratnik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Cottage cheese samples, from controlled skimmed milk (with 3.5 % proteins, ultrafiltered (UF and skimmed milk with different protein content (≈ 5%, 6% and 8% adjusted with permeates, have been produced. Fermentations are obtained at 22 °C, by the addition of 0.5 % mesophilic culture, „O“ type (DVS-culture, Chr. Hansen’s Lab., Denmark and without rennet addition. The increased protein content has the greatestinfluence on the fermentation time (from 17 to 24; 27 and 29.5 hours as well as on the cheese yield (from 15.2 to 25.3; 26.4; and 37.7 %. By the ultrafiltration applied, an increased protein content (18.8-19.7 %, ash (0.86- 0.99 %, calcium (115-137 mg/100g and dry matter (21.4-23.5 % have been obtained in comparison with control sample (17.26 % protein, 0.75 % ash, 105 mg/100g calcium, and 20.7 % dry matter. Better sensory characteristics of the experimental cheeses have been obtained in comparison with control samples. The control sample showed slightly softer consistency, and more smaller and more crumbly grains. The most efficient cheese yield, calculated on the basis of milk protein content, is obtained with UF-skimmed milk with ≈5 % protein. The best sensory characteristics, during entire storage time in refrigerator (14 days at +5 °C, are obtained with Cottage cheese produced from UF-skimmed milk with ≈ 6 % protein content.

  8. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  9. Lecevacki cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Siniša Matutinović; Ante Rako; Samir Kalit; Jasmina Havranek

    2007-01-01

    In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price) of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have ...

  10. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  11. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengaloundeth, Sivong; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Manolin, Ot; Phommavong, Khamlieng; Insixiengmay, Vongsavanh; Hampton, Christina Y; Nyadong, Leonard; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Hostetler, Dana; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Vongsack, Latsamy; Phompida, Samlane; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Syhakhang, Lamphone; Newton, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9%) sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97%) sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8%) fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet). Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT) in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention. PMID:19638225

  12. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  13. Lecevacki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Matutinović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have significant potential due to the fact that high value raw material - sheep milk produced from breed with very extensively management using natural pasture with characteristic botanical composition consisting aromatic Mediteranean plants, is used in their production. This milk is characterized with high percentage of some chemical components, especially fat and protein. Considering that fact, this milk represents the best material especially for hard cheese production. In this paper the review of milk chemical composition of the most important Croatian sheep breeds which milk is used for production of hard cheeses, was performed. The review of basic technological parameters in production of hard traditional cheeses considering type, standardization and heat treatment of milk, renneting, curd cutting and drying, dimension, salting and ripening is represented. Characterization parameters of cheese, considering chemical and physical composition, biochemical changes, dominant microflora which dominates in technological production procedure and determines taste and odour of mature cheese, are shown. The basic characteristics and technology of Lecevacki cheese production was described too, as the most important traditional cheese from Split area surroundings. This cheese type was produced on family farms as well as on industrial level for some time. Its sensory characteristics are described in the paper.

  14. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

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    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  15. Concerns about the microbiological quality of traditional raw milk cheeses : a worldwide issue

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Tirloni; Simone Stella; Cristian Bernardi

    2014-01-01

    Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella) and “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata) were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC) (P=0.002) and Enterobacteriaceae counts (P 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, resp...

  16. Qualitative evaluation of buffalo cheese using FTIR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Coroian; Monica Trif; Cristian Ovidiu Coroian; Vioara Mireşan; Camelia Răducu; Stelian Dărăban

    2012-01-01

    FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf),buffalo milk cheese (Napolact) and buffalo mozzarella (Italy). Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of360...

  17. A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Skelin; Dubravka Samaržija; Sulejman Redžepović; Samir Kalit; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka; Višnja Magdić; Jasmina Havranek

    2013-01-01

    Istrian cheese is the traditional hard cheese produced exclusively from the raw milk of the autochthonous Istrian sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality, physicochemical properties of the sheep milk and Istrian cheese as well as proteolysis of cheese produced on six family farms during the cheese ripening. The hygienic microbial indicators of the sheep milk were poor in comparison to the other East Adriatic regions. However, the number of bacterial indicator...

  18. Microbial quality of selected sandwiches sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Hoque

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available the experiment was designed to undertake a study on the sanitary quality of commercial fast foods sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh. One hundred sandwiches were subjected to bacteriological examinations. The mean values of total viable count (TVC, total coliform count (TCC and total staphylococcal count (TSC in wrapped and unwrapped samples of pre-microwave oven and post-microwave oven fast foods were determined. In pre-microwave oven the TVC, TCC and TSC were log 6.36, log 3.42 and log 4.21 respectively. similarly in post-microwave oven the TVC, TCC and TSC were log 4.89, log 2.60 and log 3.03 respectively. The role of packaging and heat treatment prior to sale on the bacterial changes of the fast foods were demonstrated. It was observed that the values of TVC of all fast food samples except post-microwave oven treated McDonald’s; Pizza and Ruma were higher than the maximum microbial limit. In TCC and TSC all values were higher than the maximum limit. The degree of initial contamination in fast food samples which may pose health hazard to public health has been discussed. It was concluded that the hygienically packaged fast foods and microoven treatment prior to sale would retain the best quality attributes required for consumer’s acceptability and safety.  

  19. Incorporating mixed rations and formulated grain mixes into the diet of grazing cows: Effects on milk composition and coagulation properties, and the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Williams, R P W; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2016-06-01

    Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the composition and coagulation properties of milk and the subsequent yield and quality of Cheddar cheese were measured. The experiment used milk from 72 Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, fed according to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture [approximately 14kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, to ground level] supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock (FGM); or (3) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a partial mixed ration comprising the same formulated grain mix but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking (PMR). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio (78:22, DM basis). Within each feeding strategy, milk was sampled from cows receiving either 8 or 16kg (DM) of supplement/cow per day. There were 2 replicated groups of 6 cows per supplement amount per dietary strategy; approximately 250L of milk was sampled from each for analyses of composition and coagulation properties and the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. For cows fed according to the control strategy, those fed 16kg/cow per day produced milk with lower concentrations of milk fat than cows fed 8kg/cow per day. This effect was not observed for cows fed according to the FGM and PMR strategies. Milk from cows fed 16kg of DM/cow per day according to the control strategy yielded less Cheddar cheese than milk from cows fed according to the PMR strategy, with cheese yields from FGM cows being intermediate. Amount of supplement offered had

  20. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. PMID:25124136

  1. Marketing of the autochthonous dried cheese in Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, value added food products is constantlyincreasing. In order to prepare such products for the market it is necessary to understand consumers’ attitudes and preferences towards food products. Dried cheese, one of the traditional products of wider Zagreb region is produced nowadays exclusively on the family farms without proper control of the used inputs and final product, and without any marketing activities. It is possible to add value and to increase the control of dried cheese production bydeveloping county brand of the cheese. The introduction of county brand of dried cheese in the market requires very good preparation in terms of fulfilling consumers’ needs and wishes. In this paper the results of the consumer survey are presented and could be used for the determination of the technological parameters of production and especially for marketing of the cheese and its distribution. The results showed that majority of the consumers prefer harder, compact, bright yellow cheese, with less intensive odour, packed in transparent plastic foil. Certain number of the respondents confused dried cheese with other cheeses sold in the market and therefore it is necessary to educate consumers about dried cheese and its characteristics compared to other cheeses.

  2. Replacement Of Milk Fat By Olive Oil In Manufacturing Soft Cheese And Keeping Its Quality By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using olive oil as milk fat substitute in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content , in addition, to utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefor, one hundred (100 kg) from fresh mixed cow s' and buffaloes s' milk containing 4 % milk fat and 1 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with olive oil and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 4% olive oil used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to γ-irradiation with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by olive oil in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated soft cheese . In addition, 2.5 kGy dose prolonged the shelf-life of treated soft cheese to 45 days compared to 18 days for control sample. It could be concluded that, the new product contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods. (Authors)

  3. A Multi-Omics Approach to Evaluate the Quality of Milk Whey Used in Ricotta Cheese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Eleonora; Andreani, Nadia A.; Carraro, Lisa; Lucchini, Rosaria; Fasolato, Luca; Telatin, Andrea; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Simionati, Barbara; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the past, milk whey was only a by-product of cheese production, but currently, it has a high commercial value for use in the food industries. However, the regulation of whey management (i.e., storage and hygienic properties) has not been updated, and as a consequence, its microbiological quality is very challenging for food safety. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique was applied to several whey samples used for Ricotta production to evaluate the microbial community composition in depth using both RNA and DNA as templates for NGS library construction. Whey samples demonstrating a high microbial and aerobic spore load contained mostly Firmicutes; although variable, some samples contained a relevant amount of Gammaproteobacteria. Several lots of whey acquired as raw material for Ricotta production presented defective organoleptic properties. To define the volatile compounds in normal and defective whey samples, a headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was conducted. The statistical analysis demonstrated that different microbial communities resulted from DNA or cDNA library sequencing, and distinguishable microbiota composed the communities contained in the organoleptic-defective whey samples.

  4. A Multi-Omics Approach to Evaluate the Quality of Milk Whey Used in Ricotta Cheese Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Eleonora; Andreani, Nadia A; Carraro, Lisa; Lucchini, Rosaria; Fasolato, Luca; Telatin, Andrea; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Simionati, Barbara; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the past, milk whey was only a by-product of cheese production, but currently, it has a high commercial value for use in the food industries. However, the regulation of whey management (i.e., storage and hygienic properties) has not been updated, and as a consequence, its microbiological quality is very challenging for food safety. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique was applied to several whey samples used for Ricotta production to evaluate the microbial community composition in depth using both RNA and DNA as templates for NGS library construction. Whey samples demonstrating a high microbial and aerobic spore load contained mostly Firmicutes; although variable, some samples contained a relevant amount of Gammaproteobacteria. Several lots of whey acquired as raw material for Ricotta production presented defective organoleptic properties. To define the volatile compounds in normal and defective whey samples, a headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was conducted. The statistical analysis demonstrated that different microbial communities resulted from DNA or cDNA library sequencing, and distinguishable microbiota composed the communities contained in the organoleptic-defective whey samples. PMID:27582735

  5. Research on processing technology and quality of fan-style cheese%乳扇加工新工艺及品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍芬; 黄艾祥; 段达松

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, processing technology and quality of fan-style cheese were studied according to its traditional technology and Italy style cheese. The improved technology showed that Raw Baffulo Milk → Pasteurized Milk → inoculate starter culture and fermentation →milk congeal by rennet → cutting → remove whey → stretching in hot water to make it like fan. The nutritional composition of the fanstyle cheese are 29.25% protein, 51.14% fat and 10.14% water. The microbe index of the product are mold ≤ 50 g-1,yeast ≤ 50 g-1, coliform ≤0.30g-1 and no pathogen. The improved fan-style cheese was excellent and the quality met some of Chinese standard.%在乳扇传统加工工艺基础上,结合意大利干酪加工技术,研究乳扇新加工工艺和产品质量.筛选的最佳工艺为:生鲜乳→质检→净乳→巴氏杀菌→冷却→接种发酵→加酶凝乳→凝乳、切割→乳清成熟→堆叠后熟→热烫拉伸→成型→干燥→包装→检验→成品.水牛奶乳扇的蛋白质平均质量分数29.25%,脂肪平均质量分数为51.14%,水分10.14%;霉菌≤50g-1,酵母菌≤50g-1,大肠菌群(最近似值)≤0.30 g-1,致病菌未检出.产品质量符合相关规定.

  6. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  7. The quality influence of goat milk and technology of production on the characteristic of the goat milk cheese of the Camembert type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to provide high quality goat milk production of a goat cheese of Camembert type. The results of the work are showing us that in row milk, the total number of bacteria was in a range from 4x103 to 20x103/mL, and the number of somatic cells is from 230x103 to 390x103/mL. Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not found. Milk did not contain antibiotic residues, mycotoxins, pesticides, hard metals or radionucleoides. From the hygienic view, the milk was healthy and safe. Milk from German does i.e. the race of the studied goat had 3.2 ± 0.10% of fat and a mild taste and smell. The part of the middlechain fatty acids (C6-C12 was 15.31% and capric acid was 6.29%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were 26.69% and linolic-acid 3.1%. According to protein content, as well as other indicators of the contents and physical-chemical characteristics, the milk was technologically suitable for cheese production. The selection of the cultures MM100 and TA052, as well as the mold Geotrichum condidum and Penicillium camemberti and the tehnologyc process with the HACCP system implemented, enabled the production of a healthy and safe cheese with the well known characteristics.

  8. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concen...

  9. Effect of Proteases on Meltability and Stretchability of Nabulsi Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Abu-Alruz; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Jihad M. Quasem; Ramadan K. Hejazin; Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Boiled white brined cheese (Nabulsi cheese) is the mostly consumed cheese in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries. However, these characteristics are rarely available when usual processing and preservation method were used. Approach: This study was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply me...

  10. High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600 MPa for 7 min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600 MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600 MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses. PMID:23729423

  11. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  12. The quality influence of goat milk and technology of production on the characteristic of the goat milk cheese of the Camembert type

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Vranješ Anka; Jovanović S.; Savić Mila; Krajinović M.; Kasalica Anka; Miočinović Dragica; Kecman Jelena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to provide high quality goat milk production of a goat cheese of Camembert type. The results of the work are showing us that in row milk, the total number of bacteria was in a range from 4x103 to 20x103/mL, and the number of somatic cells is from 230x103 to 390x103/mL. Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not found. Milk did not contain antibiotic residues, mycotoxins, pesticides, hard metals or radionucleoides. From the hygienic view, the milk...

  13. DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SPECIES TEXTURE PROCESSED CHEESE AND PROCESSED PRODUCTS DIFFERENT BATCHES UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS KEEP THEM FOR EATING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čapla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated the texture of processed cheese and processed products. The products we have retained as it is assumed that they kept and used by ordinary consumers. This means that the product purchased certain period has elapsed, we included in our test conditions. Texture analysis help provide the basic methods and explaining procedures for analysis, also provide for the initiation of new types of tests or review new products and therefore be dealt with differences in the products according to specific requirements. Sensory panels also play an important role in the evaluation of food products, but the use of texture analyzer eliminates human error and tests carried out are consistent and accurate. Analysis of texture help manufacturers monitor and analyze the texture characteristics of their products. From the producers can modify the product key factors such as characteristics of the milk into cheese and can also modify manufacturing processes to the functional properties of cheese. Fulfilling the basic requirements to maintain their properties and cheese functionality.

  14. EFFECT OF VACUUM DRYING ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF SEMI-SOLID CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Ermolaev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Both theoretical and applied studies on microstructure of cheese immediately after a technological cycle and dry cheese obtained by vacuum drying are described. The aim of the microstructure studies is a more comprehensive evaluation of the product quality. Images of cheese upon high- and low-temperature secondary heating at different magnification were studied. The effect of drying on cheese microstructure was investigated. Analysis and identification of various components in the cheese mass...

  15. Seasonal trend of some parameters of the milk quality payment for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 4 years (2002¸2005 on 85587 bulk milk samples from the evening and the morning milking of 1340 dairy herds subdivided in plain, hill and mountain. All the parameters were influenced by year, season and year*season interaction. Titratable acidity showed higher values in autumn (3.28 °SH/50ml and lower in summer (3.22. Somatic cell count was lower in winter and higher in summer. The calculated casein values, were higher in autumn (2.54 g/100g and lower in spring (2.42. Fat content values were higher in autumn (3.67 g/100g and lower in spring and summer (3.47-3.46. During summer the quality of the milk had a general worsening. Such a worsening was more evident during summer of the year 2003, characterised by THI values higher than those of years 2002, 2004 and 2005.

  16. Avaliação sensorial do queijo: Definição dos atributos de qualidade Sensory evaluation of cheese: Definition of quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O queijo Serpa é um queijo curado, de pasta semimole, com Designação de Origem Protegida (DOP, obtido por esgotamento lento da coalhada após a coagulação do leite cru de ovelha, por acção de uma infusão de Cynara cardunculus L.. A avaliação sensorial, como o próprio nome nos induz, pode ser definida por uma trilogia que envolve o indivíduo, o produto e a avaliação propriamente dita. A relação estabelecida por estes três elementos e as possíveis combinações, originam nesta área uma metodologia extremamente diversificada. Metodologicamente a avaliação passa primeiro pela adopção do tipo de prova, seguidamente pela selecção do instrumento de avaliação, que na prática se traduz na escolha de uma escala e por último pela selecção dos indivíduos que são utilizados na avaliação, condicionando a resposta a obter. Pretendeu-se com este estudo avaliar a qualidade do queijo Serpa e definir os atributos de textura e olfacto-gustativos. Um painel de provadores treinado avaliou em 14 sessões 126 amostras de queijo Serpa com 60 dias de cura, estabelecendo-se para o efeito uma prova hedónica e uma prova quantitativa. O painel de provadores definiu o perfil das características de textura e olfacto gustativas do queijo Serpa e foram identificadas as associações entre os atributos e a qualidade do queijo.Serpa cheese is a soft cheese with an AOP designation, obtained from curdling of raw ewe’s milk, by the action of an infusion of Cynara cardunculus L. Sensory evaluation can be defined as a trilogy linking the panellists, the product and the assessment. The relation between them, makes it possible to determine different sensory methodology. According the main objective and the expected response, this methodology comprises the selection and training of panellists, the type of assessment and the type of scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate Serpa Cheese quality and define the sensory attributes of flavour and

  17. A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Istrian cheese is the traditional hard cheese produced exclusively from the raw milk of the autochthonous Istrian sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality, physicochemical properties of the sheep milk and Istrian cheese as well as proteolysis of cheese produced on six family farms during the cheese ripening. The hygienic microbial indicators of the sheep milk were poor in comparison to the other East Adriatic regions. However, the number of bacterial indicators rapidly declined during the ripening and they were under the detection limit for “ready to consume” cheese and therefore indicated their good bacteriological quality. Regression function of the effects of the ripening time on physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese during ripening showed a substantial increase in total solids, in salt, in moisture and in salt content as well as in the lactic acid in the total solids. However, these changes were not significant due to the high variability of the Istrian cheese production. The farm cheese making procedure affected the electrophoretic profile of the primary proteolysis in the cheese samples. Significant (P5 %. Equal degradation of as1-casein and ß-casein during ripening of Istrian cheese occurred. A low percentage of nitrogen fractions soluble in water and in 12 % trichloroacetic acid were determined.

  18. Coupon Redemption and Its Effect on Household Cheese Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.

    2003-01-01

    By endogenizing unit value and coupon redemption, we estimate U.S. household cheese purchase, quality choice, and coupon redemption equations simultaneously. Zero purchases and missing values are taken into account in the model to correct for the selectivity bias. The correlations among the three equations are found to be significant. Empirical findings show that high quality choice significantly decreases cheese purchases, while cheese coupon usage significantly increases purchases. We find ...

  19. Test for measuring the stretchability of melted cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, R L; McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J

    2002-12-01

    A test for measuring the stretchability of cheese was developed by adapting a texture-profile analyzer to pull strands of cheese upwards from a reservoir of melted cheese. Seven different cheeses were analyzed using the Utah State University stretch test. The cheeses were also analyzed for apparent viscosity with a helical viscometer, for meltability using a tube melt test, and for stretch using the pizza-fork test. Cheese was placed into a stainless steel cup and tempered in a water bath at 60, 70, 80, or 90 degrees C for 30 min before analysis. The cup was then placed in a water-jacketed holder mounted on the base of the instrument. A three-pronged hook-shaped probe was lowered into the melted cheese and then pulled vertically until all cheese strands broke or 30 cm was reached. This produced a stretch profile as the probe was lifted through the reservoir of melted cheese and then pulled strands of cheese upwards. Three parameters were defined to characterize the stretchability of the cheese. The maximum load, obtained as the probe was lifted through the cheese, was defined as melt strength (F(M)). The distance to which cheese strands were lifted was defined as stretch length (SL). The load exerted on the probe as the strands of cheese were being stretched was defined as stretch quality (SQ). There was a correlation between F(M) and apparent viscosity. There was also some correlation between SL measured by the fork test and SL when the cheese was tested at 90 degrees C, but no correlation occurred at lower temperatures. PMID:12512629

  20. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  1. Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J.; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between diff...

  2. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  4. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  5. Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Some Egyptian Soft Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Ghada, Z. A. A., 2*Alia, M. H., 3**Soha, Al-S., 4*Magdy, N. A., and 5*Mohammed, F. S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products is considered the most complete foodstuff that provide human either infants or adults with most of their vital needs. Milk and cheese have high nutritive value due to its high content of protein, fat, minerals especially calcium (Ca2+ & phosphorous, and vitamins. Two hundred samples produced and sold in Egypt during 2001-2003 were collected from allover the country. The cheese samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. Samples were microbiologically tested for total aerobic bacterial count (TABC, Colifrm, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, mould and yeast, salmonella and shigella, and listeria species. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, lactose, Calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P and Ca/P were evaluated. The analysis showed that total aerobic bacterial count did not exceed 1.4X105±1.7X105 cells/gm, which is close to what allowed by the Standard Egyptian Guidelines (2001 and 47.5 % of the tested cheese are free from coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Ninety-eight and half percent, 97 %, 97 % and 91.5 % of the tested cheese (kareish, feta, thalaga, double cream respectively, either made in plant or home or farmers' cheese sample have zero Staphylococcus aureus count or mould and yeast; or salmonella and shigella, or listeria species respectively, i. e. free from them. Double cream cheese has the lowest protein content (7.79±0.78 gm% while kareish cheese has the highest protein content (19.99±1.32 gm%, but for fat content the opposite is true, double cream cheese have the highest fat content (24.56±1.78 gm% while kareish cheese have the lowest fat content (3.87±0.97 gm %. Feta cheese has high ash content while kareish cheese has the highest moisture content with the lowest ash content (68.97±1.86 & 1.81±0.47 gm% respectively. Lactose content varies widely from 1.50±0.26 (double cream cheese to 3.25±0.50 (feta cheese. Kareish cheese has higher content of calcium and

  6. Improvement of consumer properties of melted cheese applying vegetable protein

    OpenAIRE

    Шевченко, Олена Євгеніївна

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development and merchandising evaluation of new combined melted cheese, applying vegetable ingredients, to enhance biological value, improve the nutritional properties and reduce cholesterol levels. The work includes the research of samples of developed melted cheese, their expert evaluation; study of merchandising quality properties of cheese, namely, rheological and organoleptic. The influence of the quantitative substitution of raw milk by the vegetable pr...

  7. Effect of type of concentrated sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield, and functionality of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lin, T; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2007-06-01

    Sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) is a rich source of phospholipids (PL). Most SCB is sold in a concentrated form. This study was conducted to determine if different concentration processes could affect the behavior of SCB as an ingredient in cheese. Sweet cream buttermilk was concentrated by 3 methods: cold ( pizza cheese was manufactured using the 3 different types of concentrated SCB as an ingredient in standardized milk. Cheesemilks of casein:fat ratio of 1.0 and final casein content approximately 2.7% were obtained by blending ultrafiltered (UF)-SCB retentate (19.9% solids), RO-SCB retentate (21.9% solids), or EVAP-SCB retentate (36.6% solids) with partially skimmed milk (11.2% solids) and cream (34.6% fat). Control milk (11.0% solids) was standardized by blending partially skimmed milk with cream. Cheese functionality was assessed using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology, UW Meltprofiler (degree of flow after heating to 60 degrees C), and performance of cheese on pizza. Initial trials with SCB-fortified cheeses resulted in approximately 4 to 5% higher moisture (51 to 52%) than control cheese (approximately 47%). In subsequent trials, procedures were altered to obtain similar moisture content in all cheeses. Fat recoveries were significantly lower in RO- and EVAP-SCB cheeses than in control or UF-SCB cheeses. Nitrogen recoveries were not significantly different but tended to be slightly lower in control cheeses than the various SCB cheeses. Total PL recovered in SCB cheeses ( approximately 32 to 36%) were lower than control ( approximately 41%), even though SCB is high in PL. From the rheology test, the loss tangent curves at temperatures > 40 degrees C increased as cheese aged up to a month and were significantly lower in SCB cheeses than the control, indicating lower meltability. Degree of flow in all the cheeses was similar regardless of the treatment used, and as cheese ripened, it increased for all cheeses. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble N levels were

  8. Neutron activation analysis of cheese, eggs, fish, fowl and meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, K, Mg, Na, Rb, S and Ti in 44 samples of cheese, eggs, fish, fowl and meats sold in Canada were determined with absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis. The procedure is fully computerized and incorporates one short irradiation and counting only. When an element was not detected, its detection limit was calculated. The nuclear interferences and blanks were taken into account. The nutritional significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  9. MARKETING PREMIUM FOOD PRODUCTS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF MACEDONIAN CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Grannis, Jennifer L.; Hine, Susan E.; Thilmany, Dawn D.

    1999-01-01

    Developing food products with higher standards or brands in newly emerging markets presents a challenge to processors. This study focused on attributes that may increase cheese demand in Macedonian. Demand for higher quality, taste, consistency and certified "safe" cheese at premiums is relatively high. Income, region, shopping behavior and various other demographics all delineate potential consumers of premium cheese.

  10. Expression and release of proteolytic enzymes of Lactococcus lactis - Ripening of UF-cheese.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Semi-hard cheese types, such as Gouda, cannot be satisfactorily produced when using ultrafiltration technology. Although the cheese yield increases using this method, the higher financial return is completely lost by the (poor) quality of the cheese. The work described in this thesis is directed at

  11. Bacteriological Quality of Foods and Water Sold by Vendors and in Restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Three Microbiological Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nkere, Chukwuemeka K.; Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of fo...

  12. THE STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT CHEESE MADE WITH UNTRADITIONAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Oboznaya, M.; Prasol, D.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacture of dairy products, especially cheese production, on the basis of reconstituted milk and milk recombination is an important task. Stable quality is the most important criteria. Soft cheese production is rapidly developed with the low complexity of technology. Wide range and organoleptic advantages compared with traditional types of cheese give hope to meet the consumer demand. Development of combined products of soft cheese with inclusion the proteins and fats of vegetable origin i...

  13. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones, esters, alcohols and aldehydes can be formed from milk fat, compounds that all contribute their own special character to the final cheese flavour. The formation mechanisms that lead to these compounds a...

  14. Low-Quality Nursing Homes Were More Likely Than Other Nursing Homes To Be Bought Or Sold By Chains In 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A; Intrator, Orna; Li, Yue; Richardson, John; Stevenson, David G; Zheng, Qing; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2016-05-01

    Two defining features of the nursing home industry are the tremendous churn in chain ownership and the perception of low-quality care at many facilities. We examined whether nursing homes that underwent chain-related transactions, such as mergers and acquisitions, experienced a larger number of health deficiency citations than nursing homes that maintained common ownership over the same period. Using facility-level data for the period 1993-2010, we found that those nursing homes that underwent chain-related transactions had more deficiency citations in the years preceding and following a transaction than those nursing homes that maintained common ownership. Thus, we did not find that these transactions led to a decline in quality. Instead, we found that chains targeted nursing homes that were already having quality problems and that these problems persisted after the transaction. Given the high frequency of nursing home chain transactions, policy makers will need to continue to invest in tracking, reporting, and overseeing these transactions. One important step would be to report more detailed data on chain ownership, transactions, and aggregate chain quality on the Nursing Home Compare website, the federal government's online report card for nursing homes. PMID:27140998

  15. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  16. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vongsack Latsamy; Khounsaknalath Lamphet; Hostetler Dana; Mildenhall Dallas C; Nyadong Leonard; Hampton Christina Y; Insixiengmay Vongsavanh; Phommavong Khamlieng; Manolin Ot; Fernández Facundo M; Green Michael D; Sengaloundeth Sivong; Phompida Samlane; Vanisaveth Viengxay; Syhakhang Lamphone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random samplin...

  17. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  18. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15°C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. PMID:26919819

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SCLICED FRUITS SOLD IN MINNA METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S.Y

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh cut fruits processed by peeling, slicing or trimming with or without further processing or cooking before consumption. Fresh cut fruits collected from different stationary vendors and hawkers in Minna metropolis were analysed to determine their microbiological safety. All samples examined were contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The bacteria count ranged from 1.60x108 -8.40x104 cfu/g for cut pineapples sold in stalls, 1.50x108 -8.20x109 cfu/g for hawked cut pineapples, 3.50x104 – 9.00x105 cfu/g for cut watermelons sold in stalls, 1.50x104 -1.70x105 cfu/g for hawked cut watermelons, 1.80x105 -2.50x105 cfu/g for cut pawpaw sold in stalls, 2.60x105 – 3.00x105 cfu/g for hawked pawpaw. The bacteria isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus species, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes species. Fungal isolates identified were species of Mucor, Penicillum, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results obtained suggest the fresh cut fruits hawked and sold in stalls in Minna are of poor microbiological quality. It is therefore recommended that fresh cut fruit should be processed and sold under hygienic conditions. Several other recommendations were suggested.

  20. Use of cold microfiltration retentates produced with polymeric membranes for standardization of milks for manufacture of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Wang, T; Lucey, J A

    2007-10-01

    all cheeses. The use of MF retentates derived with polymeric membranes was successful in increasing cheese yield, and cheese quality was similar in the control and MF standardized cheeses. PMID:17881676

  1. Comparative study of the pharmacopeial quality and dissolution profiles of generic and other drug forms of sodium metamizole (dipyrone sold in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenna Alana Giordani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, in order for a pharmaceutical company to register a drug form as generic or ‘similar’ with the Brazilian food and drug agency (Anvisa, it must be proved bioequivalent to its innovatory branded form (reference drug. This requires comparative trials, carried out in conformity with official compendia (Brazilian Pharmacopeia or another officially recognized code. Additionally, according to the Anvisa resolution RDC 31/2010, the dissolution profile of the drug must be tested and compared with that of the branded reference, as a benchmark of quality. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of 500 mg sodium metamizole (dipyrone tablets produced by seven different laboratories in Brazil: three generic drugs (G1, G2, G3, three (branded similar drugs (S1, S2,S3 and their reference branded product (Novalgina®, Sanofi-Aventis, drug R. All tests were carried out by methods specified in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia 4th edition (Farmacopeia Brasileira IV. The following tests were performed: uniformity of mass, friability, disintegration time, hardness, assay, uniformity of dosage units, salicylic acid limit assay, dissolution and identification. The dissolution profile was also recorded, as recommended in RDC 31/2010. Whereas every sample was approved in all the Farmacopeia Brasileira IV tests, the results in the dissolution profile test showed that four of the test drugs (G1, G2, S1 and S2 were notpharmaceutically equivalent to drug R. Thus, only drugs G3 and S3 showed dissolution profiles similar to that of drug R and the other four drugs could not be considered equivalent to it and were not approved.

  2. Ethnobotanical, micrographic and pharmacological features of plant-based weight-loss products sold in naturist stores in Mexico City: the need for better quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marta Arenas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary supplements and herbal mixtures to promote weight loss is a common practice in the West. This study was undertaken in Mexico City, surveying stores selling "natural products" at subway stations. The aims of this paper were as follows: to compile a record of plant products marketed as slimming aids and of retailer perceptions of these products; to review the pharmacological and ethnobotanical literature on the species declared; and to create an optical micrograph of a subset of products to verify the accuracy of the list of component plant species shown on the labels. We applied the techniques of observation, semi-structured interviews and free-listing at the retail stores. Results are presented for the 75 species recorded in the 41 weight-loss products surveyed, showing which plant parts are used, the geographical distribution of the species, pharmacological effects, dosage, route of administration and method of preparation, as well as ethnobotanical information derived from fieldwork. We discuss the values assigned to the species used. Microscopic analyses revealed that many of the plant ingredients declared were absent, highlighting the need for greater quality control and safety of these herbal remedies.

  3. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd ...

  4. Microbiological quality of minimally processed vegetables sold in Porto Alegre, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças minimamente processadas comercializadas em Porto Alegre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia R. Pavan da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed vegetables go through various steps during their preparation, with many modifications to their natural structure. However, they must maintain the same quality as the fresh produce. The aim of the present study was to quantify mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms and total and faecal coliforms, and to assess the presence of Escherichia coli, parasites, and dirt material in ready-to-eat minimally processed vegetables. Fifty-six samples of minimally processed vegetables were analysed for the presence of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms by the plate-count method. Monthly means ranged from 4.7x10(5 to 1.6x10(8 CFU/g and from 7.9x10(6 to 2.7x10(8 CFU/g, respectively for mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms. Coliforms were analysed by the multiple-tube method; total coliforms ranged from Hortaliças minimamente processadas passam por várias etapas durante seu processamento, no qual ocorrem várias modificações de sua estrutura natural, todavia elas devem manter a mesma qualidade do produto não processado. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar microrganismos mesófilos e psicrótróficos, coliformes totais e fecais e verificar a presença de E. coli, parasitas e sujidades em hortaliças minimamente processadas prontas para consumo. Foram analisadas 56 amostras para mesófilos e psicrotróficos pelo método de contagem em placas, com média mensal 4,7x10(5 a 1,6x10(8 UFC/g e de 7,9x10(6 a 2,7x10(8 UFC/g, respectivamente. Os coliformes foram analisados pela técnica dos tubos múltiplos, onde coliformes totais variaram de <3 a ³ 2,4x10(4 NMP/g e coliformes fecais, de <3 a 1,1x10(4 NMP/g, e E. coli foi observada em oito amostras. De 52 amostras, 8 (15,3% apresentaram oocistos de Eimeria spp. Sujidades, como fragmentos de insetos e ácaros jovens foram encontrados. Contaminação de origem fecal foi verificada no presente estudo, sugerindo falhas nas etapas do processamento das hortaliças, ou que o

  5. The influence of chemical composition of milk on yield of semi-hard cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić-Rašović M.; Mirecki S.; Nikolić N.; Rašović R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of paper was to examine the impact of the milk quality on yield of semi-hard naturally dried cheese, produced in cheese plant factory ZZ 'Cijevna' in Podgorica. Tests were conducted on 6 samples of bulk milk of cows and 6 productive batch of cheese. Chemical tests of the bulk milk have been done on the device MilcoScan 4000, and the determination content dry matter of whey and dry matter of cheese on the device MilcoScan FT 120. Theoretical yield of cheese wa...

  6. 发酵剂与凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响研究%Studies on Effects of Culture Starters and Coagulants on the Quality of Mozzarella Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 张轶

    2014-01-01

    为生产出适合在国内消费的Mozzarella干酪,本文研究了发酵剂和凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响。结果表明:以产酸较快、产粘性较高、双乙酰含量较高、pH值为4.6时可溶性氮适中为原则,结合干酪的感官评价结果,选择CHOOZIT MA14发酵剂作为Mozzarella干酪实际生产用发酵剂;综合考虑凝乳的状态、凝乳时间及干酪产率和感官评价结果,添加量为0.025 g/L的奶酪凝乳酶更适用于Mozzarel a干酪的实际生产。%The paper studied the effect of culture starters and coagulants on the quality of Mozzarel a cheese which was suitable for domestic consumption. In view of the high acid production, production of viscous and diacetyl content, as wel as the soluble nitrogen is medium when the pH value is 4.6, the starter of CHOOZIT MA14 was chosen for the actual production. In consideration of the state and time of curd , cheese yield and texture and sensory evaluation, the cheese rennet which additives for 0.025 g/L was more suitable for the actual production of Mozzarel a cheese.

  7. 乌鲁木齐市售大米几项品质指标的初步分析%Preliminary analysis on the quality index of rice sold in Urumqi market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李典鹏; 王彦庆; 仝伯凯; 热孜万古丽·穆合塔尔; 贾宏涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解乌鲁木齐市售大米的品质状况,为市民购买大米提供参考依据。方法在市场调研基础上,选取乌鲁木齐市市售的不同产地、等级的15种代表性大米,通过原子吸收分光光度法(atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS)和近红外光谱法(near-infrared spectroscopy),检测大米的微量元素、蛋白质、脂肪、糖类等营养成分含量,对乌鲁木齐市场销售大米的品质进行初步研究;结果乌鲁木齐市场销售大米产地以东北和新疆为主;市场销售的东北一级大米价格比二级大米贵1.16元/kg,但其微量元素总含量差异不大,其他指标无显著差异;泰国香米微量元素含量、蛋白质、含糖量均高于新疆地产大米,但泰国香米的价格大约是新疆大米的4倍。因此,从性价比上考虑应该首选新疆地产大米。结论总体来看,新疆地产大米品质略低于东北产大米,但其具备价格优势。%Objective To study the status of quality of rice sold in Urumqi and then to provide reference for the public. Methods On the basis of market research, 15 kinds of different origins and levels of typical rice were selected, which were sold in Urumqi market. The nutrient content of trace element, protein, fat, carbohydrates and others in rice were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and near-infrared spectroscopy. Results The results showed that in Urumqi market, origins of rice were mainly from northeast of China and Xinjiang, price of the first class rice from northeast of China was more expensive than that of the second class rice by 1.16 yuan/kg, but there was no obvious difference in total content of trace elements and other indicators with 2 kinds of northeast rice. The content of trace elements, protein and sugar in Thailand rice were higher than that of Xinjiang, but the price of Thailand rice was about 4 times than Xinjiang rice. Therefore, Consumers should choose Xinjiang rice firstly from the

  8. Effect of Proteases on Meltability and Stretchability of Nabulsi Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Alruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined cheese (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed cheese in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries. However, these characteristics are rarely available when usual processing and preservation method were used. Approach: This study was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by proteolytic enzymes to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. In this study, six commercial proteases were used. It was found that Nabulsi cheese treated with papain developed an outstanding fibrous structure, this gave superiority in the application in kunafa, pizza and pastries. Results: The meltability and stretchability of Nabulsi cheese treated with papain were still excellent after 4 weeks of storage; this indicated the restricted enzyme action, probably due to high salt concentrations (18% in storage brine. Conclusion: The meltability and stretchability of Nabulsi cheese treated with papain were still excellent after 4 weeks of storage.

  9. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture. R...

  10. Structure, Meltability, and Firmness of Process Cheese Containing White Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kalab, Miloslav; Modler, H. Wayne; Caric, Marijana; Milanovic, Spasenija

    1991-01-01

    White cheese made by coagulating heated milk (90"C) with a 2.5% citric acid solution to pH 5.5 consists of casein particles having a characteristic core-and-shell ultrastructure. The presence of this White cheese in process cheese can be detected by transmission electron microscopy on the basis of the core-and-shell ultrastructure which is stable during cheese processing. White cheese additions may be detected at levels equal to or higher than 8%. White cheese, which does not melt alone wh...

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF HOMOGENIZED MEAT SOLD BY A SUPERMARKET OF GOIÂNIA (GO QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE HOMOGENEIZADA COMERCIALIZADA EM UM HIPERMERCADO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Sales Prado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Seventy samples of homogenized meat produced and sold by a supermarket in Goiânia (GO, were analysed, from February 1996 to October 1997, in order to evaluate their microbiological quality. The microbiological analysis were mesophilic and psychrotrophic plate count, coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli most probable number (MPN, Salmonella research, Streptococcus of D group MPN, Staphylococcus (positive coagulase enumeration and sulfide-reductor clostridia enumeration. In general the results indicated the good microbiological quality of the products. However, three positive samples to Salmonella were found, standing out the necessity of a permanent control, to avoid the transmission and dissemination of foodborne diseases.

    KEY-WORDS: Homogenized meat; microbiological quality; foodborne diseases.

    Foram analisadas 70 amostras de carne homogeneizada produzidas e comercializadas por um hipermercado de Goiânia (GO, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a outubro de 1997, para verificação da qualidade microbiológica. Foram realizadas análises para contagem padrão de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis e de psicrotróficos, NMP de coliformes totais, fecais e de Escherichia coli, pesquisa de Salmonella, NMP de Streptococcus do grupo D, contagem de Staphylococcus (coagulase positiva e contagem de clostrídios sulfito-redutores. Os resultados indicaram, de maneira geral, a boa qualidade microbiológica dos produtos analisados. Entretanto, foram encontradas três amostras positivas para a pesquisa de Salmonella, ressaltando a necessidade de uma vigilância permanente, evitando a transmissão e a disseminação de toxinfecções de origem alimentar à população.

  12. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  13. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuworld cheese. 133.164 Section 133.164 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.164 Nuworld cheese. (a) Description. (1) Nuworld cheese is the food prepared by...

  14. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk...

  15. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  16. Effects of the Use of Cow's and Ewe's Milk and Different Salting Techniques on the Quality Properties of Maraş Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİNŞEN, O.Cenap; ATASEVER, Mustafa; KELEŞ, Abdullah; UÇAR, Gürkan

    1998-01-01

    Different salting techniques were used on Maraş cheese samples produced from cow's, ewe's and a mixture (1:1) of cow and ewe's milk. In the first group, samples were immersed 22% the brine solution for 3 hours then transferred into 10 % brine solution. In the second group, samples were salted with 1 % dry salt and after 24 hours were immersed in 13 % brine solution. The cheese samples were analysed for chemical, microbiological and sensory properties on the first day of product...

  17. Kontsevich's Swiss Cheese Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Justin D

    2010-01-01

    We prove a conjecture of Kontsevich which states that if $A$ is an $E_{d-1}$ algebra then the Hochschild cohomology object of $A$ is the universal $E_d$ algebra acting on $A$. The notion of an $E_d$ algebra acting on an $E_{d-1}$ algebra was defined by Kontsevich using the swiss cheese operad of Voronov. We prove a homotopical property of the swiss cheese operad from which the conjecture follows.

  18. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  19. An empirical method for prediction of cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melilli, C; Lynch, J M; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Cappa, A

    2002-10-01

    Theoretical cheese yield can be estimated from the milk fat and casein or protein content of milk using classical formulae, such as the VanSlyke formula. These equations are reliable predictors of theoretical or actual yield based on accurately measured milk fat and casein content. Many cheese makers desire to base payment for milk to dairy farmers on the yield of cheese. In small factories, however, accurate measurement of fat and casein content of milk by either chemical methods or infrared milk analysis is too time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an empirical test to predict cheese yield was developed which uses simple equipment (i.e., clinical centrifuge, analytical balance, and forced air oven) to carry out a miniature cheese making, followed by a gravimetric measurement of dry weight yield. A linear regression of calculated theoretical versus dry weight yields for milks of known fat and casein content was calculated. A regression equation of y = 1.275x + 1.528, where y is theoretical yield and x is measured dry solids yield (r2 = 0.981), for Cheddar cheese was developed using milks with a range of theoretical yield from 7 to 11.8%. The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between theoretical cheese yield and dry solids yield was 0.194 and the coefficient of variation (SDD/mean x 100) was 1.95% upon cross validation. For cheeses without a well-established theoretical cheese yield equation, the measured dry weight yields could be directly correlated to the observed yields in the factory; this would more accurately reflect the expected yield performance. Payments for milk based on these measurements would more accurately reflect quality and composition of the milk and the actual average recovery of fat and casein achieved under practical cheese making conditions. PMID:12416825

  20. Influence of probiotic cultures addition on the properties of semi-hard ewe’s cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Addition of probiotic bacteria into fermented milk beverages has been the subject of many studies, however, addition of these bacteria into cheeses, especially the ones made from ewe’s milk, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce probiotic semi-hard ewe’s cheese with addition of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. Cheese ripening occurred during 45 days at 13 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. During that period, chemical parameters were determined and microbiological analysis of manufactured probiotic cheeses was performed. Addition of probiotic cultures did not significantly influence the chemical properties and microbiological quality of produced cheeses in comparison with the control cheeses without addition of probiotic cultures. Number of live probiotic bacteria remained at about 106-107 CFU/g of probiotic cheeses during 45 days of ripening, which was confirmed by RAPD method. Sensory properties of probiotic semi-hard ewe’s cheese with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 were similar to those obtained for cheeses without addition of probiotic, while addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 improved the taste of cheeses. Obtained results demonstrated that semi-hard ewe’s cheese can be an effective matrix for addition of probiotic cultures Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5.

  1. Effect of frozen storage on the proteolytic and rheological properties of soft caprine milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Park, Y W

    2005-06-01

    Freezing and long-term frozen storage had minimal impact on the rheology and proteolysis of soft cheese made from caprine milk. Plain soft cheeses were obtained from a grade A goat dairy in Georgia and received 4 storage treatments: fresh refrigerated control (C), aged at 4 degrees C for 28 d; frozen control (FC), stored at -20 degrees C for 2 d before being thawed and aged in the same way as C cheese; and 3-mo frozen (3MF), or 6-mo frozen (6MF), stored at -20 degrees C for 3 or 6 mo before being thawed and aged. Soft cheeses had fragile textures that showed minimal change after freezing or over 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C. The only exceptions were the FC cheeses, which, after frozen storage and aging for 1 d at 4 degrees C, were significantly softer than the other cheeses, and less chewy than the other frozen cheeses. Moreover, after 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C, the FC cheeses tended to have the lowest viscoelastic values. Slight variation was noted in protein distribution among the storage treatment, although no significant proteolysis occurred during refrigerated aging. The creation and removal of ice crystals in the cheese matrix and the limited proteolysis of the caseins showed only slight impact on cheese texture, suggesting that frozen storage of soft cheeses may be possible for year-round supply with minimal loss of textural quality. PMID:15905426

  2. Qualidade de queijo minas frescal preparado com leite com diferentes quantidades de células somáticas Quality of minas frescal cheese prepared from milk with different somatic cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Andreatta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of using bulk milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC on the quality of minas frescal cheese. A randomized complete block design was used, with 3x5 factorial treatments, with three SCC levels (low, 125,000 cells mL-1; intermediate, 437,000 cells mL-1; and high, 1,053,000 cells mL-1 and five storage durations. Cheese was vacuum-packed in plastic bags and analyzed after 2, 9, 16, 23 and 30 days of storage at 4ºC. Somatic cell counts did not affect dry matter, fat, ash content, pH, free fatty acid concentrations and sensory parameters of minas frescal cheese. However, SCC in milk increased losses of protein in whey and decreased the cheese protein content. These changes did not affect the moisture-adjusted cheese yield and proteolysis during 30 days of storage. An interaction effect between SCC and time of storage was observed for firmness and sensory grades of cheeses. Results indicated that raw milk used to produce minas frescal cheese should not contain high SCC, in order to avoid lower acceptance of the product after 30 days of storage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso de leite com diferentes contagens de células somáticas (CCS, na qualidade do queijo minas frescal. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x5, com três níveis de CCS (baixa, 125.000 células mL-1; intermediária, 437.000 células mL-1; e alta, 1.053.000 células·mL-1 e cinco tempos de armazenamento. Os queijos foram embalados a vácuo, em embalagens de plástico, e analisados após 2, 9, 16, 23 e 30 dias de armazenamento a 4ºC. A contagem de células somáticas não afetou a matéria seca, a gordura, as cinzas, o pH, a concentração de ácidos graxos livres e os parâmetros sensoriais do minas frescal. A CCS no leite aumentou as perdas de proteína no soro e diminuiu o teor de proteína no queijo. Essas alterações não afetaram o rendimento com umidade ajustada e a

  3. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  4. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rysha; Frane Delaš

    2014-01-01

    Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (...

  5. Tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft unripened cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Iakovchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. An excessive consumption of fat has been associated with an increased risk of health problems such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Cheese is a highly concentrated product which is rich in protein and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and essential amino acids, therefore it is an important food in the diet. But low fat cheeses are usually characterized as having poor body and flavour. Therefore,  it is crucial to find ways of improving the acceptability of the product. The aim of this research was to inves- tigate the possibility of using of tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft cheese made from ultrafiltrated skimmed milk and to create organoleptic properties of a fat product in a non-fat product. Material and methods. To estimate the possibility of using tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft cheese, the influence of tapioca maltodextrin on rennet flocculation time (RFT and rennet clotting time (RCT, pH values, moisture content were estimated. Improving the quality of cheese, rheological and sensory characteristics in the course of soft unripened cheese manufacturing has to be focused on. Results. Using tapioca maltodextrin led to decrease in RFT and RCT. The concentration increase of the maltodextrin in milk for cheese production led to increase in moisture-binding capacity and moisture content of the cheeses, but led to decrease in RFT, RCT and pH-value. Based on the experiments data the optimal doses of tapioca maltodextrin were recommended. Conclusions. An addition of tapioca maltodextrin resulted in a tendency of decreasing RFT and RCT,   pH-value for cheese made with different concentrations of tapioca maltodextrin when compared to cheese made without maltodextrin addition. At the same time an increased amount of tapioca maltodextrin led to moisture content increase of cheese samples. Inclusion of tapioca maltodextrin in natural, low fat cheese may improve texture and

  6. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  7. Multicomponent diffusion during Prato cheese ripening: mathematical modeling using the finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Bona; Rui Sergio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva; Dionísio Borsato; Luiz Henry Monken e Silva; Dayanne Aline de Souza Fidelis

    2010-01-01

    The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl is a promising alternative to produce a cheese with lower sodium content since KCl does not change the final quality of the cheese product. In order to assure proper salt proportions, mathematical models are employed to control the product process and simulate the multicomponent diffusion during the reduced salt cheese ripening period. The generalized Fick's Second Law is widely accepted as the primary mass transfer model within solid foods. The Finite E...

  8. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 不同杂交代水牛奶对Mozzarella鲜奶酪品质的影响%Effect of different hybrid generations buffalo milk on the quality of Mozzarella fresh cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秉锵; 孙宁; 周雪松

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了尼里-拉菲及其不同杂交代水牛奶的理化特性,并研究了以尼里-拉菲及其不同杂交代水牛奶制备的Mozzarella鲜奶酪的理化指标、感官、盐水贮存中的含水率及在2~6℃冷柜内保存期间pH变化.结果表明,不同杂交代水牛奶的蛋白质、脂肪、总乳固体含量均高于尼里-拉菲,不同杂交代水牛奶制备的Mozzarella鲜奶酪蛋白质含量13%、脂肪含量23%、水分含量59%、出品率20%左右,采用尼杂二代、三代及以上的水牛奶制备的Mozzarella鲜奶酪质量较好,鲜奶酪在2~6℃的冷柜内保存宜控制在10d内.%The physical and chemical properties of Nili Ravi buffalo milk and different hybrid generations were analyzed.The physicochemical indexes,sensory evaluation,moisture content during storage in saline water,and the changing of pH stored at the temperature of 2~6℃ of Mozzarella fresh cheese prepared by Nili Ravi and different hybrid generations buffalo milk were investigated.Results showed that protein,fat,total solids content of the hybrid generations buffalo milk were higher than those of Nili Ravi buffalo milk.Protein,fat,moisture and yield of Mozzarella fresh cheese prepared by different hybrid generations was 13%,23%,59%,20% respectively.The quality of Mozzarella fresh cheese prepared by milk from two generation,three generation and above hybrid buffalo was better,fresh cheese in the refrigerator preservation should be controlled within 2~6℃ in 10d.

  10. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Rysha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (fat content, fat content of dry matter, acidity, protein, dry matter, mineral and water content and sodium chloride content of 45-day brine cheese samples were also analyzed. Chemical and sensory assessment demonstrated large property differences. A recommendation stems from the results showing that the standardization of both artisanal and industrial production of Sharri cheese is required.

  11. Feeding strategies to design the fatty acid profile of sheep milk and cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of sheep milk produced in the world is transformed into cheese. Feeding is a major factor affecting the quality of sheep milk and, therefore, of sheep cheese. Because fat is the main compound of cheese, this review gives an update on the effects of feeding and nutrition on milk fat content and deeply discusses feeding strategies aimed at increasing the levels of healthy fatty acids (FA, such as conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 FA, in milk and cheese in the human diet. In addition, the use of alternative feed resources such as by-products, aromatic plants, and phenolic compounds in the sheep diet and their effects on milk and cheese FA composition are also discussed. Among feeding strategies, grazing and the use of supplements rich in oils seem to be the best and the cheapest strategies to improve the nutritional value of the fatty acid profile in sheep cheese.

  12. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  13. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Production of Registered Designation of Origin Salers Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Gene Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Duthoit, F.; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    Microbial dynamics during processing and ripening of traditional cheeses such as registered designation of origin Salers cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in France, play an important role in the elaboration of sensory qualities. The aim of the present study was to obtain a picture of the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem of RDO Salers cheese by using culture-independent methods. This included DNA extraction, PCR, and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Bacterial and...

  14. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  15. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatan Sarić; Sonja Bijeljac

    2003-01-01

    Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are...

  16. Use of corn oil in the production of Turkish white cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Seher; Topcu, Ali; Saldamli, Ilbilge; Koksal, Gülden

    2012-01-01

    The use of corn oil in white cheese production instead of milk fat was investigated and its effects on the quality parameters of cheese were studied. It was demonstrated that the use of corn oil significantly affected the levels of dry matter, fat in dry matter, protein, salt in dry matter and titratable acidity and pH value of samples (p 

  17. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese. The...... aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content of...... cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared to a...

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  19. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  20. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  1. The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, Giuseppe; Carpino, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    . delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were also detected. Continued insight into the microbial populations of traditional Italian cheeses will allow continued production of characteristic, high-quality cheeses which have been enjoyed for many centuries. PMID:26082116

  2. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter colle

  3. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W; Ardö, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower in the...... experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  4. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  5. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro-MG Microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese, manufactured in the region of Serro-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.F. Brant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro e a variação da microbiota do queijo recém-fabricado e no último dia de validade, após estocagem sob as condições recomendadas no rótulo. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de queijo, sendo 20 analisadas frescas, imediatamente após a coleta, e 20 no último dia de validade, após estocagem em câmara fria a 10ºC. As amostras foram analisadas para coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Trinta e sete amostras (92,5% encontraram-se impróprias para o consumo humano, de acordo com os parâmetros estabelecidos pela resolução: RDC ANVISA nº12/01, sendo a principal causa de condenação a contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Nenhuma das amostras analisadas apresentou contaminação por Salmonella sp. ou Listeria monocytogenes. As contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva dos queijos frescos foram mais altas (PThe microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese produced in the region of Serro-MG was evaluated. Cheeses were analyzed fresh and at the end of the shelf life, under specific storage conditions (30 days, 10ºC. Forty samples of minas cheese were analyzed, twenty still fresh, and 20 after storage at 10ºC. The microbiological analyses were counts of fecal and total coliforms, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive; and search of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-seven samples (92.5% were in disagreement with the Brazilian Standard, Resolution nº 12 of January 12, 2001, from ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the major contaminant. No sample was contaminated by Salmonella sp. or Listeria monocytogenes. During the storage, there was a decrease of countings in the population of Staphylococcus coagulase positive (P<0.01.

  6. WINE PRODUCTION FROM CHEESE WHEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate commercial feasibility of producing an alcoholic beverage by wine yeast fermentation of supplemented cheese and cottage cheese wheys. Results indicated that the preferred processing route was (1) fractionation of the whey into prot...

  7. "We sold a million copies"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monteiro, Paolo Klinger; Moraga Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    We model a two period monopoly market with two-sided quality uncertainty. In first period, seller gathers information about consumers´ tastes upon observing its sales. In second period, seller may or may not deliver the information. If monopolist must commit either to reveal or conceal past......-sales before observing them, committing to reveal is the dominant strategy whenever advertising cost is low, buyers are many and their private information is accurate. When seller can postpone advertising decision and gains experience, past-sales revelation occurs partially. In equilibrium, delivery of sales......-data occurs to induce some buyers´ herding behaviour. We carry out the analysis for two different informational scenarios....

  8. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface. PMID:12159930

  9. IDAHO'S CHEESE INDUSTRY: THE COMPETITIVE SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Chris; Foltz, John C.; Wu, Shunxiang

    1999-01-01

    As the fifth largest U.S. cheese-producing state, Idaho increased cheese production by 182 percent (390 million pounds) between 1992 and 1995. Idaho's competitiveness in the cheese industry is important not only to processors but also to dairy farmers since approximately 85 percent of the milk produced in Idaho is processed into cheese. Idaho was found to be competitive with other major cheese-producing states, including California, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and New York. Among the study states, ...

  10. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  11. Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

    2003-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese

  12. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cerri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  13. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Turchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  14. Effect of milk preacidification on low fat mozzarella cheese: II. Chemical and functional properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, L E; Barbano, D M; Kindstedt, P S; Guo, M R

    2001-06-01

    The effect of milk preacidification on cheese manufacturing, chemical properties, and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella cheese was determined. Four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using no preacidification (control), preacidification to pH 6.0 and pH 5.8 with acetic acid, and preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. This process was replicated four times. Modifications in the typical Mozzarella manufacturing procedures were necessary to accommodate milk preacidification. The chemical composition of the cheeses was similar among the treatments, except the calcium content and calcium as a percentage of protein were lower in the preacidified treatments. During refrigerated storage, the chemical and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella were affected the most by milk preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. The amount of expressible serum, unmelted cheese whiteness, initial unmelted hardness, and initial apparent viscosity were lower with preacidification. The reduction in initial unmelted cheese hardness and initial apparent viscosity in the pH 5.8 citric treatments represents an improvement in the quality of low fat Mozzarella cheese that allows the cheese to have better pizza bake characteristics with shorter time of refrigerated storage. PMID:11417692

  15. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Vinka Radošević; Katarina Tonković; Ljerka Gregurek; Blaženka Kos; Jagoda Šušković

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG) on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC). Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min). The milk for fresh cheese production was furthe...

  16. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry. PMID:26210276

  17. Biobutanol from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summarize the natural metabolic pathways for biobutanol production by Clostridia and yeasts, together with the metabolic engineering efforts performed up to date with the aim of either enhancing the yield of the natural producer Clostridia or transferring the butanol production ability to other hosts with better attributes for industrial use and facilities for genetic manipulation. Molasses and starch-based feedstocks are main sources for biobutanol production at industrial scale hitherto. We also review herewith (and for the first time up to our knowledge) the research performed for the use of whey, the subproduct of cheese making, as another sustainable source for biobutanol production. This represents a promising alternative that still needs further research. The use of an abundant waste material like cheese whey, that would otherwise be considered an environmental pollutant, for biobutanol production, makes economy of the process more profitable. PMID:25889728

  18. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-03-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  19. Influence and comparison of thermal, ultrasonic and thermo-sonic treatments on microbiological quality and sensory properties of rennet cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonication and thermo-sonication belong to alternative, non-thermal food processing methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different ultrasound power inputs (240 W, 320 W, 400 W without and in combination with heat pre-treatment on microbial inactivation and sensory properties of rennet cheese whey in comparison with conventional pasteurization batch processes. Ultrasonication treatments had no impact on reduction of any group of studied microorganisms. Microbial inactivation caused by thermo-sonication treatments with pre-heating to 35 °C or 45 °C increased with nominal power input and/or exposure times and was probably due to the heat improved ultrasonic cavitation. Thermo-sonication treatments at nominal power input (400 W and preheating to 55 °C were the most effective resulting in greater microbial reduction compared to that observed by simulating pasteurization processes, but occurred probably due to developed heat solely. Sensory properties after ultrasonication and thermo-sonication were considerably improved in comparison with that after simulated pasteurization processes. Mouth feel of whey samples was considerably better, there was no occurrence of sediment and colour remained unchanged in almost all samples.

  20. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  2. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  3. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  4. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  5. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  6. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  7. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  8. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Joana T.; Ribeiro, Tânia I. B.; Rocha, João B.; Nunes, João; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    Available online 17 May 2016 Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fra...

  9. The evolution of chemical and microbiological properties of fresh goat milk cheese during its shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, F; Battelli, G; De Noni, I

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical and microbiological properties of fresh goat milk cheese stored in an open deck refrigerated display cabinet (6 ± 2°C) or in a dark cold room (4 ± 1°C). The effects of partial-vacuum packaging and fluorescent lighting were studied during the cheese shelf life (45 d) and 15 d after. Storage conditions did not affect the pH values (4.3), whereas a slight decrease in moisture (ca. 1%) and in water activity (goat milk cheese would be extended from 45 to 60 d. Such conclusion was supported also by the sensory quality evaluation. PMID:22916879

  10. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  11. Swiss-Cheese operad and Drinfeld center

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissi, Najib

    2015-01-01

    We build a model in groupoids for the Swiss-Cheese operad, based on parenthesized permutations and braids, and we relate algebras over this model to the classical description of algebras over the homology of the Swiss-Cheese operad. We extend our model to a rational model for the Swiss-Cheese operad, and we compare it to the model that we would get if the operad Swiss-Cheese were formal.

  12. UTILIZATION OF CHEESE WHEY FOR WINE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine was successfully produced in the laboratory from cheese whey. The method used involves the deproteinization of either sweet (cheddar cheese) whey or acid (cottage cheese) whey by heat or ultrafiltration, the addition of sulfur dioxide to stabilize the whey by Kruyveromyces f...

  13. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability...

  14. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality. PMID:27289193

  15. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  16. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eBurdikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g. pH, redox potential due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  17. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  18. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit;

    2008-01-01

    contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation.......Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount of...... cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars. In...

  19. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food... statement of ingredients, prescribed for pasteurized process cheese spread by § 133.179, except that...

  20. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  7. Processes that contribute to radiocesium decontamination of feta cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of experiments, the transfer of radiocesium from ovine milk to feta cheese was investigated through modifications of the standard cheese making procedure. All variations explored showed no significant change in the percentage of radiocesium transfer and the milk-to-cheese transfer coefficient was determined as f=.79 plus/minus .04 L.kg-1. It is concluded that cesium, like the rest of the alkali metals, remains in the water phase and thus follows very closely the distribution of moisture into the products of cheese making. The possibility of radiocesium decontamination of mature feta during the customary storage of the product in brine was also explored in a second series of experiments. The theoretical model employed in the analysis of cesium transport from feta to brine is presented in the Appendix to this paper. Predictions of the model were validated by experiments. A procedure is thus proposed for decontaminating mature feta during storage through successive replacements of the storage medium. Nomograms are presented for the determination of the optimum time interval between changes of the brine and the radiocesium concentration remaining in the feta. Changes in the properties of the product induced by the proposed treatment were also investigated with respect to composition, taste, and overall quality

  8. GROWTH DYNAMIC OF EWES’ LUMP CHEESE MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hudecová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of ewes’ lump cheese has been known in Slovakia for a long time. It is made from raw or pasteurized ewes’ milk, especially due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria. The encouragement of the acidification process by the starters is profitable to use with the respect to the quality of the product. In our study we focused on the growth analysis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in ewes’ cheeses prepared in laboratory conditions with or without addition of starter culture from raw or heat treated milk. According to our experimental data, the addition of the lactic acid bacteria culture and the following pH decrease on the levels lower than 5.0 for 1 to 2 days were able to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli on concentrations lower than 104 CFU/g required by European Union legislation. The growth data found in this work may provide the information for food technologists and microbiologists to get the studied organisms under the control. doi:10.5219/52

  9. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  10. Effect of plant extracts Kitaibelia vitifolia on antioxidant activity, chemical characteristics, microbiological status and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurćubić Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of cheese (Pirotski kachkaval fortification by polyphenols attributed to Kitaibelia vitifolia ethanol herb extract, applied in two different manners (added to the cheese curd after texturizing or sprayed on surface of cheese. Investigation of the used antioxidant effects of polyphenols, physic-chemical composition, microbiological quality and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval was undertaken. Antioxidant activity of conventional and fortified cheese was evaluated by five contemporary and compatible methods, and revealed a slight emphasis on phenol-linked antioxidant activity of fortified samples of cheese in comparison to samples of the control group. Fortified Pirotski kachkaval had higher sensory evaluation scores than the controls. Statistically significant (P 0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009 i br. OI 172016

  11. Inhibitory effect of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Lin, L

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5.0mg/mL) presented the optimal polydispersity index (0.246), zeta-potential (-58.9mV) and entrapment efficiency (25.7%). The liposomes displayed satisfactory antibiotic activity against L. monocytogenes in cheese over the storage period at 4°C. We observed no effects on the physical and sensory properties of the cheese after the liposome treatment. PMID:27265173

  12. FTIR Analysis of Protein Secondary Structure in Cheddar Cheese during Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; LIU Ai-ping; REN Fa-zheng; ZHANG Xiao-ying; Stephanie Clark; ZHANG Lu-da; GUO Hui-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Proteolysis is one of the most important biochemical reactions during cheese ripening. Studies on the secondary structure of proteins during ripening would be helpful for characterizing protein changes for assessing cheese quality. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), with self-deconvolution, second derivative analysis and band curve-fitting, was used to characterize the secondary structure of proteins in Cheddar cheese during ripening. The spectra of the amide I region showed great similarity, while the relative contents of the secondary structures underwent a series of changes. As ripening progressed, the α-helix content decreased and the β-sheet content increased. This structural shift was attributed to the strengthening of hydrogen bonds that resulted from hydrolysis of caseins. In summary, FTIR could provide the basis for rapid characterization of cheese that is undergoing ripening.

  13. Improving the Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Goat Cheese by the Addition of Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Apostu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the goat milk cheeses have gained popularity due to the increased interest of consumers in both the tradition of cheesemaking and the sensorial and nutritional value attributed to goat milk. This study aimed to assess and compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese with a mixture of cranberry fruits in different concentrations. The following average values were obtained for the chemical parameters analyzed: pH 4.85 ± 0.155, titratable acidity (°T 150 ± 0,094, dry matter (% 58.33 ± 1.55, and fat (% 27.74 ± 53.24. Sensory evaluation highlighted the influence of the addition of cranberry on the eating quality of goat cheese and its consumer acceptability. Results showed that the goat cheese supplementation with 9% cranberry significantly improves the stability of acidic flavor during storage.

  14. Metatranscriptomics reveals temperature-driven functional changes in microbiome impacting cheese maturation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Genovese, Alessandro; Ferranti, Pasquale; Gilbert, Jack A; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cheeses harbour complex microbial consortia that play an important role in shaping typical sensorial properties. However, the microbial metabolism is considered difficult to control. Microbial community succession and the related gene expression were analysed during ripening of a traditional Italian cheese, identifying parameters that could be modified to accelerate ripening. Afterwards, we modulated ripening conditions and observed consistent changes in microbial community structure and function. We provide concrete evidence of the essential contribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in ripening-related activities. An increase in the ripening temperature promoted the expression of genes related to proteolysis, lipolysis and amino acid/lipid catabolism and significantly increases the cheese maturation rate. Moreover, temperature-promoted microbial metabolisms were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of proteins and volatile organic compounds in the cheese. The results clearly indicate how processing-driven microbiome responses can be modulated in order to optimize production efficiency and product quality. PMID:26911915

  15. Multicomponent diffusion during Prato cheese ripening: mathematical modeling using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Bona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl is a promising alternative to produce a cheese with lower sodium content since KCl does not change the final quality of the cheese product. In order to assure proper salt proportions, mathematical models are employed to control the product process and simulate the multicomponent diffusion during the reduced salt cheese ripening period. The generalized Fick's Second Law is widely accepted as the primary mass transfer model within solid foods. The Finite Element Method (FEM was used to solve the system of differential equations formed. Therefore, a NaCl and KCl multicomponent diffusion was simulated using a 20% (w/w static brine with 70% NaCl and 30% KCl during Prato cheese (a Brazilian semi-hard cheese salting and ripening. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data, and indicated that the deviation was 4.43% for NaCl and 4.72% for KCl validating the proposed model for the production of good quality, reduced-sodium cheeses.

  16. Technological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a Brazilian semi-hard goat cheese (coalho with added probiotic lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the use of probiotics, which are capable of exerting beneficial effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota, has increased. Cheeses have been suggested as a better carrier of probiotic bacteria than other fermented milk products. The effect of added cultures of probiotic lactic acid bacteria on the quality of a Brazilian goat semi-hard cheese (coalho was assessed during 21 days of storage at 10 ºC as follows: C1, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. Cremoris (standard cheese; C2, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5; C3, Lactobacillus paracasei (Lactobacillus casei-01; C4, BBifidobacterium lactis (BB12; and C5, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei and B. lactis. Differences in some physico-chemical, experimental texture and proteolysis parameters were found among the assessed cheeses. All of them presented high luminosity (L* with predominance of the yellow component (b*. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the cheeses were greater than 10(7 cfu g-1 during storage. Cheeses with the added probiotic strains alone and in co-culture were better accepted than cheeses without the probiotic strains. It is suggested that goat "coalho" cheese could be a potential carrier of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands. PMID:24140324

  18. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  19. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  20. Development of low fat UF cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Miočinović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production procedure of low fat cheeses produced from ultrafiltered milk (UF cheese was developed in this study. The production procedure, that includes utilization of UF milk with 2 % of lactose, addition of 1.5 % inulin and salting with 2 % of mixed salt (NaCl/KCl in ratio 3:1 was defined based on the investigation that included the influence of coagulation parameters, different lactose content of UF milk, different inulin content, and different salt type and content on the properties of low fat UF cheeses. Presented production procedure enables the production of a product with satisfactory dietetic and functional properties. Reduced lactose content of UF milk contributes to stabilisation of pH value at an adequate level and achievement of acceptable texture properties of low fat UF cheeses. Defined inulin content (1.5 % improved cheese texture, as well as its functional properties, enabling the cheese produced to be marked as a “good source of fibre”. Reduced sodium content, due to partial substitution of NaCl with KCl, also contributes to the improvement of dietetic properties of cheeses. Low fat UF cheeses, produced according to defined production procedure, were analysed during 8 weeks of ripening and storage periods. Composition, pH values and proteolytic pattern were typical for brined cheeses. Uniform microstructure and acceptable sensory properties, especially the texture, confirm the validity of the developed production procedure of low fat UF cheeses from UF milk.

  1. Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of sushi and sashimi sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Muscolino; Filippo Giarratana; Chiara Beninati; Agata Tornambene; Antonio Panebianco; Graziella Ziino

    2014-01-01

    Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi) were analysed ...

  2. Protocol for Sensory Assessment of Traditional Dish Cottage Cheese Struklji

    OpenAIRE

    Korošec, Mojca; Golob, Terezija; Skvarča, Marlena; Bertoncelj, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    Traditional food products and dishes are a part of the national legacy, and today they have important roles in the recognition of a country or a region. Although such traditional recipes are generally well known and preserved, the majority of traditional dishes do not have clearly defined sensory characteristics and chemical compositions that can be used for quality control. The subject of the research were Cottage cheese Struklji (boiled rolls), a well-known dish that is traditionally prepar...

  3. Discrimination of cheese products for authenticity control by infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hruzikova, Jana; Milde, David; Krajancova, Pavla; Ranc, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    Quality and authenticity control serve as the customers' and manufacturers' insurance, and thus the development of analytical tools providing these tasks represents an important step of each product development. The control of authenticity in food manufacturing is even more important due to the direct influence of its products on the health of the population. This study sought to develop an easy to use and robust method for the authenticity control of cheese products. The method is based on t...

  4. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  5. Quantificação da hidroxiprolina como índice de qualidade de salsicha comercializada em Belo Horizonte-MG Quantification of hydroxyproline as an index of quality for frankfurter sold in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.A. Reis

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar o teor de colágeno em salsichas mediante a quantificação da hidroxiprolina. Amostras de salsichas produzidas por indústrias de pequeno, médio e grande porte, classificadas em função do mercado atendido, foram analisadas quanto ao seu conteúdo em hidroxiprolina, por técnica colorimétrica. O teor de colágeno foi significativamente diferente, baseado na quantidade de hidroxiprolina presente nas amostras de salsicha. As amostras que apresentaram o menor teor de colágeno foram as da indústria de médio porte (0,45%, seguida daquelas da indústria de grande porte (0,64%. As salsichas da indústria de pequeno porte apresentaram o maior teor de colágeno (0,89%. Esses resultados mostram que esse teste pode ser utilizado para classificação qualitativa de salsichas, em função dos teores de colágeno.The purpose of this work was to estimate the collagen content of frankfurters by hydroxyproline quantification. Frankfurters were produced at small, medium and large plants, according to the target market (local, regional and national. Determination of hydroxyproline was made by colorimetric method. The results showed that the frankfurters had different standards in the manufacturing, since the collagen content was statistically different. Samples from the medium size industry presented the lowest collagen content (0.45%, followed by samples from the large size plant (0.64%. Frankfurters from the small size industry had the highest collagen content (0.89%. These data showed that this analytical procedure can be used for quality classification of frankfurter based on collagen content.

  6. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ziba Guley; Harun R. Uysal; Sevda Kilic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates,...

  7. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry. PMID:27283677

  8. Reducing fat levels in cheddar-like goat cheese: impact on proteolysis and rheological properties over 6 months of refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of low-fat goat cheeses that appeal to health conscious consumers requires information on how the reduction of fat affects the quality traits of the cheese, such as its proteolysis and rheology. Goat milk samples containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and <0.5% fat were processed into full-fat (F...

  9. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the transference of the lutein (dye, added to the milk, in the whey, and cheese, to evaluate the effect of the lutein addition, light exposure, and storage time on the cheese color, and to verify the sensory acceptance of Prato cheese with addition of lutein. The lutein recovery of cheese was 95.25%. Color saturation (chrome increased during storage time resulting in a cheese with more intense color, but there were no changes in the hue of the cheese. Adjusting the amount of lutein added to Prato cheese may lead to greater acceptance. The high recovery of lutein in the cheese and the fact that the hue remained unchanged during storage under light showed that the incorporation of lutein into Prato cheese is feasible from a technical point of view.

  10. Qualidade do leite cru comercializado informalmente no município de Itaqui-RS | Quality of raw milk informally sold in the city of Itaqui, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Almeida Molina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade do leite cru comercializado informalmente no município de Itaqui-RS. Foram coletadas 21 amostras de leite de diferentes produtores, as quais foram identificadas e investigadas quanto à presença de substâncias fraudulentas (cloro e hipocloritos, peróxido de hidrogênio, formol, neutralizantes de acidez, amido, urina e sacarose, análises físico-químicas (densidade, gordura, extrato seco total (EST, extrato seco desengordurado (ESD, proteínas e acidez titulável, microbiológicas, resíduos de antibióticos e contagem de células somáticas (CCS. Os resultados obtidos indicaram a presença de neutralizantes de acidez somente na amostra do produtor 8, e apenas as amostras 7 e 15 estavam com valores de densidade em desacordo com a legislação. Para o conteúdo de gordura, 33,3% das amostras não atenderam aos requisitos da Instrução Normativa nº 62/2011, assim como 57,1%, 61,9% e 61,9% das amostras avaliadas quanto à CCS, ao ESD e à acidez, respectivamente. Considerando a contagem total de micro-organismos, 61,9% das amostras de leite apresentaram contagem superior ao estabelecido pela legislação. Além disso, constatou-se que 23,8% continham resíduos de antibióticos. Portanto, observou-se que todo o leite comercializado apresentou pelo menos um dos parâmetros de qualidade fora dos padrões da legislação brasileira. =============================================== The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of informally commercialized raw milk in the city of Itaqui, RS. Various producers provided a total of 21 samples of milk, which were then identified and investigated for fraudulent compounds (chlorine, hypochlorites, hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, acid neutralizers, starch, urine, and sucrose, physical-chemical analysis [density, fat content, total dry extract, solids-non-fat, protein content, and titratable acidity], microbiological analysis, antibiotic residues

  11. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  12. Preliminary findings on the effect of light-oxidation on Asiago d’allevo vecchio protected designation of origin cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Balzan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food is exposed to light during processing, packaging, distribution and retail storage, resulting in deterioration of the product quality. Milk and other dairy products are among the most sensitive due to the high content of riboflavin, vitamin B2, which is an efficient photosensitizer for oxidative processes. Photooxidation in cheese induces degradation of nutritional quality such as proteins, lipids, and vitamins. Moreover, it causes formation of off-flavours, off-odours and gradual bleaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of light exposition on sliced Asiago d’allevo cheese (lowland vs alpine aerobically packaged stored for 336 h under both fluorescent light and in the dark. Alpine cheese showed higher b* (P<0.001 and a* indexes (P<0.001 and also a higher lipid oxidation (P<0.01 than lowland one. Riboflavin content was significantly higher (P<0.001 in lowland cheese. Cheese samples exposed to the light were significantly lighter (P<0.001 than those exposed in the dark and they also showed a decrease in yellowness (P<0.001 and redness (P<0.001 as well as in riboflavin content (P<0.001. Lipid oxidation did not produce statistically significant change. Storage time significantly affected riboflavin content (P<0.001, TBARs (P<0.001 and cheese colour (P<0.001. Results suggest that light exposition had a pronounced effect on cheese characteristics.

  13. Olfactometry Profiles and Quantitation of Volatile Sulfur Compounds of Swiss Tilsit Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsmann, Pascal; Stern, Mireille Tena; Brügger, Yves-Alain; Breme, Katharina

    2015-09-01

    To establish the odor profiles of three differently fabricated commercial Swiss Tilsit cheeses, analyses were conducted using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/pulsed flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify and quantitate volatile compounds. In addition, odor quality and the impact of target sulfur compounds on the overall odor of the cheeses were investigated. The odor profile was found to be mainly influenced by buttery-cheesy and sulfury odor notes in all cheeses. Buttery-cheesy odor notes were attributed to three main molecules: butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and butane-2,3-dione. Over a dozen volatile sulfur compounds were detected at parts per billion levels, but only a few influenced the odor profile of the cheeses: methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, bis(methylthio)methane, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and 2-methyltetrahydrothiophen-3-one (tentative). In conclusion, the conducted analyses allowed differentiation of the cheeses, and gas chromatography-olfactometry results confirmed that partially thermized milk cheese has a more intense and more multifaceted overall flavor. PMID:26230142

  14. Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Cheddar-type cheese fortified with Inula britannica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-K; Jeewanthi, R K C; Park, E-H; Paik, H-D

    2016-01-01

    Cheddar-type cheese was fortified with the antioxidant Inula britannica flower extract (IBE). Cheddar-type cheeses manufactured with varying concentrations of IBE (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% wt/vol) were analyzed during storage at 4°C, 0, 1, 2, and 3 wk after production. Higher IBE concentrations resulted in higher protein and ash contents, with a concomitant decrease in pH, total solid, and fat content relative to the unfortified control cheese. The total phenolic content also increased with IBE concentration, but decreased over longer storage periods. The antioxidant activities of the cheeses, determined as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity and ferric thiocyanate assay results, increased proportionally to the total phenolic content. The highest antioxidant effect was observed in the 1% IBE-fortified cheese, showing 79 and 86% antioxidant effects in the DPPH and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively. At the 1-wk time point, the 5 cheese preparations underwent sensory evaluation for odor, taste, texture, color, and overall quality, determined using a descriptive analysis by a trained panel (n=20). The addition of IBE resulted in some increases in extract odor and taste. Overall, IBE showed good potential as an antioxidant supplement for dairy products. PMID:26519976

  15. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  16. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa S. R. Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella.

  17. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit; Skibsted, Leif

    2008-01-01

    cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars. In...... contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  18. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Frau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific processing conditions (pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on the composition, yield, rheology, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Results showed the impact of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on spreadable goat cheese. The results indicated that it is possible to improve cheese yield, rheological properties, and sensory analysis when milk is pasteurized at 75°C for 30 minutes; cheese yield can also be improved by lowering incubation temperature to 37°C. Cheeses made with autochthonous starter culture showed better sensory characteristics and higher pH compared to the cheeses made with commercial culture.

  19. Avaliação da qualidade das amostras comercias de Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja vendidas no Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050 Quality Evaluation of Commercial Samples of Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja sold in Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da qualidade de 12 amostras comerciais de ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. que são empregadas na medicina tradicional como estomáquicas e diuréticas e são vendidas em estabelecimentos comerciais farmacêuticos no Estado do Paraná, visando ao preparo de chás. Foram avaliados parâmetros de qualidade preconizados na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica: características dos rótulos e bulas, análise sensorial, autenticidade das amostras, material estranho e doseamento de marcadores químicos. Todos os produtos avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessária maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 12 samples prepared with ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. used in traditional medicine as stomachic and diuretic medicines, and sold in commercial pharmacies in Paraná State. The analyses used parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. The methodology consisted in evaluating the product labels and instructions of the samples to verify their accordance to the specific legislation, sensorial analysis, authenticity of the samples, purity and dosage of chemical markers. All products showed some type of mistake or irregularity according to the official codes. These results showed that is necessary to intensify the inspection of medicinal plants in Brazil.

  20. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese,...

  1. Determination of staphylococcal enterotoxins in cheese by immunoenzyme assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common foodborne diseases resulting from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs preformed in foods by enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, mainly Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci in raw milk during the production process leads to the contamination of products and outbreaks of alimentary intoxication. The problem of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese remains significant on a global level. Domestic cheese contaminated with enterotoxigenic staphylococci can result in the formation of enterotoxin, which can produce foodborne illness when the product is ingested. Due to microbiological contamination, microbiological criteria are tools that can be used in assessing the safety and quality of foods. In order to avoid foodborne illness, the Serbian Regulation on General and Special Conditions for Food Hygiene (Official Gazette of RS, No. 72/10 provides microbiological criteria for staphylococcal enterotoxins in dairy products.

  2. Tracking Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Raw and Ready-to-Eat Food Illegally Sold at the Eastern EU Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Stessl, Beatrix; Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana

    2016-03-01

    Food illegally brought into the European Union, mainly in the personal luggage of travelers, represents a potential threat to consumers' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of five pathogens in food brought into the European Union by Moldavian citizens as personal goods and illegally sold in Romania in the vicinity of the border. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was 7.5% and 8%, while Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were absent in all samples. L. monocytogenes sequence type 2, 9, 121, and 155, highly prevalent among foodstuffs worldwide, was also present among isolates from ready-to-eat food illegally sold in Romania, even at the same date of sampling, indicating cross-contamination during food handling. S. aureus spa types t449, t304, and t524 were most often isolated from raw-milk cheeses contaminated with 10(3)-10(5) colony-forming units per gram, evidencing a contamination at herd level or unhygienic conditions during processing. S. aureus t011 and t3625, both included in the livestock-associated CC398, were isolated from pork lard and poultry meat. This study shows that cross-border trade from nonmember states represents a neglected route of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union that could lead to sporadic or family-associated cases of disease. PMID:26741503

  3. Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction "Treatments" Sold Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction "Treatments" Sold Online Printer-friendly PDF (297 KB) ... Men looking online for "dietary supplements" to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) or enhance their sexual performance should beware: ...

  4. Tobacco Sold to Minors, California, 1997-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Percentage of stores that sold tobacco to minors in the California Youth Tobacco Purchase Survey each year from 1997 to 2014. This annual survey of illegal sales of...

  5. Sailing the Seas of Cheese*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Memphis Elvis is cool; Vegas Elvis is cheesy. How come? To call something cheesy is, ostensibly, to disparage it, and yet cheesy acts are some of the most popular in popular culture today. How is this possible? The concepts of cheese, cheesy, and cheesiness play an important and increasingly ubiquitous role in popular culture today. I offer an analysis of these concepts, distinguishing them from nearby concepts like kitchy and campy. Along the way I draw attention to the important roles of cultural/historical context, background knowledge, and especially artist’s intentions as they are relevant to aesthetic assessments involving cheese and related concepts. I go on to contend that these concepts, properly understood, serve as helpful test cases concerning some important issues in contemporary aesthetics, such as the paradox of negative art and the contentious debate between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists.

  6. Sailing the Seas of Cheese*

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Memphis Elvis is cool; Vegas Elvis is cheesy. How come? To call something cheesy is, ostensibly, to disparage it, and yet cheesy acts are some of the most popular in popular culture today. How is this possible? The concepts of cheese, cheesy, and cheesiness play an important and increasingly ubiquitous role in popular culture today. I offer an analysis of these concepts, distinguishing them from nearby concepts like kitchy and campy. Along the way I draw attention to the important roles of cu...

  7. ''Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein--de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ''Swiss cheese'' models

  8. Counterfeit Dapoxetine Sold on the Internet Contains Undisclosed Sildenafil

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, John; Klep, Richard; Aquilina, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is growing problem with medications and herbal products sold via the Internet containing inappropriate quantities or the absence of active ingredients or whose ingredients are inaccurately represented, which may or may not be harmful to the user. We report on a counterfeit medication whose active ingredient is dapoxetine, a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The counterfeit dapoxetine was sold on the Inter...

  9. Bacteriological Quality of Salad Vegetables Sold in Amravati City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tambekar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Salad vegetables are consumed without any heat treatment, sometimes without washing and peeling and therefore the possibility of food borne diseases is more. Vegetables get contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms while growing in field or orchards or during harvesting, post harvesting handling, processing and distribution. Total 50 samples of different salad vegetables were analysed and 86 bacterial pathogens were isolated. Among them Escherichia coli was found to be predominant (38.3%, followed by Enterobacter aerogenes (20.9%, Pseudomonas sp. (16.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (15.1%, Salmonella sp. (5.8% and Shigella sp. (3.4%. The presence of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas sp. is observed on all samples of salad vegetables. The present study revealed the potential hazard of street vended salad vegetables, therefore needs vigorous washing of vegetables with safe running water before consuming to reduces the number of microorganisms.

  10. Bacteriological Quality of Salad Vegetables Sold in Amravati City (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Tambekar, D H; R. H. Mundhada

    2006-01-01

    Salad vegetables are consumed without any heat treatment, sometimes without washing and peeling and therefore the possibility of food borne diseases is more. Vegetables get contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms while growing in field or orchards or during harvesting, post harvesting handling, processing and distribution. Total 50 samples of different salad vegetables were analysed and 86 bacterial pathogens were isolated. Among them Escherichia coli was found to be predominant (38.3%), ...

  11. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  12. Development and validation of an APCI-MS/GC-MS approach for the classification and prediction of Cheddar cheese maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng Hui; Yan, Bingnan; Linforth, Robert S T; Fisk, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Headspace techniques have been extensively employed in food analysis to measure volatile compounds, which play a central role in the perceived quality of food. In this study atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was used to investigate the complex mix of volatile compounds present in Cheddar cheeses of different maturity, processing and recipes to enable characterisation of the cheeses based on their ripening stages. Partial least squares-linear discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) provided a 70% success rate in correct prediction of the age of the cheeses based on their key headspace volatile profiles. In addition to predicting maturity, the analytical results coupled with chemometrics offered a rapid and detailed profiling of the volatile component of Cheddar cheeses, which could offer a new tool for quality assessment and accelerate product development. PMID:26212994

  13. Development and validation of an APCI-MS/GC–MS approach for the classification and prediction of Cheddar cheese maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Heng-Hui; Bingnan, Yan; Linforth, Rob S.T.; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Headspace techniques have been extensively employed in food analysis to measure volatile compounds, which play a central role in the perceived quality of food. In this study atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), coupled with GC-MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry), was used to investigate the complex mix of volatile compounds present in Cheddar cheese of different maturity, processing and recipes to enable characterization of the cheeses based on their rip...

  14. A comparative study between inhibitory effect of L. lactis and nisin on important pathogenic bacteria in Iranian UF Feta cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mirdamadi; Shadi Agha Ghazvini

    2015-01-01

      Introduction : In the present study, the inhibitory effect of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis during co-culture and pure standard nisin were assessed against selected foodborne pathogenes in growth medium and Iranian UF Feta cheese. In comparison L lactis, not only proves flavor but also plays a better role in microbial quality of Iranian UF Feta cheese as a model of fermented dairy products.   Materials and method s: L. lactis subsp. lactis as nisin producer strain, Listeria monocytogen...

  15. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread. 133.179 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese spread is the food prepared by comminuting and mixing, with the aid of heat, one or more...

  16. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the...

  17. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  18. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  19. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review. PMID:26082126

  20. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  1. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  2. Detection of milk mixtures in Halloumi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, I; García-Risco, M R; Amigo, L; Molina, E; Ramos, M; Martín-Alvarez, P J

    2004-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been applied to the detection of illegal addition of milk from goat and/ or cow in Halloumi cheese, traditionally made with sheep milk. The electrophoretic profiles of the casein from Halloumi cheeses have revealed that caprine para-kappa-casein and bovine alphas1-casein peaks point to the presence of low percentages of goat's and/or cow's milk added to Halloumi cheese. Stepwise multiple linear regression has been used to predict these percentages with a standard error of the estimation of 2.14%. The analytical method combined with the statistical application is valid for the prediction of percentages higher than 2% of goat's and percentages of 5% of cow's milk added to the cheese either in fresh or ripened cheese. The standard error of estimation was higher for the prediction of cow's milk than for goat's milk. PMID:15453472

  3. Effects on Moisture content on quality of processed cheese storied at room temperature%水分添加量对常温保存再制奶酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会平; 董进; 卫风汝; 曹春玲

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the experiment studied the influence of moisture on the functional properties of processed cheese stored at room temperature which used laboratory-made mozzarella cheese as the main raw material, through process of raw material cutting, heating and melting, UHT ultra high temperature sterilization etc., by using texture analyzer and SEM, and it described that water played an important role in the process of making processed cheese stored at room temperature. The results indicated: meltability and sol coefficient were significant increasing trend by water (P<0.05); while the firmness, chewiness of processed cheese were affected a similar decreasing trend. The number and size of fat globules, the increase of pH value and sol coefficient indicated the emulsification of casein was influenced by water, to some extent, with the increasing of water in processed cheese, the emulsification of casein became better.%以实验室自制Mozzarella奶酪为主要原料研究了的常温保存再制奶酪,经过切割、加热融化、UHT超高温瞬时灭菌等工艺,利用质构仪、扫描电镜等仪器分析水分添加量对常温保存再制奶酪品质的影响.结果表明:水分添加量对再制奶酪的融化性和溶胶系数均有显著增大的趋势(P<0.05);而对再制奶酪物性中的硬度、黏着性、咀嚼性有相似的减小的趋势;水分对酪蛋白的乳化作用的影响体现在溶胶系数和pH值的增大,以及脂肪球的分散和数量减少,在一定范围内水分增加对酪蛋白乳化作用越好.

  4. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. PMID:23706488

  5. Cheese yield as affected by some parameters Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A.M. Abd El-Gawad; Nawal S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Cheese yield is defined as the amount of cheese, expressed in kilograms, obtained from 100 kg of milk. It is a very important parameter: the higher the recovered percentage of solids, the greater is the amount of cheese obtained and therefore gains in economic terms.The definition of cheese yield, or how to express yield, is important in two main applications: 1. Economic control of cheesemaking; 2. Expressing the results of cheesemaking experiments. Cheese yield is affected by many fac...

  6. Peptide Profile of Low-Fat Edam Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan KÜÇÜKÖNER

    1998-01-01

    Low-fat Edam cheese was manufactured using conventional cheese-making procedures using low-fat milk (1.5% fat). The cheese samples were aged for six months at 5 to 6°C. The cheese was analyzed for biochemical characteristics and peptide content. The peptide contents were determined with reverse phase chromatography. The association property of proteins and peptides in the soluble fraction of the cheese was determined using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The overall peptide quantit...

  7. Sensory evaluation and microbiological characterization of autochthonous Sombor cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mijačević Zora; Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the results of organoleptic evaluation, chemical and microbiological analysis of Sombor cheese were presented. Sombor cheese is a type of autochthonous cheese whose traditional processing method is still in use in areas of northern part of Serbia. The sensory profile, chemical and microbiological analysis were performed on 19 samples of traditionally made cheese collected from two households. The sensory evaluation of cheese samples showed its variation in taste and consistency,...

  8. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2015-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  9. New developments in the study of the microbiota of raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses by molecular methods: the case of Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Neviani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are an essential component of cheeses and play important roles during both cheese manufacture and ripening. Both starter and secondary flora modify the physical and chemical properties of cheese, contributing and reacting to changes that occur during the manufacture and ripening of cheese. As the composition of microbial population changes under the influence of continuous shifts in environmental conditions and microorganisms interactions during manufacturing and ripening, the characteristics of a given cheese depend also on microflora dynamics. The microbiota present in cheese is complex and its growth and activity represent the most important, but the least controllable steps. In the past, research in this area was dependent on classical microbiological techniques. However, culture-dependent methods are time-consuming and approaches that include a culturing step can lead to inaccuracies due to species present in low numbers or simply cultivable. Therefore, they cannot be used as a unique tool to monitor community dynamics. For these reasons approaches to cheese microbiology had to change dramatically. To address this, in recent years the focus on the use of culture-independent methods based on the direct analysis of DNA (or RNA has rapidly increased. Application of such techniques to the study of cheese microbiology, represents a rapid, sound, reliable and effective way for the detection and identification of the microorganisms present in dairy products, leading to major advances in understanding this complex microbial ecosystem and its impact on cheese ripening and quality. In these chapter, an overview on the recent advances in the use of molecular methods for thorough analysis of microbial communities in cheeses is given. Furthermore, applications of culture-independent approaches to study the microbiology of two important raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses such as Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano, are presented.

  10. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Jolanta G; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g(-1) between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. PMID:26950152

  11. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  12. Flavour development of East Midlands cheeses and evaluation of flavour producing microorganisms in a small scale real-cheese model

    OpenAIRE

    Whiley, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Stilton is a blue-veined cheese made from pasteurised milk. The diversity of the microflora found within the cheese helps develop the unique flavour and aroma of Stilton compared to other blue cheese. However, this flora is not controlled and so product may be variable. A small-scale cheese model was developed to allow examination of the effect of different microflora on flavour production in a controlled way. Texture analysis, water activity and viable count of the cheese models were comp...

  13. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Pais, Vânia F.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella ...

  14. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log₁₀ cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log₁₀ cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log₁₀ cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also

  15. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products. PMID:17650038

  16. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods. PMID:12278237

  17. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  18. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo; Diogo Maus; Ana Augusta Odorissi Xavier; Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante; Walkiria Hanada Viotto

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine...

  19. A large factory-scale application of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria for PDO Pecorino Siciliano cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Rosa; Carpino, Stefania; Gaglio, Raimondo; Pino, Alessandra; Rapisarda, Teresa; Caggia, Cinzia; Marino, Giovanni; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Settanni, Luca; Todaro, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    quality parameters of the final cheeses were stabilized, but all cheeses maintained their local typicality. PMID:27375245

  20. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  1. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  2. Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compa...

  3. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria on...... (pH 7.0) showed interesting results. Despite a lower pH value in the cottage cheese, compared to the dressing, more rapid growth was observed. This may be caused by insufficient amounts of oxygen in the cream dressing having a negative effect on growth of Pseudomonas spp. At 15˚C growth of...

  4. Lactic Acid Bacteria as Markers for the Authentication of Swiss Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdin, Petra; von Ah, Ueli; Rollier, Deborah; Roetschi, Alexandra; Eugster, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of traditional Swiss-type cheeses adheres to strict rules, so as to guarantee quality and purity of the end product. This raises production costs and means consumers pay more. It also opens the door to cut-rate forgeries claiming to be made to the stringent standards and causing considerable economic losses to the entire dairy sector. In order to combat product counterfeiting, Agroscope has developed proof-of-origin cultures that allow the identification of copycats. Carefully selected lactic acid bacteria, having uniquely located insertion sequence elements, are proliferated by fermentation and subsequently dried by lyophilization. The proof-of-origin culture is added during the cheese production process and sustains maturation. These so-called 'biological markers' can be traced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, which allow authentication even if the cheese is cut into pieces or grated. They do not lead to any alteration of the cheese's taste or texture, and are compatible with the strict 'protected designation of origin' (PDO) specifications. The proof-of-origin cultures are used for the protection of several traditional Swiss-cheese varieties, such as Emmental PDO, Tête de Moine PDO, and Appenzeller(®). A market survey of Emmental PDO showed that the system is effective in revealing fraud and has the power to enforce corrective measures. PMID:27198813

  5. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  6. Short communication: Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in the Manchego cheese supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, R; Licón, C C; Berruga, M I; Molina, M P; Molina, A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of ewe milk lies in the production of high quality cheeses, such as Manchego cheese with a Protected Designation of Origin, whose safety must be guaranteed. In a 2-yr study, 407 bulk tank milk samples from farms and 82 silo milk and curd samples from cheese factories were collected from southeast Spain and tested for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) using 2 commercial ELISA tests. Of these, 99.3% of the bulk tank samples had AFM1 levels below the European Union (EU) legal limit for milk (50 ng/kg), and well below the limit adopted by the Codex Alimentarius (500 ng/kg). Moreover, 98.8% of the silo milk and curd samples from cheese factories had AFM1 levels below the EU limit for milk. When considering median AFM1 concentrations, an average 4-fold increase was found in the final curd in relation to the corresponding silo milk. Control of AFM1 in Manchega ewe milk would enhance dairy product safety by the possible detection of faults in the manufacture of Manchego cheese. PMID:21605747

  7. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. PMID:26540146

  8. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  9. Relationship between pasture and nutritional aspects of Fontina cheese manufactured in alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years consumers have markedly increased their attention to the quality of foods, as a results of an amplified requirement of safety in all agricultural products, including those of animal origin. As a consequence, there has been a growing interest for the so called functional foods, for foods from the organic agriculture and for the DOP (Protected Origin Denomination brand products. Fontina cheese is one of the Italian cheeses qualified as DOP, and it is produced exclusively in Valle d’Aosta with raw and whole milk from Valdostana cows. During the summer the cheese is directly manufactured in Alpine farms located in different valleys, and where cows are grazed and moved progressively to higher altitudes.....

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON MOZZARELLA CHEESE SAMPLES NEAR THEIR EXPIRY DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franzoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological investigation was carried out on 30 mozzarella cheese samples to evaluate their quality near the expiry date. Total coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. were detected at high levels in 70% and in 30% of the samples, respectively. Pseudomonadaceae were considered as the microorganisms responsible of the texture changing spoilage symptoms that were observed in 13,3% of the samples. Isolated strains were identified by PCR-TGGE analysis as P. rhodesiae (37,5%, P. putida (33,3% and P. poae (29,2%.

  11. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese......, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semi-hard cheese. Growth experiments on the substrate were repeatable and reproducible. The substrate was also suitable for the starter P. camemberti. Mineral elements in cheese were shown to have strong effect on growth, mycotoxin production and colour...

  12. Study of Mucor spp. in semi-hard cheese ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Na; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Mucor spp. isolated from a fermented soybean food in central China was smeared on the surface of semi-hard cheese to investigate its role in cheese ripening. Cheese ripening indices showed increase by 3–4 fold upon ripening of cheese for 90 days. Electrophoretic studies revealed that caseins in the cheese were degraded gradually during ripening forming several low molecular weight peptides, especially of 14.4 kDa. Texture profile analysis and microstructure study of the cheese sho...

  13. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs About SHPPS: SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted ... canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods or beverages. • 4.0% of states and 6.6% of ...

  14. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  15. Chitosan/whey Protein (CWP) Edible Films Efficiency for Controlling Mould Growth and on Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Properties During Storage of Göbek Kashar Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of the application of chitosan and chitosan/whey protein on the chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of Göbek Kashar cheese during ripening time (on 3(rd), 30(th), 60(th) and 90(th) d). Difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples was found to be significant (pedible coating had statistically lower mould counts compared to the uncoated samples. Furthermore the highest and lowest mould counts were determined in control (4.20 Log CFU/g) and other samples (<1 Log CFU/g) at 60(th) and 90(th) d of storage. All samples exhibited higher levels of water soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage process. At the end of 90 day storage period, no signicant dierences in salt and fat values were observed among the cheeses studied. The edible coatings had a beneficial effect on the sensory quality of cheese samples. In the result of sensory analysis, while cheese C and the chitosan coated cheese samples were more preferred by the panellists, the chitosan/whey protein film-coated cheese samples received the lowest scores. This study shows coating suggests could be used to improve the quality of cheese during ripening time. PMID:26761831

  16. Collaborative study on the determination of natamycin in cheese and cheese rind 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A collaborative test on the determination of natamycin in cheese and cheese rind was carried out. In total 38 laboratorles from 13 countries were participating . Eight samples, consistlog of 4 duplicates we re investigated by a spectrometric and an HPLC method.

  17. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezik Azab Awad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artifi cial, extruded, synthetic and/or fi lled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, fl avorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. Material and methods. Matured Ras cheese (3 months old was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fi ne paste and kept frozen until used. Results. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and fi rmness of

  18. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  19. Microbial assessment of un-bottled synthetic juices sold in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Un-bottled synthetic juices are sold by street vendors and hawkers raising the concern about their safety. To examine the quality of un-bottled synthetic beverages from different locations of Peshawar city using Standard techniques. A total of 56 samples of un-bottled synthetic juices were collected from 8 different locations of Peshawar City and analyzed for Total Plate Count, Total Coliform Bacteria, Total Fecal Coliform bacteria E. coli, Yeast and Mould. In all localities, the street vended un-bottled synthetic juices were found hygienically of poor quality as all had high total plate count which ranged from 2 x 102 to 5 x 107 and total coliform bacteria ranged from 110 MPN/ml. Total Fecal Coliform ranged from < 0.3 to 110M PN/ml. The presence of E coli, contamination was found in (25) 44 % Samples, while all the analyzed samples were contaminated with yeasts and moulds. All un-bottled synthetic juices sold on roadside were highly contaminated with disease causing microorganisms. Policy message: Periodic monitoring of street beverage should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. (author)

  20. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luana Faria; Casella, Tiago; Gomes, Elisangela Soares; Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto

    2015-02-01

    The water buffalo mozzarella cheese is a typical Italian cheese which has been introduced in the thriving Brazilian market in the last 10 y, with good acceptance by its consumers. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the technological and sensory quality of mozzarella cheese. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the diversity of the autochthones viable LAB isolated from water buffalo mozzarella cheese under storage. Samples were collected in 3 independent trials in a dairy industry located in the southeast region of Brazil, on the 28th day of storage, at 4 ºC. The LAB were characterized by Gram staining, catalase test, capacity to assimilate citrate, and production of CO2 from glucose. The diversity of LAB was evaluated by RAPD-PCR (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and by Vitek 2 system. Twenty LAB strains were isolated and clustered into 12 different clusters, and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus helveticus. Enterococcus species were dominant and citrate-positive. Only the strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. fermentum produced CO2 from glucose and were citrate-positive, while L. casei was only citrate positive. This is the first report which elucidates the LAB diversity involved in Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese. Furthermore, the results show that despite the absence of natural whey cultures as starters in production, the LAB species identified are the ones typically found in mozzarella cheese. PMID:25597646

  1. Alternatives to control microbiological cheese defects: use of aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    LIBRÁN CUERVAS-MONS, CELIA MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO CONTROL MICROBIOLOGICAL CHEESE DEFECTS: USE OF AROMATIC PLANTS 1. Introduction Cheeses are traditionally affected by microbiological spoilage that leads to great economic loss. On the one hand, bacteria such as coliforms or butyric acid are some of the responsible for early and late cheese blowing, respectively (COGAN, 2011; GARDE et al., 2011). These are two cheese paste defects characterised by the internal presence of numerous and odorous holes (MCSWEENEY, 2007; MULLA...

  2. The nutritional significance of cheese in the UK diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, Anthony; Wilbey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Cheese currently suffers from an adverse nutritional image largely due to a perceived association between saturated fatty acid, cholesterol and the salt content of cheese with cardiovascular disease. However, cheese is also a rich source of essential nutrients such as, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals that play an integral part of a healthy diet. This review outlines the composition, structure and physiological characteristics of the nutritionally significant components of cheese, whil...

  3. Derived Demand for Fresh Cheese Products Imported into Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Andreas P.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Stearns, James A.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Ge, Jiaoju

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the derived demand for imported fresh cheese products into Japan when fresh cheese import data are disaggregated by source country of production. We provide empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own-price, and cross-prices among exporting countries for fresh cheese. Japan's derived demand for U.S. fresh cheese products is perfectly inelastic. Thus, the import demand competition among importing countries should...

  4. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 1: the unsaponifiable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate nutritional quality, samples of milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO have been studied analyzing cholesterol, alfa tocopherol and trans retinol, functional components of the unsaponifiable fraction. Dairy products of experimental and commercial origin have been sampled. A large variability has been observed among the products but, regarding the nutrients studied, commercial and experimental farms produce mozzarella cheeses of comparable nutritional quality.

  5. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  6. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  7. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  8. Cheese from Ultrafiltered Milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the

  9. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for...

  11. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  12. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  13. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  14. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  15. Production and chemical composition of Istria and Pag whey cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Pag curd are specific products that are mostly consumed fresh made in coastal areas and on islands. Curd is a sort of soft cheese. Due to its structure, it is very healthy. It has a high nutritional value which is the result of a great amount of proteins that are easy to digest and have a high level of utilization. The aim of this study was to describe the technological process of production, to determine the chemical structure and to suggest the value of standardization on the basis of sensory evaluation. The total of 28 curd samples were physically and chemically analyzed according to standard and accredited scientific methods. Statistical data analysis was carried out by using the procedures of Microsoft Office Excel (2007. According to water content in cheese, Istria and Pag curd belongs to a group of soft cheeses. On average the water content in Istrian curd was 56.62 %, and in Pag curd was 63.03 %. Istrian curd showed higher values of the fat content (28.9 % and the fat in a dry matter (64.47 % than Pag curd (23.25 % and 59.65 %. The sensory quality of Istrian curd was not as homogenous as of Pag curd. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the physical and chemical structure of Istria and Pag curd was uneven, which is understandable if the production terms and conditions and the way of draining the curd are taken into account. The description of technological process of production and the understanding of physical and chemical structure of the curd, represent the significant contribution to the research and knowledge of domestic dairy products, which certainly should not be neglected in our dairy industry. In any case, these products deserve the experts full attention.

  16. Products of Security Inspecting Have Been Sold to Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yong; WANG; Qiang; GAO; Qi; TIAN; Li-jun; YANG; Lu; ZHENG; Yu-lai; GUO; Feng-mei

    2013-01-01

    Products of security inspecting of China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE)have been applied to many major sports events,such as Olympics hold at Beijing in 2008 and World Expo hold at Shanghai in2010,and other important places such as Great Hall and National Theatre.Passage-type inspection system of radioactive materials(RMS),portable radionuclide spectrometer(PRIS),and walk-through metal and radioactive materials detector(MRMD)have been sold to the user of Tanzania.

  17. Exploratory study of acid-forming potential of commercial cheeses: impact of cheese type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Ecaterina; Mardon, Julie; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Due to their composition, cheeses are suspected to induce an acid load to the body. To better understand this nutritional feature, the acid-forming potential of five cheeses from different cheese-making technologies and two milk was evaluated on the basis of their potential renal acid load (PRAL) index (considering protein, P, Cl, Na, K, Mg and Ca contents) and organic anions contents. PRAL index ranged from -0.8 mEq/100 g edible portion for fresh cheese to 25.3 mEq/100 g for hard cheese Cantal and 28 mEq/100 g for blue-veined cheese Fourme d'Ambert. PRAL values were greatly subjected to interbatch fluctuations. This work emphasized a great imbalance between acidifying elements of PRAL calculation (Cl, P and proteins elements) and alkalinizing ones (Na and Ca). Particularly, Cl followed by P elements had a strong impact on the PRAL value. Hard cheeses were rich in lactate, thus, might be less acidifying than suspected by their PRAL values only. PMID:27050124

  18. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in beef sold in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMDI ALIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in beef used in three regions of Kosovo. Total numbers of 89 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local meat shops for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. Among the beef samples, 14 (15.7% of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones. The mean levels (±SE of quinolones were found to be in average of 28.22 ± 1.11 µg/kg in samples respectively for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and flumequin. This study indicated that some beef meat sold in Kosovo contains residues of quinolone antibiotics. From the evaluation of tested samples is found positive the presence of enrofloxacin in 6 (6.7% beef meat samples and respectively for ciprofloxacin and fumequin in 3 (3, 35% and in 5(5, 6% beef meat samples. Study results confirmed quinolone residues in beef sold in Kosovo as constitute and serious risk for public health. Use of quinolones in treatment of cattle diseases in Kosovo remain an effective method of diseases control but are considered a common way of residues in beef produced and sold in Kosovo.

  19. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  20. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla;

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  1. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  2. Swiss Cheese and a Cheesy CMB

    OpenAIRE

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, ...

  3. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  4. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  5. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  6. The Production of Parmigiano-Reggiano Cheese: The force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    OpenAIRE

    Roest, De, Kees

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour input required both on the dairy farms and in the cheese dairies creates considerably more employment than any other dairy system. About 20,000 men and women work everyday in this very special system. In an i...

  7. Technological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a Brazilian semi-hard goat cheese (coalho) with added probiotic lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Estefânia Fernandes Garcia; Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga; Evandro Leite de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the use of probiotics, which are capable of exerting beneficial effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota, has increased. Cheeses have been suggested as a better carrier of probiotic bacteria than other fermented milk products. The effect of added cultures of probiotic lactic acid bacteria on the quality of a Brazilian goat semi-hard cheese (coalho) was assessed during 21 days of storage at 10 ºC as follows: C1, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis...

  8. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens ( Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  9. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-Do [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.k [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10{sup 1} CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D{sub 10} values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Slovak Bryndza Cheese Using Next-Generation 16S rDNA Amplicon Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planý Matej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about diversity and taxonomic structure of the microbial population present in traditional fermented foods plays a key role in starter culture selection, safety improvement and quality enhancement of the end product. Aim of this study was to investigate microbial consortia composition in Slovak bryndza cheese. For this purpose, we used culture-independent approach based on 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing using next generation sequencing platform. Results obtained by the analysis of three commercial (produced on industrial scale in winter season and one traditional (artisanal, most valued, produced in May Slovak bryndza cheese sample were compared. A diverse prokaryotic microflora composed mostly of the genera Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus was identified. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris were the dominant taxons in all tested samples. Second most abundant species, detected in all bryndza cheeses, were Lactococcus fujiensis and Lactococcus taiwanensis, independently by two different approaches, using different reference 16S rRNA genes databases (Greengenes and NCBI respectively. They have been detected in bryndza cheese samples in substantial amount for the first time. The narrowest microbial diversity was observed in a sample made with a starter culture from pasteurised milk. Metagenomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes seems to be a powerful tool for studying the structure of the microbial population in cheeses.

  11. Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on Free Amino Acids Composition of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara Cheese during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. E. Altahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatment and salt concentrations (0, 5, and 10% on the free amino acids (FAA composition of Sudanese braided cheese (BC ripened for up to 3 months at 5±2°C. Heat and salt concentration significantly affected the FAA of braided cheese. The free amino acids concentrations of BC ripened in 0%, 5%, and 10% salted whey (SW were significantly fluctuated. Under ripening conditions tested (salt level + time, braided cheese made from pasteurized milk (BCPM had consistently lower values of FAA than braided cheese made from raw milk (BCRM. In fresh cheese, the major FAA in BCRM were Glu (36.12 nmol/ml, Leu (26.77nmol/ml and Lys (14.51 nmol/ml while the major ones in BCPM were Lys (2.94 nmol/ml and Ala (2.45 nmol/ml. BCPM stored in 10% SW had shorter quality life compared to that stored in 5% salted whey.

  12. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 102 to 103 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (101 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  13. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  14. The Production of Parmigiano-Reggiano Cheese: The force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour input requi

  15. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warmed, is subjected to the action of harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria or other harmless flavor... optional mold-inhibiting ingredient consisting of sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, sodium sorbate, or any... acid. (e) The name of each semisoft cheese for which a definition and standard of identity...

  16. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial... 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that: (1) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may...

  17. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  18. MOLECULES TO MOZZARELLA: THE CHEMISTRY OF CHEESE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost ten billion pounds of cheese are produced in the US each year, and chemistry is involved in every step of the manufacturing process. The milk coagulates into a curd when starter culture bacteria digest lactose and rennet enzyme destabilizes casein micelles. Cooking and piling the curd force...

  19. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    CERN Document Server

    Lavinto, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi holes in $\\Lambda$CDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius $r_b=50$ $h^{-1}$Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB. We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% l...

  20. MEMBRANE PROCESSING OF COTTAGE CHEESE WHEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full-scale whey processing plant using membranes was constructed to process 300,000 pounds per day of cottage cheese whey. The two-step system uses ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) according to a design previously demonstrated in the Phase I portion of this project...

  1. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  2. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  3. The Determination of Fecal Contamination of Strawberry Flavored and Plain Ice Cream Samples Sold In Tekirdag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coskun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fecal contamination of strawberry flavored and plain icecream samples sold in Tekirdağ province. In addition, the pH of the samples were determined and the effectof pH on number of microorganisms were investigated. 25 plain and 25 strawberry flavored ice creamsamples were used as research material. Coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli and fecalstreptococci counts were determined in the ice cream samples. The microbial counts were found to be lowerin many of the strawberry flavored ice cream samples with lower pH values than the others. As a result, thisstudy showed that hygenic quality of the investigated the samples had generally inadequate and they mightbe dangerous in health of consumer.

  4. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment. PMID:11324629

  5. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. PMID:24792787

  6. Evaluation of Chitosan-Starch-Based Edible Coating To Improve the Shelf Life of Bod Ljong Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial edible coatings to improve the quality of Bod ljong cheese throughout 25 days of storage. Coatings were prepared using chitosan, water chestnut starch, and glycerol as a base matrix, together with several combinations of antimicrobial substances: Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COFE), pine needle essential oil (PNEO), and nisin. Application of coating on cheese decreased water loss, lipid oxidation, changes in headspace gas composition, and color. Moreover, the edible coatings with COFE or PNEO had increased antimicrobial activity and did not permit growth of microorganisms. COFE and PNEO are manufactured from food-grade materials so they can be consumed as an integral part of the cheese, which represents a competitive advantage over nonedible coatings. PMID:26197284

  7. Implementation of HACCP system in production of Paški cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šime Gligora

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since August 2006 all participants in Republic of Croatia dealing with the food have an obligation to introduce Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP system. Therefore, all producers of dairy products, as well as registered producers of Paški cheese have to implement HACCP system in their facilities. The aim of this work is to describe implementation and use of HACCP system in «Sirena - mala sirana» which is a small-scale cheese factory situated in a place Kolan on the island of Pag. For this reason, EU and Croatian legislative related to HACCP system is firstly described. After that, procedure of certification is presented, as well as prerequisite programsof the system which are the base for successful implementation of the HACCP system. Furthermore, appliance of HACCP in Paški cheese production through system’s documentation is described. Flow diagram is presented, analysis of hazardous and determination of critical control points is described trough defined production processes. Next, control, monitoring and corrective measures for production processes are described. Finally, HACCP plan and Standard Sanitation Operative Procedures (SSOP are presented. Besides that, traceability system and training plan are shown, as well as all required record lists and other documentation for HACCP system. With implementation of the HACCP system in «Sirena» cheese facility, general hygiene was improved as well as hygiene of equipment and personnel. Risk of product contamination is reduced to a minimum level. With effective management of control measures and records, quality of produced Paški cheese was also improved

  8. ESTIMATING MARKET POWER BY RETAILERS IN THE ITALIAN PARMIGIANO REGGIANO AND GRANA PADANO CHEESE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Sckokai, Paolo; Soregaroli, Claudio; Moro, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the role of market power by retailers within the supply chain of Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano, the two most famous Italian quality cheeses. Market power is analysed in the context of an imperfect competition model of the supply chain, in which retailers are allowed to exercise market power both downstream and upstream. We jointly estimate market power parameters together with supply and demand elasticities, by means of a structural system of demand, supply a...

  9. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  10. Qualidade parasitológica e condições higiênico-sanitárias de hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Parasitological quality and hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolivar Soares

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora as hortaliças sejam amplamente comercializadas e consumidas no Brasil, o consumo de verduras cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de parasitas intestinais. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de três tipos de hortaliças (rúcula, agrião e alface-crespa comercializadas em cinco principais pontos de venda aos consumidores (dois supermercados, dois "sacolões" e em uma feira livre, na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período de junho 2003 a maio 2004. As hortaliças in natura foram lavadas com água e esta foi submetida ao método de sedimentação, durante um período de 24 horas. Concomitante à pesquisa laboratorial, foram avaliadas as condições de cultivo e manipulação de diferentes produtores agrícolas, os quais forneciam as hortaliças que eram posteriormente comercializadas em Florianópolis. A análise parasitológica mostrou alta freqüência de parasitas intestinais na maioria das amostras analisadas (40% a 76%. Entre os fatores envolvidos na contaminação das verduras, destacaram-se a origem das águas de irrigação, o acondicionamento, o transporte e a manipulação destas durante a coleta. Conclui-se que as hortaliças comercializadas nesta região têm relevante papel na transmissão de enfermidades intestinais, havendo necessidade de medidas específicas que evitem a contaminação desses vegetais.Although vegetables are widely sold and consumed in Brazil, the ingestion of raw vegetables is an important way of transmission of intestinal parasites. In this study, the presence of transmissible forms of intestinal parasites in three vegetable species commercially available in five very busy locations (two supermarkets, two "kilo markets" and a street market located in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, within the period between June 2003 and May 2004 was evaluated. The in natura vegetables were washed with water and the washing water was

  11. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  12. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 2: tracing parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzoferrato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific tracing parameters, also useful as quality indicators, have been utilized to evaluate if quality changes occur, due to farm, cheese production, and environmental variables, in milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO samples of commercial and experimental origin. In particular, observing the 13 cis retinol levels it is interesting to note that, even if nutritional quality is comparable for all the studied products (see also Part 1, the analyzed experimental products seem to be handled with slightly less care than commercial products.

  13. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Tambur Zoran; Opačić Dolores; Doder Radoje; Marković Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese...

  14. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Pleva; Leona Buňková; Eva Theimrová; Vendula Bartošáková; František Buňka; Khatantuul Purevdorj

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci...

  15. The technology, chemistry, and microbiology of Serra Cheese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Angela C.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Oliveira, Jorge C

    1993-01-01

    This paper comprehensively reviews fundamental and applied aspects of the manufacture of Serra cheese, its composition, the biochemical reactions that take place during coagulation and ripening, and the microbial ecology. Serra cheese is the most traditional cheese manufactured in Portugal. Aspects that make it unique are 1) its manufacture by the coagulation of raw ewe milk using a vegetable rennet (cardoon flower) and 2) its final buttery texture and flavor. The wide variation of the final ...

  16. Effect of cheese as a fat replacer in fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Hüdayi ERCOŞKUN

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beef fat substitution with kashar cheese were studied in traditional Turkish fermented sausage; sucuk. Six sucuk formulations were prepared by replacing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of beef fat was substituted with kashar cheese. The fat substitution of fat with kashar cheese decreased fat content and increased protein content of the product that affected the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of products. Saturated fatty acid content increased and unsaturated, mono-...

  17. Development of a Quantitative GC-MS Method for the Detection of Cyclopropane Fatty Acids in Cheese as New Molecular Markers for Parmigiano Reggiano Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Nocetti, Marco; Lolli, Veronica; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2016-05-25

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA), as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid, are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk and in dairy products from cows fed with corn silage. In this paper, a specific quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection of CPFA in cheeses was developed, and the quality parameters of the method (limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and intralaboratory precision) were assessed. Limit of detection and quantitation of CPFA were, respectively, 60 and 200 mg/kg of cheese fat, and the intralaboratory precision, determined on three concentration levels, satisfied the Horwitz equation. This method was applied to 304 samples of PDO cheeses of certified origin, including Parmigiano Reggiano (Italy), Grana Padano (Italy), Fontina (Italy), Comté (France), and Gruyère (Switzerland). Results showed that CPFA were absent in all of the cheeses whose Production Specification Rules expressly forbid the use of silages (Parmigiano Reggiano, Fontina, Comté, and Gruyère). CPFA were instead present in variable concentrations (300-830 mg/kg of fat) in all of the samples of Grana Padano cheese (silages admitted). A mix of grated Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano was also prepared, showing that the method is able to detect the counterfeiting of Parmigiano Reggiano with other cheeses up to 10-20% Grana Padano content. These results support the hypothesis that CPFA can be used as a marker of silage feedings for cheeses, and the data reported can be considered a first attempt to create a database for CPFA presence in PDO cheeses. PMID:27133588

  18. Proteolysis in Mozzarella cheeses manufactured by different industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabel, L; Pauletti, M S; Hynes, E

    2007-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of stretching temperature, fat content, and time of brining on proteolysis during ripening of Mozzarella cheeses. Seventeen cheese-making experiments (batches) were carried out on an industrial scale on successive days, following the standard procedure with some modifications. Fat content of cheese milk, temperature at the stretching step, and time of brining varied from one batch to another as required by the experimental design, outlined by a surface response model. Proteolysis was assessed during ripening of samples, which was prolonged for at least 3 mo, by means of electrophoresis, nitrogen fractions, and soluble peptide mapping. The amount of soluble nitrogen at pH 4.6 was not significantly different in cheeses obtained by diverse procedures, but it increased during ripening of all samples. This result was coincident with the breakdown of alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins evidenced by electrophoresis, which reached similar extents at late stages of ripening, regardless of the cheese-making process. Multivariate analysis on soluble peptide profiles obtained by liquid chromatography also detected sample grouping according to ripening time, but did not evidence any separation caused by the cheese-making technology. We concluded that the changes in the cheese-making process assayed in this work were insufficient to produce significant differences in proteolysis of the cheeses. Ripening time had more influence on proteolysis of Mozzarella cheeses than any other assayed variable. PMID:17430907

  19. Cheese from Ultrafiltered Milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Buijsse, C.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the degree of syneresis of the curd. In UF-cheese manufacture (from 5x concentrated UF-retentates, concentrated further by syneresis) approximately one-third of the whey protein fraction was enclosed.D...

  20. Increasing Stringiness of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese Using Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, Erik N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of polysaccharides to function as fat mimetics in low-fat (LF) mozzarella string cheese to improve functionality by acting like fat globules to separate protein fibers during cheese extrusion. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd made from 273 kg of 0.7% fat milk was salted at a rate of 10 g/kg then divided into 3.6-kg batches that were hand-stretched in 5% brine at 80° C and formed into a homogeneous mass. The hot cheese was hand mixed with a hot 80° polysaccharide slurry, ...

  1. Functional petit-suisse cheese: measure of the prebiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Saad, Susana M I; Gibson, Glenn R; Vulevic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics are increasingly being used to produce potentially synbiotic foods, particularly through dairy products as vehicles. It is well known that both ingredients may offer benefits to improve the host health. This research aimed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of novel petit-suisse cheeses using an in vitro fermentation model. Five petit-suisse cheese formulations combining candidate prebiotics (inulin, oligofructose, honey) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis) were tested in vitro using sterile, stirred, batch culture fermentations with human faecal slurry. Measurement of prebiotic effect (MPE) values were generated comparing bacterial changes through determination of maximum growth rates of groups, rate of substrate assimilation and production of lactate and short chain fatty acids. Fastest fermentation and high lactic acid production, promoting increased growth rates of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, were achieved with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese (made using starter+probiotics). Addition of probiotic strains to control cheese (made using just a starter culture) also resulted in high lactic acid production. Highest MPE values were obtained with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese, followed by addition of prebiotics and/or probiotics to a control cheese. Under the in vitro conditions used, cheese made with the combination of different prebiotics and probiotics resulted in the most promising functional petit-suisse cheese. The study allowed comparison of potentially functional petit-suisse cheeses and screening of preferred synbiotic potential for future market use. PMID:17611130

  2. Bacteriological safety of plastic-bagged sachet drinking water sold in Amassoma, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu B Ngwai; Adebukola A Sounyo; Siyeofori M Fiabema; Geoffrey A Agadah; Tamunobelema O Ibeakuzie

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the bacteriological safety of sachet water sold in Amassoma, a rural community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Methods:Six samples of each of the different sachet drinking water brands were bought at random from shop shelves, markets and street vendors and were studies for microbial indicators of safety and quality. Bacterial counts were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significance of differences was tested at 5%probability. Results:Minimum and maximum counts with regard to the sachet water samples investigated were (4.3±1.1)í106 CFU mL-1 and (8.2±1.0)í106 CFU mL-1 for heterotrophic plate counts;(0.9±0.3)í106 CFU mL-1 and (1.2±0.4)í106 CFU mL-1 for aerobic spore-former counts;(1.3±0.5)í103 CFU mL-1 and (2.5±0.8)í103 CFU mL-1 for total coliforms;(1.6±0.9)í103 CFU mL-1 and (9.5±11.2)í103 CFU mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms. Klebsiella spp but not Escherichia coli was present in all samples of the brands;non-coliform bacteria detected in some samples were Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Conclusions:The brands of sachet water sold (at the time of this study) in Amassoma did not meet the minimum acceptable standard for microbiologically safe drinking water as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  3. Microbiological examination of foods sold via vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J S; Wu, S M; Yih, P; Tsai, W C

    1985-05-01

    A total of 153 food specimens obtained from vending machines in Taipei city were subjects for the microbiological examination. Based on the standards for total microbial counts and total coliform counts established by the Department of Public Health, Republic of China, the unsatisfactory percentage of such counts for foods sold from vending machines were: 14% for carbonated beverages, 71% for non-carbonated beverages, 73% for ice cubes, and 100% for soft ice cream. Among the non-carbonic acid beverages examined, the unsatisfactory percentage for iced coffee, cocoa, chocolate milk, and fruit milk reached 90%. Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci each were found once. None of the pathogens causing food-poisoning were found during the study. As for the sanitation control of vending machines examined, 66 to 74% percent were unsatisfactory. PMID:4042756

  4. STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN THE PRODUTION OF THE MOZZARELLA BUFFALO CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zottola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Water Buffalo Mozzarella is a typical Italian product certificated with the European Protected Designation of Origin (DOP. Cheese-associated food poisoning outbreaks have been reported worldwide but are not common if pasteurised milk is used and hygienic measures are applied during cheese processing. The study reports data of a survey on the hygienic (Aerobic mesophilic plate count, E. coli glucuronidase – positive, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae and Staphylococci coagulase - positive and sanitary quality (detection of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., E. coli O:157 and staphylococcal enterotoxins of the production Water Buffalo Mozzarella. Our results are: no Salmonella spp., nor Listeria spp. and E.coli O:157 were found in all samples, but some samples of the rennet and the curd showed Staphylococci coagulase – positive. Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Trichosporon asahii, Cryptococcus humicola, Staphyloccus aureus were found in the hands of the workers. The microbiological monitoring is necessary to assess biological risk and to set preventive measures.

  5. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy;

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the application of Ultra High Pressure Homogenisation (UHPH), an innovative technology for food sterilisation that relies on pressure up to 400MPa, for the treatment of cow milk. The technology is forseen to provide equal or higher quality products compared to Ultra High...... Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield This...... study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  6. Swiss Cheese and a Cheesy CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if the voids have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller voids, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small voids can still mimic Dark Energy, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical voids considered in this paper.

  7. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper

  8. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  9. Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

  10. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaitre-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons' trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  11. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  12. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaître-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons’ trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  13. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals. PMID:21669068

  14. 26 CFR 1.451-7 - Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.451-7 Section 1.451-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Included § 1.451-7 Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought. (a) In general. Section 451(e... or exchange of that number of livestock sold or exchanged solely on account of a drought which...

  15. Applicability of bacterial growth models in spreadable processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Weiss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Food spoilage is a process in which the quality parameters decrease and products are no longer edible. This is a cumulative effect of bacteria growth and their metabolite production, which is a factor limiting shelf life. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether microbiological growth models for total viable count (TVC and Clostridium strain bacteria are reliable tools for prediction of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese. Material and methods. Investigations were conducted for two types of bacteria: TVC and Clostridium in following temperature: 8°C, 20°C and 30°C. A total number of aerobic bacteria was determined based on standard PN-EN ISO 4833:2004 and Clostridium was detected by using microbiological procedure for sulphite-reducing anaerobic spore-bacteria with a selective nourishment. During the analysis nonlinear regression and Baranyi and Roberts primary model were used. Results. For temperatures 20°C and 30°C, Baranyi and Roberts model, for total viable count showed determination coeffi cient of 70%. The models prepared for Clostridium, in these temperatures, showed much lower R2, respectively 25% and 30%. At the abovementioned temperatures also the expiration of product shelf life was much shorter and amounted 70 days at 20°C and 7 days at 30°C. For both types of bacteria incubated at 8°C the numbers of bacteria decrease until the expiration of product shelf life. Conclusions. Models used in the analyses, Baranyi and Roberts and nonlinear regression, poorly matched the experimental data, hence they are not reliable tools. Nevertheless, they gave information about dynamic of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese.

  16. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  17. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1) Washed curd, soaked curd cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set forth in paragraph (a)(3)...

  18. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  19. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  20. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  1. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...

  2. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries....... In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health and taste benefits....

  3. Physiological characterization of common fungi associated with cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method (PLS) was used for a physiological characterization of fungi associated with the cheese environment. The combined effects of pH, salt content, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels on growth and sporulation were studied. Significant factors affecting growth were salt...... may aid in eliminating unwanted fungal growth during cheese production....

  4. Characterization of energy use and performance of global cheese processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global cheese-making industry processes approximately one quarter of total raw milk production to create a variety of consumer cheeses, and cheese processing can be very energy-intensive. Characterizing energy usage in existing cheese markets and plants can provide baseline information to allow comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on cheese-making across various countries and regions. The study has found that the magnitudes of average final energy intensity exhibited significant variations, ranging from 4.9 to 8.9 MJ per kg cheese across a few countries. In addition, the final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited even more significant variations, ranging from 1.8 to 68.2 MJ per kg of cheese from the countries in this study. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy savings' opportunities in the sector. The paper also indicates that there are positive association between implementation of energy measures and the decreasing trends of specific energy consumption over time, and suggests that developing and promulgating an energy-benchmarking framework including a process step approach and efficiency measures should be recommended for evaluating energy performance and improving energy efficiency in cheese-making industry.

  5. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Ong; Raymond R. Dagastine; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. A...

  6. Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadoti Leila Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. However, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. The effects of five different processing methods for Prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (EPI and DPI. The following treatments (T for cheese production were studied: T1 - without ultrafiltration (standard; T2, T3, T4 and T5 - using milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UFCM and respectively: T2 - without pre-fermentation of the UFCM; T3 - pre-fermentation of 10% of the UFCM; T4 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM, and T5 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM plus indirect heating. Treatments affected the EPI and DPI of the cheeses (T1 lower values for EPI and DPI and T4 higher values for EPI and DPI. The time influenced the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes.

  7. Evaluation of contamination for extraneous materials in “sun meat” sold in the “houses of the north” in the municipality of Diadema (SP, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Poli Neto, A.; Atui, M. B.; Marciano, M. A. M.; Mennuci, T. A.; Germano, P. M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The “sun meat” is a handmade product, combining surface techniques of salting and dehydration, commonly used by people from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. The sun meat cooking process lacks in sophisticated technology and official standards of procedure and quality. Thus, production, sale and distribution under unsatisfactory sanitary conditions are risky to the consumers’ health. This paper is aimed at evaluating the sanitary conditions of “sun meat” sold at the “houses of the no...

  8. Isolation of [i]Listeria monocytogenes[/i] from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with[i] Listeria monocytogenes[/i]. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories. Isolation of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50% of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with [i]L. monocytogenes[/i]. The concentration of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers.

  9. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  10. Characterisation of Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterococci from Cheeses in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yipel, Mustafa; Aslantaş, Özkan; Gündoğdu, Aycan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterococci in cheese samples and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance profiles as well as the associated resistance genes. A total of 139 enterococci were isolated from 99 cheese samples, the isolates were identified as E. faecalis (61.2%), E. faecium (15.1%), E. gallinarum (12.9%), E. durans (5.0%), E. casseliflavis (2.9%) and E. avium (2.9%). The most frequent antimicrobial resistance observed in enterococci isolates was to lincomycin (88.5%), followed by kanamycin (84.2%), gentamycin (low level, 51.1%), rifampin (46.8%) and tetracycline (33.8%). Among the isolates, the frequencies of high level gentamycin and streptomycin resistant enterococci strains were 2.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Apart from the mentioned antibiotics, low levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were found. Moreover no resistance was observed against penicillin and ampicillin. The antimicrobial resistance genes including tetM, tetL, ermB, cat, aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia and aac(6’)-Ieaph(2”)-Ia were found in enterococci from Turkish cheese samples. In the current study, we provided data for antibiotic resistance and the occurrence of resistance genes among enterococci. Regulatory and quality control programs for milk and other dairy products from farms to retail outlets has to be established and strengthened to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance among emerging food borne pathogens in Turkey.

  11. Characterisation of Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterococci from Cheeses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürekci, Cemil; Önen, Sevda Pehlivanlar; Yipel, Mustafa; Aslantaş, Özkan; Gündoğdu, Aycan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterococci in cheese samples and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance profiles as well as the associated resistance genes. A total of 139 enterococci were isolated from 99 cheese samples, the isolates were identified as E. faecalis (61.2%), E. faecium (15.1%), E. gallinarum (12.9%), E. durans (5.0%), E. casseliflavis (2.9%) and E. avium (2.9%). The most frequent antimicrobial resistance observed in enterococci isolates was to lincomycin (88.5%), followed by kanamycin (84.2%), gentamycin (low level, 51.1%), rifampin (46.8%) and tetracycline (33.8%). Among the isolates, the frequencies of high level gentamycin and streptomycin resistant enterococci strains were 2.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Apart from the mentioned antibiotics, low levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were found. Moreover no resistance was observed against penicillin and ampicillin. The antimicrobial resistance genes including tetM, tetL, ermB, cat, aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ieaph(2")-Ia were found in enterococci from Turkish cheese samples. In the current study, we provided data for antibiotic resistance and the occurrence of resistance genes among enterococci. Regulatory and quality control programs for milk and other dairy products from farms to retail outlets has to be established and strengthened to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance among emerging food borne pathogens in Turkey. PMID:27433106

  12. Colour traits in the evaluation of the ripening period of Asiago cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on Asiago d’Allevo cheese samples produced in a single farm located in the Altopiano dei Sette Comuni (above 1000m a.s.l.. After 6-12-18 and 36 months of ripening, samples were analyzed for quality traits, in order to evaluate the effect of ripening on colour and gross composition. As expected crude protein and fat significantly increased through the considered period. Ripening led to a significant decrease of L*, a* and b* values. Lightness showed a negative relationship with crude protein, meanwhile a* and b* were both negatively related to fat content. Concerning L*, the trend could be explained by water loss and N-soluble compounds concentration, which could alter protein matrix. a* and b* reduction was probably related to degradation processes such as lipolysis, which seemed to be extensive in hard and long ripened cheese. Ripening affected significantly the light reflectance at all λ with green cheese having the higher values.

  13. Microbial biodiversity in cheese consortia and comparative Listeria growth on surfaces of uncooked pressed cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Cécile; Retureau, Emilie; Didienne, Robert; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-17

    The study set out to determine how changes in the microbial diversity of a complex antilisterial consortium from the surface of St-Nectaire cheese modify its antilisterial activities. On the basis of the microbial composition of a natural complex consortium named TR15 (Truefood consortium 15), three new consortia of different species and strain compositions were defined: TR15-SC (58 isolates from TR15 collection), TR15-M (pools of isolates from selective counting media) and TR15-BHI (pools of isolates from BHI medium). Their antilisterial activities on the surfaces of uncooked pressed cheese made with pasteurised milk were compared with the activity of complex consortium TR15 and a control cheese inoculated only with starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii). The natural consortium TR15 was the most inhibitory, followed by reconstituted consortium TR15-BHI. The dynamics of the cheese rind microbial flora were monitored by counting on media and by isolate identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and direct 16S rDNA Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis. The combination of these methods showed that rind with natural consortium TR15 had greater microbial diversity and different microbial dynamics than cheese rinds with reconstituted consortia. Cheese rind with the natural consortium showed higher citrate consumption and the highest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, connected with high levels of lactic acid bacteria such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Vagococcus fluvialis, Enterococcus gilvus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus lactis, ripening bacteria such as Arthrobacter nicotianae/arilaitensis, and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas psychrophila and Enterobacter spp.). The highest L. monocytogenes count was on rind with TR15-M and was positively associated with the highest pH value, high succinic and citric acid contents, and the highest levels of Marinilactibacillus

  14. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactissingle-strain starter

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Brighton, C; McMahon, D. J.; Farkye, N.; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-01-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese ...

  15. Influence of different processing parameters in physical and sensorial properties of Serra da Estrela cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Vítor, André; Tenreiro, Marlene; Correia, Ana Cristina; Pinto, António; Barracosa, Paulo; Madanelo, João; Vacas, Marta; Guiné, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance, flavour and texture. Processing parameters that could affect cheese structure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product. Serra da Estrela cheese is a DOP cheese manufactured from raw ewes’ milk and curdled with thistle flowers aqueous extract. The aim of this study was the evaluation of physical and sensorial properties of cheeses, produced with thistle flowers from diffe...

  16. Effect of artisanal rennet paste on the chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of traditional goat's cheese

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tripaldi; G. Palocci; Garavaldi, A.; Bogdanova, T.; S. Bilei

    2015-01-01

    In a study using three replicates, Marzolina goat cheese made with artisanal rennet paste from goat kid was compared with cheese made with commercial liquid rennet from calf. Samples of fresh cheese were subjected to chemical and microbiological analyses. Samples of ripened cheese collected after 50 days of ripening were submitted to chemical and sensory analysis. Results of this study show that cheese made with artisanal rennet pastes did not contain pathogenic microorganisms and that this k...

  17. Study Regarding the Importance of Sensory Assessment Applied to Traditional Romanian Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Neagu; Constantin Savu; Ovidiu Savu; Catalina Nicoleta Boiteanu

    2013-01-01

    The sensory analysis by point scale method had the total average result scores, as follows: “urda” cheese type 15.60 points, bellows cheese-type 17.33 points, “telemea” cheese 18.87 points and for “cas” smoked cheese -type 18.51 points. Both pair method and triangular method confirmed that the sample 1 gained the unanimity preferences of cheese tasters participating in the evaluation.

  18. Characterization of yeasts isolated from artisanal short-ripened cows' cheeses produced in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M R; Fernández-Otero, C; Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-No, I C; Garabal, J I; Centeno, J A

    2016-02-01

    A total of 143 presumptive yeast isolates were obtained from the predominant microflora of 21 short-ripened starter-free raw cow's milk cheeses made in Galicia (NW Spain), and the following 68 isolates were identified by both genotyping and sequencing methods: Yarrowia lipolytica (21 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (18), Debaryomyces hansenii (11), Pichia guilliermondii (11), Pichia fermentans (4) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3). Of these, Y. lipolytica and K. lactis displayed the strongest extracellular proteolytic activity on skim milk agar, and none of the D. hansenii isolates showed any activity on this medium. Y. lipolytica also displayed the highest lipolytic activity on Tween 80 and on tributyrin. This species, which was characterized by production of butanoic acid, free fatty acid esters and sulfur compounds in pasteurized whole milk, was responsible for rancid and cheesy flavors. K. lactis mainly produced acetaldehyde, ethanol, branched chain aldehydes and alcohols, and acetic acid esters, which were responsible for alcoholic, fruity and acetic notes. The volatile profiles of D. hansenii were rather limited and characterized by high levels of methyl ketones. Most of the yeast isolates were described as tryptamine producers, although low concentrations of histamine were produced by five Y. lipolytica and two P. fermentans isolates. We conclude that selected Y. lipolytica strains could be used as adjunct cultures in the manufacture of Arzúa-Ulloa and Tetilla cheeses, and selected K. lactis strains could be used as co-starters in the manufacture of acid curd Cebreiro cheese, thus contributing to the sensory quality and typicality of the cheeses. PMID:26678145

  19. Optimization of the process parameters for the preparation of synbiotic yoghurt-cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khandelwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese having functional attributes of both prebiotics and probiotics. Firstly, the conditions for the preparation of prebiotic yoghurt were optimized in order to determine the optimal level of prebiotic ingredients - raftiline (the fat replacer, raftilose (the sugar replacer, oat fiber and honey as an enricher and combinations thereof; by means of sensory evaluation. Incorporation of raftiline, raftilose, honey @ 4, 4 and 3 percent respectively, and combinations of oat fiber with raftiline or raftilose (0.5%+4% and honey (0.5%+3% in pre-standardized low fat (0.5% fat and 11 % SNF buffalo milk resulted in acceptable yoghurt. The yoghurt-cheese was then made by centrifuging the set yoghurt at pre-optimized centrifugation conditions (9000 rpm for 15 min. In order to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese, optimized level of prebiotic ingredients/enricher and the combinations thereof were added to standardized milk and the fermentation was carried out by different combinations of probiotic cultures namely L. acidophilus with yoghurt culture (C2, 1:1:1, B. bifidum with yoghurt starter (C3, 1:1:1 and combination of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum with yoghurt culture (C4, 1:1:1:1 taking yoghurt culture as control (C1, 1:1. Each culture combination was added @ 3% and incubation was carried out at 42±1 0C. It was concluded on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory evaluation that a quite acceptable quality synbiotic yoghurt-cheese could be prepared using C3 culture combination with raftiline, raftilose and combinations of oat fiber with raftiline, raftilose and honey.

  20. TITLE OF MANUSCRIPT IMPORTANT GROUPS OF MICROORGANISMS IN RAW GOAT MILK AND FRESH GOAT CHEESES DETERMINED DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kalhotka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The total counts of microorganisms, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, enterococci and many others are ranked among the important groups of microorganisms affecting the quality of milk and cheese. In the samples of raw goat milk (farms breeding I and II collected within 24 h (morning milking - a, afternoon milking - b and fresh goat cheese, these groups of microorganisms were determined by standard methods: the total counts of microorganisms (TCM, lactic acid bacteria, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms and enterococci. In cheeses, there was also carried out the determination of yeasts and moulds. After the cultivation, colonies from Petri dishes were counted and the result was expressed in CFU/ml, g. Samples of raw goat milk (except farm II 27.3. corresponded the requirement of a given legislative act. However, it contained a higher number of coliform and psychrotrophic microorganisms than the stated recommendations. Microbiological analysis showed relatively high numbers of adverse coliform bacteria (up to 1.2 x 107 CFU/g in all cheeses. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were relatively high as well, they moved between of 103 – 108 CFU/g.

  1. Comparison of biogenic amine profile in cheeses manufactured from fresh and stored (4 degrees C, 48 hours) raw goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the evolution of microbial counts, biogenic amine contents, and related parameters (pH, moisture, and proteolysis) in goat cheese made from fresh raw milk or raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C was examined. In both cases the milk was nonpasteurized. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of milk quality on the profile of biogenic amines in relation to the evolution of the microbial population during cheese making. Cheese made from raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C showed the highest microbial counts and biogenic amine levels. The storage of milk under refrigeration caused significant increases in the levels of some microbial and biogenic amines during ripening, but not initially. Tyramine was the main biogenic amine in the two cheeses tested, followed by cadaverine. However, the main differences in amine contents between batches were found for putrescine, histamine, and beta-phenylethylamine, whose levels were more than twofold higher in samples from raw milk refrigerated for 48 h than in samples from fresh milk. PMID:14717360

  2. A comparative study between inhibitory effect of L. lactis and nisin on important pathogenic bacteria in Iranian UF Feta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirdamadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : In the present study, the inhibitory effect of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis during co-culture and pure standard nisin were assessed against selected foodborne pathogenes in growth medium and Iranian UF Feta cheese. In comparison L lactis, not only proves flavor but also plays a better role in microbial quality of Iranian UF Feta cheese as a model of fermented dairy products.   Materials and method s: L. lactis subsp. lactis as nisin producer strain, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic strains were inoculated in Ultra-Filtered Feta cheese. Growth curve of bacterial strains were studied by colony count method in growth medium and UF Feta cheese separately and during co-culture with L. lactis. Nisin production was determined by agar diffusion assay method against susceptible test strain and confirmed by RP-HPLC analysis method.   Results : Counts of L. monocytogenes decreased in cheese sample containing L. lactis and standard nisin, to 103 CFU/g after 7 days and it reached to undetectable level within 2 weeks. S. aureus counts remained at its initial number, 105 CFU/g, after 7 days then decreased to 104 CFU/g on day 14 and it was not detectable on day 28. E. coli numbers increased in both treatments after 7 days and then decreased to 104 CFU/g after 28 days. Despite the increasing number of E. coli in growth medium containing nisin, due to the synergistic effect of nisin and other metabolites produced by Lactococcus lactis and starter cultures, the number of E. coli decreased with slow rate . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed, L. monocytogenes was inhibited by L. lactis before entering the logarithmic phase during co-culture. S. aureus was also inhibited during co-culture, but it showed less sensitivity in comparison with L. monocytogenes. However, the number of E. coli remained steady in co-culture with L. lactis. Also, we found that, in all cheese samples, E

  3. Effect of fat reduction on chemical composition, proteolysis, functionality, and yield of Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, M A; Barbano, D M; Yun, J J; Kindstedt, P S

    1999-04-01

    Mozzarella cheese was made from skim milk standardized with cream (unhomogenized, 40% milk fat) to achieve four different target fat percentages in the cheese (ca. 5, 10, 15, and 25%). No statistically significant differences were detected for cheese manufacturing time, stretching time, concentration of salt in the moisture phase, pH, or calcium as a percentage of the protein in the cheese between treatments. As the fat percentage was reduced, there was an increase in the moisture and protein content of the cheese. However, because the moisture did not replace the fat on an equal basis, there was a significant decrease in the moisture in the nonfat substance in the cheese as the fat percentage was reduced. This decrease in total filler volume (fat plus moisture) was associated with an increase in the hardness of the unmelted cheese. Whiteness and opacity of the unmelted cheese decreased as the fat content decreased. Pizza baking performance, meltability, and free oil release significantly decreased as the fat percentage decreased. The minimum amount of free oil release necessary to obtain proper functionality during pizza baking was between 0.22 and 2.52 g of fat/100 g of cheese. Actual cheese yield was about 30% lower for cheese containing 5% fat than for cheese with 25% fat. Maximizing fat recovery in the cheese becomes less important to maintain high cheese yield, and moisture control and the retention of solids in the water phase become more important as the fat content of the cheese is reduced. PMID:10212453

  4. Effect of stretching process on the composition and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese%拉伸工艺对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 张雪; 张健; 李常营; 马建军; 杨贞耐

    2011-01-01

    选择不同的拉伸温度和拉伸时间,研究拉伸工艺对Mozzarella干酪组成、游离水分和功能特性的影响.结果表明,随着拉伸温度的升高和拉伸时间的延长,干酪的游离水分增加,脂肪和蛋白质质量分数下降,干酪产量下降.拉伸温度为60℃时,干酪的融化性最高,油脂析出性适中,拉伸性较好.延长拉伸时间,导致干酪产量下降,功能特性没有明显提升.本研究确定的最佳拉伸工艺:拉伸温度60℃,拉伸时间10 min.%Stretching is a special technique for the processing of Mozzarella cheese, and the stretching parameters have a direct impact on the quality of cheese. In this article, the influence of stretching temperature and time on the composition, free water and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese was investigated. The results showed that with increase in stretching temperature and time, the content of free water increased, but the fat and protein contents, and the cheese yield decreased. When the stretching temperature was 60 t.the best melting, oil separation, and stretching properties of cheese were obtained. Prolonged stretching resulted in decreased cheese yield without obvious improvement of cheese functional properties. Based on the above results, the best stretching condition was at 60 ℃ for 10 min.

  5. Transcriptome expression analysis of candidate milk genes affecting cheese-related traits in 2 sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Vega, A; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Arranz, J J

    2016-08-01

    Because ewe milk is principally used for cheese making, its quality is related to its content of total solids and the way in which milk constituents influence cheese yield and determine the technological and organoleptic characteristics of dairy products. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the expression levels of milk genes influencing cheese-related traits is essential. In the present study, the milk transcriptome data set of 2 dairy sheep breeds, Assaf and Spanish Churra, was used to evaluate the expression levels of 77 transcripts related to cheese yield and quality traits. For the comparison between both breeds, we selected the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data at d 10 of lactation because this is the time point at which within and between breed differences due to lactation length are minimal. The evaluated genes encode major milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins), endogenous proteases, and enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and citrate content. Through this analysis, we identified the genes predominantly expressed in each of the analyzed pathways that appear to be key genes for traits related to sheep milk cheese. Among the highly expressed genes in both breeds were the genes encoding caseins and whey proteins (CSN2, CSN3, CSN1S1, ENSOARG00000005099/PAEP, CSN1S2, LALBA), genes related to lipid metabolism (BTN1A1, XDH, FASN, ADFP, SCD, H-FABP, ACSS2), and one endogenous protease (CTSB). Moreover, a differential expression analysis between Churra and Assaf sheep allowed us to identify 7 genes that are significantly differentially expressed between the 2 breeds. These genes were mainly linked to endogenous protease activity (CTSL, CTSK, KLK10, KLK6, SERPINE2). Additionally, there were 2 differentially expressed genes coding for an intracellular fatty acid transporter (FABP4), an intermediate molecule of the citric acid cycle (SUCNR1), and 2 heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSPB8) that could be related to high protein production. The differential expression of

  6. Implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP system to UF white cheese production line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Hofi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. HACCP, or the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System has been recognised as an effective and rational means of assuring food safety from primary production through to final consumption, using a “farm to table” methodology. The application of this preventive oriented approach would give the food producer better control over operation, better manufacturing practices and greater efficiencies, including reduced wastes. Material and methods. The steps taken to put HACCP in place are described and the process was monitored to assess its impact. Assessment of the hygiene quality of the UF white cheese products line before and after HACCP showed an improvement in quality and an overall improvement in the conditions at the company. Results. HACCP was introduced for the in UF White Cheese line at Misr Milk and Food, Mansoura, Egypt, for safe and good quality foods products. All necessary quality control procedures were verified for completeness and to determine if they are being implemented to required standards. A hazard analysis was conducted to identify hazards that may occur in the product cycle, Critical Control Points (CCPs were determined to control the identified hazards. CCP signs were then posted on the factory floor. Critical limits were established at each CCP, corrective actions to be taken when monitoring indicates deviation or loss of control were established. Verification procedures were established to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively. Documentation concerning all procedures and records was established and integrating HACCP with ISO 9000 under one management system was applied. Conclusions. The HACCP system in this study for UF White Cheese line manufacture is developed step-by-step based on the twelve steps mentioned in the literature review. The prerequisite program was provided to deal with some hazards before the production to simplify the HACCP plan.

  7. Creamed Cottage cheese enriched with Lactobacillus GG

    OpenAIRE

    Tratnik, Ljubica; Šušković, Jagoda; Božanić, Rajka; Kos, Blaženka

    2000-01-01

    Cottage cheese je izvorno ime za svježi meki sir, zrnatog tipa. Proizveden je od rekonstituiranog obranog mlijeka u prahu. Fermentacija uporabljenih uzoraka mlijeka, s prosječno ll,16%o suhe tvari, provedena je pri, 22 °C dodatkom 0,5% mezofilne kulture za izravnu inokulaciju u mlijeko za proizvodnju, "O" tipa (DVS, Chr Hansen's Lab, Danska), bez uporabe sirila. Uzorci ocijeđenog zrnatog sira sadržavali su u prosjeku 21,32% suhe tvari; 17,85%o proteina; 0,75%) pepela i 90,33 mg Ca/100g. Kontr...

  8. Acoustic Method of the Cheese Ripening Avaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severa, L.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Dvořáková, Pavla; Buchar, J.

    Praha: ČVUT Praha, 2008 - (Daniel, M.; Holý, S.; Růžička, M.), s. 235-236. (1). ISBN 978-80-01-04162-8. [Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics /25./. České Budějovice, Český Krumlov (CZ), 24.09.2008-27.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cheese ripening * Edam maturity * acoustic impulse-response technique Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  9. Sensorial characteristics and fatty acid mozzarella cheese from milk of crossbred cows fed with palm oil and coconut fat - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.20158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida da Silva Corradini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to improve nutritional quality of cows’ milk and use it as raw material for mozzarella cheese. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy animals ranging power: control, palm oil and coconut oil. Collection was performed in 21 days and another after 36 days. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrates, sensory, color (CIE L*, a*, b* and texture were made for mozzarella cheese. The fatty acids (FA present in mozzarella cheese were determined by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA were the most abundant in cheese. The results point that it is feasible to add various fat sources in animal feed for milk and milk products in dairy cows.   

  10. Modified starches or stabilizers in preparation of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dias dos Anjos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese bread is a Brazilian product which originated in Minas Gerais and which is highly consumed. In industrial production, there is increasing use of additives which enrich and enhance the physical of this product, adding value in the eyes of the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of addition of modified starch and stabilizers on the physical-chemical of cheese bread. For this reason, measures taken so moisture, pH and acidity, volume, density, coefficient of expansion, and compression resistance (texturometer Results show that the stabilizers used improve these characteristics in the cheese bread, showing better physicochemical characteristics.

  11. Milk protein and cheese yield in buffalo species

    OpenAIRE

    Rossella Di Palo; Alfonso Giovane; Roberto Napolano; Fabio Zicarelli; Carlo Grassi; Lara Milone; Barbara Ariota

    2010-01-01

    Buffalo milk samples differing significantly for cheese yield values were analysed by 2D electrophoresis in order to outline a protein profile, with specific regards to k-casein fractions. Four buffaloes, two of which showing high cheese yield and two with low cheese yield selected from a group of 135 subjects were chosen for the proteomic analyses. Six main spots in 2D gels were recognized as αs1-, αs2-, β- and k-casein, α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin. The main v...

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Laura Zăpărţan; Laura Stan; Carmen R. POP; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Ancuţa M. Rotar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w)] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Se...

  13. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  14. Type and Toxicity of Pesticides Sold for Community Vector Control Use in the Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, W T; M. W. Murphy; E. Sanyang; M. Canteh; Cook, T. M.; F. Liang; Birch, M. E.; S. C. Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to identify the types of pesticides in circulation at local markets in The Gambia and to determine the proportion of products that were sold as unlabeled pesticides. Methods. One hundred twenty-eight samples sold as pesticides were collected from four local markets throughout The Gambia. Pesticides in the samples were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Findings. Of the 128 samples collected, 115 were unlabeled. Pesticid...

  15. Physicochemical properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese manufactured with different probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Napolitano, F; Sevi, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce functional Scamorza cheese from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk by incorporating probiotic strains into the cheese matrix and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Gentile di Puglia ewe bulk milk was used for Scamorza cheese production. Cheeses were denoted S-CO for control Scamorza cheese, S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotic strain. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 7, and 15 d of ripening. Probiotic cell recovery in cheese was 7.55 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g and 9.09 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g in S-LA and S-BB cheese, respectively; probiotic cheeses also displayed the highest levels of lactic microflora. Reverse-phase HPLC chromatograms of the water-soluble nitrogen fraction showed a more complex profile in S-BB, with distinctive peaks in the early-eluting zone. The matured Scamorza cheese containing the mix of B. longum and B. lactis was characterized by significantly higher levels of Gln, Ser, Arg, Ile, and Leu, whereas cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by higher levels of Tyr and Met. Total FFA content was the highest in S-LA, intermediate in S-BB, and the lowest in S-CO cheese; in particular, Scamorza cheese containing Lb. acidophilus showed the highest level of vaccenic acid, oleic acid, and total conjugated linoleic acid. Probiotic bacteria survived through the technological phases of pasta filata cheese production, maintained their specific metabolic pathways, and conferred functional properties to Scamorza ewe milk cheese. PMID:23522678

  16. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA SULER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  17. Investigation of air bipolar ionization effects in cheese and kajmak craft production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk and dairy products are sustainable to the development of numerous microorganisms, especially pathogens. Therewith, it is necessary to achieve a high level of hygiene in dairy plants, in order to get safe and high quality products. Based on that, modern food production implies application of different air treatments. Microbiological status of air and working surfaces in the cheese and kajmak craft production, before and after air treatment by bipolar ionization, was investigated. It is concluded that bipolar ionization may be considered as an efficient method for improving of microbiological status of air, as well as surfaces that are in contact with the air

  18. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  19. Short communication: Aflatoxin M₁ in dairy products sold in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temamogullari, F; Kanici, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n=38), UHT milk (n=12), white pickled cheese (n=50), and yogurt (n=50) collected from the Şanlıurfa city markets and locally produced dairy products by ELISA. The mean contamination rates were 56.74 ± 40.32, 43.1 ± 23.19, 103.2 ± 29.13, and 55.28 ± 12.68 ng/kg, respectively, for raw milk, UHT milk, white pickled cheese, and yogurt. According to the data, 21 (55%) raw milk, 3 (25%) UHT milk, 10 (20%) white pickled cheese, and 10 (20%) yogurt samples were contaminated with AFM1 over the acceptable levels (≥50 ng/kg), ranging from 0.82 to 130.89 ng/kg. None of the white pickled cheese samples contained AFM1 levels above the Turkish legal limit (250 ng/kg). Consequently, the AFM1 contamination levels determined in this study in white pickled cheese were not considered to pose a serious public health hazard. However, the AFM1 levels in raw and UHT milk and yogurt samples indicate an increased human health risk in Turkey related to high aflatoxin levels. Therefore, milk and dairy products have to be monitored by the Turkish public health authorities continuously to detect AFM1 contamination. PMID:24239070

  20. A survey of aflatoxin M1 levels in Kahramanmaraş cheese

    OpenAIRE

    TURGAY, ÖZLEM; AKSAKAL, Didem Hilkat; SÜNNETÇİ, Selim; ÇELİK, Ali Bahadır

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels were measured in 46 Kahramanmaraş semi-hard cheese samples (22 from bovine milk, 18 from goat milk, and 6 from ovine milk) using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). None of the ovine milk cheese samples contained AFM1. AFM1 was present in 32 samples (69.6%) of bovine and goat cheese. Bovine milk cheese and goat milk cheese samples contained 0.069-1.2 ng g-1 and 0.06-0.22 ng g-1 of AFM1, respectively. With the exception of 2 bovine milk cheese samples (one co...

  1. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels. PMID:26041199

  2. Characteristics of food using Queso Fresco cheese as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing and aging affect food characteristics, such as rheology, functional properties, microstructure, and sensory traits. These effects are discussed using Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety, as an example. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data indicated that lipolysis occurr...

  3. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually

  4. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  5. Extraction and immobilization of vegetable aspartic proteases for cheese making

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase in cheese production and consumption, together with the reduced supply and consequent price increase of calf rennet, has led to the search of new milk coagulant agents. Much research interest has been thus directed towards discovering milk clotting enzymes which would satisfactory replace calf rennet in cheese manufacture. Microbial rennet produced by genetically engineered bacteria has proven to be a suitable substitute even though the consumer constraints on the use o...

  6. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA R...

  7. The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese.

    OpenAIRE

    Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The rheological and fracture behaviour of Gouda cheese was studied. Methods for determining these properties of visco-elastic materials are described. Application of the theory of fracture mechanics, after modification and expansion, to visco-elastic materials with a low or no yield stress is discussed. For such materials, of which Gouda cheese is an example, the flow properties greatly affect the fracture behaviour.From the effect of variation in composition (fat, water, NaCl and Ca content,...

  8. Antigenic characterization of Penicillium camemberti and related common cheese contaminants.

    OpenAIRE

    Polonelli, L.; MORACE, G.; Rosa, R; Castagnola, M.; Frisvad, J C

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four isolates of Penicillium (including a green-spored mutant from a French Brie cheese, Penicillium camemberti) with a proposed relationship to the white cheese mold P. camemberti were investigated by immunological procedures. These penicillia, which are representative of species that have caused considerable taxonomic confusion, had common micromorphology (terverticillate penicilli with rough and smooth stipes and smooth ellipsoidal to subglobose [(3 to 5) X 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 microns] c...

  9. Methods for improved recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from cheese.

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, A. E.; Ryser, E T; Marth, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Method of homogenization (Waring blender versus stomacher), type of diluent (tryptose broth [TB] versus aqueous 2% trisodium citrate), and temperature of diluent (20 versus 40 degrees C) were compared for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from freshly made and ripened Colby cheese. By using direct plating on McBride listeria agar, significantly higher numbers of L. monocytogenes were recovered when cheese samples were (i) homogenized for 2 min with the blender rather than the stomacher (P le...

  10. Light refraction in the Swiss-cheese model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Adelinda; Bene, Gyula

    2012-08-01

    We investigate light propagation in the Swiss-cheese model. On both sides of Swiss-cheese sphere surfaces, observers resting in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space and the Schwarzschild space respectively, see the same light ray enclosing different angles with the normal. We examine light refraction at each crossing of the boundary surfaces, showing that the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence for both directions of the light.

  11. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  12. The effect of age on Cheddar cheese melting, rheology and structure, and on the stability of feed for cheese powder manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Colin Andrew; Gholamhosseinpour, Aliakbar; Ipsen, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    and small angle oscillation measurements. Results showed increasing stiffness and reduced activation energy for initiation of milk fat melting with age. Cheese feeds for manufacture of cheese powder were made, with or without emulsifying salts (ES), and analysed for emulsion stability. In the absence of ES......Age-related changes to the rheology and structure of Cheddar for cheese powder manufacture, and how this influences the stability of cheese feed during pre-spray-drying storage, were investigated. Cheddar cheese (3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 15 months old) was analysed for meltability by the Schreiber Test...

  13. Gamma irradiation effects on tofu sold at the market in South of Jakarta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofu is one of Indonesian traditional food which is popular, well consumed and nutritious. Recent reports pointed out that some distributed tofu had low hygienic quality and contained formaline. Therefore, examination for the formaline content and hygienic quality of tofu sold either at supermarket or traditional market is needed. The purposive sampling method has been used. Samples were taken from locations determined previously. Qualitative test to observe the content of formaline and bacteria were conducted on. Tofu obtained from supermarket and traditional markets at South Jakarta which were irradiated with the dose of 3 kGy. The results showed that all of non-irradiated tofu samples observed content formaline. The total amount of aerobic bacteria in non-irradiated tofu sample were found in the range of 2.2 x 105 and 1.4 x 107 cfu/g, while for irradiated samples were in the range of 2.5 x 102 and 2.0 x 104 cfu/g. Coli form bacteria in non-irradiated tofu were in the range of 0 and 7.0 x 105 cfu/g, while for irradiated tofu were in the range of 2.5 x 102 and 2.2 x 103 cfu/g. Total amount of Staphylococcus for non-irradiated tofu samples were found in the range of 0 and 1.3 x 106 cfu/g, while for irradiated samples were in the range of 0 and 1.5 x 102 cfu/g. None of Salmonella was detected in all tofu samples. The pH of non-irradiated and irradiated tofu was in the range of 5.33 and 5.93, while the water content were in the range of 75.11% and 76.99%. The protein contents of non-irradiated and irradiated tofu were in the range of 7.93% and 8.83% respectively. (author)

  14. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  15. Evaluation of Nitrogen Fractions during the Ripening of Jug Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasi Gaznagh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jug (pot cheese is a kind of delicious, semi-hard, and salty cheese in Azerbaijan region, Iran, which is traditionally produced from raw sheep's or cow's milk in rural households and then spends its ripening period under soil, which varies from 3 to 6 months. Given that this type of cheese is traditional and originally from Azerbaijan region, in this study for the first time, nitrogen fractions such as total nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, and non-protein nitrogen were measured during the ripening of jug cheese. In this work, first, the cheese was ripened in two ways: being storing for 45 days in brine at 10°C and being storing for 90 days without brine in the 7±1°C fridge. Results showed that all nitrogen fractions increased during the cheese ripening. Moreover, concentration of tyrosine amino acid as a ripening indicator was determined by preparing of tyrosine standard curve and measuring of its absorption at the wavelength of 650 nm by a spectrophotometer device during the ripening period. It was observed that concentrations of this amino acid gradually increased during ripening, which represented the progress of proteolysis during this period. Also, effect of milk pasteurization on nitrogen fractions was examined and it was concluded that milk pasteurization had a small effect on these factors.

  16. Fate of aflatoxin M1 in Iranian white cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, A; Karim, G; Aliabadi, F Shojaee; Khaksar, R

    2008-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important mycotoxin frequently found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is a major metabolic product of Aflatoxin B1 and is usually excreted in the milk and urine of dairy cattle that have consumed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the AFM1 concentration in curd and whey of Iranian white cheese. The cheese milk samples were artificially contaminated with AFM1 in six levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.75microgL(-1)). Cheese was produced according to Iranian traditional recipe. AFM1 distribution between curd, whey and cheese was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using immunoaffinity column clean up and florescence detection. AFM1 was recovered in whey, curd and cheese in the concentrations of 0.43, 1.47 and 1.57microgL(-1),respectively. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in curd and cheese obtained 3.12- and 3.65-fold more than that in whey that shows the affinity of Aflatoxin M1 to the protein fraction of milk. PMID:18433973

  17. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. PMID:26519972

  18. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  19. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  20. Time Delay in Swiss Cheese Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu

    2010-01-01

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat LambdaCDM Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with Lambda) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is non-linear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach ~4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  1. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  2. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  3. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  4. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  5. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  6. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  7. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  8. High-throughput sequencing for detection of subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for the first time, detected the presence of Arthrobacter and Brachybacterium in goats' milk cheese. Our analysis confirmed many previously observed patterns, such as the dominance of typical cheese bacteria, the fact that the microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses differ, and that the level of cheese maturation has a significant influence on Lactobacillus populations. It was also noted that cheeses containing adjunct ingredients had lower proportions of Lactococcus species. It is thus apparent that high-throughput sequencing-based investigations can provide valuable insights into the microbial populations of artisanal foods. PMID:22685131

  9. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in Fresh Cheeses Expended at Markets in the Veracruz-Boca Del Río Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Flores-Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium bovis presence in fresh cheese sold at markets in the Veracruz-Boca del Rio metropolitan area, Mexico and to determine the associated risk factors, using a cross-sectional study. A sample size of 30 was calculated with the program Win Episcope Ver 2.0. Samples were collected in two occasions, during the dry and rainy seasons of 2010. Sampling was conducted in six cheese markets officially registered by the health authorities. Samples were processed by conventional bacteriological and molecular techniques (PCR. Mycobacterium spp. was isolated from one of the samples (1.67%, but its typing by biochemical tests was unsuccessful; however, by PCR it was identified as M. fortuitum. There were no differences between the variables (p>0.05 and no risk factors were identified. We concluded that Mycobacterium spp. was isolated, even though it was not identified by PCR as M. bovis, but as M. fortuitum.

  10. Producers' expectations about the impact of GIs on the competitiveness of Pag cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Željka Mesić; Marija Cerjak

    2011-01-01

    Pag cheese is one of the most famous Croatian traditional sheep cheese, and it is the trademark of the whole island of Pag because of its traditional way of production which is kept for centuries. Although it has all the prerequisites, Pag cheese still does not have geographical protection according to the current legislation. The aim of this paper was to determine whether producers of Pag cheese are familiar with geographical indications (GIs), their perceptions and expectations about these ...

  11. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese: their formation and their contribution to flavour.

    OpenAIRE

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour during the ripening of cheese is determined by the process of proteolysis of caseins. Over the past years proteolysis has been studied very extensively and as a result a wealth of information about this process h...

  12. Role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese ripening: a genotypic and post-genomic study

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Claudio Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) constitute an heterogeneous group of bacteria that are traditionally used to produce fermented foods. They may play different roles in cheese-making where starter LAB (SLAB) participate in the fermentation process, whereas non starter LAB (NSLAB) are implicated in the maturation of cheese. Although the role of NSLAB in ripening has not yet been clarified, different authors have suggested their importance in the cheese ageing. In Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese, NSLA...

  13. Spatial Distribution of the Metabolically Active Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes’ milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, an...

  14. Monitoring the presence of Staphylococcus coagulaso positive in Sharri cheese during the traditional ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ferati; Bizena Bijo; Namik Durmishi; Elizabeta Coneva

    2012-01-01

    Sharri cheese is a farming traditional product of Sharra region. Sharri cheese is prepared from sheep milk. While the chemical and physical aspect of this type of cheese is already completed the aspect of safety is much less studied. The safety of Sharra cheese may be compromised because it is produced from unpasteurized sheep's milk. Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed in f...

  15. Investigation of the Activity of the Microorganisms in a Reblochon-Style Cheese by Metatranscriptomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermop...

  16. Consumers’ preferences and composition of Livanjski cheese in relation to its sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Anto Matić; Samir Kalit; Krešimir Salajpal; Stanko Ivanković; Zlatan Sarić

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ preferences of Livanjski cheese depending on the type of milk (cow’s milk or a mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk) and the originality of production (farm or industrially produced). Also correlations between sensorial scores and the composition of Livanjski cheese were determined. Sixty day old Livanjski cheese samples produced on four family farms and under industrial conditions produced cheese were used for sensory evaluation. During the ch...

  17. Use of Extrusion Technology and Fat Replacers to Produce High Protein, Low Fat Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Amrita

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of extrusion technology and fat replacers to produce high protein, low fat Cheddar cheese. In chapter 3, four different fat replacers were tested at the highest concentration level of each, as recommended by the manufacturers for low fat cheese, to investigate the change in cheese texture and optimize extruder conditions. In addition, the press time/pressure combinations of the extruded cheeses were optimized. The fat replacers and extruder conditions that w...

  18. Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of sushi and sashimi sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Muscolino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, psycrophilic bacteria (PB, Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ranged from 3.53 to 5.03 log CFU/g and coagulase positive staphylococci were found in 16 samples (2.00 to 3.60 log CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 3 samples (1.70 to 4.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. was found in 15 of the sushi samples (1.70 to 3.70 log CFU/g. In sashimi, the AMB, PB and SSOs values were higher than 7.00 log CFU/g, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were from 6.00 to 8.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. were found in six samples with means of 2.00 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in all sushi and sashimi samples.

  19. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  20. Bacteriological evaluation of pre-cut fruits sold in Kano metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, O O C; Olabode, O A; Chukwuedo, A A; Umoh, E G; Esiekpe, M K

    2009-04-01

    One hundred and fifty (150) pre-cut fruit samples comprising of Pineapples (50), Paw-paw (50) and Watermelon (50) at the point of stand retail outlets were tested by standard bacteriological methods to determine bacterial contamination of the fruits. Out of these 150 examined 136 (90.67%) were contaminated with bacteria. The bacterial distribution were; Escherichia coli 69 (46.00%), Staphylococcus aureus 29 (19.33%), Salmonella species 13 (8.67%), Proteus species 18 (12.00%), Enterobacter aerogenes 3 (2.00%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 2 (1.33%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2 (1.33%). Among the 50 Pineapple pre-cuts, Escherichia coli 26 (17.33%), Staphylococcus aureus 6 (4.00%), Salmonella species 7 (4.67%), Proteus species 9 (6.00%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2 (1.33%); the 50 Watermelon had Escherchia coli 22 (14.67%), Staphylococcus aureus 13 (8.67%), Salmonella species 3 (2.00%), Proteus species 5 (3.33%), Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (1.33%), Klebsiella species 2 (1.33%). Of the 50 Paw-paw pre-cuts were: Escherichia coli 21 (14.00%), Staphylococcus aureus 10 (6.67%), Salmonella species 3 (2.00%), Proteus species 4 (2.67%), Enterobacter aerogenes 1 (0.67%) were isolated. The findings in this study have shown that the food vendors failed to adopt adequate hygiene for food handling and thus, suggest that the quality of all the pre-cut fruits sold at the retail outlets were not bacteriologically satisfactory. The public health risks associated with these pre-cut fruits may suggest that these fruits could serve as the vehicles for foodborne illnesses. This study has shown the need to educate the vendors on how to protect utensils and fruits to avoid contamination and spoilage. PMID:20000065

  1. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  2. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity...

  3. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  4. THE DERIVED DEMAND FOR IMPORTED CHEESE INTO JAPAN: A TWO-STAGE DIFFERENTIAL PRODUCTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Washington, Andrew A.; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide the U.S. dairy industry with elasticities of Japan's derived demand for imported cheese differentiated by source country of production. These estimates are then used to assess the relative competitiveness of cheese imported from the U.S. to cheese imported from other source countries.

  5. THE EFFECT OF GENERIC DAIRY ADVERTISING ON THE HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR MILK AND CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Chung, Chanjin; Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent two-step censored estimation is applied to household demand equations for disaggregated milk and cheese products. The long-run advertising elasticity for total milk was positive, largely due to low fat milk; however the elasticity for cheese was not significant, and only shredded cheese had a positive, significant response.

  6. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe; Tholstrup, Tine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  7. "Small talk" - a new apporach to optimised cheese quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    Aim The aim with this project is to achieve knowledge of how microbial communication (quorum sensing) influences growth of starter cultures and pathogenic bacteria e.g. Listeria monocytogenes. With time it may be expected that knowledge of how microorganisms communicate can be used actively to...... control the growth of both starter cultures and pathogenic bacteria....

  8. Potential Environmental and Health Impacts of High Land Application of Cheese Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale experiment was carried out to study the transformation and transport of nitrogenous compounds in soils receiving high application rates of cheese whey (twice the nitrogen requirement for crops. The experimental apparatus consists of 36 soil columns constructed of 20 cm inside diameter PVC pipes. Three types of soil (sandy loam, loam and sandy clay loam and three soil depths (60, 120, 180 cm were studied. The average monthly rainfall for the summer period in Halifax was used. The nitrogen in the soil was subject to biological transformations and downward movement in the soil. There were indications of the mineralization and nitrification processes taking place in the soil. The soil type and depth appeared to affect these processes. The ammonia volatilization occurred during the first 75 days with most (90 % of the NH3 loss taking place during the first 30 days. The amount of nitrogen losses to the air is about 3.41 kg/ha (0.59% of the total nitrogen. The amount of organic nitrogen lost in the leachates was 3.0-4.14 kg/ha (0.52-0.71% of the total nitrogen whereas the amount of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen lost in the leachates was 18.63-24.09 kg/ha (3.54-4.56% of the total nitrogen. The presence of nitrite nitrogen in the leachate at high concentrations is a potential health hazard. Although cheese whey has been reported to have the potential to improve soil conditions, excess application has the potential of degrading soils and causing health problems. Additional research is, therefore, needed to better characterize the physical and chemical characteristics of soils receiving continuous high applications of cheese whey and their impact on crop yield and the qualities of groundwater and air.

  9. Seasonal Variations Affect the Physicochemical Composition of Bufallo Milk and Artisanal Cheeses Produced in Marajó Island (Pa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G., Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation in physicochemical composition and microbiological profile of buffalo milk and of the artisanal cream and butter types cheeses produced on Marajó Island. Eighteen farms located of the island were involved in the study. Milk and cheese quality were evaluated in two typical seasons. The rainy, from January to June and dry, from July to December. Samples were submitted to a detailed set of laboratorial analyses. Physicochemical composition of buffalo milk was influenced by the seasons. Compared to rainy, the dry period showed an increase in fat (5.53±0.71 to 6.74±1.19 and lactose (4.77±0.20 to 5.20±0.20 concentrations and reduction in total solids (16.89±0.92 to 15.77±1.54, nonfat dry matter (9.94±0.36 to 8.99±1.23 and minerals (0.84±0.12 to 0.62±0.09 concentrations (p<0.05. The season influence was observed in physicochemical composition of both cheese-types. Compared to rainy season, in the cream cheese type, higher values (p<0.05 were found for titratable acidity (0.63±0.02 to 0.78±0.15, fat (32.38±3.22 to 36.89±4.59, fat in the dry matter (55.06±3.26 to 63.92±2.49 but lower values for water activity (0.99±0.02 to 0.49±0.03, minerals (2.37±0.55 to 1.40±0.02 and calcium (0.28±0.08 to 0.18±0.07. For the butter cheese type, in the dry season, higher values were found only for titratable acidity (0.49±0.02 to 0.38±0.0 and lower values for water activity (0.18±0.07 to 0.45±0.08. The study have shown that some components of the buffalo milk and artisanal cheeses produced on Marajó Island are influenced by the dry and rainy typical seasons and therefore, some sensory variations are expected around the year.

  10. Process standardization for rennet casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, K D; Prajapati, P S

    2010-10-01

    A process for manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) using rennet casein and plastic cream as protein and fat sources respectively was standardized. The formulation comprised of 25% plastic cream (72% fat), 27% rennet casein along with 3% tri-sodium citrate as emulsifying salt, 2% maltodextrin as binder, 0.55% lactic acid as pH regulator, 1% common salt for seasoning, 1% Mozzarella cheese bud as flavouring and 40.4% water. The process involved (a) dissolving the dry mixture of casein, maltodextrin, flavouring and common salt in hot emulsifying salt solution, (b) incorporation of half the quantity of acid solution in casein-maltodextrin dough, followed by addition and emulsification of plastic cream, and (c) addition of remaining half of the acid solution and heating the mass to 80 °C until a plastic cheese mass was obtained. The analogue was shaped in ball form, cooled and packaged in polyethylene bag. The MCA conformed to the PFA requirements for pizza cheese and had all the requisite baking characteristics expected of pizza cheese topping. PMID:23572688

  11. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  12. Microflora of Feta cheese from four Greek manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Urso, Rosalinda; Dolci, Paola; Comi, Giuseppe; Cocolin, Luca

    2008-08-15

    The components of the microflora of four Feta cheeses, produced by different Greek manufacturers, were determined by culture dependent and independent techniques. Isolates from microbiological media were first grouped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and then representatives of each DGGE group were sequenced for identification purposes. DNA and RNA, extracted directly from the cheese, were subjected to PCR-DGGE. Moreover, Feta cheeses were subjected to FISH analysis in order to identify viable bacterial populations. The microbial ecology, as represented by the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and yeast populations, was different for the four cheeses. The main LAB species isolated were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis and Lactobacillus fermentum. However, some inconsistencies were observed between the results obtained with the culture dependent and the culture independent approach. In the case of the yeasts, the results obtained by PCR-DGGE compared very well with those obtained by the conventional microbiological analysis and the main species found were Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia fermentans and C. zeylanoides. FISH analysis highlighted viable but not culturable populations of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus spp. RAPD-PCR performed on the L. plantarum isolates revealed a cheese specific distribution and a temperature dependent clustering. PMID:18555549

  13. Milk protein and cheese yield in buffalo species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Di Palo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo milk samples differing significantly for cheese yield values were analysed by 2D electrophoresis in order to outline a protein profile, with specific regards to k-casein fractions. Four buffaloes, two of which showing high cheese yield and two with low cheese yield selected from a group of 135 subjects were chosen for the proteomic analyses. Six main spots in 2D gels were recognized as αs1-, αs2-, β- and k-casein, α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin. The main visible differences in the 2D gels between buffaloes with high vs. low cheese yield were found in the appearance of the four k-casein spots (spots numbers:20, 19, 16, 18 which differ in the number of phosphorilation and glycosilation. The area and the intensity of the four spots were calculated by using Melanie II (Bio-Rad software. Samples with high cheese yield showed higher value of the by-products: area x intensity of spot 16, correspondent to k-casein with one phosphorilation site, and lower values of spots 19 and 20, of k-casein with more than one phosphorilation site and glycosilated.

  14. Eff ect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buff alo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abd El-Rafee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The name pasta fi lata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the fi nished cheese its characteristic fi brous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Material and methods. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA. Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Results. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese fi rmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Conclusion. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that

  15. Accelerated ripening of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese with attenuated adjuncts of selected nonstarter lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, R; De Pasquale, I; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M

    2012-09-01

    The nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum CC3M8, Lactobacillus paracasei CC3M35, and Lactobacillus casei LC01, previously isolated from aged Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese or used in cheesemaking, were used as adjunct cultures (AC) or attenuated (by sonication treatment) adjunct cultures (AAC) for the manufacture of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese on an industrial scale. Preliminary studies on the kinetics of growth and acidification and activities of several enzymes of AAC were characterized in vitro. As shown by the fluorescence determination of live versus dead or damaged cells and other phenotype features, attenuation resulted in a portion of the cells being damaged and a portion of the cells being capable of growing with time. Compared with the control cheese (without adjunct cultures) and the cheese with AAC, the addition of AC resulted in a lower pH after manufacture, which altered the gross composition of the cheese. As shown by plate count and confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR, the 3 species of nonstarter lactobacilli persisted during ripening but the number of cultivable cells varied between AC and AAC. Slight differences were found between cheeses regarding primary proteolysis. The major differences between cheeses were the accumulation of free amino acids and the activity levels of several enzymes, which were highest in the Caciocavallo Pugliese cheeses made with the addition of AAC. As shown by triangle test, the sensory properties of the cheese made with AAC at 45 d did not differ from those of the control Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese at 60 d of ripening. In contrast, the cheese made with AC at 45 d differed from both the Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese without adjuncts and the cheese made with AAC. Attenuated adjunct cultures are suitable for accelerating the ripening of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese without modifying the main features of the traditional cheese. PMID:22916882

  16. The influence of ripening process on moisture in fat-free matter and fat content of the Trappist cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of ripening proces on moisture in fat-freematter and fat content of Trappist cheese has been investigated. In dairy company (Lura, Bjelovar the natural ripening process of rind Trappist cheese occurs. Afterwards, the cheese is packaged into shrinkable plastic pouch and the rindless cheese is produced. The obtained results are statistically processed. The above mentioned ripening process has a significant influence on moisture content of the fat-free matter and is 5.34 % higher for the Trappist cheese in plastic pouch in comparison to rind Trappist cheese, while the fat content is 6.13 higher for the rind Trappist cheese.

  17. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  18. The sirac - contribution to the technology knowledge, composition and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bijelac

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sirac is traditional cheese of Bosnia and Herzegovina, produced in the area of Tomislavgrad town. The taste is mild and moderately salty. It is consumed fresh, immediately upon production, or matured, after ripening. The technology is specific and according to that the Sirac can be classified as acid coagulated cheese. Milk proteins are coagulated by use of high temperature and acidity without adding of rennet. The aim of the work was to investigate traditional technology of the Sirac in small village households and to establish an optimal technology in order to apply it to industrial production. For this purpose, a ten tries in laboratory condition were done. The chemical composition of cheese milk, whey, fresh and ripened cheese was determined. During experiments all steps in technological process were followed. Special attention was paid to temperature and acidity of milk coagulation, draining of whey and pressing. Cheese was sensory evaluated after ripening period. The sensorial quality was good. Average score for all ten cheeses was 18.3 points and 5 samples were classified as extra and 5 as 1st class. The yield ranged from 12.25 to 17.76 % and showed that distribution of components to cheese was high. The analyses of whey confirmed this finding.

  19. Light-induced protein and lipid oxidation in low-fat cheeses: whey proteins as antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Sørensen, John; Bakman, Mette; Nebel, Caroline; Albrechtsen, Rita; Vognsen, Lene; Nielsen, Jacob Holm

    2011-01-01

    Photo-oxidation of cheese products has become an issue due to the fact that packaging of cheeses in transparent materials is very frequently used. The present study aimed to give new aspects of the possible antioxidative activity of whey proteins in photo-oxidation of cheese and the whey proteins were expected to act as scavenger and thereby reduce lipid oxidation. Oxidation was investigated in low-fat model cheese with whey protein isolate (WPI) added and compared to a low-fat control cheese...

  20. Cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay as affected by information about organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (Pconventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms. PMID:20196900

  1. Distribution of aflatoxin M1 in cheese obtained from milk artificially contaminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C; Ramos, L; Ramadán, S; Bulacio, L; Perez, J

    2001-02-28

    Small-scale manufacture of cheese using artificially AFM1 contaminated milk as raw material to study the distribution of such toxin both in whey and in cheese, was carried out. Whole milk with undetectable levels of AFM1 was used. The toxin was added in concentration that varied from 1.7 to 2.0 microg/l of milk. After the home-made production of cheese, the concentration of AFM1 was determined both in whey and in cheese, using the enzymatic immunoassay technique. The greatest proportion, 60%, was detected in whey while 40% AFM1 remained in cheese. PMID:11252507

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL OF LACTOBACILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM CHEESE AND PREPARATION OF PROBIOTIC ICE-CREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Liladhar Shivram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms are naturally present in milk and fermented milk products such as different kinds of cheese, yogurt, butter etc. The aim of the present study was isolation and taxonomic determination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from cheese (wild type. Lactobacillus sp. was isolated from indigenous cheese sample, identified and characterized on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics at genus level. The pure isolated Lactobacillus was assessed for various probiotic properties such as tolerance to acidic pH, bile salt, antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and hemolytic activity. They showed better tolerance to pH 2 and pH 3 and 2 % bile salt; resistant to antibiotics viz. chloramphenicol, oxacillin and vancomycin. It was found active against test bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and found to be non-hemolytic when compared to the positive control strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Probiotic ice-cream was prepared, its safety and keeping quality was determined by significant total bacterial count, coliform count and the presence of yeast and moulds.

  3. LACTOBACILLI AND THEIR USAGE POTENTIAL IN PROBIOTIC CHEESE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB comprise a wide range of genera including species from production of dairy products. One of the most important genera of LAB is Lactobacillus. Species of this genus can be found in gastrointestinal tract and also fermented foods. They are also associated with cheese ripening and flavour as starter and/or adjuct culture or non-strater microflora. Latobacilli are used as probiotics in some countries; most of them are L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. delbrueckii and L. jonhsonii. This paper will first outline biochemical and antimicrobial properties of lactobacilli especially L. casei and L. paracesi subsp. paracasei and their importance for cheese technology. Finally we will discusse use of Lactobacilli as probiotic microorganisms in cheese production by using new literature data.

  4. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula, E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ecuador 3769, Santiago (Chile); Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEP 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 {sup o}C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  5. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  6. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 oC, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  7. Case of contamination by Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Greco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control. In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination.

  8. Use of ultrasound to assess Cheddar cheese characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Sanjuan, N; Mulet, A

    2000-03-01

    Blocks of Cheddar cheese were matured in temperature-controlled chambers at 5 and 12 degrees C. The ultrasonic velocity increased during maturation ranging from 1657 to 1677 ms-1 at 12 degrees C and from 1684 to 1693 ms-1 at 5 degrees C. The ultrasonic velocity was related to the square root of the deformability modulus and the slope in puncture. The increase of velocity during maturation shows the feasibility of using an ultrasonic device to non-destructively monitor Cheddar cheese maturity. Ultrasound velocity was measured at different temperatures. The velocity decreased with increasing temperature, and from the slope of the first part of the temperature-velocity curves it was possible to non-destructively assess the moisture content of different types of cheese. PMID:10829761

  9. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    ecosystem or ecological niche response similarly to the tested factors.Fungi capable of growing under microaerophilic conditions (Penicillium roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum) are both almost unaffected by elevated carbon dioxide level, but strongly affected by reduced water activity. Thus they has a...... competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...

  10. Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in samples of Grana Padano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitri, A; Bertuzzi, T; Bertuzzi, P; Piva, G

    1997-01-01

    A total of 223 samples of Grana Padano cheese manufactured in 4 years (1991-94) by dairies in 11 provinces of the Po valley were checked for aflatoxin M1. Grated cheese was extracted with chloroform and the defatted extract was purified by an immunoaffinity column; aflatoxin M1 was determined by HPLC using a fluorescence detector. From the analysis of the data it has emerged that only one sample exceeded the maximum tolerated level in cheese in some European countries (250 ng/kg). Most samples (91%) were in the range 5-100 ng/kg and only 15 (6.7%) in the range 100-250 ng/kg. Notwithstanding a diffuse microcontamination, the situation regarding the AFM1 levels can be considered fairly satisfactory. Mean contamination levels of 1992 and 1994 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of 1993 and 1991. No significant difference was observed among provinces or dairies of origin. PMID:9205562

  11. Szekeres Swiss-Cheese model and supernova observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre--Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e, one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small scale ~50 Mpc inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of at least ~500 Mpc size. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  12. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  13. KEEPING QUALITY OF A FRESH STRINGY CHESE. APPLICATION OF TRADITIONAL METHODS AND ANALYSIS WITH A SMART NOSE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was applied to samples of a fresh stringy cheese from bovine, ewe and goat milk obtained from a small dairy in Siciliy. Cheese samples, vacuum packaged and without package, were stored at 5±1°C and evaluated from 0 to 15 days. Keeping quality was studied using evaluated with a SMart Nose System (SN and by a Solid Phase Micro Extraction.Gas Chromatography (SPME/GCMS procedure. The obtained data allowed to give a shelf life of 10 days for packaged cheese; a 3 days period was considered for non packaged samples. The study of volatiles by SPME-GC/MS gave a useful information about samples profile; nevertheless the results were not related to cheese durability. The evaluation of the odour profile by SN allowed an objective and rapid measurement of volatiles that can be easily related to the shelf life for routine quality control of cheese.

  14. Effects of Starch-based Anti-caking Agents on the Functional Properties of Shredded Mozzarella Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Akins, Maureen Lynch

    2002-01-01

    Mozzarella cheese production has been gaining market share due in part to increasing market for pizza and ready to eat food items. Anti-caking agents are utilized in the production of shredded cheese for reducing clumping and increasing the appearance of separate cheese shreds. Six anti-caking agents were applied to low moisture part skim Mozzarella cheese and examined for effects on three major functional properties of Mozzarella cheese; meltability, stretchability, and free oil formation....

  15. Effect of pre-treatment of cheese milk on the composition and characteristics of whey and whey products

    OpenAIRE

    Outinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Cheese producers want to increase cheese yield. The yield is improved by enhanced transfer of milk proteins and fat to cheese. This requires modifications to the traditional cheese process. During high-temperature heat treatment (HH), whey proteins are partially denaturated and co-precipitated with the cheese matrix. Elevation of the protein concentration of milk enhances the formation of the protein network in which whey proteins and fat are enclosed. The protein concentration is usually inc...

  16. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Ehsani, Ali; Hassanzadazar, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production. PMID:25653782

  17. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaqh Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05. White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05. Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods.

  18. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed.

  19. The effect of using a vegetable fat blend on some attributes of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesemkas, H.; Dinkci, N.; Seckin, K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2009-07-01

    Kashar cheese was produced from whole milk (MF) or skim milk homogenized with a commercial vegetable fat blend (VF) by the traditional procedure. The resulting cheese was stored for 3 months at 5 degree centigrade, and analyzed initially for its gross composition and cholesterol content. In addition, the proteolysis and lipolysis, organic acid content and fatty acid composition were studied during the ripening of the cheese. The replacement of milk fat with a vegetable fat blend mainly affected pH, total solids and cholesterol content in the initial composition of the cheese (P < 0.05). The acid degree value and tyrosine contents in both types of cheese increased throughout ripening and significant differences were found between the cheeses after only 30 days of ripening (P < 0.05). The organic acid concentrations of both cheeses changed during ripening (P < 0.05) except for citric and oxalic acids. MF cheese showed higher levels of citric, succinic and oxalic acids especially towards to the end of ripening. Palmitic acid was the dominant fatty acid in MF cheese while the most abundant fatty acids in VF cheese were palmitic and oleic acid. The higher unsaturated fatty acid composition of the VF cheese has attracted attention from the healthy food image point of view. (Author) 44 refs.

  20. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

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    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.