WorldWideScience

Sample records for cheese milk

  1. Detection of milk mixtures in Halloumi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, I; García-Risco, M R; Amigo, L; Molina, E; Ramos, M; Martín-Alvarez, P J

    2004-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been applied to the detection of illegal addition of milk from goat and/ or cow in Halloumi cheese, traditionally made with sheep milk. The electrophoretic profiles of the casein from Halloumi cheeses have revealed that caprine para-kappa-casein and bovine alphas1-casein peaks point to the presence of low percentages of goat's and/or cow's milk added to Halloumi cheese. Stepwise multiple linear regression has been used to predict these percentages with a standard error of the estimation of 2.14%. The analytical method combined with the statistical application is valid for the prediction of percentages higher than 2% of goat's and percentages of 5% of cow's milk added to the cheese either in fresh or ripened cheese. The standard error of estimation was higher for the prediction of cow's milk than for goat's milk. PMID:15453472

  2. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  3. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  4. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  5. Cheese from Ultrafiltered Milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the

  6. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  7. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  8. Cheese from Ultrafiltered Milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Buijsse, C.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the degree of syneresis of the curd. In UF-cheese manufacture (from 5x concentrated UF-retentates, concentrated further by syneresis) approximately one-third of the whey protein fraction was enclosed.D...

  9. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  10. The influence of different kind of milk on quality of Sjenica cheese and Sjenica type cheeses made by autohthonous technology

    OpenAIRE

    Maćej Ognjen D.; Jovanović Snežana T.; Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, influence of the composition of autohtonous Sjenica cheese and composition of cheese made from cow milk in the type of Sjenica cheese were comparatively investigated. Autohtonous Sjenica cheese, made from ewe's milk and Sjenica type cheese made from cow's milk both had high content of moisture (53.46% and 59.56% respectively), which is the result of production process (coagulation time, curd processing, drying and salting). According to moisture conten...

  11. Variation in milk protein composition and its importance for the quality of cheese milk

    OpenAIRE

    Wedholm, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Variations within the bovine milk protein profile can have both positive and negative impacts on the quality of cheese milk. As main contributors to the cheese structure, the caseins are important for the cheese yield. During the last decades, the proportion of casein in relation to the total protein amount (the casein number) has decreased in Swedish bulk milk. This decline is unexplained and the reason for this deteriorating trend is unknown. Therefore, more knowledge in how the protein com...

  12. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels. PMID:26041199

  13. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  14. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Ong; Raymond R. Dagastine; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. A...

  15. THE EFFECT OF GENERIC DAIRY ADVERTISING ON THE HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR MILK AND CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Chung, Chanjin; Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent two-step censored estimation is applied to household demand equations for disaggregated milk and cheese products. The long-run advertising elasticity for total milk was positive, largely due to low fat milk; however the elasticity for cheese was not significant, and only shredded cheese had a positive, significant response.

  16. Milk protein and cheese yield in buffalo species

    OpenAIRE

    Rossella Di Palo; Alfonso Giovane; Roberto Napolano; Fabio Zicarelli; Carlo Grassi; Lara Milone; Barbara Ariota

    2010-01-01

    Buffalo milk samples differing significantly for cheese yield values were analysed by 2D electrophoresis in order to outline a protein profile, with specific regards to k-casein fractions. Four buffaloes, two of which showing high cheese yield and two with low cheese yield selected from a group of 135 subjects were chosen for the proteomic analyses. Six main spots in 2D gels were recognized as αs1-, αs2-, β- and k-casein, α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin. The main v...

  17. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.

  18. Microbial dynamics during the ripening of a mixed cow and goat milk cheese manufactured using frozen goat milk curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, G; Robles, L; Alonso, R; Nuñez, M; Picon, A

    2011-10-01

    To overcome the seasonal shortage of goat milk in mixed milk cheese manufacture, pasteurized goat milk curd and high-pressure-treated raw goat milk curd manufactured in the spring were held at -24 °C for 4 mo, thawed, and mixed with fresh cow milk curd for the manufacture of experimental cheeses. Control cheeses were made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and goat milk. The microbiota of experimental and control cheeses was studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Bacterial enumeration by classical methods showed lactic acid bacteria to be the dominant population in both control and experimental cheeses. In total, 681 isolates were grouped by partial amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) into 4 groups and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (563 isolates), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (72 isolates), Lactobacillus spp. (34 isolates), and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris (12 isolates). Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of cheese showed (1) the predominance of Lc. lactis in all cheeses; (2) the presence of Leu. pseudomesenteroides population in all cheeses from d 15 onward; (3) the presence of a Lactobacillus plantarum population in control cheese until d 15 and in experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period. Due to the most diverse and complete set of peptidases present in the genus Lactobacillus, the prevalence of this population in experimental cheeses could give rise to differences in cheese flavor between experimental and control cheeses. PMID:21943728

  19. Isolation of [i]Listeria monocytogenes[/i] from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with[i] Listeria monocytogenes[/i]. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories. Isolation of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50% of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with [i]L. monocytogenes[/i]. The concentration of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers.

  20. Distribution of aflatoxin M1 in cheese obtained from milk artificially contaminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C; Ramos, L; Ramadán, S; Bulacio, L; Perez, J

    2001-02-28

    Small-scale manufacture of cheese using artificially AFM1 contaminated milk as raw material to study the distribution of such toxin both in whey and in cheese, was carried out. Whole milk with undetectable levels of AFM1 was used. The toxin was added in concentration that varied from 1.7 to 2.0 microg/l of milk. After the home-made production of cheese, the concentration of AFM1 was determined both in whey and in cheese, using the enzymatic immunoassay technique. The greatest proportion, 60%, was detected in whey while 40% AFM1 remained in cheese. PMID:11252507

  1. The influence of chemical composition of milk on yield of semi-hard cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić-Rašović M.; Mirecki S.; Nikolić N.; Rašović R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of paper was to examine the impact of the milk quality on yield of semi-hard naturally dried cheese, produced in cheese plant factory ZZ 'Cijevna' in Podgorica. Tests were conducted on 6 samples of bulk milk of cows and 6 productive batch of cheese. Chemical tests of the bulk milk have been done on the device MilcoScan 4000, and the determination content dry matter of whey and dry matter of cheese on the device MilcoScan FT 120. Theoretical yield of cheese wa...

  2. Methods for determination of milk and cheese adulteration by other milk types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world milk production, the contribution of goat, ovine, buffalo and other types of milk is small, compared to the cows' milk. Because of great availability, cows' milk is often used for adulteration of other milk types and dairy products. Due to adulteration, food characteristics are changed. Several analytical techniques were reported in the literature for the detection of milk and dairy products adulteration. Most of them are based on detection of milk protein fractions. Methods based on milk fat composition, such as profiles of triglycerides and ratios of distinct fatty acids, as well as polymerase chain reaction for detection of specific DNA sequences of species are also used. In this paper advantages and disadvantages of different methods (electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, ELISA method, capillary electro-phoresis, chromatography, mass spectrometry, PCR which are used for the species detection of milk and cheese are described.

  3. AROMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PECORINO CHEESES OBTAINED FROM MILK OF EWES FED DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT EXTRUDED LINSEED CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Branciari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the flavour characteristics of ewe cheeses made with two different techniques (cheeses obtained from raw milk or from thermized milk with adjunct starter cultures and using milk from animals fed diets with different concentrations of extruded linseed. Aromatic differences linked to the linseed concentrations in the diets were found for the raw milk cheeses, while no such differences were found in the cheeses made from thermized milk with adjunct starter cultures.

  4. Eff ect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buff alo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abd El-Rafee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The name pasta fi lata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the fi nished cheese its characteristic fi brous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Material and methods. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA. Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Results. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese fi rmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Conclusion. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that

  5. Jersey milk suitability for Cheddar cheese production: process, yield, quality and financial impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the benefits of including Jersey milk into Holstein-Friesian milk on the Cheddar cheese making process and secondly, using the data gathered, identify the effects and relative importance of a wide range of milk components on milk coagulation properties and the cheese making process. Blending Jersey and Holstein-Friesian milk led to quadratic trends on the size of casein micelle and fat globule and on coagulation properties. However th...

  6. Milk protein and cheese yield in buffalo species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Di Palo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo milk samples differing significantly for cheese yield values were analysed by 2D electrophoresis in order to outline a protein profile, with specific regards to k-casein fractions. Four buffaloes, two of which showing high cheese yield and two with low cheese yield selected from a group of 135 subjects were chosen for the proteomic analyses. Six main spots in 2D gels were recognized as αs1-, αs2-, β- and k-casein, α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin. The main visible differences in the 2D gels between buffaloes with high vs. low cheese yield were found in the appearance of the four k-casein spots (spots numbers:20, 19, 16, 18 which differ in the number of phosphorilation and glycosilation. The area and the intensity of the four spots were calculated by using Melanie II (Bio-Rad software. Samples with high cheese yield showed higher value of the by-products: area x intensity of spot 16, correspondent to k-casein with one phosphorilation site, and lower values of spots 19 and 20, of k-casein with more than one phosphorilation site and glycosilated.

  7. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed.

  8. Physicochemical properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese manufactured with different probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Napolitano, F; Sevi, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce functional Scamorza cheese from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk by incorporating probiotic strains into the cheese matrix and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Gentile di Puglia ewe bulk milk was used for Scamorza cheese production. Cheeses were denoted S-CO for control Scamorza cheese, S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotic strain. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 7, and 15 d of ripening. Probiotic cell recovery in cheese was 7.55 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g and 9.09 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g in S-LA and S-BB cheese, respectively; probiotic cheeses also displayed the highest levels of lactic microflora. Reverse-phase HPLC chromatograms of the water-soluble nitrogen fraction showed a more complex profile in S-BB, with distinctive peaks in the early-eluting zone. The matured Scamorza cheese containing the mix of B. longum and B. lactis was characterized by significantly higher levels of Gln, Ser, Arg, Ile, and Leu, whereas cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by higher levels of Tyr and Met. Total FFA content was the highest in S-LA, intermediate in S-BB, and the lowest in S-CO cheese; in particular, Scamorza cheese containing Lb. acidophilus showed the highest level of vaccenic acid, oleic acid, and total conjugated linoleic acid. Probiotic bacteria survived through the technological phases of pasta filata cheese production, maintained their specific metabolic pathways, and conferred functional properties to Scamorza ewe milk cheese. PMID:23522678

  9. Feeding strategies to design the fatty acid profile of sheep milk and cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of sheep milk produced in the world is transformed into cheese. Feeding is a major factor affecting the quality of sheep milk and, therefore, of sheep cheese. Because fat is the main compound of cheese, this review gives an update on the effects of feeding and nutrition on milk fat content and deeply discusses feeding strategies aimed at increasing the levels of healthy fatty acids (FA, such as conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 FA, in milk and cheese in the human diet. In addition, the use of alternative feed resources such as by-products, aromatic plants, and phenolic compounds in the sheep diet and their effects on milk and cheese FA composition are also discussed. Among feeding strategies, grazing and the use of supplements rich in oils seem to be the best and the cheapest strategies to improve the nutritional value of the fatty acid profile in sheep cheese.

  10. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands. PMID:24140324

  11. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  12. Technical note: Vitamin D-fortified Cheddar type cheese produced from concentrated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin-Piché, Jonathan; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; St-Gelais, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The technological challenge related to cheese fortification with vitamin D is the loss of a large proportion of vitamin D during the wheying-off step. The use of ultrafiltration (UF) to concentrate the milk before vitamin D enrichment and cheese manufacturing could be a way to reduce the volume of whey and consequently the vitamin D losses in cheese whey. Control (1.0×) and concentrated milks (1.4× and 1.8×) were fortified with vitamin D at a concentration of 450 IU per gram of milk. The 1.8× cheese milk concentration reduced slightly the vitamin D loss during the draining step (19.8%) compared with the control cheese (25.5%) and vitamin D remained stable during Cheddar cheese processing and ripening. PMID:27060834

  13. Determination of aflatoxin M1 levels in cheese and milk consumed in Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Sonal, S

    2001-10-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was determined by ELISA in 57 cheese and 10 milk samples collected from supermarkets and street milkmen during August in Bursa Province, Turkey. The highest AFM1 concentration was 810.00 ng/kg in full fatty white cheese. The incidence of AFM1 in the cheese was higher (89.47%) than that of milk (10%). The AFM1 in 7/57 (12.28%) cheese samples exceeded the Turkish AFM1 tolerance limits of 250 ng/kg, but none of the milk samples exceeded the FAO/WHO, European Union and Turkish tolerance limit of 50 ng/L. PMID:11577937

  14. Spatial Distribution of the Metabolically Active Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes’ milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, an...

  15. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

  16. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

  17. Effect of pre-treatment of cheese milk on the composition and characteristics of whey and whey products

    OpenAIRE

    Outinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Cheese producers want to increase cheese yield. The yield is improved by enhanced transfer of milk proteins and fat to cheese. This requires modifications to the traditional cheese process. During high-temperature heat treatment (HH), whey proteins are partially denaturated and co-precipitated with the cheese matrix. Elevation of the protein concentration of milk enhances the formation of the protein network in which whey proteins and fat are enclosed. The protein concentration is usually inc...

  18. Forecasting fluid milk and cheese demands for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, T M; Kaiser, H M

    2006-12-01

    Predictions of future market demands and farm prices for dairy products are important determinants in developing marketing strategies and farm-production planning decisions. The objective of this report was to use current aggregate forecast data, combined with existing econometric models of demand and supply, to forecast retail demands for fluid milk and cheese and the supply and price of farm milk over the next decade. In doing so, we can investigate whether projections of population and consumer food-spending patterns will extend or alter current consumption trends and examine the implications of future generic advertising strategies for dairy products. To conduct the forecast simulations and appropriately allocate the farm milk supply to various uses, we used a partial equilibrium model of the US domestic dairy sector that segmented the industry into retail, wholesale, and farm markets. Model simulation results indicated that declines in retail per capita demand would persist but at a reduced rate from years past and that retail per capita demand for cheese would continue to grow and strengthen over the next decade. These predictions rely on expected changes in the size of populations of various ages, races, and ethnicities and on existing patterns of spending on food at home and away from home. The combined effect of these forecasted changes in demand levels was reflected in annualized growth in the total farm-milk supply that was similar to growth realized during the past few years. Although we expect nominal farm milk prices to increase over the next decade, we expect real prices (relative to assumed growth in feed costs) to remain relatively stable and show no increase until the end of the forecast period. Supplemental industry model simulations also suggested that net losses in producer revenues would result if only nominal levels of generic advertising spending were maintained in forthcoming years. In fact, if real generic advertising expenditures are

  19. Effect of Partial Substitution of Fresh Cow Milk with Bambaranut Milk on Nutritional Characteristics and Yield of Soft (‘Unripe’) Cheese-‘Warankashi’

    OpenAIRE

    S.U. Okorie; I.I. Adedokun

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition characteristics and percentage yield of cheese ‘warankashi’ with partial substitution of bambaranut milk was studied. Extracted bambaranut milk was blended with fresh raw cow milk using varying proportions of 5:95; 10:90; 15:85; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60 and 50:5050%, cheese analogue of 100% bambaranut and a control of whole cow milk cheese was produced. Samples of cheese from different mix and control were examined for nutritional characteristics and percentage cheese yield. Data obtaine...

  20. Action of the ionization treatment on the soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works made on cheeses manufactured with unpasteurized milk, camembert type, have shown that it is possible to use irradiation for their sanitation. The treatment by ionization from 2 to 3 kGy of a cheese made from unpasteurized milk permits the reduction from 103 to 105 of the bacteria: faecal coliforms, staphylococcus and other indesirable bacteria. The works made by the scientists, J.F. Diell, C. Hauchmann, D. Rilcast, proved that ionization of food has no bad consequences in the nutritional field. Regarding the cheeses made with raw milk this technic brings to the consumer a higher bacteriological security

  1. Use of cold microfiltration retentates produced with polymeric membranes for standardization of milks for manufacture of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Wang, T; Lucey, J A

    2007-10-01

    Pizza cheese was manufactured with milk (12.1% total solids, 3.1% casein, 3.1% fat) standardized with microfiltered (MF) and diafiltered retentates. Polymeric, spiral-wound MF membranes were used to process cold (Cheese milks were obtained by blending the MF retentate (16.4% total solids, 11.0% casein, 0.4% fat) with whole milk (12.1% total solids, 2.4% casein, 3.4% fat). Control cheese was made with part-skim milk (10.9% total solids, 2.4% casein, 2.4% fat). Initial trials with MF standardized milk resulted in cheese with approximately 2 to 3% lower moisture (45%) than control cheese ( approximately 47 to 48%). Cheese-making procedures (cutting conditions) were then altered to obtain a similar moisture content in all cheeses by using a lower setting temperature, increasing the curd size, and lowering the wash water temperature during manufacture of the MF cheeses. Two types of MF standardized cheeses were produced, one with preacidification of milk to pH 6.4 (pH6.4MF) and another made from milk preacidified to pH 6.3 (pH6.3MF). Cheese functionality was assessed by dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology, University of Wisconsin MeltProfiler, and performance on pizza. Nitrogen recoveries were significantly higher in MF standardized cheeses. Fat recoveries were higher in the pH6.3MF cheese than the control or pH6.4MF cheese. Moisture-adjusted cheese yield was significantly higher in the 2 MF-fortified cheeses compared with the control cheese. Maximum loss tangent (LT(max)) values were not significantly different among the 3 cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar meltability. The LT(max) values increased during ripening. The temperature at which the LT(max) was observed was highest in control cheese and was lower in the pH6.3MF cheese than in the pH6.4MF cheese. The temperature of the LT(max) decreased with age for all 3 cheeses. Values of 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen levels were similar in all cheeses. Performance on pizza was similar for

  2. Analysis of the lactic acid bacteria microflora in traditional Caucasus cow's milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Nikolić Milica; Veljović Katarina; Tolinački Maja; Busarčević M.; Topisirović L.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 157 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from three hand-made cheeses taken from different households in the region of the Caucasus Mountains. The cheeses were manufactured from cow's milk without the addition of a starter culture. The isolates of LAB were characterized by subjecting them to phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results of identification of LAB indicate that the examined cheeses contained 10 species, viz., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lac...

  3. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  4. Production optimization of probiotic soft cheese made from goat's and cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Drgalić

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine optimal rennet share and fat content in milk for probiotic soft cheeseproduction made from goat's and cow's milk using DVS mixed probiotic culture ABT-4 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus, with desirable sensory properties, which will be acceptable by consumers. The best sensory scores had samples of probiotic soft cheese produced in laboratory conditions from milk with 1% of milk fat, pasteurized at 65°C/30 min., fermented at 38°C with 2% culture. To achieve characteristic consistency of traditional soft cheese, 0.01% of rennet was added to goat's milk. Probiotic soft cheese made from cow's and goat's milk, produced under optimal conditions, were 100% acceptable by the tested consumers.

  5. Replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aimed to study the possibility of substituting milk fat by using blended vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content, in addition, lo utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefore, one hundred (lOOKg) from fresh buffaloes milk containing 5 % milk fal and 3 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with blended vegetable oils and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 5% mixed vegetable oils used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product filled ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to 1, 2 and 3 kGy y-irradiation, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated filled cheese. In addition, irradiation dose of 3 kGy prolonged the shelf-life of treated filled cheese to 42 days compared to 18 days for control sample and scqueiitly, the new product high percentage of iinsaluraled fatly acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk and can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods

  6. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand; Dalgaard, Paw

    new experiments. Growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in heat-treated milk resulted in a bias factor (Bf) of 1.08 and an accuracy factor (Af) of 1.32, whereas the calibrated model for growth rates in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing and in raw milk resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1......Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model...... was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Growth rate models for milk and cottage cheese were evaluated by comparison with data from literature and...

  7. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. PMID:25597978

  8. Microbiological and chemical characterization of traditional cheese made from milk produced by the Algarvian goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    Ratao, Isabel Maria Carneiro

    2010-01-01

    This study was concerned with a chemical and microbiological characterisation of cheese made using milk from Algarvian goat breed. Seasonal variation of the microbiota and the gross chemical composition of the raw and boiled milk and cheese during the lactation period were studied. The cardoon microbiota and the variation of microbiota during ripening were studied also. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, identified to genus level and their technological properties su...

  9. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Cárdenas; Javier Calzada; Ángela Peirotén; Esther Jiménez; Rosa Escudero; Juan M. Rodríguez; Margarita Medina; Leónides Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also ...

  10. β-casein gene polymorphism permits identification of bovine milk mixed with bubaline milk in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Otaviano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mozzarella cheese is traditionally prepared from bubaline (Bubalus bubalis milk, but product adulteration occurs mainly by addition of or full substitution by bovine milk. The aim of this study was to show the usefulnes of molecular markers to identify the admixture of bovine milk to bubaline milk during the manufacturing process of mozzarella cheese. Samples of mozzarella cheese were produced by adding seven different concentrations of bovine milk: 0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 8%, 12% and 100%. DNA extracted from somatic cells found in cheese were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis of casein genes: α-s1-CN - CSN1S1 that encompasses 954 bp from exon VII to intron IX (Alu I and Hinf I, β-CN - CSN2 including 495 bp of exon VII (Hae III and Hinf I, and κ-CN - CSN3, encompassing 373 bp of exon IV (Alu I and Hind III. Our results indicate that Hae III-RFLP of CSN2 exon VII can be used as a molecular marker to detect the presence of bovine milk in "mozzarella" cheese.

  11. Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

    2003-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese

  12. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  13. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  14. Effect of frozen storage on the proteolytic and rheological properties of soft caprine milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Park, Y W

    2005-06-01

    Freezing and long-term frozen storage had minimal impact on the rheology and proteolysis of soft cheese made from caprine milk. Plain soft cheeses were obtained from a grade A goat dairy in Georgia and received 4 storage treatments: fresh refrigerated control (C), aged at 4 degrees C for 28 d; frozen control (FC), stored at -20 degrees C for 2 d before being thawed and aged in the same way as C cheese; and 3-mo frozen (3MF), or 6-mo frozen (6MF), stored at -20 degrees C for 3 or 6 mo before being thawed and aged. Soft cheeses had fragile textures that showed minimal change after freezing or over 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C. The only exceptions were the FC cheeses, which, after frozen storage and aging for 1 d at 4 degrees C, were significantly softer than the other cheeses, and less chewy than the other frozen cheeses. Moreover, after 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C, the FC cheeses tended to have the lowest viscoelastic values. Slight variation was noted in protein distribution among the storage treatment, although no significant proteolysis occurred during refrigerated aging. The creation and removal of ice crystals in the cheese matrix and the limited proteolysis of the caseins showed only slight impact on cheese texture, suggesting that frozen storage of soft cheeses may be possible for year-round supply with minimal loss of textural quality. PMID:15905426

  15. Influence of milk treatment and ripening conditions on quality of Raclette cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Klantschitsch, Thorid; Bachmann, Hans-Peter; Puhan, Zdenko

    2000-01-01

    International audience The influence of ripening temperature (11, 14, 17, $20 ^\\circ$C) and ripening time (60, 90 days) on sensory properties and melting quality of Raclette cheeses made from raw milk, pasteurised milk and microfiltered milk has been investigated using the 'special cubic model' experimental design. With increased ripening temperature substantial acceleration of ripening was achieved. The higher ripening temperature led to higher counts of propionibacteria in raw milk chees...

  16. Production optimization of probiotic soft cheese made from goat's and cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Drgalić; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić; Sandra Koruga

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine optimal rennet share and fat content in milk for probiotic soft cheeseproduction made from goat's and cow's milk using DVS mixed probiotic culture ABT-4 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus), with desirable sensory properties, which will be acceptable by consumers. The best sensory scores had samples of probiotic soft cheese produced in laboratory conditions from milk with 1% of milk fat, pasteurized at 65°C/30 ...

  17. The evolution of chemical and microbiological properties of fresh goat milk cheese during its shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, F; Battelli, G; De Noni, I

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical and microbiological properties of fresh goat milk cheese stored in an open deck refrigerated display cabinet (6 ± 2°C) or in a dark cold room (4 ± 1°C). The effects of partial-vacuum packaging and fluorescent lighting were studied during the cheese shelf life (45 d) and 15 d after. Storage conditions did not affect the pH values (4.3), whereas a slight decrease in moisture (ca. 1%) and in water activity (goat milk cheese would be extended from 45 to 60 d. Such conclusion was supported also by the sensory quality evaluation. PMID:22916879

  18. Effect of milk preacidification on low fat mozzarella cheese: II. Chemical and functional properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, L E; Barbano, D M; Kindstedt, P S; Guo, M R

    2001-06-01

    The effect of milk preacidification on cheese manufacturing, chemical properties, and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella cheese was determined. Four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using no preacidification (control), preacidification to pH 6.0 and pH 5.8 with acetic acid, and preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. This process was replicated four times. Modifications in the typical Mozzarella manufacturing procedures were necessary to accommodate milk preacidification. The chemical composition of the cheeses was similar among the treatments, except the calcium content and calcium as a percentage of protein were lower in the preacidified treatments. During refrigerated storage, the chemical and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella were affected the most by milk preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. The amount of expressible serum, unmelted cheese whiteness, initial unmelted hardness, and initial apparent viscosity were lower with preacidification. The reduction in initial unmelted cheese hardness and initial apparent viscosity in the pH 5.8 citric treatments represents an improvement in the quality of low fat Mozzarella cheese that allows the cheese to have better pizza bake characteristics with shorter time of refrigerated storage. PMID:11417692

  19. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry. PMID:26210276

  20. Biofortification of milk and cheese with microelements by dietary feed bio-preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Zuzanna; Michalak, Izabela; Korczyński, Mariusz; Szołtysik, Marek; Świniarska, Marita; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Tuhy, Łukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-10-01

    The present work reports studies on biofortification of milk and cheese with microelements. The diet of goats was supplemented with soya-based preparations with Cu(II), Fe(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II), produced by biosorption, instead of mineral salts. In innovative preparations, soya was the biological carrier of microelements. The utilitarian properties of the new preparations were tested in two groups (8 goats in each): experimental and control. The concentration of supplemented microelements was monitored in milk during the experiment. The collected milk was then used to produce cheese by enzymatic and acidic coagulation method. The effect of milk and cheese biofortification in microelements was confirmed. In milk, the level of the following microelements was higher than in the control: Cu(II) - 8.2 %, Mn(II) - 29.2 %, Zn(II) - 14.6 %. In cheese the content of Zn(II) obtained in enzymatic (19.8 %) and in acidic (120 %) coagulation was higher when compared to the control group. By using bio-preparations with microelements it was possible to produce new generation of functional food biofortified with microelements, by agronomic, and thus sustainable and ethically acceptable way. Biofortified milk and cheese can be used as designer milk to prevent from micronutrient deficiencies. Graphical Abstractᅟ. PMID:26396393

  1. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand;

    predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads and shelf-life of chilled cottage cheese and of milk at constant and dynamic storage temperatures. The developed models and the applied methodology is likely to be applicable for shelf-life assessment of other types of fermented or unripened dairy products as......Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model...... was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Growth rate models for milk and cottage cheese were evaluated by comparison with data from literature and...

  2. Volatile compounds of Van Herby cheeses produced with raw and pasteurized milks from different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Elvan; Javidipour, Issa; Tuncturk, Yusuf

    2015-07-01

    Levels of volatile compounds in Van herby cheeses manufactured from raw and pasteurized; 100 % ewes', 50 % ewes'+50 % cows' and mixture of 50 % ewes'+25 % cows'+25 % goats' milks were investigated over 180 days of ripening at 4 °C. The volatile compounds levels of herby cheese samples increased throughout the 180 days storage period. Samples produced from pasteurized milk showed lower volatile contents than their counterparts produced from raw milk. The volatile compounds profile of herby cheese samples detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) consisted of 8 esters, 5 ketones, 5 aldehydes, 9 acids, 6 alcohols and 14 hydrocarbons and terpenes. Acetic acid was the most abundant volatile compound in HS-SPME of ripened cheeses, followed by hexanoic, octanoic and butanoic acids. PMID:26139896

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  4. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  5. Homogenization and lipase treatment of milk and resulting methyl ketone generation in blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingkai; Fonseca, Leorges M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Rankin, Scott A

    2014-06-25

    A specific range of methyl ketones contribute to the distinctive flavor of traditional blue cheeses. These ketones are metabolites of lipid metabolism by Penicillium mold added to cheese for this purpose. Two processes, namely, the homogenization of milk fat and the addition of exogenous lipase enzymes, are traditionally applied measures to control the formation of methyl ketones in blue cheese. There exists little scientific validation of the actual effects of these treatments on methyl ketone development. The present study evaluated the effects of milk fat homogenization and lipase treatments on methyl ketone and free fatty acid development using sensory methods and the comparison of selected volatile quantities using gas chromatography. Initial work was conducted using a blue cheese system model; subsequent work was conducted with manufactured blue cheese. In general, there were modest effects of homogenization and lipase treatments on free fatty acid (FFA) and methyl ketone concentrations in blue cheese. Blue cheese treatments involving Penicillium roqueforti lipase with homogenized milk yielded higher FFA and methyl ketone levels, for example, a ∼20-fold increase for hexanoic acid and a 3-fold increase in 2-pentanone. PMID:24460517

  6. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Peirotén, Ángela; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  7. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  8. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  9. Spatial Distribution of the Metabolically Active Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes' milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, and concentrations of salt, fat and protein distinguished sub-blocks, while the cell density of the main microbial groups did not differ. Secondary proteolysis differed between sub-blocks of each cheese, especially when the number and area of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide peaks were assessed. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) agreed with these data. As determined through Purge and Trap (PT) coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PT-GC/MS), and regardless of the cheese variety, the profile with the lowest level of VOC was restricted to the region identified by the letter E defined as core. As shown through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota agreed with the VOC distribution. Differences were highlighted between core and the rest of the cheese. Top and bottom under rind sub-blocks of all three cheeses harbored the widest biodiversity. The cheese sub-block analysis revealed the presence of a microbiota statistically correlated with secondary proteolysis events and/or synthesis of VOC. PMID:27073835

  10. Eradication of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella) in raw milk camembert cheeses using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is the only process capable of eliminating pathogenic bacteria associated with accidental contamination of cheeses. Its use is limited, however, because of the organoleptic defects it induces. These appear in raw milk Camembert cheeses when the absorbed dose is 3 kGy (gamma radiation) or above. After experimental contamination of cheeses, the D10 of V7 1/2 a Listeria monocytogenes was 0.50 kGy and the D10 for a strain of Salmonella enteritidis was 0.60 kGy. An absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy (gamma radiation) is therefore sufficient to eradicate reliably 104 Listeria/g and 103 Salmonella/g in raw milk Camembert cheese and to prevent subsequent proliferation of these bacteria. (author). 26 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. PMID:25064646

  12. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal white brined Golija cows’ milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Mihajlović Sanja; Uzelac Gordana; Golić Nataša; Fira Đ.; Kojić M.; Topisirović Lj.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of artisanal Golija raw and cooked cows’ milk cheeses traditionally manufactured without the addition of starter culture. A total of 188 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates of Golija cheeses were obtained from seven samples of different ripening time. Phenotypebased assays as well as rep-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were undertaken for all 188 Lstrains. The ...

  13. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. ...

  14. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese. PMID:26616996

  15. Lysozyme affects the microbial catabolism of free arginine in raw-milk hard cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incecco, P; Gatti, M; Hogenboom, J A; Bottari, B; Rosi, V; Neviani, E; Pellegrino, L

    2016-08-01

    Lysozyme (LZ) is used in several cheese varieties to prevent late blowing which results from fermentation of lactate by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Side effects of LZ on lactic acid bacteria population and free amino acid pattern were studied in 16 raw-milk hard cheeses produced in eight parallel cheese makings conducted at four different dairies using the same milk with (LZ+) or without (LZ-) addition of LZ. The LZ-cheeses were characterized by higher numbers of cultivable microbial population and lower amount of DNA arising from lysed bacterial cells with respect to LZ + cheeses. At both 9 and 16 months of ripening, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus fermentum proved to be the species mostly affected by LZ. The total content of free amino acids indicated the proteolysis extent to be characteristic of the dairy, regardless to the presence of LZ. In contrast, the relative patterns showed the microbial degradation of arginine to be promoted in LZ + cheeses. The data demonstrated that the arginine-deiminase pathway was only partially adopted since citrulline represented the main product and only trace levels of ornithine were found. Differences in arginine degradation were considered for starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria, at different cheese ripening stages. PMID:27052697

  16. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. PMID:27060831

  17. Suitability of a new mixed-strain starter for manufacturing uncooked raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Fabienne; Torre, Paloma; Arana, Ines; Garcia, Susana; Pérez Elortondo, Francisco J; Berthier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    Most raw milk Ossau-Iraty cheeses are currently manufactured on-farm using the same commercial streptococcal-lactococcal starter (S1). One way to enhance the microbial diversity that gives raw milk its advantages for cheese-making is to formulate new starters combining diverse, characterized strains. A new starter (OI) combining 6 raw milk strains of lactococci, recently isolated and characterized, was tested in parallel with the current starter by making 12 Ossau-Iraty raw milk cheeses at 3 farmhouses under the conditions prevailing at each farm. Compliance of the sensory characteristics with those expected by the Ossau-Iraty professionals, physicochemical parameters and coliforms were quantified at key manufacturing steps. The new starter OI gave cheeses having proper compliance but having lower compliance than the S1 cheeses under most manufacturing conditions, while managing coliform levels equally well as starter S1. This lower compliance relied more on the absence of Streptococcus thermophilus in starter OI, than on the nature of the lactoccocal strains present in starter OI. The study also shows that variations in 5 technological parameters during the first day of manufacture, within the range of values applied in the 3 farmhouses, are powerful tools for diversifying the scores for the sensory characteristics investigated. PMID:26919818

  18. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk. PMID:23212008

  19. Aflatoxin M1 levels in UHT milk and kashar cheese consumed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekinşen, K Kaan; Eken, H Semih

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, 100 UHT milk and 132 kashar cheese samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). They were obtained from retail outlets in five big cities (Istanbul, Izmir, Konya, Tekirdag, Edirne). The occurrence and concentration range of AFM1 in the samples were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Sixty-seven percent of the UHT milk samples and 82.6% of the kashar cheese samples contained AFM1. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the UHT milk samples and the kashar cheese samples ranged from 10 to 630 ng/kg and from 50 to 690 ng/kg, respectively. AFM1 levels in 31 (31%) UHT milk and 36 (27.3%) kashar cheese samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of the EC and the TFC. AFM1 levels in the samples show that there is a presence of high aflatoxin level that constitutes a human health risk in Turkey. Therefore milk and dairy products have to be controlled continuously for presence of AFM1 contamination by the Turkish public health authorities. PMID:18700163

  20. Excretion pattern of aflatoxins in buffalo milk and carry-over in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gualla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some raw materials, used in animal feeding, can be contaminated by aflatoxins (AF. All the mammals that ingest AFB1, excrete small amounts of the hydroxylated metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in their milk (Wood 1991. In the case of cow’s milk, the percentage excreted is 1-3% of that ingested (Veldman et al. 1992. AFM1 has been categorised as a class 2B, possible human carcinogen. AFM1 is associated with the protein fraction of milk and hence it is carried-over to cheese and to other milk products (Brackett and Marth, 1982....

  1. Coagulation properties and Nostrano di Primiero cheese yield of milk from Brown grazing cows of different k-casein genotype

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gaiarin; W. Ventura; S. Bovolenta; E. Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants of milk proteins affect composition, technological characteristics and, as a consequence, cheesemaking properties of milk (Jakob and Puhan, 1992; Mariani and Summer, 1999). The effects of αS1, β and k-caseins variants, on milk coagulation properties are well known (Grosclaude, 1988). Cheesemaking involving many cheese varieties showed shorter clotting and curd firming times, higher curd firmness and cheese yields with the k-casein BB variant (Van Den Berg et al., 1...

  2. PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS IN RAW SHEEP MILK CHEESE AND ENTEROTOXIGENIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in raw sheep milk cheese and to assess the enterotoxigenic profile of the isolated strains. N.16 raw milk sheep cheese, collected from 8 artisan dairies, were analyzed to detect the presence of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (CPS. In the frame of Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 cheese samples were tested for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs when a CPS count >105 cfu/g was detected. CPS isolates identified as S. aureus were analyzed using multiplex PCR for the detection of classical (sea-see and enterotoxins-like (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep genes. S. aureus was recovered in all cheese samples and in 50% with levels >105 cfu/g. 14 strains carried at least one of the genes coding for enterotoxins. In none of the cheese samples SEs were detected. Although a correct acidification (pH 5.1-5.4 at 6 hours was observed in dairies using natural starter culture, in cheese samples obtained from these dairies, CPS counts were greater (P<0.05 as compared with those where starter culture were not used. This result might be related to the main role of microbial competition on the control of S. aureus in early stage of cheesemaking. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of lactic acid bacteria competition on the growth of S. aureus.

  3. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  4. Analysis of dominant lactic acid bacteria from artisanal raw milk cheeses produced on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begovic Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Serbian cheese production has a long history and generates products with rich flavor profiles. To enable the industrial manufacture of these home-made Serbian cheeses, the lactic acid bacteria present in them needs to be characterized. Five fresh white cheeses made from raw cow’s milk without commercial starter cultures were collected from households on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia. According to phenotypical and molecular analysis, 262 isolated Lwere found to belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc or Enterococcus. The unique bacterial composition of each cheese indicates that the preservation of household industry is the way to maintain production of distinct cheeses.

  5. Screening of antibiotic residues in ewe milk destined to cheese by a commercial microbiological inhibition assay

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaki, Miho; Berruga, M. Isabel; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina, Pilar; Molina, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Bulk ewe milk from Spanish dairy farms situated in the Castilla-La Mancha region, and destined to Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) Manchego cheese, were analysed each month for antimicrobial residues during one year. For this study a microbiological assay specific for ewe milk (Eclipse ?100ov??) was used. The number of positive samples by the Eclipse ?100ov?? test was 2.6%. A second examination of positives following heat treatment at 82?C for 10 min showed a reduc...

  6. Comparative study of the paracasein fraction of two ewe's milk cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Maria; Zoidou, Evangelia; Moatsou, Golfo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the characteristics of the paracasein of two ewe's milk cheese varieties using various concentrations of urea and EDTA to solubilise caseins and calcium. The solubilised paracasein elements were evaluated by means of RP-HPLC and AAS. For this purpose cheeses with different physical and biochemical characteristics, i.e. Feta (53.1% moisture and pH 4.32) and Graviera Kritis (33.2% moisture and pH 5.54) were analysed. Soluble calcium of Feta was 71% of total calcium much higher than the 25% in Graviera. Treatment with 4 m urea fully solubilised Feta paracasein, whereas 6 m urea was needed to solubilise caseins from Graviera. Caseins were released from both cheeses by 100 mm EDTA. Solubilisation of paracasein induced by urea or EDTA was not significantly affected (P electrostatic attractions, contributed substantially to the paracasein stability of both cheese types. The interactions of αs1-casein with calcium played a more significant role in Graviera cheese than in Feta. Finally, the present study demonstrated that the profile of bonds and interactions within the cheese paracasein network was dynamicly configured by the conditions of cheese manufacture. PMID:26088874

  7. Continuous production of cheese by immobilized milk-clotting protease from aspergillus niger MC4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channe; Shewale

    1998-11-01

    Milk clotting protease from Aspergillus niger MC4 immobilized on glycidyl methacrylate-pentaerythritol triacrylate copolymer GP4 was used for continuous production of cheese using a packed bed reactor. Factors affecting the hydrolysis of kappa-casein and clot formation were studied. Acidified milk (pH 5.8) preincubated at 37 degreesC when passed through the column at a flow rate of 80 mL/min attained the required degree of hydrolysis of kappa-casein for the coagulation in a single pass. Fortification of the hydrolyzed milk with CaCl2 and FeCl3 to a final concentration of 0.01 and 0.02 M, respectively, and incubation of fortified milk at 60 degreesC for 2 h resulted in a hard cake of cheese. The yield of raw cheese was 28 g/100 mL of milk. The immobilized milk-clotting protease was used for 60 days (8 h/day) without any loss in productivity. PMID:9841651

  8. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Gkogka, Elissavet; Rosshaug, Per Sand; Dalgaard, Paw

    2016-01-01

    cultured cream dressing and in non-heated milk (n=26) resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1.43 (μref25°C-cottage cheese). Lag phase models were developed by using relative lag times and data from both the present study and from literature. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the developed models to...

  9. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in randomly selected North African milk and cheese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgerbi, A M; Aidoo, K E; Candlish, A A G; Tester, R F

    2004-06-01

    Forty-nine samples of raw cow's milk and 20 samples of fresh white soft cheese were collected directly from 20 local dairy factories in the north-west of Libya and analysed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The samples were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography technique for toxin detection and quantification. Thirty-five of the 49 milk samples (71.4%) showed AFM1 levels between 0.03 and 3.13 ng ml(-1) milk. Multiple analyses of five milk samples free of AFM1 artificially contaminated with concentrations of AFM1 at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 ng ml(-1) showed average recoveries of 66.85, 72.41, 83.29, 97.94 and 98.25%, with coefficients of variations of 3.77, 4.11, 1.57, 1.29 and 0.54%, respectively. Fifteen of 20 white soft cheese samples (75.0%) showed the presence of AFM1 in concentrations between 0. 11 and 0.52 ng g(-1) of cheese. Multiple assays of five cheese samples free of AFM1 spiked with different concentration of AFM1 (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 ng g(-1)) showed average recoveries of 63.23, 78.14,83.29 and 88.68%, with coefficients of variation of 1.53, 9.90, 4.87 and 3.79%, respectively. The concentrations of AFM1 were lower in the cheese products than in the raw milk samples. PMID:15204538

  10. PCR verification of microplate phenotypic system identification for LAB from traditional Western Balkan raw milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paveljšek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and ripening specificity of traditional cheeses are predominantly directed by the natural microbial community present in milk selected by the cheese-making environment and technology. Therefore the traditional cheeses are unique products with specific microbiota biodiversity. There are several approaches for the identification of microbial population, however all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study the eligibility and performance of the Biolog phenotypic identification system (Biolog, Inc. with GEN III microplates was tested. Parallel to this method, polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers was performed. One hundred sixty-five isolates from nine types of artisan cheeses were isolated and analysed. Cheeses were produced from raw ewe’s milk in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The Biolog phenotypic identification system identified 90 isolates, but only 55 identifications acquired by the Biolog system were supported by polymerase chain reaction at a genus level and 28 at a species level. The obtained results showed that the reliability of commercial phenotypic identification systems was inadequate when analysing lactic acid bacteria isolates from natural, spontaneous fermentations and needs to be additionally corroborated by genotypic identification methods.

  11. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy;

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the application of Ultra High Pressure Homogenisation (UHPH), an innovative technology for food sterilisation that relies on pressure up to 400MPa, for the treatment of cow milk. The technology is forseen to provide equal or higher quality products compared to Ultra High...... Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield This...... study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  12. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Jolanta G; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g(-1) between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. PMID:26950152

  13. Influence of diet and rennet on the composition of goats' milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno Baquero, María; Álvarez Ríos, Sergio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Darias Martín, Jacinto

    2011-05-01

    Dry matter, protein, fat, pH, mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) concentrations were determined in samples of goats' milk and in fresh, semi-hard and hard cheeses to study the effect of the goats' diet and the type of rennet used for the cheese processing of the Palmero Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Two groups of 20 Palmero goats were fed 2 different diets: a Palmero diet (PD supplied by native forages adapted to subhumid areas, which had a high ratio of long fibre to concentrates (65:35), and an actual diet (AD), the most commonly used by goat farmers, with a low ratio of long fibre to concentrates (35:65). In general, the cheese samples from goats fed with PD had higher mean Ca, Zn, Cu and Se concentrations than the samples obtained from AD fed goats. The diet exhibited a greater influence on the chemical composition of the cheeses than the rennet used in their production. Applying a stepwise linear discriminant analysis a complete percentage of correct classifications of the three types of cheeses according to the diet of the goats was observed. PMID:24725675

  14. Replacement Of Milk Fat By Olive Oil In Manufacturing Soft Cheese And Keeping Its Quality By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using olive oil as milk fat substitute in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content , in addition, to utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefor, one hundred (100 kg) from fresh mixed cow s' and buffaloes s' milk containing 4 % milk fat and 1 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with olive oil and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 4% olive oil used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to γ-irradiation with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by olive oil in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated soft cheese . In addition, 2.5 kGy dose prolonged the shelf-life of treated soft cheese to 45 days compared to 18 days for control sample. It could be concluded that, the new product contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods. (Authors)

  15. Allergy to goat/sheep’s milk with good tolerance to cow’s milk but not to cow’s milk cheese: identification of 1-105 peptide from κ-casein as the molecular basis of reactivity toward cow’s milk cheese for two patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumesnil, Marion; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Drouet, Martine; Gaudin, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, a new population of patients developing anaphylaxis to goat’s/sheep’s milk associated to tolerance to cow’s milk has recently appeared. Nevertheless, among these patients, some show allergic reactions to cow’s milk cheeses but these reactions are less severe than those directed against goat’s/sheep’s milk. The objective of the study was to the molecular determinants of the reactivity of this category of patients toward goat’s/sheep’s milk and cow’s milk cheese. Western blots with e...

  16. Major and trace elements in milk and Halloumi cheese as markers for authentication of goat feeding regimes and geographical origin

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Koidis, Anastasios; Papademas, Photis

    2015-01-01

    Sixty samples of milk, Halloumi cheese and local grazing plants (i.e. shrubs) were collected over a year from dairy farms located on three different locations of Cyprus. Major and trace elements were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Milk and Halloumi cheese produced in different geographical locations presented significant differences in the concentration of some of the elements analysed. Principal component analysis showed grouping of sample...

  17. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed. PMID:18833996

  18. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg. Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001 fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016. However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045. There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05. The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065 quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%. Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12 and tridecanoic (C13 acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  19. DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN BULK-TANK MILK AND SHEEP CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cossu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 content in 118 bulk-tank sheep milk samples was evaluated using an ELISA commercial kit. During a lactation, three bulk-tank milk samples were collected from each of 40 semi-extensive farms, selected on the basis of high level of concentrate supplementation as risk factor for exposure to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The AFM1 content was also determined in 38 sheep cheese samples collected from a dairy plant where the farms enrolled in the survey shipped the milk. In the three sampling the concentrate supplementation recorded in the farms ranged between (mean±sd 492.2±257.7 and 397.7±214.3. AFM1 was detected in 1 bulk-tank sheep milk sample (0.8% at concentrations as little as 5.2 ng/L while in 117 it was not detectable (<5 ng/L. AFM1 was also detected in 5 (13.2% out of 38 samples of ripened sheep cheese at levels (mean±sd of 58.1±7.8 ng/Kg. A very low AFM1 content in bulk mik and cheese was observed, as the result of the implementation of good agricultural and good farming practices.

  20. Concerns about the microbiological quality of traditional raw milk cheeses: a worldwide issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella and  “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae counts were observed in “fresh cheese” than in “pasta filata” samples. Values > 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. An evident contamination by Escherichia coli, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp. was detected in all the cheeses: the causes could be the improper hygiene of the artisanal production practices and the permanence of the cheeses on the refrigerated shelves. A careful attention to the respect of the good manufacturing practices is suggested to avoid the presence of initial high bacterial loads.

  1. Analysis of the lactic acid bacteria microflora in traditional Caucasus cow's milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 157 lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from three hand-made cheeses taken from different households in the region of the Caucasus Mountains. The cheeses were manufactured from cow's milk without the addition of a starter culture. The isolates of LAB were characterized by subjecting them to phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results of identification of LAB indicate that the examined cheeses contained 10 species, viz., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. The strains within the species L. plantarum, L. arizonensis, L. paraplantarum, L. farciminis, and L. pseudomesenteroides showed good proteolytic activity.

  2. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  3. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. PMID:22118069

  4. Health stimulating properties of the most popular soft cheese in Egypt Kariesh made using skimmed milk UF-retentate and probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Fayed, A. E; Azza M. Farahat; A. E. Metwally; M. S. Massoud and A. O. Emam

    2014-01-01

    Background. Soft skimmed-milk cheese Kariesh is the most popular soft cheese in Egypt. In the past, Karish cheese was traditionally produced by the random fermentation of milk speared its cream layer by the gravity force. Recently, its production has been carried out by several manufacturing procedures using, ultrafi ltration (UF) – skimmed milk retentate, certain bacterial cultures, enzymatic coagulation, etc. Therefore, the biological and nutritional evaluations are required. The pres...

  5. Krcki cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonimir Prpić; Samir Kalit; Jasmina Lukač Havranek; Mihovil Štimac; Saša Jerković

    2003-01-01

    Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese ...

  6. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  7. Dynamics of salt diffusion and yield of three types of goat's milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Srbinovska

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the dynamics of salt diffusion during the ageing ofthree types of cheese from goat's milk: Mozzarella, White Brined andPecorino. The salt concentration was consistently analyzed at the 72nd hour and on the 5th, 10th, 20th, 40th, 50th, 60th and 90th day of the cheese ageing period. The distribution of salt in the three layers of cheese – inner (I, middle (II and outer (III was also studied. The salt equilibration in the cheese mass of Mozzarella occurred on the 15th day, in the White Brined - on the 60th day,whereas in Pecorino the content of salt even on the 90th day was by 1% lower, in the inner layer than in the two other layers of this cheese. The utilization rate of dry matter was 52.17% in Mozzarella, 50.64% in the White Brined and 48.32% in Pecorino. Accordingly, the yield of Mozzarella is 18.13 ±0.43%, of White Brined - 12.50 ±0.37% and the yield of Pecorino is 9.18 ±0.13%.

  8. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bukuljac, a homemade goat's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Milica; Terzic-Vidojevic, Amarela; Jovcic, Branko; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2008-02-29

    The Bukuljac cheese is traditionally homemade cheese, produced from heat-treated goat's milk without the addition of any bacterial starter culture. The presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Bukuljac cheese has been analyzed by using a polyphasic approach including microbiological and molecular methods such as rep-PCR with (GTG)5 primer. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei represents a dominant strain in the microflora of analyzed cheese. Out of 55 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates, 48 belonged to L. paracasei subsp. paracasei species. Besides lactobacilli, five Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and two Enterococcus faecalis were found. Results of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA extracted directly from the fresh cheese revealed the presence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Only lactobacilli showed a high proteolytic activity and hydrolyzed alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins. They are also producers of diacetyl. In addition, 34 out of 55 isolates, all determined as lactobacilli, showed the ability of auto-aggregation. Among 55 isolates, 50 also exhibited antimicrobial activity. PMID:18177967

  9. Nitrogen matter changes during ripening of semihard cheese based on milk protein coaggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Jovanović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses made on milk protein coaggregate basis are different thantraditionally made cheeses, in technological production process and sensory characteristics, especially texture and taste. In this research it was assumed that applied milk thermal treatment, as well as curd processing, will have appropriate influence on proteins as substratum. During ripening, due to a presence of whey proteins, which influence decrease of casein content in total cheese proteins, substratum is hydrolyzed. In traditionally made cheeses, casein is the basis of protein matrix. In comparison to whey proteins, casein is substantially faster changed during ripening, while whey proteins incorporated in the curd give so called «unspecific» ripening. Besides, application of high temperatures influences decrease of plasmin activity in cheese, regardless of its significant thermal stability. During 4 months ofexperimental cheeses ripening, changes of nitrogen matter were investigated. Significant changes of milk proteins, such as increase of soluble nitrogen matter content, the primary and secondary nitrogen products of protein breakdown during cheese ripening, as well as non-protein nitrogen (12 % TCA and phospho-tungstic-soluble nitrogen (5 % PTA were observed. The average content of soluble nitrogen after production after 15, 30, 60 and 120 days of ripening were: 135.48 mg %, 358.72 mg %, 473.52 mg %, 672.32 mg % and 845.13 mg %,respectively. According to soluble nitrogen content increase, coefficient of ripening also increased and for the same ripening period was: 4.42 %, 10.14 %, 12.95 %, 18.21 % and 23.60 %, respectively. Content of primary and secondary products of protein breakdown during cheese ripening had significant rising trend from the first day of production to 120th day of ripening. At the end of investigated ripening period, content of primary products of protein decomposition was 4.90 times higher compared to the first day of ripening, while content of

  10. Development of Probiotic Cheese Manufactured from Goat Milk: Response Surface Analysis via Technological Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F.Xavier

    1998-01-01

    Production of caprine milk has been rising steadily, partially because of its good nutritional value; the possibility of improving nutritional benefits by adding probiotic species such as Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus was assessed. The manufacturing process of a traditional semi-hard goat cheese was technologically modified to optimize the process. The amount of starter inoculum, the concentration of salt, the addition of a protein hydrolysate, and the ripening time wer...

  11. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 1: the unsaponifiable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate nutritional quality, samples of milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO have been studied analyzing cholesterol, alfa tocopherol and trans retinol, functional components of the unsaponifiable fraction. Dairy products of experimental and commercial origin have been sampled. A large variability has been observed among the products but, regarding the nutrients studied, commercial and experimental farms produce mozzarella cheeses of comparable nutritional quality.

  12. Transcriptome expression analysis of candidate milk genes affecting cheese-related traits in 2 sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Vega, A; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Arranz, J J

    2016-08-01

    Because ewe milk is principally used for cheese making, its quality is related to its content of total solids and the way in which milk constituents influence cheese yield and determine the technological and organoleptic characteristics of dairy products. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the expression levels of milk genes influencing cheese-related traits is essential. In the present study, the milk transcriptome data set of 2 dairy sheep breeds, Assaf and Spanish Churra, was used to evaluate the expression levels of 77 transcripts related to cheese yield and quality traits. For the comparison between both breeds, we selected the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data at d 10 of lactation because this is the time point at which within and between breed differences due to lactation length are minimal. The evaluated genes encode major milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins), endogenous proteases, and enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and citrate content. Through this analysis, we identified the genes predominantly expressed in each of the analyzed pathways that appear to be key genes for traits related to sheep milk cheese. Among the highly expressed genes in both breeds were the genes encoding caseins and whey proteins (CSN2, CSN3, CSN1S1, ENSOARG00000005099/PAEP, CSN1S2, LALBA), genes related to lipid metabolism (BTN1A1, XDH, FASN, ADFP, SCD, H-FABP, ACSS2), and one endogenous protease (CTSB). Moreover, a differential expression analysis between Churra and Assaf sheep allowed us to identify 7 genes that are significantly differentially expressed between the 2 breeds. These genes were mainly linked to endogenous protease activity (CTSL, CTSK, KLK10, KLK6, SERPINE2). Additionally, there were 2 differentially expressed genes coding for an intracellular fatty acid transporter (FABP4), an intermediate molecule of the citric acid cycle (SUCNR1), and 2 heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSPB8) that could be related to high protein production. The differential expression of

  13. Methods for determination of milk and cheese adulteration by other milk types

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Sonja Damjanović; Jasmina Havranek

    2006-01-01

    In the world milk production, the contribution of goat, ovine, buffalo and other types of milk is small, compared to the cows' milk. Because of great availability, cows' milk is often used for adulteration of other milk types and dairy products. Due to adulteration, food characteristics are changed. Several analytical techniques were reported in the literature for the detection of milk and dairy products adulteration. Most of them are based on detection of milk protein fractions. Methods base...

  14. Comparison of biogenic amine profile in cheeses manufactured from fresh and stored (4 degrees C, 48 hours) raw goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the evolution of microbial counts, biogenic amine contents, and related parameters (pH, moisture, and proteolysis) in goat cheese made from fresh raw milk or raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C was examined. In both cases the milk was nonpasteurized. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of milk quality on the profile of biogenic amines in relation to the evolution of the microbial population during cheese making. Cheese made from raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C showed the highest microbial counts and biogenic amine levels. The storage of milk under refrigeration caused significant increases in the levels of some microbial and biogenic amines during ripening, but not initially. Tyramine was the main biogenic amine in the two cheeses tested, followed by cadaverine. However, the main differences in amine contents between batches were found for putrescine, histamine, and beta-phenylethylamine, whose levels were more than twofold higher in samples from raw milk refrigerated for 48 h than in samples from fresh milk. PMID:14717360

  15. Milk fatty acid composition and cheese texture and appearance from cows fed hay or different grazing systems on upland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, M; Ferlay, A; Monsallier, F; Verdier-Metz, I; Pradel, P; Didienne, R; Farruggia, A; Montel, M C; Martin, B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work was to compare milk fatty acid (FA) profile and texture and appearance of Cantal cheeses obtained from cows grazing 2 different upland grasslands: a highly diversified pasture (74 species) of area 12.5 ha managed under continuous mode (C), and a weakly diversified pasture (31 species) of area 7.7 ha (an old temporary grassland) managed under rotational mode (R). A control group of cows fed a hay-based diet (indoors, I) was used. Three equivalent groups of 12 Montbéliarde cows underwent the 3 treatments from May to September 2008. The cheeses were manufactured during 3 consecutive days in early June, early July, and late August (27 cheeses in all). The texture, appearance, and chemical composition of the cheeses were determined after 12 wk of ripening. Concentrations of total saturated FA and monounsaturated FA were higher and lower, respectively, in I milks compared with pasture milks. The concentrations of trans-11-C18:1 and cis-9-C18:1, and polyunsaturated FA as well as yellowness decreased during the season in C-derived milk but remained constant in R-derived milk, through a combined effect of grass development stage and the cows' grazing selection. The I cheeses were, on average, firmer, less creamy, less elastic, and less yellow than the pasture cheeses. Decreasing and increasing trends in texture firmness during the season were observed for C and R cheeses, respectively. The rind of the pasture-fed cow cheese had fewer, less intensely colored, and less prominent spots than did that of I cheeses. This difference was probably due to greater migration of fat to the rind during pressing because of the lower fat melting point of the pasture-fed cow cheeses, which had higher unsaturated FA content. The greater amounts of fat deposited on the rind of the pasture-fed cow cheeses may have partially inhibited the microbial activity responsible for rind appearance. Our trial underlines the importance of the effects of grazing management

  16. Carbon footprint from cheese produced on milk from Holstein and Jersey cows feed hay differing in proportion of herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact on emission of green house gasses (GHG) from production of cheese based on milk from different type of hay and breed of cows, and as an integrated part to give figures for emission from production of hay in climate lees favorable for on field hay drying. Emission of GHG was estimate using life cycle assessment with kg of milk and kg of energy corrected milk (ECM) delivered to the dairy factory, and kg of cheese at the retailor level in Denma...

  17. Coagulation properties and Nostrano di Primiero cheese yield of milk from Brown grazing cows of different k-casein genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaiarin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variants of milk proteins affect composition, technological characteristics and, as a consequence, cheesemaking properties of milk (Jakob and Puhan, 1992; Mariani and Summer, 1999. The effects of αS1, β and k-caseins variants, on milk coagulation properties are well known (Grosclaude, 1988. Cheesemaking involving many cheese varieties showed shorter clotting and curd firming times, higher curd firmness and cheese yields with the k-casein BB variant (Van Den Berg et al., 1992;Walsh et al., 1998......

  18. Research And Practice: Quantification Of Raw And Heat-Treated Cow Milk in Sheep Milk, Cheese And Bryndza By ELISA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zeleňáková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the reliability of commercial ELISA tests (RC-bovino within raw and heat treated cow milk detection in sheep milk and cheese in order to obtain a high-quality, reliable and economically beneficial method suitable for routine application in practice. These tests were subsequently used for quantification of cow milk in commercial "Bryndza". Raw sheep milk, cow milk and heat-treated cow milk (pasteurisation at 72 °C for 15 sec or at 85 °C for 3 sec were mixed in precisely defined proportions (0 - 100% cow milk in sheep milk. The milk mixtures were sampled to detect adulteration and subsequently cheese was made. By ELISA tests was possible to determine these amounts of raw cow milk in sheep milk: 0.5% (0.2%, 5 % (4.81%, 50% (42.08% and 75% (56.52%. The pasteurized samples in different combinations gave lower optical density responses than those prepared from raw milk (by approximately 60%. In context with the above mentioned, the relationship between the real and detected amount of cow milk (% in different production stages (milk, cheese using a regression analysis was examined. However, a lower reliability of the detection was indicated by R2 values, which ranged from 0.4058 (cheese to 0.5175 (milk. In practice this means that although individual percentage (% of cow milk in the sample can be detected, but in the unknown sample it can not be clearly confirm whether the cow milk was raw or heat-treated. In this context, the results can be inaccurate and may not correspond to the real situation. Within monitoring phase of this research, 9 samples of bryndza were analysed with the results of detected cow milk ranged from 11.56% to 14.3%. The obtained results confirm that the appropriate selection of ELISA tests can become an important factor in the setting of analytical capabilities for the detection of milk and cheese adulteration.

  19. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the cheese making of traditional raw-milk cheeses from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cosciani-Cunico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied during the manufacture and ripening of two traditional Italian Alps cheeses. Each cheese type was manufactured in a pilot plan from raw cow milk (without the addition of starter cultures artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 to a final concentration of about 4 log CFU/mL. The pathogens were enumerated throughout the cheese making and ripening processes to study their behaviour. When the milk was inoculated with 4 Log CFU/mL, the pathogens counts increased in the first time during the manufacturing process and then remained constant, until the end of ripening, or decreased significantly. Results indicate that the environment and nature of food borne pathogens affected the concentration of the bacteria during the manufacturing and ripening process. Thus, the presence of low cells numbers of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in milk destined for the production of raw milk cheeses characterized by a cooking of the curd less than 48°C can constitute a hazard for the consumer.

  20. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal white brined Golija cows’ milk cheeses

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    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB of artisanal Golija raw and cooked cows’ milk cheeses traditionally manufactured without the addition of starter culture. A total of 188 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates of Golija cheeses were obtained from seven samples of different ripening time. Phenotypebased assays as well as rep-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were undertaken for all 188 Lstrains. The most diverse species were isolated from 20-day-old BGGO8 cheese (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus sucicola, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In other Golija cheeses Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were found. Pronounced antimicrobial properties showed enterococci (13/42 and lactococci (12/31, while the good proteolytic activity demonstrated lactococci (13/31 and lactobacilli (10/29. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019

  1. Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus genotype B as a major contaminant in Swiss raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerjohann, J; Naskova, J; Baumgartner, A; Graber, H U

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Swiss raw milk cheeses that had been found to be contaminated with coagulase-positive staphylococci and to estimate the frequency of the various genotypes, in particular the mastitis-associated Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB). The isolates were also tested for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and other virulence factors. From 623 coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from 78 contaminated raw milk cheeses, 609 were found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Genotyping of all Staph. aureus isolates was performed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, as this method was used previously to differentiate between mastitis subtypes associated with their clinical outcome. In total, 20 different genotypes were obtained and the 5 most frequently occurring genotypes were distributed in 6.4% or more of the samples. The enterotoxin-producing Staph. aureus GTB, known for its high contagiousness and increased pathogenicity in Swiss mastitis herds, was found to be the most abundant subtype at the sample level (71.8%) as well as among the isolates (62.0%). A subset of 107 isolates of the different genotypes were analyzed for the presence of SE genes and revealed 9 different SE gene patterns, with sed being most frequently detected and 26% being PCR-negative for SE genes. Almost all isolates of the major contaminant GTB contained the SE gene pattern sed, sej, ser, with half of them additionally carrying sea. Production of SE in vitro was consistent with the SE genes detected in most of the cases; however, some isolated GTB did not produce SEA. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (spa) typing revealed 30 different subtypes and most GTB isolates belonged to the bovine spa type t2953; GTB/t2953 was linked among other subtypes to SE production in cheese and staphylococcal intoxication cases. Furthermore, 1 of the 623 isolates was a methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus, which was an

  2. Effect of feeding management and seasonal variation on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Gíl Romo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding management and seasonal variation (summer and winter 2007 on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese. Four groups were formed. During the summer, group A grazed on a natural semiarid rangeland. group B was kept in confinement, fed with concentrate grains and lucerne hay. Through the winter group C grazed on the same rangeland with supplementation and group D was fed as the group B. Thereafter, four kinds of cheeses were manufactured from milk of each animal group: grazed-summer (GS, indoor- summer (IS, grazed-winter (GW and indoor-winter (IW. Results of this study indicated that fat content in cheese was affected by season. Moreover, during the summer period, pasture-based regime increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations; however, winter season could diminish the cheese desirable fatty acid profile.

  3. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Joana T.; Ribeiro, Tânia I. B.; Rocha, João B.; Nunes, João; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    Available online 17 May 2016 Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fra...

  4. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  5. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in sheep’s milk cheese-making plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ibba, Michela

    2015-01-01

    The general aim of the thesis was to evaluate the pattern Listeria monocytogenes contamination in sheep’s milk industrial cheese-making plants operating in the regional territory of Sardinian (Italy). Chapter 3 describes a longitudinal study conducted in 2 cheese-making plants over one year period. The objective of the study was to identify sources, sites of persistence and route of contamination within premises. Contamination mostly occurred in salting, product washing, packaging, ric...

  6. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  7. Cheese making aptitude and the chemical and nutritional characteristics of milk from Massese ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Salari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of season, locality and the different altitudes at which farms are located, on the physico-chemical composition, morphometric characteristics of fat globules, fatty acid composition and cheese making aptitude of milk of Massese ewe’s raised in 11 flocks from two provinces of north-west Tuscany (Massa Carrara and Lucca. The winter lactation shows higher percentages of casein, lactose and not fat dry matter (P≤0.01; curd firming time (k20 is significantly lower and there is a greater curd firmness (a30 (P≤0.01; while in the summer there is a higher percentage of lipids (P≤0.01. The effect of the season significantly influences (P≤0.01 the size of the fat globules and impacted significantly on the fatty acids composition of the milk. In the hills the milk has a higher percentage of dry matter, protein, casein, fat, phosphorous and not fat dry matter (P≤0.01, whereas it has a lower percentage of lactose and calcium (P≤0.05. The Somatic Cell Count (SCC and the Total Bacterial Count (TBC are statistically greater on the plains (P≤0.01, while milk produced in the hills shows higher quantity of α-linolenic acid and lower saturated fatty acids (P≤0.05. In the two typical rearing areas for Massese ewes we found differences amongst dry matter, fat, phosphorous and SCC, higher (P≤0.01 in the province of Massa Carrara that also had the best rheological parameters, but we found the highest cheese yield (P≤0.05 in the province of Lucca where there are also the greatest weight loss (P≤0.01. The milks produced in the winter season and in hilly areas present the best physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics. However, we found that the technological side should be improved by diversifying cheese-making techniques in relation to the characteristics of milk. In fact, currently these techniques do not fully exploit the potential to transform those milks with the best qualitative

  8. Comparison of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and ELISA for Detection of Adulteration of Goat Cheeses with Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Lukas; Mlcek, Jiri; Sustova, Kvetoslava

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of two methods to detect adulteration of goat cheeses via the addition of cow's milk, with a negligible effect on the raw materials. Cheeses were produced from a mixture of goat's and cow's milk and were then analyzed by Fourier transform near-IR (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and competitive ELISA. The cheese spectra were scanned in the spectroscope in reflectance mode on an integrating sphere at 80 scans and a resolution of 4 cm(-1). The spectra were evaluated via discriminant analysis, and a calibration was created via a partial least-squares algorithm to quantify the cow's milk admixture. A correlation coefficient of R = 0.999 was reached with a standard error of calibration of 0.0407. The results were statistically processed to a median value via a t-test. Adulteration detection by the ELISA method was performed using a commercial Milk Fraud/Bovine ELISA kit. It was found that the FT-NIR spectroscopy method is capable of detecting an admixture of cow's milk in goat cheese as small as 1%. The ELISA method did not return satisfactory results for the detection of adulteration with cow's milk. PMID:26822518

  9. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  10. Ability of 3 tanniferous forage legumes to modify quality of milk and Gruyère-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M; Dohme-Meier, F; Wechsler, D; Goy, D; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2016-01-01

    Condensed tannins (CT) may affect ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. A feeding experiment was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to evaluate whether diets containing CT from different forage legumes can increase polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acid content in milk and cheese, without affecting negatively their physicochemical and sensorial properties. Cows were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n=6) for 52 d, divided into 2 periods: a control period (CoP) and an experimental period (ExP). During the CoP, cows received a basal diet composed of hay, corn silage, ExtruLin (Trinova Handel & Marketing AG, Wangen, Switzerland), concentrate, and alfalfa (AF) in a ratio of 45:25:5:7:18. In the ExP, in 3 of the 4 groups AF was replaced by either sainfoin (SF; 19% CT in dry matter) or 1 of 2 cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil [Polom (BP), 3% CT; Bull (BB), 5% CT]. At the end of each period, milk was collected on 3 consecutive days and analyzed for milk gross composition and fatty acid profile and was processed to Gruyère-type cheese. A trained panel assessed the sensory quality of raw milk and cheese using discriminative and descriptive tests. This experimental design consisting of AF in both the CoP and ExP allowed us to quantify effects due to lactation stage and experimental diets. In both the CoP and ExP, dry matter intake and milk yield did not differ among treatment groups. From the CoP to the ExP, milk urea content was reduced by 23% with SF, remained unchanged with BP, and tended to increase with AF and BB. The odor of the raw BB milk was judged to be different from AF milk. With SF, switching from the CoP to the ExP resulted in a 17% increase of the 18:3n-3 proportion in milk and cheese lipids. In BP cheese, the increase was 3%, whereas it tended to decrease in BB cheese. Additionally, the 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 proportions tended to increase in SF cheese from the CoP to the ExP. Compared with the AF cheeses, cheeses from cows

  11. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 2: tracing parameters

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    L. Pizzoferrato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific tracing parameters, also useful as quality indicators, have been utilized to evaluate if quality changes occur, due to farm, cheese production, and environmental variables, in milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO samples of commercial and experimental origin. In particular, observing the 13 cis retinol levels it is interesting to note that, even if nutritional quality is comparable for all the studied products (see also Part 1, the analyzed experimental products seem to be handled with slightly less care than commercial products.

  12. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

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    ANDRA SULER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  13. Concerns about the microbiological quality of traditional raw milk cheeses : a worldwide issue

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Tirloni; Simone Stella; Cristian Bernardi

    2014-01-01

    Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella) and “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata) were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC) (P=0.002) and Enterobacteriaceae counts (P 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, resp...

  14. Microwave hydrolysis for the rapid analysis of furosine in foods [pasta - middlings - milk - soft cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microwave procedure for the rapid preparation of hydrolysates for furosine determination has been developed. Hydrolysis was performed in liquid-phase with 8N HCl in sealed vessels using a microwave oven. The amounts of furosine in pasta, milk and cheese samples, determined by HPLC after applying different microwave hydrolysis programmes, were compared with those obtained using traditional hydrolysis (time: 23 h; temperature: 110 deg C; HCl concentration: 8N). The microwave programme characterised by three irradation stages (1st = 50 deg C, 2 min; 2nd = 100 deg C, 5 min; 3rd = 155 deg C, 10 min) gave the best correlation with traditional hydrolysis (r = 0.999, P

  15. TITLE OF MANUSCRIPT IMPORTANT GROUPS OF MICROORGANISMS IN RAW GOAT MILK AND FRESH GOAT CHEESES DETERMINED DURING LACTATION

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    Libor Kalhotka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The total counts of microorganisms, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, enterococci and many others are ranked among the important groups of microorganisms affecting the quality of milk and cheese. In the samples of raw goat milk (farms breeding I and II collected within 24 h (morning milking - a, afternoon milking - b and fresh goat cheese, these groups of microorganisms were determined by standard methods: the total counts of microorganisms (TCM, lactic acid bacteria, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms and enterococci. In cheeses, there was also carried out the determination of yeasts and moulds. After the cultivation, colonies from Petri dishes were counted and the result was expressed in CFU/ml, g. Samples of raw goat milk (except farm II 27.3. corresponded the requirement of a given legislative act. However, it contained a higher number of coliform and psychrotrophic microorganisms than the stated recommendations. Microbiological analysis showed relatively high numbers of adverse coliform bacteria (up to 1.2 x 107 CFU/g in all cheeses. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were relatively high as well, they moved between of 103 – 108 CFU/g.

  16. The quality influence of goat milk and technology of production on the characteristic of the goat milk cheese of the Camembert type

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Vranješ Anka; Jovanović S.; Savić Mila; Krajinović M.; Kasalica Anka; Miočinović Dragica; Kecman Jelena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to provide high quality goat milk production of a goat cheese of Camembert type. The results of the work are showing us that in row milk, the total number of bacteria was in a range from 4x103 to 20x103/mL, and the number of somatic cells is from 230x103 to 390x103/mL. Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not found. Milk did not contain antibiotic residues, mycotoxins, pesticides, hard metals or radionucleoides. From the hygienic view, the milk...

  17. The influence of somatic cell count on sheep milk composition and cheese-making properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC is an important tool for monitoring intramammary infections in dairy cows. However, systematic generalization of this decision rule is not easy in small ruminants. Determination of SCC in sheep milk is important for the processors of milk (indicator of quality, for breeders (mastitis indicator and could be useful for selection as well. SCC value can be affected by some non-infective factors such as breed, stage of lactation, parity, type of lambing, type of milking, etc. (Bergonier et al., 1994, as well the health status of the udder (Fruganti et al., 1985; Ranucci et al., 1988. In addition, EC Directive 92/46, which regulates the production and commercialisation of milk and dairy products, imposes strict limits on SCC from dairy cattle but it does not dispel the uncertainty over recommended SCC levels in small ruminants.With the aim of knowing more about somatic cells count and their effects on milk quality and cheese-making properties an experimental trial was carried out.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOCHTHONUS LACTIC FLORA OF A CAMPANIAN CHILLI CHEESE PRODUCED FROM RAW SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mormile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural lactic flora of the artisanal chilli “Tramonti” cheese, a typical product manufactured in the “Lattari mountains”, area of Salerno province (Italy, was investigated. Particular attention was paid to the growth dynamics assessment and to the molecular identification of the indigenous lactic acid bacteria involved in the ripening of this cheese made with raw sheep milk without starter cultures. One batch was monitored taking 4 sample on 0, 30, 50 and 105 ripening days. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were enumerated and randomly isolated on MRS and LM17 agar (32ºC x 48h -mesophilic flora- and 42°C x 48h -thermophilic flora, respectively. N. 66 presumptive lactic acid bacteria isolates, gram positive and catalase negative, were genotipically identified by Ribotyping. Mesophilic Lactobacillus remained at levels of 107 cfu/g during whole maturation time and thermophilic Lactobacillus, from initial values of 105 cfu/g, reached concentratios of 106 cfu/g at the end of maturation. Mesophilic and thermophilic Lactococcus showed, on average, levels of 106 since the beginning of the ripening. Ribotyping allowed to detect 4 lactic acid bacteria species: Enterococcus faecium (65,15%, Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris (24,24%, Enterococcus faecalis (6,06% and Enterococcus durans (4,54%, showing the diversity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria of chilli “Tramonti” cheese.

  19. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry. PMID:27283677

  20. Extruded soybean and flaxseed enhance fat composition of milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formigoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded full-fat soybean and flaxseed dietary supplementation, at the level authorized by Consorzio of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese(CPRC feeding guidelines (1.0 and 0.4 kg/cow/day, on milk production and fatty acid composition. Diet was typically based on alfalfa and mixed hays and cereals. Compared with the concentrations before trial start, CLA and DHA were significantly increased by dietary treatment. These results confirm that the inclusion of extruded full-fat soybean and flaxseed, in the amount authorized by CPRC rules, in the diet of dairy cows is a possible strategy to enhance milk fat composition.

  1. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min of warming at lower temperature (40 °C without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.

  2. Competitive advantage of bacteriocinogenic strains within lactic acid bacteria consortium of raw milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gene determinants for different bacteriocins has been already demonstrated in traditional Slovenian types of raw milk cheeses ‘Tolminc’ and ‘Kraški’. These genes were present also in the cultivable microbiota. In this research the aim was to establish how the presence of gene determinants for bacteriocins in microbial consortia is reflected in its antimicrobial activity. In addition, one of the goals was to determine whether the strains that carry gene determinants for bacteriocins have any competitive growth advantage in microbial population. Microbial consortium of ‘Tolminc’ cheese was propagated in milk and examined at the end of propagation its antimicrobial activity and the presence of gene determinants for bacteriocins. Comparison of the results obtained before and after propagation leaded to the conclusion that most of the strains possessing gene determinants for bacteriocins were unable to persist during propagation. The strains which did persist during propagation carried gene determinants for enterocins P, L50B and cytolysin. Antimicrobial activity of consortium before and after propagation was not substantially different and cannot be attributed to any of detected bacteriocins.

  3. Lantibiotics biosynthesis genes and bacteriocinogenic activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from raw milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Silva, Abelardo; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2012-05-01

    Lactobacillus species are usually used as starters for the production of fermented products, and some strains are capable of producing antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocins. Because these characteristics are highly desirable, research are continually being performed for novel Lactobacillus strains with bacteriocinogenic potential for use by food industries. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacteriocinogenic potential and activity of Lactobacillus isolates. From a lactic acid bacteria culture collection obtained from raw milk and cheese, 27 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus spp. and selected for the detection of lantibiotics biosynthesis genes, bacteriocin production, antimicrobial spectra, and ideal incubation conditions for bacteriocin production. Based on the obtained results, 21 isolates presented at least one of the three lantibiotics biosynthesis genes (lanB, lanC or lamM), and 23 isolates also produced antimicrobial substances with sensitivity to at least one proteinase, indicating their bacteriocinogenic activity. In general, the isolates had broad inhibitory activity, mainly against Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus spp. strains, and the best antimicrobial performance of the isolates occurred when they were cultivated at 25 °C for 24 or 48 h or at 35 °C for 12 h. The present study identified the bacteriocinogenic potential of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from raw milk and cheese, suggesting their potential use as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22447149

  4. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of traditional ewe’s milk cheese from Mariovo region

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    Vesna Levkov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional beaten cheese was manufactured in two different farms located in Mariovo region (southern Macedonia during the summer period using raw ewe’s milk. High counts of all microbial groups were found in ewe’s milk (aerobic mesophilic bacteria 5.22x106-1.25x107 CFU•mL-1, presumptive lactococci 3.30x106-1.34x107 CFU•mL-1, presumptive lactobacilli 1.93x106-2.63x106 CFU•mL-1, coliform bacteria 2.35x105-6.30x105 CFU•mL-1 and yeasts 1.24x104-2.40x104 CFU•mL-1. The lactic acid bacteria prevailed during manufacturing and ripening of the ewe’s cheese. All investigated groups reached their maximum value during the dry ripening period and then gradually decline during salting and brining. A total of 240 isolates were taken from all stages of manufacturing and ripening. The prevailing species were Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (35 %, Pediococcus sp. (16.7 %, Leuconostoc sp. (1 %, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (22.5 %, L. plantarum (15.8 % and L. brevis (9.17 %. After 45 days of ripening the content of NaCl (6.1±0.8 % and 6.6±0.1 % and salt to moisture (S/M ratio (15.6±1.4 % and 17.3±0.3 % in both cheeses was very high. The values of pH were 5.13-5.22. The main factors influencing the microbiological counts were NaCl and S/M content, and a strong correlation (p<0.05 was noticed between these two factors and the counts of the investigated microbial groups.

  5. The quality influence of goat milk and technology of production on the characteristic of the goat milk cheese of the Camembert type

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    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to provide high quality goat milk production of a goat cheese of Camembert type. The results of the work are showing us that in row milk, the total number of bacteria was in a range from 4x103 to 20x103/mL, and the number of somatic cells is from 230x103 to 390x103/mL. Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not found. Milk did not contain antibiotic residues, mycotoxins, pesticides, hard metals or radionucleoides. From the hygienic view, the milk was healthy and safe. Milk from German does i.e. the race of the studied goat had 3.2 ± 0.10% of fat and a mild taste and smell. The part of the middlechain fatty acids (C6-C12 was 15.31% and capric acid was 6.29%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were 26.69% and linolic-acid 3.1%. According to protein content, as well as other indicators of the contents and physical-chemical characteristics, the milk was technologically suitable for cheese production. The selection of the cultures MM100 and TA052, as well as the mold Geotrichum condidum and Penicillium camemberti and the tehnologyc process with the HACCP system implemented, enabled the production of a healthy and safe cheese with the well known characteristics.

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk utilized in small-scale artisan cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'amico, Dennis J; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2011-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of bacterial mastitis in milking animals and of foodborne intoxication in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and phenotypic diversity, enterotoxigenicity, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from raw milk used for the production of artisan cheese in Vermont. Cross-tabulations revealed that the 16 ribotypes identified among the 90 milk isolates examined were typically associated with a specific animal species and that more than half of these ribotypes were unique to individual farms. In general, specific EcoRI ribotypes were commonly associated with specific phenotypical characteristics, including staphylococcal enterotoxin production or the lack thereof. Limited antimicrobial resistance was observed among the isolates, with resistance to ampicillin (12.51%) or penicillin (17.04%) most common. Two isolates of the same ribotype obtained from the same farm were resistant to oxacillin with 2% NaCl. More than half (52.22%) of isolates produced toxin, and 31 of the 32 isolates solely produced staphylococcal enterotoxin type C. Although these data demonstrate that S. aureus strains found in raw milk intended for artisan cheese manufacture are capable of enterotoxin production, staphylococcal enterotoxin C is not typically linked to foodborne illness. Because S. aureus is a common contaminant of cheese, an understanding of the ecology of this pathogen and of the antimicrobial susceptibility and toxigenicity of various strains will ultimately contribute to the development of control practices needed to enhance the safety of artisan and farmstead cheese production. PMID:21819666

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain AY01, Isolated from the Raw Material of Fermented Goat Milk Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ran; Gong, Fu-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Luo, Yi-Yong; Liu, Chen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic that is isolated mostly from fermented foods. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of L. plantarum strain AY01, isolated from the raw material of fermented goat milk cheese. This bacterium, with optimum growth at 30°C, has a G+C content of 43.68%. PMID:24115537

  8. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese. PMID:27407294

  9. Lecevacki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Matutinović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have significant potential due to the fact that high value raw material - sheep milk produced from breed with very extensively management using natural pasture with characteristic botanical composition consisting aromatic Mediteranean plants, is used in their production. This milk is characterized with high percentage of some chemical components, especially fat and protein. Considering that fact, this milk represents the best material especially for hard cheese production. In this paper the review of milk chemical composition of the most important Croatian sheep breeds which milk is used for production of hard cheeses, was performed. The review of basic technological parameters in production of hard traditional cheeses considering type, standardization and heat treatment of milk, renneting, curd cutting and drying, dimension, salting and ripening is represented. Characterization parameters of cheese, considering chemical and physical composition, biochemical changes, dominant microflora which dominates in technological production procedure and determines taste and odour of mature cheese, are shown. The basic characteristics and technology of Lecevacki cheese production was described too, as the most important traditional cheese from Split area surroundings. This cheese type was produced on family farms as well as on industrial level for some time. Its sensory characteristics are described in the paper.

  10. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk...

  11. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; d'Angelo, F; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding flaxseed to the diet on the fatty acid profile of the milk of Italian Simmental cows and on the Cacioricotta cheese thereby produced. The experiment involved 24 Italian Simmental cows divided into 2 groups of 12 animals according to the diet fed: a control diet (CO) with no flaxseed supplementation, and a diet supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS). Milk yield and composition was not significantly changed by diet, whereas saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased by flaxseed supplementation. Cows fed flaxseed showed higher percentages of long-chain fatty acids: in particular, linolenic acids, mainly represented by C18:3n-3, and n-3 series were higher in the FS group than in the CO group. The percentage of MUFA was higher by about 12% in FS than in CO, mainly due to the contribution of C18:1 cis-9. The percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk was not significantly changed by flaxseed supplementation. Furthermore, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices were lower by about 30 and 16%, respectively, in the FS group compared with the CO group. The fatty acid profile of Cacioricotta cheese produced using Italian Simmental cow milk showed higher levels of MUFA, PUFA, and n-3, and improved atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in FS than in CO, confirming the ability to transfer beneficial molecules from milk into cheese. In particular, cheese-making technology contributed to the increased CLA content in Cacioricotta cheese. PMID:26851850

  12. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals. PMID:21669068

  13. Comparison between two hay based diets in buffalo nutrition: microbiological characteristics of milk, curd and mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Cuscunà

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of twenty milking Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed two diets, with the same energy and protein content, based on Italian ryegrass hay (diet G1 and Italian ryegrass hay silage (diet G2. Presumptive lactobacilli and lactococci were determined on milk, curd and mozzarella cheese, collected at 30, 60, 90 days from the beginning of the trial. Milk and mozzarella cheese at 30, 60, 90 days showed significantly higher microbial counts in diet G2 with respect to diet G1, apart from lactococci in milk at 90 days. For curd at 30, 60, 90 days the numbers of lactobacilli and lactococci in diet G1 were significantly higher with respect to diet G2, apart from lactococci at 30 days. Genetic analysis by 16S rDNA characterization of colonies, randomly isolated, showed in diet G2 also the presence of not lactic species. Probably Italian ryegrass hay silage, present in diet G2, could bring bacteria in the environment and consequently in the milk that are detrimental for the proper growing of lactic microflora in the curd and that are resistant to the high temperature used in the mozzarella cheese making process.

  14. Effect of dietary inclusion of lampante olive oil on milk and cheese fatty acid profiles of ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.; R. Lira; Peña, I.; A. Valenzuela; Cerda, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation of lampant olive oil on the fatty aid profiles of the milk and cheese of ewes. Nine lactating ewes were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were supplemented with 0 (control; T0), 36 (T1) and 88 (T2) g of lampante olive oil/kg of dry matter intake (DM). DM, milk yield and milk composition (fat and protein) were not affected by dietary treatments. Oleic and vaccenic acids gradually incr...

  15. The potential of the endolysin Lysdb from Lactobacillus delbrueckii phage for combating Staphylococcus aureus during cheese manufacture from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Xin, YongPing; Zhang, Chenchen; Ouyang, Xudong; Kong, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Phage endolysins have received increased attention in recent times as potential antibacterial agents and the biopreservatives in food production processes. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens in bacterial food poisoning outbreaks. In this study, the endolysin Lysdb, one of the two-component cell lysis cassette of Lactobacillus delbrueckii phage phiLdb, was shown to possess a muramidase domain and catalytic sites with homology to Chalaropsis-type lysozymes. Peptidoglycan hydrolytic bond specificity determination revealed that Lysdb was able to cleave the 6-O-acetylated peptidoglycans present in the cell walls of S. aureus. Turbidity reduction assays demonstrated that Lysdb could effectively lyse the S. aureus live cells under acidic and mesothermal conditions. To further evaluate the ability of Lysdb as a potential antibacterial agent against S. aureus in cheese manufacture, Lactobacillus casei BL23 was engineered to constitutively deliver active Lysdb to challenge S. aureus in lab-scale cheese making from raw milk. Compared with the raw milk, the viable counts of S. aureus were reduced by 10(5)-fold in the cheese inoculated with the engineered L. casei strain during the fermentation process, and the pathogenic bacterial numbers remained at a low level (10(4) CFU/g) after 6 weeks of ripening at 10 °C. Taken together, all results indicated that the Lysdb has the function as an effective tool for combating S. aureus during cheese manufacture from raw milk. PMID:26621799

  16. Lecevacki cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Siniša Matutinović; Ante Rako; Samir Kalit; Jasmina Havranek

    2007-01-01

    In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price) of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have ...

  17. Behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and ripening of an Italian traditional raw goat milk cheese

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    Elena Cosciani-Cunico

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Formagelle di capra is a raw goat cheese produced from whole chilled goat milk; traditional technology involving unpasteurised milk and indigenous lactic starter cultures is employed for its production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacturing and ripening of this raw goat milk cheese. Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory scale plant and the count was monitored during production and 30 days of ripening required for this cheese. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 count increased to more than 1.5 Log cfu g–1 during cheese production and remained constant until the end of ripening. The evidence that E. coli O157:H7 is able to survive during the manufacturing and ripening process suggests that the 30-day ripening period alone is insufficient to eliminate levels of viable E. coli O157:H7 in Formaggelle di capra cheese and that the presence of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in milk destined for the production of raw goat milk cheeses could represent a potential source of infection for humans and a threat for consumers.

  18. Irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Lee, S.G.; Han, G.S.; Chae, H.S.; Yoo, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [Animal Food Processing Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.K. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. {alpha}{sub S1}-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed {alpha}{sub S1}-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than {alpha}{sub S0}-casein. Similarly, {alpha}{sub S1}-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of {beta}{sub A1}-casein was also found. {beta}{sub A1}-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of {beta}{sub A1}- to {beta}{sub A2}-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, {alpha}{sub S0}-, {beta}{sub B}-, and {beta}{sub A3}-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that {alpha}{sub S1}-casein and {beta}{sub A1}-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation.

  19. Irradiation effect on α- and β-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on α- and β-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. αS1-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of αS1- to αS0-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed αS1-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than αS0-casein. Similarly, αS1-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of αS1- to αS0-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of βA1-casein was also found. βA1-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of βA1- to βA2-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, αS0-, βB-, and βA3-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that αS1-casein and βA1-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation

  20. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds. PMID:19435227

  1. Proving the adulteration of ewe and goat cheeses with cow milk using the reference method of isoelectric focusing of γ-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a reference method for the detection of cow milk in ewe and goat cheeses (EC 273/08 in order to protect manufacturers and consumers from adulterations and imitations, and to ensure alignment with the demands of domestic and EU markets. The method includes isolation of casein from cheese, isoelectric focusing of γ2- and γ3-casein originating from the hydrolysis of β-casein by plasmin, the detection and quantitative determination of γ-casein in cow, ewe and goat cheese by densitometry. Ewe or goat cheese products with a minimum of 1 % of cow milk are considered to be adulterated. For the quantitative determination of cow, ewe and goat milk in cheeses, standard mixtures of cow-ewe and cow-goat milk were made by adding 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 25; 50; 75 and 100 % (v/v of cow milk. The quantification was performed by determining the peak area ratio of cow γ-casein in comparison to ewe/goat casein in prepared standard cheeses. The calibration curves were calculated based on the relation of the peak area ratio of cow γ-caseins (calculated as the percentage of total γ-caseins in contrast to the relative content (% of cow milk in the mixture. The method proved to be adequate for the detection of raw and heat-treated cow milk in fresh and ripened cheeses made from ewe or goat milk, or a mixture of ewe and goat milk.

  2. PEMANFAATAN MILK CLOTTING ENZYME DARI Lactobacillus casei D11 UNTUK PEMBUATAN KEJU MOZZARELLA [Utilization of Milk Clotting Enzyme from Lactobacillus casei D11 for Mozzarella Cheese Making

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    Rohmatussolihat -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk Clotting Enzyme (MCE is an active agent for cheese making which may be produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB. MCE activity differs according to the LAB strains used. Lactobacillus casei D11 could produced MCE when it is grown in MRS broth medium. In this study, MCE of L. casei D11 with the addition of rennet is used and optimized for the production of mozzarella cheese using Response Surface Method (RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD. The organoleptic properties were determined by hedonics test involving 30 respondents and analyzed statistically which was followed by a Duncan's test. Furthermore, a proximate analysis of mozzarella cheese was conducted. Our results show that the MCE activity produced by L. casei D11 was 8.471 Soxhlet Unit with protease activity of 3.28 U/mL. The ANOVA results showed that the concentration of MCE significantly influence the production of curd. Theoptimum concentration of MCE and rennet for the production of curd suited for the production of mozzarella cheese were 20 and 0.002%, respectively, with a maximum predicted curd yield of 14.996% (g/100 mL milk which is increased by 13.9% as compared to the curd yield before optimization. The statistical analysis on taste, color, flavor, and cheese texture by respondents shows that mozzarella cheese made by a combination of 15% of MCE and 0.00079 and 0.0015% of rennet, were organoleptically superior to the commercial mozzarella used in this experiment. The proximate analysis shows that mozzarella produced has a moisture content of 33.34%(w/w, 3.48% ash, 30.44% fat, 25.12% protein, 7.53% carbohydrate and energy of 404 kkal/100g.

  3. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality. PMID:27289193

  4. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  5. High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600 MPa for 7 min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600 MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600 MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses. PMID:23729423

  6. Krcki cheese

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    Zvonimir Prpić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production, the quality of whey (as the material for production of albumin cheese quargs and Krčki cheese, as well as the technology of Krčki cheese production on family farms on the island of Krk. Results of the composition and characteristics analyses of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production were as follows: milk fat 7.81%; proteins 5.59%; lactose 4.97%; total solids 19.04%; non-fat dry matter 11.06%; pH 6.66; titratable acidity 9.41 °SH, and freezing point –0.555 °C. Somatic cell count (SCC was 407 000 cells/ml and total bacterial count (cfu was 950 000/mL. Average composition of Krčki cheese was as follows: fat 37.38%; protein 23.24%; total solids 63.22%; moisture in solid non-fat 57.36%; fat in total solids 54.38%; salt 1.97%; pH 5.78; lactic acid content 1.216%; WSN/TN 10.15%, and TCASN/TN 6.28%. Microbiological analyses of Krčki cheese showed that only 55% of analysed samples were hygienically acceptable according to the Regulations of Microbial Standards for Foods (NN 46/94.. Therefore, the necessary modifications have to be introduced into technology of production of sheep′s milk and Krčki cheese in order to increase microbiological quality and to reduce variability in composition and quality of Krčki cheese between family farms. These are necessary for preparing the Krčki cheese for Protection Geographical Indication (PGI.

  7. Composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of Mozzarella cheese manufactured from different somatic cell counts in milk

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    Evelise Andreatta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of Mozzarella cheese produced from milk with somatic cell counts (SCC at low (800,000 cells/mL levels were investigated. Three batches of cheese were produced for each SCC category. The cheeses were vacuum packed in plastic bags and analysed after 2, 9, 16, 23 and 30 days of storage at 4ºC. SCC level did not affect the moisture, fat, total protein and ash content, mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, and sensory parameters of Mozzarella cheese. However, meltability increased in cheese manufactured from high SCC milk. Results indicated that raw milk used to produce Mozzarella cheese should not contain high SCC (>800,000 cells/mL in order to avoid changes in the functional properties of the Mozzarella cheese.No presente estudo foram investigadas a composição, as propriedades funcionais e as características sensoriais do queijo Mussarela produzido a partir de leite com contagens de células somáticas (CCS em níveis baixos (800.000 CS/mL. Foram produzidos 3 lotes de queijo para cada CCS. Os queijos foram embalados a vácuo e analisados após 2, 9, 16, 23 e 30 dias de armazenamento a 4ºC. O nível de CS não afetou a umidade, os teores de gordura, proteína total e cinzas, os níveis de bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas, e os parâmetros sensoriais do queijo Mussarela. Entretanto, houve aumento da capacidade de derretimento no queijo fabricado com leite de alta CCS. Os resultados indicam que o leite cru utilizado para a produção de queijo Mussarela não deve conter níveis de CS acima de 800.000/mL, para evitar alterações nas propriedades funcionais do queijo Mussarela.

  8. Incorporating mixed rations and formulated grain mixes into the diet of grazing cows: Effects on milk composition and coagulation properties, and the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Williams, R P W; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2016-06-01

    Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the composition and coagulation properties of milk and the subsequent yield and quality of Cheddar cheese were measured. The experiment used milk from 72 Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, fed according to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture [approximately 14kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, to ground level] supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock (FGM); or (3) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a partial mixed ration comprising the same formulated grain mix but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking (PMR). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio (78:22, DM basis). Within each feeding strategy, milk was sampled from cows receiving either 8 or 16kg (DM) of supplement/cow per day. There were 2 replicated groups of 6 cows per supplement amount per dietary strategy; approximately 250L of milk was sampled from each for analyses of composition and coagulation properties and the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. For cows fed according to the control strategy, those fed 16kg/cow per day produced milk with lower concentrations of milk fat than cows fed 8kg/cow per day. This effect was not observed for cows fed according to the FGM and PMR strategies. Milk from cows fed 16kg of DM/cow per day according to the control strategy yielded less Cheddar cheese than milk from cows fed according to the PMR strategy, with cheese yields from FGM cows being intermediate. Amount of supplement offered had

  9. Seasonal Variations Affect the Physicochemical Composition of Bufallo Milk and Artisanal Cheeses Produced in Marajó Island (Pa, Brazil

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    M.G., Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation in physicochemical composition and microbiological profile of buffalo milk and of the artisanal cream and butter types cheeses produced on Marajó Island. Eighteen farms located of the island were involved in the study. Milk and cheese quality were evaluated in two typical seasons. The rainy, from January to June and dry, from July to December. Samples were submitted to a detailed set of laboratorial analyses. Physicochemical composition of buffalo milk was influenced by the seasons. Compared to rainy, the dry period showed an increase in fat (5.53±0.71 to 6.74±1.19 and lactose (4.77±0.20 to 5.20±0.20 concentrations and reduction in total solids (16.89±0.92 to 15.77±1.54, nonfat dry matter (9.94±0.36 to 8.99±1.23 and minerals (0.84±0.12 to 0.62±0.09 concentrations (p<0.05. The season influence was observed in physicochemical composition of both cheese-types. Compared to rainy season, in the cream cheese type, higher values (p<0.05 were found for titratable acidity (0.63±0.02 to 0.78±0.15, fat (32.38±3.22 to 36.89±4.59, fat in the dry matter (55.06±3.26 to 63.92±2.49 but lower values for water activity (0.99±0.02 to 0.49±0.03, minerals (2.37±0.55 to 1.40±0.02 and calcium (0.28±0.08 to 0.18±0.07. For the butter cheese type, in the dry season, higher values were found only for titratable acidity (0.49±0.02 to 0.38±0.0 and lower values for water activity (0.18±0.07 to 0.45±0.08. The study have shown that some components of the buffalo milk and artisanal cheeses produced on Marajó Island are influenced by the dry and rainy typical seasons and therefore, some sensory variations are expected around the year.

  10. Microbiological and physico-chemical changes during manufacture of an Italian goat cheese made from raw milk

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    Elena Dalzini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the microbiological and physico-chemical changes throughout three cheesemaking replicates of Italian Formaggelle di capra cheese made from raw goat milk. Therefore, during the process, three samples of milk, curd and cheese at 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 30 days of ripening old cheese were taken from three cheesemaking replicates. The average of total mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae count in raw milk was 5.27±0.57 and 3.8±1.02 Log cfu/mL, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria was the predominant bacterial group during the process, and they developed in different ways in each of the media used (M17 and MRS agar. Variability of microbial concentrations was observed between three cheesemaking replicates. A correlation between the presence of higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae in milk and the presence of other contaminants bacteria such as Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase-positive and coagulase-positive staphylococci was observed. In cheesemaking replicate n. 2, E. coli level was 5.07±0.03 Log cfu/mL and increased by about 1 log until the last week of ripening, when the level decreased to 5.69±0.2 Log cfu/mL. The milk used for the cheesemaking replicate n. 2 was found to be contaminated also by coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.18±0.06 Log cfu/mL, but the behaviour of this group appeared to be very variable. In this study a first step of process control and microbial groups study was performed and the cheesemaking process was registered in the website www.ars-alimentaria.it, the Italian site supported by the Italian Board of Health.

  11. Terpenes and fatty acid profiles of milk fat and "Bitto" cheese as affected by transhumance of cows on different mountain pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni, Ivano De; Battelli, Giovanna

    2008-07-15

    The evolution of fatty acid (FA) and terpenoid profiles was studied in milk (n=20) and "Bitto" (n=3), a protected designation of origin cheese produced in a restricted Italian alpine area. Milk came from 25 Italian Brown cows successively grazing pastures at 1400, 2100 and 2200m during transhumance in June-September 2006. The fat matter was analyzed for FAs and terpenes by means of gas chromatography and purge & trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. FA composition of milk fat varied significantly (p<0.0001) in relation to contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), stearic, linoleic and trans-vaccenic acids. Similar monoterpene profiles characterized milk fat from cows grazing the different pastures and the highest amount of terpenes was measured in milk coming from cows grazing at 1400m. High levels of δ3-carene in milk fat were likely related to the important presence of Ligusticum mutellina in the pasture. Only negligible amounts of sesquiterpenes were detected in milk fat whereas they were the most abundant class in fodder. Both FA and terpene profiles of ripened (70 days) cheeses resembled those of the original milks. Overall, results confirm the influence of the botanical composition of mountain pastures both in enhancing the ruminal synthesis of CLA and in modifying the FA and terpenoid profiles of milk and "Bitto" cheese. Nevertheless, neither the FA nor the terpenoid profiles revealed here can be considered as "unique" to "Bitto" cheese and, for this reason, they can hardly be assumed to be biomarkers for defining a specific relationship among grazing area, milk and "Bitto" cheese. They better represent the chemical fingerprint of the cow feeding, adopted in mountain areas. PMID:26003351

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Lactococcus lactis isolates from Batzos, a Greek PDO raw goat milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoni, L; Kotzamanidis, C; Yiangou, M; Tzanetakis, N; Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, E

    2007-03-10

    The genotypic and phenotypic variability of 40 Lactococcus lactis isolates obtained from three cheese-making trials of Batzos cheese made one in each, winter, spring and summer was investigated. RAPD-PCR, plasmid profiling and PFGE were used to study the genetic variability and distinguish closely related isolates. Results showed a high degree of heterogeneity among strains. According to PFGE data, all strains except one were clustered together (at a similarity level of approximately 50%) with the L. lactis subsp. lactis reference strain and eleven groups of isolates consisting of 2-8 strains each were distinguished. Plasmid profiling results revealed that there were eight isolates lacking plasmids and nine having unique plasmids. Twenty-three isolates were allocated into six groups. There was an interesting similarity between the plasmid profiling groups and those formed according to PFGE. Clustering of strains according to RAPD-PCR was in agreement with results obtained by both plasmid profiling and PFGE for the majority of the strains. In addition, results obtained by molecular methods indicate a grouping of most of the strains according to the season of cheese production. All strains inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Their ability to affect the growth of Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis was strain dependent. In 42.5% of the isolates high acidifying ability in milk after 24 h was recorded and these were isolates, mainly, from fresh cheese. The 75% of the isolates from winter cheese exhibited higher Lys- than Leu-aminopeptidase activity while the approximately 67% of the isolates from summer cheese showed higher Leu- than Lys-aminopeptidase activity. Their caseinolytic activity after growth in milk for 24 h was significant with preference for alpha(s)-casein degradation. The majority (90%) of the strains formed methanethiol from methionine and this ability was strain

  13. Potato Patatin Generates Short-Chain Fatty Acids from Milk Fat that Contribute to Flavour Development in Cheese Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Robin E J; Lensing, Hellen; Egmond, Maarten R; Giuseppin, Marco L F

    2015-05-01

    The potato lipase, patatin, has long been thought of as essentially inactive towards triacylglycerols. Recently, technology has been developed to isolate potato proteins in native form as food ingredients at industrial scale. Characterisation of native patatin obtained in this way revealed that this enzyme activity towards triacylglycerols has been underestimated. This enables the application of patatin in cheese ripening, which is described in this study. When patatin is added to milk during cheese making, the lipase preferentially releases short-chain fatty acids that contribute to cheese flavour in a dose-dependent manner. Fortuitously, the lipase activity is found mainly in the curd. The release of the short-chain fatty acids matches the activity profile of patatin towards homotriacylglycerols of defined chain length. Residual patatin in the whey fraction can be inactivated effectively by heat treatment that follows Arrhenius kinetics. The results are discussed in terms of cheese making, patatin substrate preference and implications for the use of patatin more generally in food emulsions. PMID:25809992

  14. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

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    Alisson Borges Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  15. IMPROVING OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEOLYTIC PROFILE OF KASHKAVAL CHEESE BY MODIFICATION IN HEAT TREATMENTS OF COW'S MILK AND CHEDDARED CURD

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    Dimitar Dimitrov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples kashkaval cheese were made by the microwave processing of cow's milk in thermisation mode (62 - 67 °C and direct microwave treatment of cheddared curd with subsequent dry salting. Control cheese samples were produced by the conventional approach with classical thermisation (62 - 67 °C of cow's milk and classic hot brining in brine solution (72-74 °C, 14%NaCl. Samples were placed in ripening conditions (8 - 10 °C. The changes of microbiological and proteolytic profile on the 5th, 15th, 30th and 45th day of ripening were studied. Higher survival levels of the starter culture responsible for ripening were established in kashkaval cheese produced by microwave treatment in comparison with classical cheese. It was found that the higher cell concentration of the starter culture leads to active and accelerate process of proteolysis with production of free amino acids in concentrations significantly exceeding the obtained in the classical cheese: 490,10±2,10 mg100g-1(microwave kashkaval cheese versus 216,50±2,00 mg100g-1 (classical kashkaval cheese.

  16. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended. PMID:26111266

  17. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae/Staphylococcaceae isolates from artisanal raw milk cheeses, and potential implications on cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-Otero, C; Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility against 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated in isolates of the genera Lactococcus (46 isolates), Leuconostoc (22), Lactobacillus (19), Staphylococcus (8), Enterococcus (7), and Microccoccus/Kocuria (5) obtained from the predominant microflora of nonrecent and recent types of artisanal raw cow's milk cheeses. Beta-lactams showed broad activity against all genera, although leuconostocs and lactobacilli were highly resistant to oxacillin (80% to 95.5%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was frequent for lactococci and enterococci (particularly for streptomycin), whereas lower rates of resistance were detected for lactobacilli and leuconostocs. Technologically interesting traits for the food industry were distributed among isolates that showed different degrees of resistance to common antibiotics. However, isolates showing resistance to less than 2 antibiotics were mainly those with properties of greatest technological interest (acidifying activity, proteolytic/lipolytic activities, or diacetyl production). PMID:19723213

  18. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

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    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  19. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

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    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  20. New developments in the study of the microbiota of raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses by molecular methods: the case of Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano

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    Erasmo Neviani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are an essential component of cheeses and play important roles during both cheese manufacture and ripening. Both starter and secondary flora modify the physical and chemical properties of cheese, contributing and reacting to changes that occur during the manufacture and ripening of cheese. As the composition of microbial population changes under the influence of continuous shifts in environmental conditions and microorganisms interactions during manufacturing and ripening, the characteristics of a given cheese depend also on microflora dynamics. The microbiota present in cheese is complex and its growth and activity represent the most important, but the least controllable steps. In the past, research in this area was dependent on classical microbiological techniques. However, culture-dependent methods are time-consuming and approaches that include a culturing step can lead to inaccuracies due to species present in low numbers or simply cultivable. Therefore, they cannot be used as a unique tool to monitor community dynamics. For these reasons approaches to cheese microbiology had to change dramatically. To address this, in recent years the focus on the use of culture-independent methods based on the direct analysis of DNA (or RNA has rapidly increased. Application of such techniques to the study of cheese microbiology, represents a rapid, sound, reliable and effective way for the detection and identification of the microorganisms present in dairy products, leading to major advances in understanding this complex microbial ecosystem and its impact on cheese ripening and quality. In these chapter, an overview on the recent advances in the use of molecular methods for thorough analysis of microbial communities in cheeses is given. Furthermore, applications of culture-independent approaches to study the microbiology of two important raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses such as Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano, are presented.

  1. IMPROVING OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEOLYTIC PROFILE OF KASHKAVAL CHEESE BY MODIFICATION IN HEAT TREATMENTS OF COW'S MILK AND CHEDDARED CURD

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitar Dimitrov; Zhelyazko Simov; Zhechko Dimitrov; Assan Ospanov

    2015-01-01

    Model samples kashkaval cheese were made by the microwave processing of cow's milk in thermisation mode (62 - 67 °C) and direct microwave treatment of cheddared curd with subsequent dry salting. Control cheese samples were produced by the conventional approach with classical thermisation (62 - 67 °C) of cow's milk and classic hot brining in brine solution (72-74 °C, 14%NaCl). Samples were placed in ripening conditions (8 - 10 °C). The changes of microbiological and proteolytic profile on the ...

  2. Tolerability of a fully maturated cheese in cow's milk allergic children: biochemical, immunochemical, and clinical aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From patients' reports and our preliminary observations, a fully maturated cheese (Parmigiano-Reggiano; PR seems to be well tolerated by a subset of cow's milk (CM allergic patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To biochemically and immunologically characterize PR samples at different maturation stage and to verify PR tolerability in CM allergic children. Seventy patients, with suspected CM allergy, were enrolled. IgE to CM, α-lactalbumin (ALA, β-lactoglobulin (BLG and caseins (CAS were tested using ImmunoCAP, ISAC103 and skin prick test. Patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with CM, and an open food challenge with 36 months-maturated PR. Extracts obtained from PR samples were biochemically analyzed in order to determine protein and peptide contents. Pepsin and trypsin-chymotrypsin-pepsin simulated digestions were applied to PR extracts. Each PR extract was investigated by IgE Single Point Highest Inhibition Achievable assay (SPHIAa. The efficiency analysis was carried out using CM and PR oral challenges as gold standards. RESULTS: The IgE binding to milk allergens was 100% inhibited by almost all PR preparations; the only difference was for CAS, mainly α(S1-CAS. Sixteen patients sensitized to CM tolerated both CM and PR; 29 patients tolerated PR only; 21 patients, reacted to both CM and PR, whereas 4 patients reactive to CM refused to ingest PR. ROC analysis showed that the absence of IgE to BLG measured by ISAC could be a good marker of PR tolerance. The SPHIAa using digested PR preparations showed a marked effect on IgE binding to CAS and almost none on ALA and BLG. CONCLUSIONS: 58% of patients clinically reactive to CM tolerated fully maturated PR. The preliminary digestion of CAS induced by PR maturation process, facilitating a further loss of allergenic reactivity during gut digestion, might explain the tolerance. This hypothesis seems to work when no IgE sensitization to ISAC BLG is detected.

  3. The Use of Multiplex PCR to Determine the Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk, Feta Cheese, and Hand Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26588209

  4. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. PMID:24010599

  5. Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelima; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Mann, Bimlesh

    2013-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a C-terminal part (f 106-169) of kappa-casein which is released in whey during cheese making by the action of chymosin. GMP being a biologically active component has gained much attention in the past decade. It also has unique chemical and functional properties. Many of the biological properties have been ascribed to the carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide. The unique set of amino acids in GMP makes it a sought-after ingredient with nutraceutical properties. Besides its biological activity, GMP has several interesting techno-functional properties such as wide pH range solubility, emulsifying properties as well as foaming abilities which are shown to be promising for applications in food and nutrition industry. These properties of GMP have given new dimension for the profitable utilization of cheese whey to the dairy industry. A number of protocols for isolation of GMP from cheese whey have been reported. Moreover, its role in detection of sweet/rennet whey adulteration in milk and milk products has also attracted attention of various researchers, and many GMP-specific analytical methods have been proposed. This review discusses the chemico-functional properties of GMP and its role in the detection methods for checking cheese or sweet whey adulteration in milk. Recent concepts used in the isolation of GMP from cheese whey have also been discussed. PMID:23396893

  6. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE GENERA AND SALMONELLA SPP., SALMONELLA ENTERICA SER. TYPHIMURIUM AND ENTERITIDIS ISOLATED FROM MILK, CHEESE AND OTHER DAIRY PRODUCTS FROM CONVENTIONAL FARM IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň; Jadža Lejková; Jaroslav Pochop; Miroslava Kačániová; Lukáš Hleba

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance was investigated in 67 samples of Enterobacteriaceae genera isolates from milk, cheese and other dairy products in this work. The samples were obtained from conventional farms in Slovakia. Four samples of isolates were positive for Salmonella spp., Salmonella enterica ser. typhimurium and enteritidis. A great proportion of resistant strain from Enterobacteriaceae genera was found. There was detected a high resistance in milk samples to ampicillin (57.14%), to streptomyci...

  7. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Ibba; Francesca Cossu; Vincenzo Spanu; Salvatore Virdis; Carlo Spanu; Christian Scarano; Enrico P.L. De Santis

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano an...

  8. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  9. Detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli from raw milk cheeses produced in Wallonia [Belgium].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Lioui M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga-like toxin Escherichia coli (STEC implicated in aqueous diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome, has become a serious health problem in various countries. In Belgium, all cases are sporadic and no outbreak has been detected so far. Cattle are thought to be a reservoir for E. coli O157:H7, and many foodborne diseases have been associated with the consumption of minced beef, beefburgers and raw milk. Recently, foodborne outbreaks were concerned with different unusual foods such as acidic products. Although some data suggest that STEC are not prevalent within dairy products, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC in raw milk cheeses produced in the southern part of Belgium (Wallonia. For this purpose, 153 frozen samples of soft and semi-soft cheeses made with raw cow, ewe and goat milk were analysed for the presence of E. coli O157 and STEC. By using a dynabeads immunomagnetic separation technique (Dynabeads anti-E. coli O157, Dynal followed by streaking onto sorbitol MacConckey agar, no sample was found contaminated by E. coli O157 serotype. By using polymerase chain reaction achieved from a loopful of confluent bacterial material growing onto MacConckey agar, the use of consensus primers detected stx genes in 11.1/ of the samples but Shiga-like toxin producing strains could be isolated only in five of them (3.3/. The isolation rate seems to be optimum for samples with a thermotolerant coliform count arround or below 102 cfu per g. The five Shiga-like toxin isolates were identified as belonging to the species Hafnia alvei or Enterobacter amnigenius without any accessory virulence factors needed to cause illness. Nevertheless, because of the ability of STEC to survive adverse conditions and the possibility for commensal non-pathogenic enteric bacteria to become pathogenic, raw milk cheeses are to be considered at risk for foodborne STEC contamination.

  10. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd ...

  11. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were 60Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period. (B.S.)

  12. Effects of the Use of Cow's and Ewe's Milk and Different Salting Techniques on the Quality Properties of Maraş Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİNŞEN, O.Cenap; ATASEVER, Mustafa; KELEŞ, Abdullah; UÇAR, Gürkan

    1998-01-01

    Different salting techniques were used on Maraş cheese samples produced from cow's, ewe's and a mixture (1:1) of cow and ewe's milk. In the first group, samples were immersed 22% the brine solution for 3 hours then transferred into 10 % brine solution. In the second group, samples were salted with 1 % dry salt and after 24 hours were immersed in 13 % brine solution. The cheese samples were analysed for chemical, microbiological and sensory properties on the first day of product...

  13. Health stimulating properties of the most popular soft cheese in Egypt Kariesh made using skimmed milk UF-retentate and probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Fayed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Soft skimmed-milk cheese Kariesh is the most popular soft cheese in Egypt. In the past, Karish cheese was traditionally produced by the random fermentation of milk speared its cream layer by the gravity force. Recently, its production has been carried out by several manufacturing procedures using, ultrafi ltration (UF – skimmed milk retentate, certain bacterial cultures, enzymatic coagulation, etc. Therefore, the biological and nutritional evaluations are required. The present study was conducted to evaluate the properties of such cheese coagulated using different procedures involving probiotic strains with emphasis on some chemical and biological attributes. Material and methods. Kariesh cheeses were manufactured without whey drainage from UF cow’s skimmed milk concentrate coagulated either by 3% yoghurt bacterial starter culture (YC, 3% probiotic starter culture (ABT type or 2.5% glucono delta lactone (GDL added whether separately or incorporated with rennet (0.05ml/kg to achieve the acidic-enzymatic coagulation in comparison with those made conventionally using unconcentrated milk coagulated either by 2% of YC or ABT added whether separately or incorporated with rennet (0.25 ml/kg. Due to the fact that whey is naturally needed to drain in the conventional (C procedure, the use of GDL as coagulant was eliminated. Results. The obtained results indicated that the application of UF-technique in Kariesh cheese industry was associated with signifi cant increments in the values of protein, ash and pH. Moreover, the electrophoretical patterns of UF-Kariesh cheese obtained with the incorporation between YC, ABT or GDL and rennet were distinguished with the presence of the band of glycomacropeptide, which is normally lost in the whey through the C-procedure. Furthermore, the food intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, food efficiency ratio (FER,triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL, total, as well as

  14. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  15. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatan Sarić; Sonja Bijeljac

    2003-01-01

    Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are...

  16. Assessment of the Indicators Atherogenic Index and Lipid Preventive Score of White Brine Cheese by Buffalo Milk after Technological Processing and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  17. Assessment of the indicators atherogenic index and lipid preventive score of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after technological processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  18. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  19. Sensorial characteristics and fatty acid mozzarella cheese from milk of crossbred cows fed with palm oil and coconut fat - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.20158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida da Silva Corradini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to improve nutritional quality of cows’ milk and use it as raw material for mozzarella cheese. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy animals ranging power: control, palm oil and coconut oil. Collection was performed in 21 days and another after 36 days. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrates, sensory, color (CIE L*, a*, b* and texture were made for mozzarella cheese. The fatty acids (FA present in mozzarella cheese were determined by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA were the most abundant in cheese. The results point that it is feasible to add various fat sources in animal feed for milk and milk products in dairy cows.   

  20. Screening for antimicrobial and proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, buffalo and goat milk and cheeses marketed in the southeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulini, Fabricio L; Hymery, Nolwenn; Haertlé, Thomas; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be isolated from different sources such as milk and cheese, and the lipolytic, proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes of LAB are important in cheese preservation and in flavour production. Moreover, LAB produce several antimicrobial compounds which make these bacteria interesting for food biopreservation. These characteristics stimulate the search of new strains with technological potential. From 156 milk and cheese samples from cow, buffalo and goat, 815 isolates were obtained on selective agars for LAB. Pure cultures were evaluated for antimicrobial activities by agar antagonism tests and for proteolytic activity on milk proteins by cultivation on agar plates. The most proteolytic isolates were also tested by cultivation in skim milk followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the fermented milk. Among the 815 tested isolates, three of them identified as Streptococcus uberis (strains FT86, FT126 and FT190) were bacteriocin producers, whereas four other ones identified as Weissella confusa FT424, W. hellenica FT476, Leuconostoc citreum FT671 and Lactobacillus plantarum FT723 showed high antifungal activity in preliminary assays. Complementary analyses showed that the most antifungal strain was L. plantarum FT723 that inhibited Penicillium expansum in modified MRS agar (De Man, Rogosa, Sharpe, without acetate) and fermented milk model, however no inhibition was observed against Yarrowia lipolytica. The proteolytic capacities of three highly proteolytic isolates identified as Enterococcus faecalis (strains FT132 and FT522) and Lactobacillus paracasei FT700 were confirmed by SDS-PAGE, as visualized by the digestion of caseins and whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). These results suggest potential applications of these isolates or their activities (proteolytic activity or production of antimicrobials) in dairy foods production. PMID:26608755

  1. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle N. Furtado; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Mariza Landgraf; Destro, Maria T.; Bernadette D.G.M. Franco

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, wa...

  2. Qualitative evaluation of buffalo cheese using FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Coroian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf,buffalo milk cheese (Napolact and buffalo mozzarella (Italy. Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of3600-3010 cm-1, showing a high content in water for mozzarella, followed by buffalo milk cheese,traditional cheese and the lowest content being observed to mouldy cheese.

  3. Structure, Meltability, and Firmness of Process Cheese Containing White Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kalab, Miloslav; Modler, H. Wayne; Caric, Marijana; Milanovic, Spasenija

    1991-01-01

    White cheese made by coagulating heated milk (90"C) with a 2.5% citric acid solution to pH 5.5 consists of casein particles having a characteristic core-and-shell ultrastructure. The presence of this White cheese in process cheese can be detected by transmission electron microscopy on the basis of the core-and-shell ultrastructure which is stable during cheese processing. White cheese additions may be detected at levels equal to or higher than 8%. White cheese, which does not melt alone wh...

  4. A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Skelin; Dubravka Samaržija; Sulejman Redžepović; Samir Kalit; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka; Višnja Magdić; Jasmina Havranek

    2013-01-01

    Istrian cheese is the traditional hard cheese produced exclusively from the raw milk of the autochthonous Istrian sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality, physicochemical properties of the sheep milk and Istrian cheese as well as proteolysis of cheese produced on six family farms during the cheese ripening. The hygienic microbial indicators of the sheep milk were poor in comparison to the other East Adriatic regions. However, the number of bacterial indicator...

  5. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  6. Seasonal trend of some parameters of the milk quality payment for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 4 years (2002¸2005 on 85587 bulk milk samples from the evening and the morning milking of 1340 dairy herds subdivided in plain, hill and mountain. All the parameters were influenced by year, season and year*season interaction. Titratable acidity showed higher values in autumn (3.28 °SH/50ml and lower in summer (3.22. Somatic cell count was lower in winter and higher in summer. The calculated casein values, were higher in autumn (2.54 g/100g and lower in spring (2.42. Fat content values were higher in autumn (3.67 g/100g and lower in spring and summer (3.47-3.46. During summer the quality of the milk had a general worsening. Such a worsening was more evident during summer of the year 2003, characterised by THI values higher than those of years 2002, 2004 and 2005.

  7. Modelling and predicting growth of psycrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand;

    2015-01-01

    successfully validated, based on bias and accuracy factor, for 59 growth curves of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in dairy products. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new model for cottage cheese to successfully predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads at both constant and dynamic......Introduction: Predictive food microbiology models have the potential to evaluate the effect of temperature on microbial growth during distribution as well as be used to determine how product characteristics can be modified to reduce growth to an acceptable level. Methods: Growth kinetics of...... psychrotolerant pseudomonads were determined using Bioscreen C experiments, challenge tests, storage trial and literature data. The effect of storage temperature and product characteristics on growth rates (μmax) were described using a simplified cardinal parameter model and the gamma concept. The developed broth...

  8. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products. PMID:26221109

  9. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain (Lc. lactis DF4Mi, isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  10. A Multi-Omics Approach to Evaluate the Quality of Milk Whey Used in Ricotta Cheese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Eleonora; Andreani, Nadia A.; Carraro, Lisa; Lucchini, Rosaria; Fasolato, Luca; Telatin, Andrea; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Simionati, Barbara; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the past, milk whey was only a by-product of cheese production, but currently, it has a high commercial value for use in the food industries. However, the regulation of whey management (i.e., storage and hygienic properties) has not been updated, and as a consequence, its microbiological quality is very challenging for food safety. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique was applied to several whey samples used for Ricotta production to evaluate the microbial community composition in depth using both RNA and DNA as templates for NGS library construction. Whey samples demonstrating a high microbial and aerobic spore load contained mostly Firmicutes; although variable, some samples contained a relevant amount of Gammaproteobacteria. Several lots of whey acquired as raw material for Ricotta production presented defective organoleptic properties. To define the volatile compounds in normal and defective whey samples, a headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was conducted. The statistical analysis demonstrated that different microbial communities resulted from DNA or cDNA library sequencing, and distinguishable microbiota composed the communities contained in the organoleptic-defective whey samples.

  11. A Multi-Omics Approach to Evaluate the Quality of Milk Whey Used in Ricotta Cheese Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Eleonora; Andreani, Nadia A; Carraro, Lisa; Lucchini, Rosaria; Fasolato, Luca; Telatin, Andrea; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Simionati, Barbara; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the past, milk whey was only a by-product of cheese production, but currently, it has a high commercial value for use in the food industries. However, the regulation of whey management (i.e., storage and hygienic properties) has not been updated, and as a consequence, its microbiological quality is very challenging for food safety. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique was applied to several whey samples used for Ricotta production to evaluate the microbial community composition in depth using both RNA and DNA as templates for NGS library construction. Whey samples demonstrating a high microbial and aerobic spore load contained mostly Firmicutes; although variable, some samples contained a relevant amount of Gammaproteobacteria. Several lots of whey acquired as raw material for Ricotta production presented defective organoleptic properties. To define the volatile compounds in normal and defective whey samples, a headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was conducted. The statistical analysis demonstrated that different microbial communities resulted from DNA or cDNA library sequencing, and distinguishable microbiota composed the communities contained in the organoleptic-defective whey samples. PMID:27582735

  12. Comparative analyze of the kefir fermentation process and microbiota, using milk and cheese whey as substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, M.A.; Dragone, Giuliano; Schwan, Rosane F.; Domingues, Lucília; J. A. Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Kefir, a mixed culture that ferments lactose, is known for the production of a refreshing fermented beverage popular in EasternEuropean countries by inoculating milk with kefir grains. Kefir grains are gelatinous white or creamcoloured, water insoluble, irregular granules with diameter ranging 0,33,5 cm. They are composed mostly of proteins and polysaccharides in which the complex microbiota is enclosed. The beverage consists of a microbial diversity that includes lactic acid b...

  13. POLYCHLORODIBENZODIOXINS (PCDDs, POLYCHLORODIBENZO-FURANS (PCDFs, AND DIOXIN-LIKE POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS (DL-PCBs IN MILK, MOZZARELLA CHEESE, WHEY, AND WHEY CHEESE FROM BUFFALOES RAISED IN THE CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioxins (PCDDs and PCDFs and PCBs are a group of and toxic organo-chlorinated chemicals comprising hundreds of structurally related compounds (congeners classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs. It is acknowledged that 17 PCDD and PCDF congeners are of major concern due to their toxicity; 12 PCB congeners are also recognized to express dioxin-like toxicity and are thereby identified as DL-PCBs. Due to their high persistence and lipophilic nature, dioxins and PCBs tend to accumulate in fat and their bio-accumulation through the food chain may pose the risk of causing adverse effects to human health. For the general population, dietary intake is the most important pathway of exposure to the aforesaid environmental contaminants: meat, milk and dairy products, and fish and other seafood products contribute to total daily intake for more than 90 %. To prevent excessive human exposure to dioxins and DL-PCBs, the European Commission established maximum levels for dioxins and the sum of dioxins and DL-PCBs in an array of food components mainly of animal origin (Regulation EC 1881/2006. In this study, dioxins and DL-PCB concentrations were measured in buffalo milk collected from three impounded Campania farms producing milk with different contamination levels. The fate of contaminants in mozzarella cheese, whey, and whey cheese was also investigated. Analyses were carried out by HRGC-HRMS using US EPA Method 1613. The results of this study show the carry-over of the contamination from milk to its dairy products.

  14. IDAHO'S CHEESE INDUSTRY: THE COMPETITIVE SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Chris; Foltz, John C.; Wu, Shunxiang

    1999-01-01

    As the fifth largest U.S. cheese-producing state, Idaho increased cheese production by 182 percent (390 million pounds) between 1992 and 1995. Idaho's competitiveness in the cheese industry is important not only to processors but also to dairy farmers since approximately 85 percent of the milk produced in Idaho is processed into cheese. Idaho was found to be competitive with other major cheese-producing states, including California, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and New York. Among the study states, ...

  15. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  16. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  17. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ibba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental samples collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces were analysed according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard method. Identification of the isolated strains was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The higher prevalence rate was found in the following areas: salting, products washing, packaging, ricotta salata storage and Pecorino Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes was never found in the cheese-making area. The probability of observing samples positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes was asso- ciated with dairy plant, sampling area and the period of cheese-making (P<0.001. The greater persistence of contamination over time was observed in the washing, salting, and Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control of persistent environmental contamination relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes niches within the processing environment and the prevention of harborage sites formation. The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes environmental contamination is confirmed by the lower level of contamination observed after these procedures were correctly implemented.

  18. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties. PMID:23253429

  19. A survey of aflatoxin M1 levels in Kahramanmaraş cheese

    OpenAIRE

    TURGAY, ÖZLEM; AKSAKAL, Didem Hilkat; SÜNNETÇİ, Selim; ÇELİK, Ali Bahadır

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels were measured in 46 Kahramanmaraş semi-hard cheese samples (22 from bovine milk, 18 from goat milk, and 6 from ovine milk) using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). None of the ovine milk cheese samples contained AFM1. AFM1 was present in 32 samples (69.6%) of bovine and goat cheese. Bovine milk cheese and goat milk cheese samples contained 0.069-1.2 ng g-1 and 0.06-0.22 ng g-1 of AFM1, respectively. With the exception of 2 bovine milk cheese samples (one co...

  20. The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and several milk technological traits at the individual cow level. In particular, we determined the effects of very low to very high SCC on traits related to (1) milk yield and composition; (2) coagulation properties, including the traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the new curd firming model parameters; and (3) cheese yield and recovery of milk nutrients in the curd (or loss in the whey). Milk samples from 1,271 Brown Swiss cows from 85 herds were used. Nine coagulation traits were measured: 3 traditional MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming rate (k20, min), and curd firmness after 30 min (a30, mm)] and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotic curd firmness at infinite time (CFP, mm), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), rennet coagulation time estimated using the equation (RCTeq, min), maximum curd firmness achieved within 45 min (CFmax, mm), and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min)]. The observed cheese-making traits included 3 cheese yield traits (%CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, which represented the weights of curd, total solids, and water, respectively, as a percentage of the weight of the processed milk) and 4 nutrient recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, which each represented the percentage ratio between the nutrient in the curd and milk). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of days in milk, parity, and somatic cell score (SCS), and the random effect of herd-date. Somatic cell score had strong influences on casein number and lactose, and also affected pH; these were traits characterized by a quadratic pattern of the data. The results also showed a negative linear relationship between SCS and milk yield. Somatic cell score influenced almost all of the tested

  1. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa S. R. Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella.

  2. Quantitative screening of strains for milk mozzarella cheese from Chinese buffalo milk%量化筛选中国水牛奶生产Mozzarella干酪所需发酵剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毅; 李全阳; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    为了获得水牛奶Mozzarella干酪生产发酵剂所需菌种及其配比和用量的最佳方案,以自行筛选的保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌、乳酸乳球菌、干酪乳杆菌为素材进行研究.通过检测所得水牛奶Mozzarella干酪样品的10项质量参数,对参数统计处理分析得到量化筛选结果,发现同时选用4个菌种、以相同的比例和3.0%的总添加量作为发酵剂制作的中国水牛奶Mozzarella干酪品质较优.%Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophiles, Lacto-bacillus lactis and Lactobacillus casei were studied to find out the components, proportion and dosage of Chinese buffalo milk Mozzarella cheese starters. Ten quality parameters of mozzarella cheese samples were examined and parameter statistical analysis from the 10 items was compared to get the quantitative screening results. The results showed that the optimal combination culture starters among the ratio of 4 species of strain were identical and the addition of the strain reached to 3.0% to produce Mozzarella cheese of Chinese buffalo milk.

  3. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  4. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  5. Qualitative evaluation of buffalo cheese using FTIR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Coroian; Monica Trif; Cristian Ovidiu Coroian; Vioara Mireşan; Camelia Răducu; Stelian Dărăban

    2012-01-01

    FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf),buffalo milk cheese (Napolact) and buffalo mozzarella (Italy). Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of360...

  6. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Pais, Vânia F.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella ...

  7. Risk-Based Approach for Microbiological Food Safety Management in the Dairy Industry: The Case of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese Made from Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Maffre, Alexandre; Sanaa, Moez

    2013-06-18

    According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach to link new risk-based metrics to management options that may be applied by food operators. Through a specific case study, Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk, the objective of the present article is to practically show how quantitative risk assessment could be used to direct potential intervention strategies at different food processing steps. Based on many assumptions, the model developed estimates the risk of listeriosis at the moment of consumption taking into account the entire manufacturing process and potential sources of contamination. From pasteurization to consumption, the amplification of a primo-contamination event of the milk, the fresh cheese or the process environment is simulated, over time, space, and between products, accounting for the impact of management options, such as hygienic operations and sampling plans. A sensitivity analysis of the model will help orientating data to be collected prioritarily for the improvement and the validation of the model. What-if scenarios were simulated and allowed for the identification of major parameters contributing to the risk of listeriosis and the optimization of preventive and corrective measures. PMID:23777564

  8. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk...

  9. Desenvolvimento experimental de queijo fresco de leite da espécie bubalina Experimental development of a fresh cheese from buffalo’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Maria YUNES

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um queijo fresco, utilizando como matéria prima o leite de búfala, na tentativa de introduzir esta rica fonte de proteína no hábito alimentar do brasileiro. Foram realizados experimentos buscando estabelecer o valor ideal de alguns parâmetros fundamentais do processamento de queijos (cloreto de cálcio, coalho e tempo de salga: teor de cloreto de sódio, combinando-os entre si. O leite e os queijos resultantes dos experimentos foram caracterizados físico-químicamente. Em média, a composição química do queijo foi: gordura 21,40; proteína 12,68; extrato seco 40,36; cinzas 3,13; umidade 58,77 e rendimento 29,25. A análise sensorial mostrou que os queijos elaborados encontravam-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade para os atributos de intensidade de sabor, sabor salgado, consistência e sabor amargo. A aceitabilidade geral dos queijos obtidos foi considerada satisfatória e os resultados mostraram quais fatores devem ser considerados mais importantes, permitindo delinear futuros processos para obter produtos de maior qualidade.The main objective of this work, was to develop a fresh cheese using buffalo’s milk, as the main raw material, in attempt to introduce this proteins rich source in the brazilian’s alimentary habits. Several experiments were done to establish the optimum values for fundamental cheesemaking parameters (calcium cloride, rennet and salting time: sodium cloride value, and combinations. Physical and chemical characteristics of the milk and the resulting cheese were described. The cheese’s average composition was: fat 21,50%; protein12,68%; dry extract 40,36%; ash 3,13%; moisture 58,77%; with a yield of 29,25%. Sensory analysis showed that the buffalo cheese was within quality standards for flavor intensity, saltness, consistency and bitterness. The general acceptance of the cheeses was satisfactory . The results showed which factors should be considered

  10. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  11. Avaliação química e nutricional do queijo mozzarella e iogurte de leite de búfala Chemical and nutritional evaluation of mozzarella cheese and yogurt made from buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Verruma

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a composição química e nutricional do queijo e iogurte elaborados com leite de búfala e comparados com aqueles elaborados com leite de vaca. Dos resultados obtidos foram obtidas as seguintes conclusões: o queijo tipo mozzarella e o iogurte elaborado com leite de búfala apresentaram níveis superiores em proteína, gordura, cinzas, cálcio e fósforo, estando relacionados com a composição química inicial do leite. Os níveis de digestibilidade in vitro dos queijos tipo mozzarella e iogurte de leite de búfala apresentaram resultados semelhantes aos elaborados com leite de vaca, indicando níveis adequados de digestibilidade para consumo humano.The chemical and nutritional compositions of cheese and yogurt made from buffalo and cow milk were compared. The following conclusions were obtained: mozzarella type cheese and yogurt made from buffalo milk exhibited higher content of protein, fat, minerals, calcium and phosphorus when compared to those made from cow milk; in vitro digestibility tests of mozzarella type cheese and yogurt made from buffalo milk were similar to those of cow milk, indicantig suitable digestibility levels for human consumption.

  12. Protein characterization of pasteurized milk, cheese whey and their mixtures by using the CEM SprintTM analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Moura Paiva; Virgílio de Carvalho dos Anjos; Maria José Valenzuela Bell; Marco Antônio Moreira Furtado

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the protein analyzer SprintTM was assessed regarding its capacity of predicting addition of whey in milk. This type of practice is relatively common in dairy plants, since whey, as it is a protein component, may be added with little loss of milk protein content. Besides,its incorrect elimination contributes to environmental pollution. Mixtures of milk and whey were prepared in different levels of addition and two methods of milk partition were tested. The results indicated that ...

  13. Development of low fat UF cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Miočinović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production procedure of low fat cheeses produced from ultrafiltered milk (UF cheese was developed in this study. The production procedure, that includes utilization of UF milk with 2 % of lactose, addition of 1.5 % inulin and salting with 2 % of mixed salt (NaCl/KCl in ratio 3:1 was defined based on the investigation that included the influence of coagulation parameters, different lactose content of UF milk, different inulin content, and different salt type and content on the properties of low fat UF cheeses. Presented production procedure enables the production of a product with satisfactory dietetic and functional properties. Reduced lactose content of UF milk contributes to stabilisation of pH value at an adequate level and achievement of acceptable texture properties of low fat UF cheeses. Defined inulin content (1.5 % improved cheese texture, as well as its functional properties, enabling the cheese produced to be marked as a “good source of fibre”. Reduced sodium content, due to partial substitution of NaCl with KCl, also contributes to the improvement of dietetic properties of cheeses. Low fat UF cheeses, produced according to defined production procedure, were analysed during 8 weeks of ripening and storage periods. Composition, pH values and proteolytic pattern were typical for brined cheeses. Uniform microstructure and acceptable sensory properties, especially the texture, confirm the validity of the developed production procedure of low fat UF cheeses from UF milk.

  14. Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Motta, T M; Hoff, R B; Barreto, F; Andrade, R B S; Lorenzini, D M; Meneghini, L Z; Pizzolato, T M

    2014-03-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a peptide released by chymosin in cheese production, remaining in whey. Thus, CMP can be used as a biomarker to fluid milk adulteration through whey addition. Commonly, CMP is analyzed by reversed phase (RP-HPLC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, some psychrotropic microorganisms - specially Pseudomonas fluorescens - when present in storaged milk, can produce, by enzymatic pathway, a CMP-like peptide generally called pseudo-CMP. These two peptides differ from each other only by one amino acid. RP-HPLC and SEC methods are unable to distinguish these two peptides, which demand development of a confirmatory method with high selectivity. Considering the several degrees of glycosilation and phosphorylation sites in CMP, allied with possible genetic variation (CMP A and CMP B), analytical methods able to differentiate these peptides are extremely complex. In the present work, we developed a proteomic-like technique for separation and characterization of these peptides, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization able to differentiate and subsequently quantify CMP and pseudo-CMP in milk samples in order to identify adulteration or contamination of these products. The method shows satisfactory precision (<11%) with a detection limit of 1.0 µg mL(-1) and quantification limit of 5.0 µg mL(-1). Specificity, matrix effects and applicability to real samples analysis were also performed and discussed. PMID:24468402

  15. Simultaneously tracing the geographical origin and presence of bovine milk in Italian water buffalo Mozzarella cheese using MALDI-TOF data of casein signature peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Water buffalo (WB) casein (CN) and curd samples from indigenous Italian and international breeds were examined with the objective of identifying signature peptides that could function as an indicator to determine the origin of their milk products. CN in complex mixtures were digested with trypsin, and peptide fragments were subsequently identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The unique presence of a β-CN A variant and an internally deleted αs1-CN (f35-42) variant in international WB milk samples was ascertained by identifying signature tryptic peptides from either dephosphorylated or native CN. Four signature unphosphorylated peptides derived from β-CN A, i.e. (f49-68) Asn(68) (2223.6 Da), (f1-28) Ser(10) (3169.4 Da), (f1-29) Ser(10) (3297.4 Da) and (f33-48) Thr(41) (1982 Da) and two from αs1-CN (f35-42) deleted fragments, i.e. (f23-34) Met(31) (1415.7 Da) and (f43-58) Val(44) (1752.7 Da), were identified. Two signature casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), i.e. β-CN (f1-28) 4P (3489.1 Da) and β-CN (f33-48) 1P (2062.0 Da), were identified in the tryptic hydrolysate of native casein or curd and cheese samples using in-batch hydroxyapatite (HA) chromatography. All these fragments functioned as analytical surrogates of two αs1- and β-casein variants that specifically occur in the milk of international WB breeds. Furthermore, the bovine peptide β-CN (f1-28) 4P had a distinct and lower molecular mass compared with the WB counterpart and functioned as a species-specific marker for all breeds of WB. Advantages of this analytical approach are that (i) peptides are easier to separate than proteins, (ii) signature peptide probes originating from specific casein variants allow for the targeting of all international WB milk, curd and cheese samples and (iii) bovine and WB casein in mixtures can be simultaneously determined in protected designation of origin (PDO) "Mozzarella di Bufala Campana" cheese

  16. 具有快速凝乳性能的水牛奶奶酪菌种筛选%Strains Screening for Rapid Milk Clotting of Buffalo Milk into Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘敏鑫; 吴健程; 刘兴胥; 吕军

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study is to screen strains that can produce cheese from buffalo milk and scalper milk.[Methods]Pure microbial species were isolated from the fresh buffalo milk and cattle milk,which could made buffalo milk coagulate from 4 to 6 h. Then their genetics stability,lactic acid content and diacetyl content were tested.[Results]With preliminary fermentation experiments,the strain 22 was chosen for further experi-ments,which showed strong acid-producing,high fragrance production,high viscosity and ap-propriate protein hydrolysate properties.[Conclusion]The results showed that the optimal fermentation condition is at 37℃,for 4.5 h.The resulting cheese has viscosity 109.2 Pa·S, acidity 47.3°T,diacetyl content 2.826×10-3 g/L and lactic acid 11.59%.%【目的】提高水牛奶产业的经济效益,为广西水牛奶奶酪工业化生产提供参考。【方法】采用平板筛选法从鲜水牛奶和黄牛奶中分离出能够生产水牛奶奶酪的菌种,对筛选到的菌株进行初步的发酵性能试验,并测定其传代稳定性、乳酸和双乙酰含量。【结果】筛选到1株能在4.5 h内使水牛奶凝固的菌株;该菌株在最佳发酵温度37℃下,经过厌氧发酵4.5 h即可使水牛奶完全凝固,所获得凝乳的黏度为109.2 Pa·S,酸度为47.3°T,双乙酰含量为2.826×10-3 g/L,乳酸含量为11.59%。【结论】该菌株产酸能力强、产香性能高、黏度和酸度大、有合适的蛋白质水解特性。

  17. Cheese yield as affected by some parameters Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A.M. Abd El-Gawad; Nawal S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Cheese yield is defined as the amount of cheese, expressed in kilograms, obtained from 100 kg of milk. It is a very important parameter: the higher the recovered percentage of solids, the greater is the amount of cheese obtained and therefore gains in economic terms.The definition of cheese yield, or how to express yield, is important in two main applications: 1. Economic control of cheesemaking; 2. Expressing the results of cheesemaking experiments. Cheese yield is affected by many fac...

  18. Peptide Profile of Low-Fat Edam Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan KÜÇÜKÖNER

    1998-01-01

    Low-fat Edam cheese was manufactured using conventional cheese-making procedures using low-fat milk (1.5% fat). The cheese samples were aged for six months at 5 to 6°C. The cheese was analyzed for biochemical characteristics and peptide content. The peptide contents were determined with reverse phase chromatography. The association property of proteins and peptides in the soluble fraction of the cheese was determined using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The overall peptide quantit...

  19. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ziba Guley; Harun R. Uysal; Sevda Kilic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates,...

  20. Flavour development of East Midlands cheeses and evaluation of flavour producing microorganisms in a small scale real-cheese model

    OpenAIRE

    Whiley, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Stilton is a blue-veined cheese made from pasteurised milk. The diversity of the microflora found within the cheese helps develop the unique flavour and aroma of Stilton compared to other blue cheese. However, this flora is not controlled and so product may be variable. A small-scale cheese model was developed to allow examination of the effect of different microflora on flavour production in a controlled way. Texture analysis, water activity and viable count of the cheese models were comp...

  1. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-03-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  2. Protein characterization of pasteurized milk, cheese whey and their mixtures by using the CEM SprintTM analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Moura Paiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein analyzer SprintTM was assessed regarding its capacity of predicting addition of whey in milk. This type of practice is relatively common in dairy plants, since whey, as it is a protein component, may be added with little loss of milk protein content. Besides,its incorrect elimination contributes to environmental pollution. Mixtures of milk and whey were prepared in different levels of addition and two methods of milk partition were tested. The results indicated that the concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCA from the selected method was not suitable for the present purpose while the chosen method using glacial acetic acid (GAA has presented a satisfactory separation of the soluble and insoluble milk components. Even though the concentration of whey protein and casein are the essential parameters for determining whey addition in milk, the use of measurements from total protein was important in order to improve the linearity of the method due to the fact that the rates whey protein/total protein and casein/total protein presented the best results concerning fraud prediction capacity. Therefore, as the equipment is a rapid, safe and efficient platform, it can be used as an alternative to be implemented in laboratories of food quality control which perform or plan to perform assays to verify the whey addition in fluid milk.

  3. Análise descritiva de perfil livre em queijo mozarela de leite de búfala Free choice profile descrptive analysis of mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Queijos Mozarela de leite de búfala obtidos pelo método tradicional e da acidificação direta foram submetidos ao teste descritivo de perfil livre, utilizando-se 10 provadores pré-selecionados através do teste triangular. Inicialmente, os provadores realizaram o levantamento de atributos através do método Rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid. A seguir, foram elaboradas para cada provador, as listas de definições de atributos e das fichas de avaliação com escalas não estruturadas de 9 pontos. As amostras de cada processamento foram avaliadas com 3 repetições. No total, foram realizadas 14 sessões, sendo 3 para a seleção dos provadores, 2 para levantamento de atributos, 1 para checagem das fichas e 9 para avaliação das amostras. Os dados foram analisados pela Análise Procrustes Generalizada, utilizando o programa Procrustes PC. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma alta repetibilidade entre os provadores, assim como entre os processamentos. As amostras foram diferenciadas principalmente pelos atributos de aparência e textura. O queijo Mozarela elaborado pelo método tradicional apresentou cor mais branca, maior firmeza e elasticidade. O queijo elaborado pela acidificação direta, apresentou-se mais macio, com maior umidade e coloração esverdeada. Pode-se concluir que o método do Perfil Livre foi eficiente para o estudo com 2 amostras.Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk elaborated by the traditional and direct acidification methods were evaluated using the Free Profile Descriptive test by 10 pre-selected panelists in a triangular test. Initially, the panelists accomplished the rising of attributes through the Kelly's Repertory Grid Method. The lists of attributes definitions associated to a non-structured scales of 9 points were elaborated for each panelist. The samples of both processing methods were appraised with 3 repetitions. Fourteen sessions were accomplished: 3 for the panelists selection, 2 for rising of attributes, 1 to

  4. Assessment of aflatoxin M1 levels in ewe’s raw milk used for the production of Istrian cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in ewe’s raw milk produced by different farms in the Istrian region of Croatia, and to compare the obtained results with maximum of AFM1 tolerance limits in ewe’s milk that are accepted by some of the countries such as Croatia. All ewe’s milk samples were collected in triplicates at two farms in May, two farms in June, and two farms in July during the year 2007. The occurrence of AFM1 contamination in ewe’s milk samples was investigated by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. A total of 18 samples of raw ewe’s milk were analyzed. AFM1 was found in all of the ewe’s milk samples examined. The mean value was 0.028 µg/L. None of the samples did not contain AFM1 in concentration that exceeded the maximum acceptable levels (0.05 µg/L that are accepted by Croatia.

  5. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  6. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mattii; B. Tommei; Pasquini, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999) and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000). In particular the inverse correlation between cheese ...

  7. Consumers’ preferences and composition of Livanjski cheese in relation to its sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Anto Matić; Samir Kalit; Krešimir Salajpal; Stanko Ivanković; Zlatan Sarić

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ preferences of Livanjski cheese depending on the type of milk (cow’s milk or a mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk) and the originality of production (farm or industrially produced). Also correlations between sensorial scores and the composition of Livanjski cheese were determined. Sixty day old Livanjski cheese samples produced on four family farms and under industrial conditions produced cheese were used for sensory evaluation. During the ch...

  8. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  9. Rendimento e composição físico-química do queijo prato elaborado com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST e injeção direta de vapor Yield and physical-chemistry composition of prato cheese elaborated with milk pasteurized by the HTST and direct steam injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodrigues da Silveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o rendimento, a transição de gordura e extrato seco do leite para a coalhada e as características físico-químicas do queijo prato produzido com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema de placas (ou HTST e injeção direta de vapor (IDV. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constituído por dois tratamentos (HTST e IDV e seis repetições (fabricações. O sistema IDV incorporou cerca de 8,5% de água ao leite, havendo como conseqüência redução (PCheese yield, fat and dry matter transitions from milk pasteurized by the two pasteurization systems to the curd, as well as, the physical-chemistry characteristics of cheeses were evaluated. The statistical treatment was full randomly, with two treatments: pasteurization by high temperature short time system (HTST and direct steam injection (DSI, with six replications. The DSI system incorporated about 8,5% of water to the milk, having as consequence reduction (P<.05 in the total solids, in the fat and in the acidity of the pasteurized milk. Larger transition of fat of the milk to the curd was observed, when this was pasteurized by the DSI system, it resulted in larger cheeses yield manufactured with milk pasteurized by this system. (8.48 liters of milk /kg of cheese, when compared to the HTST system (9.54 liters of milk /kg of cheese. Cheeses manufactured by the DSI system presented higher fat content and fat in dry matter (29.06 and 55.25%, compared to the HTST system (27.02 and 49.88%, respectively. The DSI system provides expressive increases in the cheeses yield and, of the components of the milk it was conclude that the fat was the main responsible for this increase.

  10. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review. PMID:26082126

  11. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  12. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. PMID:23706488

  13. 不同杂交代水牛奶对Mozzarella鲜奶酪品质的影响%Effect of different hybrid generations buffalo milk on the quality of Mozzarella fresh cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秉锵; 孙宁; 周雪松

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了尼里-拉菲及其不同杂交代水牛奶的理化特性,并研究了以尼里-拉菲及其不同杂交代水牛奶制备的Mozzarella鲜奶酪的理化指标、感官、盐水贮存中的含水率及在2~6℃冷柜内保存期间pH变化.结果表明,不同杂交代水牛奶的蛋白质、脂肪、总乳固体含量均高于尼里-拉菲,不同杂交代水牛奶制备的Mozzarella鲜奶酪蛋白质含量13%、脂肪含量23%、水分含量59%、出品率20%左右,采用尼杂二代、三代及以上的水牛奶制备的Mozzarella鲜奶酪质量较好,鲜奶酪在2~6℃的冷柜内保存宜控制在10d内.%The physical and chemical properties of Nili Ravi buffalo milk and different hybrid generations were analyzed.The physicochemical indexes,sensory evaluation,moisture content during storage in saline water,and the changing of pH stored at the temperature of 2~6℃ of Mozzarella fresh cheese prepared by Nili Ravi and different hybrid generations buffalo milk were investigated.Results showed that protein,fat,total solids content of the hybrid generations buffalo milk were higher than those of Nili Ravi buffalo milk.Protein,fat,moisture and yield of Mozzarella fresh cheese prepared by different hybrid generations was 13%,23%,59%,20% respectively.The quality of Mozzarella fresh cheese prepared by milk from two generation,three generation and above hybrid buffalo was better,fresh cheese in the refrigerator preservation should be controlled within 2~6℃ in 10d.

  14. Occurrence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese in Brazil Ocorrência de Escherichia coli toxigênica em queijo-de-minas frescal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Paneto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese was surveyed in Middle Western Brazil. Fifty samples of cheese from different supermarkets were analyzed for E.coli. The isolates were serotyped and screened for the presence of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The susceptibility to thirteen antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the disk diffusion method. E.coli were recovered from 48 (96.0% of the samples. The serogroups identified were O125 (6.0%, O111 (4.0%, O55 (2.0% and O119 (2.0%. Three (6.0% and 1(2.0% of the E.coli isolates were VTEC and ETEC, respectively. Most frequent resistance was observed to the following antimicrobials: cephalothin (60.0%, nalidixic acid (40.0%, doxycyclin (33.0%, tetracycline (31.0% and ampicillin (29.0%.Pesquisou-se a ocorrência de Escherichia coli toxigênica, em queijo produzido com leite não pasteurizado, na Região Centro Oeste do Brazil. Foram utilizados 50 queijos adquiridos em diferentes supermercados. As amostras isoladas foram classificadas por sorogrupo, avaliadas em relação à sensibilidade para 13 agentes antimicrobianos e submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase para a presença de genes característicos de E. coli verotoxigênica (VTEC e enterotoxigênica (ETEC. E. coli foi recuperada em 48(96,0% dos queijos. Foram identificados os sorogrupos O125 (6,0%, O111 (4,0%, O55 (2,0% e O119 (2,0%. Três (6,0% amostras de E. coli foram classificadas como VTEC e uma (2,0% como ETEC. Os maiores índices de resistência foram verificados para: cefalotina (60,0%, ácido nalidíxico (40,0%, doxiciclina (33,0%, tetraciclina (31,0% e ampicilina (29,0%.

  15. An empirical method for prediction of cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melilli, C; Lynch, J M; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Cappa, A

    2002-10-01

    Theoretical cheese yield can be estimated from the milk fat and casein or protein content of milk using classical formulae, such as the VanSlyke formula. These equations are reliable predictors of theoretical or actual yield based on accurately measured milk fat and casein content. Many cheese makers desire to base payment for milk to dairy farmers on the yield of cheese. In small factories, however, accurate measurement of fat and casein content of milk by either chemical methods or infrared milk analysis is too time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an empirical test to predict cheese yield was developed which uses simple equipment (i.e., clinical centrifuge, analytical balance, and forced air oven) to carry out a miniature cheese making, followed by a gravimetric measurement of dry weight yield. A linear regression of calculated theoretical versus dry weight yields for milks of known fat and casein content was calculated. A regression equation of y = 1.275x + 1.528, where y is theoretical yield and x is measured dry solids yield (r2 = 0.981), for Cheddar cheese was developed using milks with a range of theoretical yield from 7 to 11.8%. The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between theoretical cheese yield and dry solids yield was 0.194 and the coefficient of variation (SDD/mean x 100) was 1.95% upon cross validation. For cheeses without a well-established theoretical cheese yield equation, the measured dry weight yields could be directly correlated to the observed yields in the factory; this would more accurately reflect the expected yield performance. Payments for milk based on these measurements would more accurately reflect quality and composition of the milk and the actual average recovery of fat and casein achieved under practical cheese making conditions. PMID:12416825

  16. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the transference of the lutein (dye, added to the milk, in the whey, and cheese, to evaluate the effect of the lutein addition, light exposure, and storage time on the cheese color, and to verify the sensory acceptance of Prato cheese with addition of lutein. The lutein recovery of cheese was 95.25%. Color saturation (chrome increased during storage time resulting in a cheese with more intense color, but there were no changes in the hue of the cheese. Adjusting the amount of lutein added to Prato cheese may lead to greater acceptance. The high recovery of lutein in the cheese and the fact that the hue remained unchanged during storage under light showed that the incorporation of lutein into Prato cheese is feasible from a technical point of view.

  17. THE STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT CHEESE MADE WITH UNTRADITIONAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Oboznaya, M.; Prasol, D.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacture of dairy products, especially cheese production, on the basis of reconstituted milk and milk recombination is an important task. Stable quality is the most important criteria. Soft cheese production is rapidly developed with the low complexity of technology. Wide range and organoleptic advantages compared with traditional types of cheese give hope to meet the consumer demand. Development of combined products of soft cheese with inclusion the proteins and fats of vegetable origin i...

  18. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese: their formation and their contribution to flavour.

    OpenAIRE

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour during the ripening of cheese is determined by the process of proteolysis of caseins. Over the past years proteolysis has been studied very extensively and as a result a wealth of information about this process h...

  19. Monitoring the presence of Staphylococcus coagulaso positive in Sharri cheese during the traditional ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ferati; Bizena Bijo; Namik Durmishi; Elizabeta Coneva

    2012-01-01

    Sharri cheese is a farming traditional product of Sharra region. Sharri cheese is prepared from sheep milk. While the chemical and physical aspect of this type of cheese is already completed the aspect of safety is much less studied. The safety of Sharra cheese may be compromised because it is produced from unpasteurized sheep's milk. Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed in f...

  20. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones, esters, alcohols and aldehydes can be formed from milk fat, compounds that all contribute their own special character to the final cheese flavour. The formation mechanisms that lead to these compounds a...

  1. Thin agar layer- versus most probable number-PCR to enumerate viable and stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 and application in a traditional raw milk pasta filata cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Riccardi, Maria; Quero, Grazia Marina

    2012-09-17

    A mid-log phase broth culture of Escherichia (E.) coli O157:H7 381 (final concentration 10(4) cfu/mL) was monitored by conventional liquid- and solid-based enumeration techniques combined with PCR while it was subjected to thermal stress in gradually more complex systems (i.e., Tryptone Soya Broth, pasteurized milk and during lab-scale productions of a pasta filata fior di latte cheese obtained from raw or pasteurized milk). Our results highlighted: i) the incapability of the selective medium, ii) the effectiveness of the thin agar layer-PCR method, and iii) the effectiveness of the most probable number (MPN)-PCR method (in comparison with both plating-based methods) in recovering and selectively counting viable and stressed or injured E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, MPN-PCR was superior to both plating-based methods in terms of speed and easiness to get results. The thermal stresses herein applied (heating at 55 °C for 5 and 8 min) were less effective on the pasteurized milk than on the Tryptone Soya Broth and the pathogen was more protected in the raw milk-based matrices than in the pasteurized ones. Moreover, given the contamination level (10(4) cfu/mL of milk) of the strain, the temperature/time of stretching and the hardening and brining conditions herein used, the complete inactivation of the pathogen is not achievable. PMID:22906600

  2. Influence of different processing parameters in physical and sensorial properties of Serra da Estrela cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Vítor, André; Tenreiro, Marlene; Correia, Ana Cristina; Pinto, António; Barracosa, Paulo; Madanelo, João; Vacas, Marta; Guiné, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance, flavour and texture. Processing parameters that could affect cheese structure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product. Serra da Estrela cheese is a DOP cheese manufactured from raw ewes’ milk and curdled with thistle flowers aqueous extract. The aim of this study was the evaluation of physical and sensorial properties of cheeses, produced with thistle flowers from diffe...

  3. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  4. A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Istrian cheese is the traditional hard cheese produced exclusively from the raw milk of the autochthonous Istrian sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality, physicochemical properties of the sheep milk and Istrian cheese as well as proteolysis of cheese produced on six family farms during the cheese ripening. The hygienic microbial indicators of the sheep milk were poor in comparison to the other East Adriatic regions. However, the number of bacterial indicators rapidly declined during the ripening and they were under the detection limit for “ready to consume” cheese and therefore indicated their good bacteriological quality. Regression function of the effects of the ripening time on physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese during ripening showed a substantial increase in total solids, in salt, in moisture and in salt content as well as in the lactic acid in the total solids. However, these changes were not significant due to the high variability of the Istrian cheese production. The farm cheese making procedure affected the electrophoretic profile of the primary proteolysis in the cheese samples. Significant (P5 %. Equal degradation of as1-casein and ß-casein during ripening of Istrian cheese occurred. A low percentage of nitrogen fractions soluble in water and in 12 % trichloroacetic acid were determined.

  5. Extra Cheese, Please! Mozzarella's Journey from Cow to Pizza [and] Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris

    This book traces Annabelle the dairy cow's milk from the farm to the top of a Friday night pizza. The book relates that when Annabelle gives birth to her calf she also begins to produce milk; the milk is then processed into cheese, and from the cheese, pizza is made (recipe included). The book features color photographs of the entire process which…

  6. Minas-type fresh cheese developed from buffalo milk with addition of L. acidophilus Desenvolvimento de queijo minas frescal de leite de búfala com adição de L. acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marcatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective incorporation of a probiotic into foods requires the culture to remain viable all along processing and storage, without adverse alterations to sensory characteristics. The objective of this work was developing Minas-type fresh cheese with probiotic properties from buffalo milk. Four batches of Minas-type fresh cheese were prepared using buffalo milk: batch T1 in which neither culture nor lactic acid added; batch T3 in which only lactic acid added; batches T2 and T4 , both added of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC 4, but T4 was also acidified. Resulting cheeses were evaluated for probiotic culture stability, texture profile, sensory acceptance, and changes in pH. The T4 probiotic cheese presented hardness, gumminess, and chewiness significantly lower than the other treatments. However, values for springiness and cohesiveness did not differ between all cheeses, and no sensory differences (p > 0.05 were found between treatments for texture, taste, and overall acceptance. The addition of probiotic to the acidified cheese (T4 yielded best aroma. The populations of L. acidophilus were greater than 10(6 CFU g-1 after 28 days of storage all products. Minas-type fresh cheese from buffalo milk is a suitable food for the delivery of L. acidophilus, since the culture remained viable during the shelf life of the products and did not negative affect analysed parameters.Para incorporação efetiva de probióticos em alimentos é imprescindível que a cultura mantenha-se viável durante todo o processamento e a estocagem e que não ocorram alterações adversas nas características sensoriais do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver queijo Minas frescal com propriedades probióticas a partir do leite de búfala. Foram avaliados quatro tratamentos (T1 a T4, sendo T1 e T3 controles, sem e com acidificação, respectivamente em T2 e T4 foram adicionados da cultura probiótica Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC 4, porém T4 foi também acidificado

  7. Qualidade de queijo minas frescal preparado com leite com diferentes quantidades de células somáticas Quality of minas frescal cheese prepared from milk with different somatic cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Andreatta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of using bulk milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC on the quality of minas frescal cheese. A randomized complete block design was used, with 3x5 factorial treatments, with three SCC levels (low, 125,000 cells mL-1; intermediate, 437,000 cells mL-1; and high, 1,053,000 cells mL-1 and five storage durations. Cheese was vacuum-packed in plastic bags and analyzed after 2, 9, 16, 23 and 30 days of storage at 4ºC. Somatic cell counts did not affect dry matter, fat, ash content, pH, free fatty acid concentrations and sensory parameters of minas frescal cheese. However, SCC in milk increased losses of protein in whey and decreased the cheese protein content. These changes did not affect the moisture-adjusted cheese yield and proteolysis during 30 days of storage. An interaction effect between SCC and time of storage was observed for firmness and sensory grades of cheeses. Results indicated that raw milk used to produce minas frescal cheese should not contain high SCC, in order to avoid lower acceptance of the product after 30 days of storage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso de leite com diferentes contagens de células somáticas (CCS, na qualidade do queijo minas frescal. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x5, com três níveis de CCS (baixa, 125.000 células mL-1; intermediária, 437.000 células mL-1; e alta, 1.053.000 células·mL-1 e cinco tempos de armazenamento. Os queijos foram embalados a vácuo, em embalagens de plástico, e analisados após 2, 9, 16, 23 e 30 dias de armazenamento a 4ºC. A contagem de células somáticas não afetou a matéria seca, a gordura, as cinzas, o pH, a concentração de ácidos graxos livres e os parâmetros sensoriais do minas frescal. A CCS no leite aumentou as perdas de proteína no soro e diminuiu o teor de proteína no queijo. Essas alterações não afetaram o rendimento com umidade ajustada e a

  8. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  9. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Larsen, Lotte B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the ...

  10. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  12. Elaboração de um queijo análogo ao pecorino romano produzido com leite de cabra e coalhada congelados Elaboration of a similar cheese to the pecorino romano made with frozen goat milk and frozen curd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Abdallah Curi

    2007-02-01

    cabra nas condições naturais (T1 nas épocas de pico da produção e utilizar congelamento lento do leite (T5, que seria realizado na época de pico da produção, na entressafra.Seasonal production and small yield per animal are limiting factors when using goat's milk with consequent problems in the products supply, even in countries with well developed milk goat's herds located in temperate zones. The aim of this work was the production of a similar cheese to the "Pecorino Romano" using frozen goat's milk and frozen curd. The resultant cheeses was characterizing of the point of view organoléptic related with the cure. The experimental line was established to verify the effect of slow freezing and quick freezing of goat milk and curd in the sensory characteristics of the product, using the following treatments: Treatment 1 milk and curd without freezing, (N.F.; Treatment 2 slow freezing of the obtained curd, (S.F.C.; Treatment 3 quick freezing of the obtained curd, using liquid nitrogen, (Q.F.C.; Treatment 4 quick freezing of milk, using liquid nitrogen, (Q.F.M.; Treatment 5 slow freezing of milk, (S.F.M.. The sensory evaluation was performed after a 2 month period of cheese ripening by a panel composed by 10 tasters selected and trainned. The results indicated that there was a significant statistic difference among the treatments when submitted to a sensory evaluation after cheese ripening. For the analyzed attribute group it was possibly to consider that the treatment 4 had the best performance with high average for tast, flavor and hedonic scale and low average for acid flavor, off flavor, mechanic holes and or gaseous. This treatment showed, also, average low for spiced flavor, texture e consistency. The worst performance was for treatment 3 but the medium results did not disqualify it totally. Therefore, for the production of the studied cheese, goat's milk in natural conditions could be used (T1 during high milk production season and previously slow frozen

  13. Effect of fat reduction on chemical composition, proteolysis, functionality, and yield of Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, M A; Barbano, D M; Yun, J J; Kindstedt, P S

    1999-04-01

    Mozzarella cheese was made from skim milk standardized with cream (unhomogenized, 40% milk fat) to achieve four different target fat percentages in the cheese (ca. 5, 10, 15, and 25%). No statistically significant differences were detected for cheese manufacturing time, stretching time, concentration of salt in the moisture phase, pH, or calcium as a percentage of the protein in the cheese between treatments. As the fat percentage was reduced, there was an increase in the moisture and protein content of the cheese. However, because the moisture did not replace the fat on an equal basis, there was a significant decrease in the moisture in the nonfat substance in the cheese as the fat percentage was reduced. This decrease in total filler volume (fat plus moisture) was associated with an increase in the hardness of the unmelted cheese. Whiteness and opacity of the unmelted cheese decreased as the fat content decreased. Pizza baking performance, meltability, and free oil release significantly decreased as the fat percentage decreased. The minimum amount of free oil release necessary to obtain proper functionality during pizza baking was between 0.22 and 2.52 g of fat/100 g of cheese. Actual cheese yield was about 30% lower for cheese containing 5% fat than for cheese with 25% fat. Maximizing fat recovery in the cheese becomes less important to maintain high cheese yield, and moisture control and the retention of solids in the water phase become more important as the fat content of the cheese is reduced. PMID:10212453

  14. Molecular characterization of dominant bacterial population in “Vastedda della Valle del Belice” cheese: preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Todaro, M; Currò, V; Scatassa, M.L.; Caracappa, S.; Vitale, F.; S. Reale

    2010-01-01

    The sensory characteristics of raw-milk cheeses are linked to the cheese-making process, to the environmental factors as animal feeding and to the biochemical and microbiological composition of the milk. In this report we temped to characterize the microflora in the typical Sicilian historical cheese as Vastedda della valle del Belice. Each cheese was previous subjected to microbial isolation on specific media (M17 and MRS). The colony obtained on the solid medium were subject to biochemical ...

  15. RESEARCH CONCERNING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN MILK PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a study case concerning economic efficiency of dairy products atAgro Industrial Milk Processing Company Baneasa , Bucharest . The most effectivedairy products are pressed cheese, green cheese, superior cow cheese, sheep cottagecheese, fresh cow cheese and whip cream. Production cost varies according toprocessing technology, specific consumption, price of raw materials, auxiliarymaterials, labor, energy, water. The company registered the highest profit Euro18,421 and the hig...

  16. Improvement of consumer properties of melted cheese applying vegetable protein

    OpenAIRE

    Шевченко, Олена Євгеніївна

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development and merchandising evaluation of new combined melted cheese, applying vegetable ingredients, to enhance biological value, improve the nutritional properties and reduce cholesterol levels. The work includes the research of samples of developed melted cheese, their expert evaluation; study of merchandising quality properties of cheese, namely, rheological and organoleptic. The influence of the quantitative substitution of raw milk by the vegetable pr...

  17. The technology, chemistry, and microbiology of Serra Cheese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Angela C.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Oliveira, Jorge C

    1993-01-01

    This paper comprehensively reviews fundamental and applied aspects of the manufacture of Serra cheese, its composition, the biochemical reactions that take place during coagulation and ripening, and the microbial ecology. Serra cheese is the most traditional cheese manufactured in Portugal. Aspects that make it unique are 1) its manufacture by the coagulation of raw ewe milk using a vegetable rennet (cardoon flower) and 2) its final buttery texture and flavor. The wide variation of the final ...

  18. Raw milk consumption and health

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Vranješ Anka; Popović Milka; Jevtić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultu...

  19. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  20. Characterization of bacterial populations in Danish raw milk cheeses made with different starter cultures by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoud, Wafa Mahmoud Hasan; Takamiya, Monica K Wik; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    2011-01-01

    ripening. Other bacteria like Corynebacterium, Halomonas, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, which were encountered in some cheese samples at low percentages compared with the total bacterial populations, were only detected by pyrosequencing. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing is an efficient method...

  1. High-throughput sequencing for detection of subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for the first time, detected the presence of Arthrobacter and Brachybacterium in goats' milk cheese. Our analysis confirmed many previously observed patterns, such as the dominance of typical cheese bacteria, the fact that the microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses differ, and that the level of cheese maturation has a significant influence on Lactobacillus populations. It was also noted that cheeses containing adjunct ingredients had lower proportions of Lactococcus species. It is thus apparent that high-throughput sequencing-based investigations can provide valuable insights into the microbial populations of artisanal foods. PMID:22685131

  2. GENETIC ASPECTS OF MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN DAIRY CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Cassandro; Chiara Dalvit; Enrico Zanetti; Massimo De Marchi; Riccardo Dal Zotto,

    2007-01-01

    Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock ...

  3. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. PMID:24792787

  4. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  5. Exploring the physicochemical basis of cheese texture, rheology and functionality, with emphasis on cation-casein interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Darren Richard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of cheese and milk gels are greatly influenced by molecular interactions between the casein proteins involving calcium. Novel experiments were designed to investigate the relationship between insoluble caseinbound cations and rheological properties of Cheddar cheese and rennet-induced milk gels. Cheddar cheese and rennet-induced milk gels were supplemented with Mg2+ or Sr2+ to compare their effects on their rheological properties to those previously reported in ...

  6. Quality of lipid fraction in Tuscan sheep cheese (Pecorino Toscano DOP)

    OpenAIRE

    MINIERI S.; M. ANTONGIOVANNI; A. Buccioni; S. Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Bulk milk from dairy ewes of North Tuscany was sampled and analyzed for the fatty acids profile. Cheese was then made out of milk, pasteurized and fortified with Lactobacilli. The same analysis was performed on the lipid fraction of samples of the freshly made cheese and of samples of the same cheese, but ripened for different times: 30, 60, 90, 120 days of ageing. As a result, cheese making did not affect the acidic composition of the lipid fraction of the original milk and, furthermore, age...

  7. Extraction and immobilization of vegetable aspartic proteases for cheese making

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase in cheese production and consumption, together with the reduced supply and consequent price increase of calf rennet, has led to the search of new milk coagulant agents. Much research interest has been thus directed towards discovering milk clotting enzymes which would satisfactory replace calf rennet in cheese manufacture. Microbial rennet produced by genetically engineered bacteria has proven to be a suitable substitute even though the consumer constraints on the use o...

  8. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  9. Substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo bovino para cabritos alpinos Replacement of goat milk for cattle cheese whey in artificial feeding of Alpine kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo bovino no aleitamento de cabritos alpinos. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo (0, 15, 30 e 45% e dois sexos (três machos e quatro fêmeas por tratamento. A inclusão do soro de queijo na dieta não afetou o desenvolvimento ponderal dos cabritos dos 7 aos 42 dias de idade. Os cabritos alimentados com leite de cabra apresentaram maiores pesos finais, em torno de 13,0 kg; consumiram 70,0 litros/animal de leite de cabra, 172,0 g MS/animal/dia de concentrado e tiveram ganho médio de 137,5 g/dia. Nos cabritos alimentados com a dieta com 15, 30 e 45% de soro de queijo, os pesos finais foram de 11,1; 9,88 e 10,27 kg; o consumo de leite foi de 59,5; 49,0 e 38,4 litros/animal; e o de concentrado, 148,0; 117,0 e 135 g MS/animal/dia, com ganhos de 122,2; 99,5 e 100,8 g/dia, respectivamente. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre as dietas. O efeito do sexo evidenciou-se a partir dos 21 dias de idade, mas não houve interação dieta × sexo. Ao final do estudo, aos 70 dias de idade, o peso dos machos (12,4 kg foi maior que o das fêmeas (10,6 kg. A maior rentabilidade média (168,15% foi obtida com o fornecimento dos níveis mais altos de soro de leite. O aleitamento de cabritos com até 45% de soro de queijo é tecnicamente viável e proporciona melhor retorno econômico. O uso de leite integral de cabra para criação de cabritos em rebanhos leiteiros é economicamente inviável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the replacement of whole goat milk for cattle cheese whey in the artificial nursing of alpine kids. The animals were distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement made up with four levels of goat milk replacing for cheese whey (0, 15, 30 and 45% and two sexes (three

  10. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezik Azab Awad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artifi cial, extruded, synthetic and/or fi lled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, fl avorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. Material and methods. Matured Ras cheese (3 months old was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fi ne paste and kept frozen until used. Results. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and fi rmness of

  11. Analysis of the processed cheese price formation in the international market

    OpenAIRE

    Kennya Siqueira; Alziro Vasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is not a great exporter of dairy products. However, between 2004 and 2008, the country increased significantly the amount of dairy exported. At this time, Brazil exported mainly whole milk powder, condensed milk and processed cheese. After the world crisis, the country started to import more dairy products, but it´s still a great producer of processed cheese. On this context, it is important to study the relationship among the Brazilian processed cheese prices and the prices in the mai...

  12. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  13. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  14. Chromium, lead and cadmium in Danish milk products and cheese determined by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after direct injection or pressurised ashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Rasmussen, L.

    1991-01-01

    A method for the direct determination of chromium in homogeneous samples of milk and milk products is described. Minimum sample handling and prevention of contamination was given priority. After injection of the sample into the graphite furnace, the sample was ashed in a stream of oxygen at 650-d...

  15. Increasing Stringiness of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese Using Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, Erik N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of polysaccharides to function as fat mimetics in low-fat (LF) mozzarella string cheese to improve functionality by acting like fat globules to separate protein fibers during cheese extrusion. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd made from 273 kg of 0.7% fat milk was salted at a rate of 10 g/kg then divided into 3.6-kg batches that were hand-stretched in 5% brine at 80° C and formed into a homogeneous mass. The hot cheese was hand mixed with a hot 80° polysaccharide slurry, ...

  16. Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadoti Leila Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. However, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. The effects of five different processing methods for Prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (EPI and DPI. The following treatments (T for cheese production were studied: T1 - without ultrafiltration (standard; T2, T3, T4 and T5 - using milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UFCM and respectively: T2 - without pre-fermentation of the UFCM; T3 - pre-fermentation of 10% of the UFCM; T4 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM, and T5 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM plus indirect heating. Treatments affected the EPI and DPI of the cheeses (T1 lower values for EPI and DPI and T4 higher values for EPI and DPI. The time influenced the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes.

  17. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A and 1,0% fat (B. Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus and without rennet addition. After milk coagulation (about 7-9 hours, the curd was gently cut and drained overnight. Produced of skim milk cheese samples (A had approximately 23.4% total solids, 1.8% fat in total solids and yield about 24.5% (w/v, while the low fat cheese samples (B had 26.2% total solids, 16.2% fat in total solids and yield about 27.3% (w/v. The skim milk cheeses (A had higher protein and mineral matter content compared to low fat cheeses (B. All samples of probiotic fresh cheese were a like to traditional fresh cheese according to general appearance and consistency. However, they had slightly lower aroma and acidity, expecially skim milk cheese samples (A. Better sensory properties had low fat cheesesamples (B during total time of storage (14 days. Acceptability of probiotic fresh cheese was evalueted by hedonic scale from 63 consumers. Statistic shows that all samples were 100% desirable, but average score for skim milk cheese (A was some lower (x = 7.33 than average score (x = 8.11 for low fat cheese (B. Variance analysis also shows that there is significantly important difference (p= 0,05 between analysed fresh cheese samples

  18. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  19. Elaboração do queijo mozarela de leite de búfala pelos métodos tradicional e da acidificação direta Mozzarella cheese of buffalo's milk elaborated by traditional and direct acidification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma BERNARDI

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a elaboração do queijo Mozarela de leite de búfala pelos métodos tradicional e da acidificação direta com ácido cítrico. O pH da acidificação variou de 5,1 a 5,2. Observou-se uma redução de 8 para 3 horas no tempo total de fabricação pelo método da acidificação direta em relação ao tradicional. Esta redução ocorreu devido à diminuição do tempo de coagulação de 50 para 5 minutos e da ausência da etapa de fermentação. A etapa de fermentação durou 4 horas no método tradicional. O rendimento obtido para o queijo Mozarela elaborado pelo método da acidificação direta foi maior que o obtido no tradicional, com valores de 18,0 e 17,3%, respectivamente. Em base seca, observou-se que os processamentos obtiveram rendimento equivalente. O queijo elaborado pelo método de acidificação direta apresentou menor teor de proteína e maior de umidade e, consequentemente, menor teor de sólidos totais em relação ao método tradicional. Os teores de gordura, cinzas e cálcio dos queijos elaborados para ambos os métodos não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Para o teste de aceitabilidade dos queijos, 50 provadores não treinados avaliaram as amostras utilizando escala hedônica de 9 pontos. Não houve diferença significativa na aceitabilidade das amostras, com médias 6,68 e 6,26 para o método de acidificação direta e método tradicional, respectivamente.The study was purpose to evaluate the processing of buffalo's milk Mozzarella cheese of elaborated by traditional method and by direct acidification method with citric acid. Acidification pH ranged from 5,1 to 5,2. There was a reduction from 8 to 3 hours in the total time of cheese production by utilization of direct acidification method in relation to the traditional method. This reduction occurred due to a decrease on coagulation time from 50 to 5 minutes and the absence of fermentation stage. Fermentation stage lasted 4 hours

  20. The effect of age on Cheddar cheese melting, rheology and structure, and on the stability of feed for cheese powder manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Colin Andrew; Gholamhosseinpour, Aliakbar; Ipsen, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    and small angle oscillation measurements. Results showed increasing stiffness and reduced activation energy for initiation of milk fat melting with age. Cheese feeds for manufacture of cheese powder were made, with or without emulsifying salts (ES), and analysed for emulsion stability. In the absence of ES......Age-related changes to the rheology and structure of Cheddar for cheese powder manufacture, and how this influences the stability of cheese feed during pre-spray-drying storage, were investigated. Cheddar cheese (3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 15 months old) was analysed for meltability by the Schreiber Test...

  1. MOLECULES TO MOZZARELLA: THE CHEMISTRY OF CHEESE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost ten billion pounds of cheese are produced in the US each year, and chemistry is involved in every step of the manufacturing process. The milk coagulates into a curd when starter culture bacteria digest lactose and rennet enzyme destabilizes casein micelles. Cooking and piling the curd force...

  2. Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review

    OpenAIRE

    7; ,; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir; Mann, Bimlesh

    2013-01-01

    International audience Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a C-terminal part (f 106–169) of kappa-casein which is released in whey during cheese making by the action of chymosin. GMP being a biologically active component has gained much attention in the past decade. It also has unique chemical and functional properties. Many of the biological properties have been ascribed to the carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide. The unique set of amino acids in GMP makes it a sought-after ingredient wi...

  3. The effect of using a vegetable fat blend on some attributes of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesemkas, H.; Dinkci, N.; Seckin, K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2009-07-01

    Kashar cheese was produced from whole milk (MF) or skim milk homogenized with a commercial vegetable fat blend (VF) by the traditional procedure. The resulting cheese was stored for 3 months at 5 degree centigrade, and analyzed initially for its gross composition and cholesterol content. In addition, the proteolysis and lipolysis, organic acid content and fatty acid composition were studied during the ripening of the cheese. The replacement of milk fat with a vegetable fat blend mainly affected pH, total solids and cholesterol content in the initial composition of the cheese (P < 0.05). The acid degree value and tyrosine contents in both types of cheese increased throughout ripening and significant differences were found between the cheeses after only 30 days of ripening (P < 0.05). The organic acid concentrations of both cheeses changed during ripening (P < 0.05) except for citric and oxalic acids. MF cheese showed higher levels of citric, succinic and oxalic acids especially towards to the end of ripening. Palmitic acid was the dominant fatty acid in MF cheese while the most abundant fatty acids in VF cheese were palmitic and oleic acid. The higher unsaturated fatty acid composition of the VF cheese has attracted attention from the healthy food image point of view. (Author) 44 refs.

  4. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cerri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  5. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Turchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  6. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from goat cheese associated with a case of listeriosis in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertz, I; Danielsson-Tham, M L; Hammarberg, K E; Reeves, M W; Rocourt, J; Seeliger, H P; Swaminathan, B; Tham, W

    1993-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain of a goat, which was euthanized due to listeriosis. A few weeks later a similar subtype of L. monocytogenes was isolated from an on-farm manufactured fresh cheese which did not contain any milk from the goat which had suffered from listeriosis. A similar subtype was also found on 1 of the shelves in the refrigerator where cheeses were stored. Prior to the onset of listeriosis, 1 fresh cheese had been made of milk from the actual goat, which may have excreted L. monocytogenes in her milk. Thus, the cheese made of this milk may have contaminated the shelves in the refrigerator which then has served as a Listeria reservoir for new cheeses during several weeks. PMID:8266892

  7. Effect of type of concentrated sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield, and functionality of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lin, T; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2007-06-01

    Sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) is a rich source of phospholipids (PL). Most SCB is sold in a concentrated form. This study was conducted to determine if different concentration processes could affect the behavior of SCB as an ingredient in cheese. Sweet cream buttermilk was concentrated by 3 methods: cold ( pizza cheese was manufactured using the 3 different types of concentrated SCB as an ingredient in standardized milk. Cheesemilks of casein:fat ratio of 1.0 and final casein content approximately 2.7% were obtained by blending ultrafiltered (UF)-SCB retentate (19.9% solids), RO-SCB retentate (21.9% solids), or EVAP-SCB retentate (36.6% solids) with partially skimmed milk (11.2% solids) and cream (34.6% fat). Control milk (11.0% solids) was standardized by blending partially skimmed milk with cream. Cheese functionality was assessed using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology, UW Meltprofiler (degree of flow after heating to 60 degrees C), and performance of cheese on pizza. Initial trials with SCB-fortified cheeses resulted in approximately 4 to 5% higher moisture (51 to 52%) than control cheese (approximately 47%). In subsequent trials, procedures were altered to obtain similar moisture content in all cheeses. Fat recoveries were significantly lower in RO- and EVAP-SCB cheeses than in control or UF-SCB cheeses. Nitrogen recoveries were not significantly different but tended to be slightly lower in control cheeses than the various SCB cheeses. Total PL recovered in SCB cheeses ( approximately 32 to 36%) were lower than control ( approximately 41%), even though SCB is high in PL. From the rheology test, the loss tangent curves at temperatures > 40 degrees C increased as cheese aged up to a month and were significantly lower in SCB cheeses than the control, indicating lower meltability. Degree of flow in all the cheeses was similar regardless of the treatment used, and as cheese ripened, it increased for all cheeses. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble N levels were

  8. Formation of Amino Acid Derived Cheese Flavour Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), among them Lactococcus lactis, are often used for the fermentation of milk into various products, such as cheeses. For their growth and maintenance LAB metabolise milk sugar, protein and fat into various low molecular compounds, which sometimes have strong flavour charact

  9. Mexican Queso Chihuahua: functional properties of aging cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queso Chihuahua, a traditional, semi-hard cheese manufactured from raw milk (RM) in northern Mexico, is being replaced by pasteurized milk (PM) versions because of food safety concerns and to extend shelf-life. In this study, the functional traits of authentic Mexican Queso Chihuahua made with RM o...

  10. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Gustavsson, Frida; Glantz, Maria; Paulsson, Marie; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Bendixen, Christian

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  11. Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of ovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Elisa; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio; Caverni, Francesco; Mangili, Piermario; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-04-01

    A survey on ovine dairy farms directly transforming own-produced milk, in the Italian Marche region, was carried out to assess flock and milking practices that may influence milk hygienic-sanitary conditions. A census survey established that 24 dairy farms were located in this region. Bulk milk samples were collected throughout the milking period in each dairy farm in 2013. Analyzed variables were: (i) chemical parameters such as fat, protein and lactose content, dry matter and pH; and (ii) total bacterial (TBC) and somatic cell counts (SCC). Chemical parameter values were in agreement with published data while, geometric mean (GM) log10 SCC was 5.91 and TBC GM was 57 978 colony forming units/mL, in compliance with Eropean Union criteria. A positive correlation was found between SCC and TBC when GMs of all farm data were considered (Spearman's rho = 0.7925; P = 0.0001). Statistical analysis did not show significant correlation between SCC or TBC GM and dairy farm principal characteristics. Although SCC levels detected in the present study should suggest the need to implement mastitis control programs, Marche's dairy sheep flocks revealed a good hygienic condition level. This is an important aspect in implementing safety for end users of the final product. PMID:26304708

  12. Transfer of 226Ra, 85Sr and 137Cs from milk to milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of 226Ra, 85Sr and 137Cs from cow and sheep milk to various Syrian dairy products has been evaluated. Dairy products include Kashkivan cheese, braided cheese, Haloom cheese, Sircassian cheese, liquid cheese, native cheese, cottage, thick yogurt, butter and milk cream. The results showed that the percentage of 226Ra, 85Sr and 137Cs transferred from cow milk to milk cream (Pt = food processing retention factor x processing efficiency x 100%) has reached 32%, 16% and 7%, respectively. Butter and liquid cheese were found to have the lowest percentage of transferred 226Ra, 85Sr and 137Cs. Most of the obtained Pt values of the studied radionuclides in thick yogurt were relatively low in spite of the high processing efficiencies of thick yogurt. Moreover, the transfer, Pt, of the studied radionuclides from cow milk to the prepared cheese was higher than those values determined for sheep milk. This is due to differences in chemical compositions of each type of milk. On the other hand, the treatment of Native cheese, most commonly consumed cheese in Syria, with different concentrations of NaCl solutions showed that 137Cs was completely removed from cheese soaking in 5% NaCl solution (soaking time of 48 hours), while 40% of 226Ra and 80% of 85Sr were also decontaminated using 0-2.5% NaCl solutions and soaking time of 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, industrialization processes of the dairy products that resulted the removal of radionuclides have been identified. (author)

  13. Physical sample structure as predictive factor in growth modeling of Listeria innocua in a white cheese model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie M.; Bertram, Hanne C.; Andersen, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Growth of Listeria innocua at 9 °C was investigated in white cheeses manufactured from ultra-filtrate milk concentrate added varying amounts of skimmed milk powder, NaCl and glucono-delta-lactone. Characterization of the white cheese structures was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T...

  14. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  15. Fate of aflatoxin M1 in Iranian white cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, A; Karim, G; Aliabadi, F Shojaee; Khaksar, R

    2008-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important mycotoxin frequently found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is a major metabolic product of Aflatoxin B1 and is usually excreted in the milk and urine of dairy cattle that have consumed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the AFM1 concentration in curd and whey of Iranian white cheese. The cheese milk samples were artificially contaminated with AFM1 in six levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.75microgL(-1)). Cheese was produced according to Iranian traditional recipe. AFM1 distribution between curd, whey and cheese was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using immunoaffinity column clean up and florescence detection. AFM1 was recovered in whey, curd and cheese in the concentrations of 0.43, 1.47 and 1.57microgL(-1),respectively. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in curd and cheese obtained 3.12- and 3.65-fold more than that in whey that shows the affinity of Aflatoxin M1 to the protein fraction of milk. PMID:18433973

  16. ASSESSMENT OF PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL OF LACTOBACILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM CHEESE AND PREPARATION OF PROBIOTIC ICE-CREAM

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Liladhar Shivram; Pandav Parag Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are naturally present in milk and fermented milk products such as different kinds of cheese, yogurt, butter etc. The aim of the present study was isolation and taxonomic determination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from cheese (wild type). Lactobacillus sp. was isolated from indigenous cheese sample, identified and characterized on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics at genus level. The pure isolated Lactobacillus was assessed for various p...

  17. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Dias, Disney R.; Pereira, Gilberto V. de Melo; Oliveira, J.M.; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Schwan, Rosane F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, i...

  18. Queijo gorgonzola fabricado com leite pasteurizado por ejetor de vapor e HTST: parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais Gorgonzola type cheese manufactured with milk pasteurized by the HTST and steam ejector systems: physic-chemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gattini Sbampato

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de dois sistemas de pasteurização (High Temperature Short Time ¾ HTST¾ e ejetor de vapor nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais do queijo tipo Gorgonzola. As coletas de amostras de queijo e análises foram realizadas aos 5, 25, 45, 65 e 85 dias de maturação. Durante o período de maturação ocorreu aumento gradual de pH, sal/umidade e índice de acidez nos dois tratamentos. Os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST obtiveram valores médios de pH superiores aos dos queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor; os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor, obtiveram teores de índice de acidez e metilcetonas superiores aos dos queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST, indicando maior atividade lipolítica nesses queijos. Pela análise sensorial realizada aos 65 dias de maturação, pode se observar que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação à aparência, cor, consistência, textura e sabor. Porém foi observada diferença significativa com relação ao desenvolvimento do mofo e aroma. Os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor apresentaram maior atividade lipolítica e massa mais macia e fechada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of two pasteurization systems (HTST and steam ejector on the physic-chemical and sensory characteristics of Gorgonzola type cheese. Sampling and analysis were conducted at 5, 25, 45, 65 and 85 days of ripening. Along the maturation period, pH, acidity index, salt/humidity, gradually increased. Cheeses manufactured with milk pasteurized by the HTST system had average values of pH higher than those manufactured with milk pasteurized by the steam ejector system. Milk pasteurized by the steam ejector system produced cheeses with higher acidity index (lipolysis and

  19. The influence of ultrafiltration of whole or partially skimmed milk on feta type cheeses’ composition and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Harjač

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of ultrafiltration in Feta cheese production is widely used especially due to maximal utilization of all milk components, the highest cheese yield and more economic production as well.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of differentconcentrated milk samples (whole milk, 3x and 5x concentrated, or partially skimmed milk with 1.8% milk fat, 2x and 3x concentrated on production parameters, chemical composition and sensory properties of experimental Feta cheese samples during ripening in brine at 12°C. The control cheese samples from non-concentrated whole and partially skimmed milk were also produced. These samples obtained better sensory scores, during the entire ripening time (28 days, compared to experimental Feta cheese samples. The highest chemical changes were recorded for the experimental Feta cheeses from ultrafiltered whole milk, where total solid content increased for about 24% after 14 days of ripening. In a case of Feta cheeses produced from ultrafiltered partially skimmed milk, the total solid content increased only for about 10%. Furthermore, cheeses from ultrafiltered partially skimmed milk, 2x concentrated, possessed similar composition and sensory properties to control cheese samples from non-concentrated partially skimmed milk. In this case the highest protein content (50% and the lowest fat content (36% in total solids of cheeses, was obtained. These cheese samples possessed also the best taste after 28 days of ripening in brine. For ripening of cheeses from ultrafiltered whole milk the brine with 20% NaCl was necessary, but for another Feta cheese samples the brine with 10% NaCl was desired. The highest cheese yield (59% was obtained from ultrafiltered whole milk, 5x concentrated.

  20. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including...... applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers...

  1. Exploratory study of acid-forming potential of commercial cheeses: impact of cheese type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Ecaterina; Mardon, Julie; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Due to their composition, cheeses are suspected to induce an acid load to the body. To better understand this nutritional feature, the acid-forming potential of five cheeses from different cheese-making technologies and two milk was evaluated on the basis of their potential renal acid load (PRAL) index (considering protein, P, Cl, Na, K, Mg and Ca contents) and organic anions contents. PRAL index ranged from -0.8 mEq/100 g edible portion for fresh cheese to 25.3 mEq/100 g for hard cheese Cantal and 28 mEq/100 g for blue-veined cheese Fourme d'Ambert. PRAL values were greatly subjected to interbatch fluctuations. This work emphasized a great imbalance between acidifying elements of PRAL calculation (Cl, P and proteins elements) and alkalinizing ones (Na and Ca). Particularly, Cl followed by P elements had a strong impact on the PRAL value. Hard cheeses were rich in lactate, thus, might be less acidifying than suspected by their PRAL values only. PMID:27050124

  2. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls. PMID:9501361

  3. Production technology and some quality parameters of Njeguši cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Mirecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of agricultural production and depopulation of areas that are recognized by traditional products, reached its peak during the last few decades. This represents a significant risk that the technology of traditional agricultural products, especially cheeses, can go into oblivion. Njeguši cheese is one of the famous Montenegrin traditional dairy products which originates from the mountain Lovćen and its peripheral areas. Produced by traditional technology, it belongs to a group of full fat, hard cheeses. Owing to its characteristic, spicy taste and pleasant odour, Njeguši cheese can be compared with some of the most famous hard cheeses. Originally it is made from ewe’s milk, but also, cow’s, goat’s and their mixture in different proportions, are increasingly used, which may be the treat to the originality of Njeguši cheese. The present study offers a description of original Njeguši cheese technology, followed by analysis of the chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey. Thereat milk, cheese and whey samples were taken from 5 households located at the place of cheese origin - the Njeguši village. Chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey was determined by method of FTIR spectrophotometry. Milk fat in the dry matter and moisture in cheese non-fat basis were mathematically calculated. The average content of milk fat in ewe’s milk was 4.92 %, proteins 4.59 %, lactose 4.14 % and total solids non-fat 9.46 %. Accordingly, the analysed cheeses belonged to full fat, semi-hard cheese due to 51.73 % fat in total solids and 60.07 % moisture in non-fat basis. The only deviation from original technology was shortening of the ripening period. Apart from the main objective - the preservation of the original technology, this study could significantly contribute to the process of protection of origin of Njeguši cheese, because the technology of cheese fulfilled the requirements listed in the National Law on the

  4. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (p<0.05). The interaction of nisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption. PMID:26310130

  5. Proteolysis in Mozzarella cheeses manufactured by different industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabel, L; Pauletti, M S; Hynes, E

    2007-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of stretching temperature, fat content, and time of brining on proteolysis during ripening of Mozzarella cheeses. Seventeen cheese-making experiments (batches) were carried out on an industrial scale on successive days, following the standard procedure with some modifications. Fat content of cheese milk, temperature at the stretching step, and time of brining varied from one batch to another as required by the experimental design, outlined by a surface response model. Proteolysis was assessed during ripening of samples, which was prolonged for at least 3 mo, by means of electrophoresis, nitrogen fractions, and soluble peptide mapping. The amount of soluble nitrogen at pH 4.6 was not significantly different in cheeses obtained by diverse procedures, but it increased during ripening of all samples. This result was coincident with the breakdown of alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins evidenced by electrophoresis, which reached similar extents at late stages of ripening, regardless of the cheese-making process. Multivariate analysis on soluble peptide profiles obtained by liquid chromatography also detected sample grouping according to ripening time, but did not evidence any separation caused by the cheese-making technology. We concluded that the changes in the cheese-making process assayed in this work were insufficient to produce significant differences in proteolysis of the cheeses. Ripening time had more influence on proteolysis of Mozzarella cheeses than any other assayed variable. PMID:17430907

  6. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...

  7. Influence of probiotic cultures addition on the properties of semi-hard ewe’s cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Addition of probiotic bacteria into fermented milk beverages has been the subject of many studies, however, addition of these bacteria into cheeses, especially the ones made from ewe’s milk, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce probiotic semi-hard ewe’s cheese with addition of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. Cheese ripening occurred during 45 days at 13 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. During that period, chemical parameters were determined and microbiological analysis of manufactured probiotic cheeses was performed. Addition of probiotic cultures did not significantly influence the chemical properties and microbiological quality of produced cheeses in comparison with the control cheeses without addition of probiotic cultures. Number of live probiotic bacteria remained at about 106-107 CFU/g of probiotic cheeses during 45 days of ripening, which was confirmed by RAPD method. Sensory properties of probiotic semi-hard ewe’s cheese with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 were similar to those obtained for cheeses without addition of probiotic, while addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 improved the taste of cheeses. Obtained results demonstrated that semi-hard ewe’s cheese can be an effective matrix for addition of probiotic cultures Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5.

  8. Rendimento, composição e análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal fabricado com leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Yield, composition and sensory analysis of Minas cheese made with milk from crossbred cows fed different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial e o perfil de ácidos graxos do queijo minas frescal produzido com o leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com dietas contendo quatro volumosos: canade-açúcar, silagem de sorgo, silagem de girassol e pastagem de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. Foram avaliados o rendimento, a composição físico-química e o perfil de ácidos graxos. Também foi realizada a análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal e da composição físico-química do leite. Utilizaram-se oito vacas mestiças 1/2 Holandês/Gir, com período de lactação de 180 ± 12 dias, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com quatro animais, quatro dietas e quatro períodos. Os períodos foram de 18 dias, sendo 15 dias de adaptação e três dias de coletas de dados. Após o processamento do queijo, foi feita análise microbiológica, físico-química e posteriormente análise sensorial. Amostras do queijo foram congeladas e analisadas quanto ao perfil de ácidos graxos. O teor de gordura do queijo foi maior para as dietas com cana-de-açúcar e silagem de girassol em relação à silagem de sorgo e ao pasto de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, que não diferiram entre si. O queijo produzido a partir do leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol apresentou melhor perfil de ácidos graxos e índices de qualidade nutricional, maior proporção e melhor perfil de ácidos graxos insaturados. O rendimento do queijo foi igual para todas as dietas, independentemente do volumoso utilizado em sua composição. O queijo produzido com o leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol tem maior preferência pelos julgadores no teste de análise sensorial, especialmente quanto ao atributo aparência.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical and sensory quality and fatty acid profile of Minas cheese produced from milk from crossbred cows fed diets with four roughages (sugar cane

  9. Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Conrado; Millán, Rafael; Saavedra, Pedro; Jaber, José Raduán; Raposo, António; Sanjuán, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate, by statistical analyses, risk factors on cheese farms that can influence the microbial contamination of their products. Various assessment tools, such as cheese production questionnaires, food handlers' knowledge testing, and hygiene assessment system surveys, were used on 39 cheese farms on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. The microbiological status of 773 raw milk and cheese samples from the cheese farms was assessed by enumerating total viable counts and 4 pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. The results revealed that the highest contamination by Staph. aureus (4.39%, >10(5)cfu/mL) was found in milk, and the highest contamination by E. coli (5.18%, >10(3)cfu/mL) was found in cheese. Very few samples (0.52%) were contaminated by L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. The factors associated with any tested microorganism were "handling," "knowledge," and "type of milk." Subsequently, multidimensional logistic analysis for contamination by E. coli showed an independent association for factors "cleaning and disinfection test" and "type of milk." The probability of total aerobic contamination of milk increased with lower hygiene assessment system survey scores. These results emphasize the need to apply and maintain good hygiene practices, and to study risk factors to prevent contamination and bacterial growth. Further research is required in other areas with different cheese farm types to reinforce the validity of these results. PMID:26851842

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani Modi; M. N. Brahmbhatt; Y. A. Chatur; J. B. Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, ...

  11. Microbiological and chemical characterization of a typical Italian cheese: Robiola di Roccaverano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Silvia; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Barile, Daniela; Bonetta, Sara; Travaglia, Fabiano; Piana, Gianluca; Carraro, Elisabetta; Arlorio, Marco

    2008-08-27

    Robiola di Roccaverano is a traditional Italian goat's milk cheese carrying a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The present work studied both cheese microflora and cheese physicochemical characteristics to obtain a more accurate description of this PDO product. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the influence of cheesemaking (artisanal and industrial), ripening time, and season of production on cheese characteristics. Multiplex PCR and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were used to identify the kind of milk employed by Robiola di Roccaverano producers. The results obtained highlight some product differences between the artisanal and industrial products. These differences were most evident in the microbiological data. The use of PCA allowed cheese samples to cluster on the basis of their age (fresh or ripened), the origin of production (artisanal and industrial), and even the season of production. Gross composition, microbiological parameters, and gas chromatographic analyses of FAMEs provided the most important parameters for Robiola di Roccaverano cheese characterization. PMID:18646764

  12. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding. PMID:25033416

  13. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rysha; Frane Delaš

    2014-01-01

    Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (...

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Listeria Species in Domestic and Industrial Cheeses of Isfahan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani-Zadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern to the food industry in general and the dairy industry in particular. Little is known about incidence of this pathogenic bacterium in dairy products in Iran.Methods: A survey was made from 23 September 2006 to 22 June 2007 for Listeria species in ninety samples of tradi­tional and industrial cheeses, in milk and surface where the cheeses were manufactured from unpasteurized raw milk in the province of Isfahan (Iran.Results: Listeria murrayi, L. grayi and L. ivanovii, were detected in nine traditional cheeses and one raw milk sample. None of the different Listeria species were isolated from the industrial cheeses and their environment.Conclusion: There are almost good hygienic conditions in domestic cheese manufacturing farmhouses in Isfahan area, but we should try to improve hygienic levels until we have none of the Listeria spp. in our samples.

  15. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Jihad M. Quasem; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The formulas were ferm...

  16. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Lozo Jelena; Topisirović Ljubiša

    2009-01-01

    In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done b...

  17. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  18. Production of probiotic fresh white cheese using co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Yerlikaya; Elif Ozer

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus was inoculated into milk as co-culture to produce probiotic cheese. The effects of using Streptococcus thermophilus with other probiotic bacteria on cheese composition, and microbiological viability during 28 days of storage were investigated. Sensorial properties were determined only at 1st and 28th days of storage. The results showed that the use of Streptococcus thermophilus as co-culture in probiotic cheese production did not affe...

  19. Situation and problems in the supply chains of traditional cheeses in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Željka Mesić; Marija Cerjak; Damir Kovačić

    2015-01-01

    Croatian producers of traditional cheeses often do not have the financial and/or organizational ability to act independently on the market, Thusit is important to get involved in supply chains in order to improve the competitiveness of their products. The main objective of this study was to determine the status and the problems related to the supply chains of traditional cheeses in Croatia. The survey was conducted on 36 chain members (including 12 milk suppliers, 12 cheese producers and 12 c...

  20. Evaluation of microbial adjuncts and their effect on the ripening of cheddar cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Ristagno, Diletta

    2013-01-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain of Lactobacillus paracasei DPC 4715 was used as an adjunct culture in Cheddar cheese in order to control the growth of “wild” nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. No suppression of growth of the indicator strain was observed in the experimental cheese. The bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus paracasei DPC 4715 was sensitive to chymosin and cathepsin D and it may have been cleaved by the rennet used for the cheese manufactured or by indigenous milk proteases. A ser...

  1. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  2. Compositional Standards, Import Permits and Market Structure: The Case of Canadian Cheese Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Felt, Marie-Helene; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The imposition of new cheese compositional standards by the Canadian authorities has created divisions within the Canadian dairy industry and has motivated criticisms from several of Canada’s trade partners. The standards impose minimum limits on the percentage of casein coming from fluid milk which vary across cheese types. We develop a theoretical model to investigate the implications of Canada’s compositional cheese standards while accounting for Canada’s tariff rate quota specificities. T...

  3. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  4. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  5. Evaluation of Nitrogen Fractions during the Ripening of Jug Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasi Gaznagh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jug (pot cheese is a kind of delicious, semi-hard, and salty cheese in Azerbaijan region, Iran, which is traditionally produced from raw sheep's or cow's milk in rural households and then spends its ripening period under soil, which varies from 3 to 6 months. Given that this type of cheese is traditional and originally from Azerbaijan region, in this study for the first time, nitrogen fractions such as total nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, and non-protein nitrogen were measured during the ripening of jug cheese. In this work, first, the cheese was ripened in two ways: being storing for 45 days in brine at 10°C and being storing for 90 days without brine in the 7±1°C fridge. Results showed that all nitrogen fractions increased during the cheese ripening. Moreover, concentration of tyrosine amino acid as a ripening indicator was determined by preparing of tyrosine standard curve and measuring of its absorption at the wavelength of 650 nm by a spectrophotometer device during the ripening period. It was observed that concentrations of this amino acid gradually increased during ripening, which represented the progress of proteolysis during this period. Also, effect of milk pasteurization on nitrogen fractions was examined and it was concluded that milk pasteurization had a small effect on these factors.

  6. A laboratory micro-manufacturing method for assessing individual cheese yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to propose a micro-manufacturing method for assessing individual cheese yield (CY from dairy milk and to provide first evaluations of the method. Two water baths (WB provided with 8 stainless containers (SC each were used. The cheese making procedure involved coagulation of 500 ml of milk per SC previously inoculated with starter, cutting of the curd, separation of whey through drainage and pressure and weighing of the curd residue for computing CY. Spraydried milk powder and bulk milk were used to validate the procedure. For each type of milk, 5 cheese making sessions (CMS were performed during 5 consecutive days by the same operator; for each trial 80 records (8 replicates x 2WB x 5CMS were available. Sources of variation of CY were investigated separately for type of milk, and variance components were estimated using REML procedure for computing instrumental repeatability and reproducibility. Cheese yield averaged 11% and 13.4% for standard milk powder and bulk milk, respectively. Cheese making session significantly influenced CY, along with WB in the case of milk powder, while SC did not influence CY. Reproducible and repeatable measures of CY were obtained, indicating the method is suitable for assessing individual CY.

  7. Influence of condensed sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield, and functionality of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lin, T; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2006-02-01

    Compositional changes in raw and pasteurized cream and unconcentrated sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) obtained from a local dairy were investigated over 1 yr. Total phospholipid (PL) composition in SCB ranged from 0.113 to 0.153%. Whey protein denaturation in pasteurized cream over 1 yr ranged from 18 to 59%. Pizza cheese was manufactured from milk standardized with condensed SCB (approximately 34.0% total solids, 9.0% casein, 17.8% lactose). Effects of using condensed SCB on composition, yield, PL recovery, and functional properties of pizza cheese were investigated. Cheesemilks were prepared by adding 0, 2, 4, and 6% (wt/wt) condensed SCB to part-skim milk, and cream was added to obtain cheesemilks with approximately 11.2 to 12.7% total solids and casein:fat ratio of approximately 1. Use of condensed SCB resulted in a significant increase in cheese moisture. Cheese-making procedures were modified to obtain similar cheese moisture contents. Fat and nitrogen recoveries in SCB cheeses were slightly lower and higher, respectively, than in control cheeses. Phospholipid recovery in cheeses was below 40%. Values of pH and 12% trichloro-acetic acid-soluble nitrogen were similar among all treatments. Cheeses made from milk standardized with SCB showed less melt and stretch than control cheese, especially at the 4 and 6% SCB levels. Addition of SCB significantly lowered free oil at wk 1 but there were no significant differences at wk 2 and 4. Use of SCB did not result in oxidized flavor in unmelted cheeses. At low levels (e.g., 2% SCB), addition of condensed SCB improved cheese yield without affecting compositional, rheological, and sensory properties of cheese. PMID:16428615

  8. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  9. Effect of salt on microbiology and proteolysis of Queso Fresco cheese during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queso Fresco(QF) cheeses with different salt contents were made in triplicate from pasteurized, homogenized milk using a commercial procedure. Dry curds were salted at levels of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% w/w; commercial QF can contain up to 3% salt. Cheese blocks were analyzed after 1, 4, and 8 wk ...

  10. Use of corn oil in the production of Turkish white cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Seher; Topcu, Ali; Saldamli, Ilbilge; Koksal, Gülden

    2012-01-01

    The use of corn oil in white cheese production instead of milk fat was investigated and its effects on the quality parameters of cheese were studied. It was demonstrated that the use of corn oil significantly affected the levels of dry matter, fat in dry matter, protein, salt in dry matter and titratable acidity and pH value of samples (p 

  11. 应用模糊数学方法评价水牛乳Mozzarella干酪发酵剂%Application of Fuzzy Mathematical Comprehensive Evaluation to Study Culture Starter of Mozzarella Cheese by Buffalo Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐辉; 钟瑞敏; 刘小玲

    2011-01-01

    Use Fuzzy Mathematical Comprehensive Evaluation to study that how Coccus and Bacillus were mixed of Mozzarella cheese leaven by buffalo milk,and the following factors were determinded.The factors including: the indexes of the acid-forming performance,the size of viscosity,the diacetyl content,pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen content and the taste of spawn fermentation liquid etc.The results showed that,when Lb.and St.were mixed by 1∶1.2,the fuzzy probability of the strain reached 0.83 and the comprehensive quality was the best.Compared with the other ratio of bacteria had significant differences in statistically(p0.05).%以发酵剂的产酸性能、黏度大小、双乙酰含量、pH4.6可溶性氮含量、滋味等五项为评价指标,应用模糊数学综合评价方法评价水牛乳Mozzarella干酪发酵剂中球菌与杆菌比例。结果表明,Lb.与St.以1∶1.2的比率混合时,模糊概率达0.83,菌种的综合品质最好,且与其它比率的菌种在统计学上存在显著差异(p〈0.05)。

  12. RESEARCH CONCERNING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN MILK PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study case concerning economic efficiency of dairy products atAgro Industrial Milk Processing Company Baneasa , Bucharest . The most effectivedairy products are pressed cheese, green cheese, superior cow cheese, sheep cottagecheese, fresh cow cheese and whip cream. Production cost varies according toprocessing technology, specific consumption, price of raw materials, auxiliarymaterials, labor, energy, water. The company registered the highest profit Euro18,421 and the highest profit rate 15.32 % in the year 2004. The continuousincrease of inputs and manufacturing costs has a deep impact on efficiency.

  13. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  14. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  15. Characterization of energy use and performance of global cheese processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global cheese-making industry processes approximately one quarter of total raw milk production to create a variety of consumer cheeses, and cheese processing can be very energy-intensive. Characterizing energy usage in existing cheese markets and plants can provide baseline information to allow comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on cheese-making across various countries and regions. The study has found that the magnitudes of average final energy intensity exhibited significant variations, ranging from 4.9 to 8.9 MJ per kg cheese across a few countries. In addition, the final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited even more significant variations, ranging from 1.8 to 68.2 MJ per kg of cheese from the countries in this study. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy savings' opportunities in the sector. The paper also indicates that there are positive association between implementation of energy measures and the decreasing trends of specific energy consumption over time, and suggests that developing and promulgating an energy-benchmarking framework including a process step approach and efficiency measures should be recommended for evaluating energy performance and improving energy efficiency in cheese-making industry.

  16. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  17. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Vinka Radošević; Katarina Tonković; Ljerka Gregurek; Blaženka Kos; Jagoda Šušković

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG) on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC). Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min). The milk for fresh cheese production was furthe...

  18. Molecular interactions between green tea catechins and cheese fat studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, Edward J; Hindmarsh, Jason; Everett, David W

    2017-01-15

    Molecular integrations between green tea catechins and milk fat globules in a cheese matrix were investigated using solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Full-fat cheeses were manufactured containing free catechin or free green tea extract (GTE), and liposomal encapsulated catechin or liposomal encapsulated GTE. Molecular mobility of the carbon species in the cheeses was measured by a wide-line separation technique. The (1)H evolution frequency profile of the (13)C peak at 16ppm obtained for the control cheese and cheeses containing encapsulated polyphenols (catechin or GTE) were similar, however, the spectrum was narrower for cheeses containing free polyphenols. Differences in spectral width indicates changes in the molecular mobility of --CH3- or -C-C-PO4- species through hydrophobic and/or cation-π associations between green tea catechins and cheese fat components. However, the similar spectral profile suggests that encapsulation protects cheese fat from interaction with catechins. PMID:27542471

  19. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Fraga Cotelo; Karen Perelmuter Schein; Sheila Solange Giacaman Salvo; Pablo Miguel Zunino Abirad; Silvana Beatriz Carro Techera

    2013-01-01

    Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobac...

  20. Prevalence and Characterization of Listeria Species in Domestic and Industrial Cheeses of Isfahan Region

    OpenAIRE

    M Zamani-Zadeh; M Sheikh-Zeinoddin; Soleimanian-Zad, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern to the food industry in general and the dairy industry in particular. Little is known about incidence of this pathogenic bacterium in dairy products in Iran. Methods: A survey was made from 23 September 2006 to 22 June 2007 for Listeria species in ninety samples of traditional and industrial cheeses, in milk and surface where the cheeses were manufactured from unpasteurized raw milk in the province of Isfahan (Iran). Results: Listeria mur...

  1. Shelf Life of a Synbiotic Fermented Dairy Beverage Using Ricotta Cheese Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Schlabitz; Adriano Gennari,; Andre Luiz De Mello Araujo; Julio Andre Bald; Claucia Fernanda Volken De Souza; Lucelia Hoehne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preparing a synbiotic fermented dairy beverage using ricotta cheese whey, prebiotic and probiotics aiming to reduce the amount of whey incorporated into the dairy wastewate. For this, fermented milk beverages were produced by a full factorial design with 2 independent variables in two equidistant levels, three replicates at the center point and 4 axial points. Ricotta cheese whey concentrations and powder milk were the two variables evaluated in 5 concentration...

  2. Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Some Egyptian Soft Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Ghada, Z. A. A., 2*Alia, M. H., 3**Soha, Al-S., 4*Magdy, N. A., and 5*Mohammed, F. S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products is considered the most complete foodstuff that provide human either infants or adults with most of their vital needs. Milk and cheese have high nutritive value due to its high content of protein, fat, minerals especially calcium (Ca2+ & phosphorous, and vitamins. Two hundred samples produced and sold in Egypt during 2001-2003 were collected from allover the country. The cheese samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. Samples were microbiologically tested for total aerobic bacterial count (TABC, Colifrm, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, mould and yeast, salmonella and shigella, and listeria species. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, lactose, Calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P and Ca/P were evaluated. The analysis showed that total aerobic bacterial count did not exceed 1.4X105±1.7X105 cells/gm, which is close to what allowed by the Standard Egyptian Guidelines (2001 and 47.5 % of the tested cheese are free from coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Ninety-eight and half percent, 97 %, 97 % and 91.5 % of the tested cheese (kareish, feta, thalaga, double cream respectively, either made in plant or home or farmers' cheese sample have zero Staphylococcus aureus count or mould and yeast; or salmonella and shigella, or listeria species respectively, i. e. free from them. Double cream cheese has the lowest protein content (7.79±0.78 gm% while kareish cheese has the highest protein content (19.99±1.32 gm%, but for fat content the opposite is true, double cream cheese have the highest fat content (24.56±1.78 gm% while kareish cheese have the lowest fat content (3.87±0.97 gm %. Feta cheese has high ash content while kareish cheese has the highest moisture content with the lowest ash content (68.97±1.86 & 1.81±0.47 gm% respectively. Lactose content varies widely from 1.50±0.26 (double cream cheese to 3.25±0.50 (feta cheese. Kareish cheese has higher content of calcium and

  3. Short communication: Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in the Manchego cheese supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, R; Licón, C C; Berruga, M I; Molina, M P; Molina, A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of ewe milk lies in the production of high quality cheeses, such as Manchego cheese with a Protected Designation of Origin, whose safety must be guaranteed. In a 2-yr study, 407 bulk tank milk samples from farms and 82 silo milk and curd samples from cheese factories were collected from southeast Spain and tested for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) using 2 commercial ELISA tests. Of these, 99.3% of the bulk tank samples had AFM1 levels below the European Union (EU) legal limit for milk (50 ng/kg), and well below the limit adopted by the Codex Alimentarius (500 ng/kg). Moreover, 98.8% of the silo milk and curd samples from cheese factories had AFM1 levels below the EU limit for milk. When considering median AFM1 concentrations, an average 4-fold increase was found in the final curd in relation to the corresponding silo milk. Control of AFM1 in Manchega ewe milk would enhance dairy product safety by the possible detection of faults in the manufacture of Manchego cheese. PMID:21605747

  4. Comparison of original and adulterated Oscypek cheese based on volatile and sensory profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Majcher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper describes a preliminary studies aiming to compare volatile fractions of Oscypek and oscypek-like cheeses with SPME-GC/TOFMS to determine the possibility of applying for future routine investigation of adulteration of Polish PDO cheeses. Material and methods. For sensory and volatiles analysis four different cheeses were compared: Oscypek cheese prepared according to PDO regulations and three oscypek-like cheeses: type “CM industry” – produced from pasteurised cow milk in dairy plant, type “EM-industry” – produced from pasteurised ewe milk in dairy plant and type “CM-shep­herds” – produced from unpasteurised cow milk in shepherds huts. Isolation of volatiles was performed with PDMS/CAR/DVB fiber. Compounds identification was performed using gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. Results. Headspace SPME-GC/TOFMS method revealed a total of 51 compounds in Oscypek and oscypek-like cheeses representing nine chemical groups such as: free fatty acids, esters, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, furans and furanones, phenols, sulfur compounds and terpenes. Results showed that original Oscypek, PDO labeled was represented by the largest number of volatiles identified compared to oscypek-like cheeses, which also showed a relationship with sensory analysis where Oscypek has been described as a cheese with mostly developed flavour bouquet. Additionally it could be observed that cheeses made from unpasteurised milk using traditional method of preparation in shepherds huts (Oscypek and CM-shepherds had superior volatile profiles and enhanced aroma compared to cheeses made industrially. Conclusions. The differences showed in volatile fraction of original Oscypek cheese and adulterated ones provide possibility of employing SPME-GC/TOFMS technique to find adulteration in PDO labelled Oscypek.

  5. Factors influencing chymosin-induced gelation of milk from individual dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, F.; Glantz, M; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Stålhammar, Hans; Andrén, A; Paulsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Optimisation of cheese yield is crucial for cheese production; a previous study showed large variations in chymosin-induced coagulation in milk from the second most common Swedish dairy breed, Swedish Red. In the present study, the effect of gross composition, protein composition, total and ionic...... was, theoretically, four times larger than the amount of calcium that is normally added in cheese processing......Optimisation of cheese yield is crucial for cheese production; a previous study showed large variations in chymosin-induced coagulation in milk from the second most common Swedish dairy breed, Swedish Red. In the present study, the effect of gross composition, protein composition, total and ionic...

  6. Microbiological quality of milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kozačinski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work microbiological acceptability has been determined for 802 samples of consume milk and dairy products produced in Križevci region, by 11 producers from northwest Croatia. From the total number of analysed samples the requirements for microbiological acceptability did not fulfilled 147 (18.33% samples: 42.86% goat’s milk, 36.36% fruit yoghurt, 20.51% consume milk, 33.33% sweet cream, 31.51% sour cream, 26.77% soft (fresh cheeses, 20% cheese spreads, 15% semi-hard cheeses, 2.63% butters, 1.72% processed cheese, and 1.16% yoghurts. The main reasons for microbiological not-acceptability of the samples were higher number of enterobacteriae, yeast and moulds, higher number of total bacteria, E. coli and Staphyloccocus aureus. In the same samples Streptococcus faecalis, S. pyogenes and Pseudomonas were found.

  7. Monitoring the presence of Staphylococcus coagulaso positive in Sharri cheese during the traditional ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ferati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharri cheese is a farming traditional product of Sharra region. Sharri cheese is prepared from sheep milk. While the chemical and physical aspect of this type of cheese is already completed the aspect of safety is much less studied. The safety of Sharra cheese may be compromised because it is produced from unpasteurized sheep's milk. Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase positive Staphylococci, mainly S. aureus. Staphylococcus coagulase positive is considered one of the most problematic bacteria presented in sheep milk. If it is presented in milk in a certain level has the ability to produce Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE. The milk contaminated with these enterotoxina can cause foodborne intoxication, in consummators. Taking in consideration the lack of this information in my country is considered of great value the conclusion released from this study. The study was performed on cheese and not on the raw milk. The test for the thermostable thermonuclease (TNase was conducted to detect the potential presence of thermostable thermonucleases (TNase. The data performed that Staphylococcus coagulase positive was not presented in cheese. Although the results and conclusions achieved from this study are of great importance not only for this scientific research but also for public health. Taken together, this study should lead to better control and a subsequent reduction of Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks.

  8. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of mozzarella cheese fortified using protein-chelated iron or ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, W H; McMahon, D J

    1998-02-01

    Mozzarella cheese containing 25 and 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had been fortified with casein-chelated iron, whey protein-chelated iron, or FeCl3. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics were compared with those of a control cheese. Physical properties were assessed by testing melting, apparent viscosity, and browning of heated cheese. Cheeses were evaluated by trained panelists for the presence of metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and other undesirable flavors. Addition of 25 mg iron/kg of cheese had no effects on the physical properties of Mozzarella cheese. Apparent viscosity of cheese fortified with 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese tended to be slightly higher than the control cheese, although this difference was not statistically significant at all storage times. Cook color was not affected by iron fortification. No increase in chemical oxidation (measured using thiobarbituric acid assay) was observed between the control and iron-fortified cheeses. Slight but statistically significant increases in metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors in the iron-fortified cheese were observed by the trained sensory panel, but the flavor defects were of very low intensity. For metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors, the control cheese scored 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively; the iron-fortified cheese scored 2.1, 2.0, and 1.6 based on a nine-point scale (where 1 = not perceptible to 3 = slightly perceptible). Sensory scores for iron-fortified cheese made using casein-chelated iron or whey protein-chelated iron was not significantly different from those of cheese made using ferric chloride. When used on pizza, consumer panels rated the iron-fortified cheeses as comparable with the control cheese. PMID:9532487

  9. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  10. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in milk from small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Martínez, Mª Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean countries, sheep and goat’s milk production has traditionally been destined for the manufacture of cheese, often as raw milk. Cheese quality is closely related to milk composition but also to hygienic aspects such as somatic cell count, bacteriology or presence of antibiotic residues, currently regulated by European legislation. The implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in milk as a result of veterinary treatments include negative effects on consumer’s health...

  11. Tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft unripened cheese

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    Natalia V. Iakovchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. An excessive consumption of fat has been associated with an increased risk of health problems such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Cheese is a highly concentrated product which is rich in protein and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and essential amino acids, therefore it is an important food in the diet. But low fat cheeses are usually characterized as having poor body and flavour. Therefore,  it is crucial to find ways of improving the acceptability of the product. The aim of this research was to inves- tigate the possibility of using of tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft cheese made from ultrafiltrated skimmed milk and to create organoleptic properties of a fat product in a non-fat product. Material and methods. To estimate the possibility of using tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft cheese, the influence of tapioca maltodextrin on rennet flocculation time (RFT and rennet clotting time (RCT, pH values, moisture content were estimated. Improving the quality of cheese, rheological and sensory characteristics in the course of soft unripened cheese manufacturing has to be focused on. Results. Using tapioca maltodextrin led to decrease in RFT and RCT. The concentration increase of the maltodextrin in milk for cheese production led to increase in moisture-binding capacity and moisture content of the cheeses, but led to decrease in RFT, RCT and pH-value. Based on the experiments data the optimal doses of tapioca maltodextrin were recommended. Conclusions. An addition of tapioca maltodextrin resulted in a tendency of decreasing RFT and RCT,   pH-value for cheese made with different concentrations of tapioca maltodextrin when compared to cheese made without maltodextrin addition. At the same time an increased amount of tapioca maltodextrin led to moisture content increase of cheese samples. Inclusion of tapioca maltodextrin in natural, low fat cheese may improve texture and

  12. Microbial interactions in cheese: implications for cheese quality and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Irlinger, Françoise; Mounier, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The cheese microbiota, whose community structure evolves through a succession of different microbial groups, plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as cheese shelf-life and safety, are largely determined by the composition and evolution of this microbiota. Adjunct and surface-ripening cultures marketed today for smear cheeses are inadequate for adequately mimicking the real diversity encountered in cheese microbiota. The interactions between bacteri...

  13. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Ehsani, Ali; Hassanzadazar, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production. PMID:25653782

  14. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.

  15. A Study on Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during Manufacture and Ripening of Kashar Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, Figen; SOYUTEMİZ, G. Ece

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Kashar, a popular cheese in Turkey. Raw milk was inoculated at 4 different levels with L. monocytogenes serotype 4b (ca. 3, 4, 5, and 6 log cfu ml-1 for group 1, 2, 3 and 4 cheeses, respectively) and made into Kashar cheese using the traditional technique. Following dry salting for 10 days at 18 ± 2 ºC, the Kashar cheese was ripened for 20 days at the same temperature and then s...

  16. O debate em torno de queijos feitos de leite cru: entre aspectos normativos e a valorização da produção tradicional / The debate about raw milk cheeses: between regulation and traditional production valorisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Thomé da Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A valorização de alimentos tradicionais tem sido apontada como estratégica para a revitalização de áreas rurais, porém, a comercialização desses produtos em mercados formais requer que sejam cumpridos critérios principalmente em termos de estrutura e utensílios. Entretanto, muitas das exigências nesse sentido representam importante desafio para a comercialização de alimentos tradicionais que, na medida em que têm seus processos legalizados, têm comprometidas justamente as características que lhes conferem singularidade e diversidade. Este é o caso de queijos feitos de leite cru que, em vários países, de acordo com critérios legais, precisam passar por pelo menos sessenta dias de maturação antes de sua comercialização. Tomando esse contexto, neste artigo, elegemos o critério que define prazo mínimo de maturação para comercialização de queijos feitos de leite cru e tomamos dados de pesquisa de caráter etnográfico, referente ao Queijo Serrano, produzido nos Campos de Cima da Serra/RS, para amplificar o debate posto em torno da valorização de alimentos tradicionais. Os resultados da pesquisa indicam que, para além da adaptação do modo de fazer e das características de produção, a valorização desses alimentos passa pela legitimação de formas de conhecimento tradicionais e de modos de vida rurais. =========================================== The valorisation of traditional food has been appointed as a strategy to revitalise rural areas but the commercialisation of such foods in formal markets demands strict compliance to sanitary regulations, particularly in relation to building structures and equipments. However, many of these requirements represents an important challenge to traditional food commercialisation. It happens because the processes to legalise these products may often jeopardise characteristics that make these foods both singular and diverse. This, for example, applies to raw milk cheese

  17. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese

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    Martín Fraga Cotelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobacillus casei, and Lactococcus lactis. No evidence of potential virulence factors were found in E. durans strains. These are promising results in terms of using these native strains for cheese manufacture and to obtain safe products.

  18. Influence of probiotic cultures addition on the properties of semi-hard ewe’s cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Kos; Marijana Blažić; Zalazar, Carlos A.; Susana Bernal; Carlos Meinardi; Bojan Matijević

    2011-01-01

    Addition of probiotic bacteria into fermented milk beverages has been the subject of many studies, however, addition of these bacteria into cheeses, especially the ones made from ewe’s milk, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce probiotic semi-hard ewe’s cheese with addition of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. Cheese ripening occurred during 45 days at 13 °C and 85 % of relative hu...

  19. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

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    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  20. Probiotic in rennet paste can affect lipase activity of rennet and lipolysis in ovine cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambs were subjected to three different feeding regimes (mother suckling MS, artificial rearing AR, and artificial rearing with 7log10 cfu/ml Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation to the milk substitute ARLb and slaughtered at 20d and 40d of age for each feeding treatment. Lambs abomasa were processed to rennet paste and lipases activity was evaluated. Rennet paste was used for Pecorino cheese production. Free fatty acids (FFAs and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs were detected in cheese at 60d of ripening. Lipase activity was found higher in ARLb than in MS and AR rennet from lambs slaughtered at an older age. A reduction of all FFAs was observed in all cheeses when passing from 20 d to 40d of slaughtering. CLAs were more abundant in ARLb cheeses at both 20 and 40d. Milk substitute with Lb. acidophilus improves enzymatic features of rennet, and health and nutritional characteristics of ovine cheese.

  1. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  2. Formation of Amino Acid Derived Cheese Flavour Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), among them Lactococcus lactis, are often used for the fermentation of milk into various products, such as cheeses. For their growth and maintenance LAB metabolise milk sugar, protein and fat into various low molecular compounds, which sometimes have strong flavour characteristics. This thesis focuses on the production of one class of these compounds as a model system: aldehydes, in particular the key-flavour compounds 3-methylbutanal and 2-methyl propanal, which ar...

  3. Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria on the proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat UF cheeses during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pesic Mikulec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of commercial bacteria Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (cheese A and combinations of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei 08, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris 656, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 653 (cheese B and C on composition, proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat cheeses during ripening was investigated. Low fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream. Significant influence of different LAB strains on composition, primary proteolysis and microstructure was not found. Cheeses made with autochthonous LAB showed a higher rate of secondary proteolysis, as well as higher flavour scores, and were more acceptable than control cheese.

  4. 7 CFR 58.716 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.716 Section 58.716 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.716 Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk used in cheese products should meet the...

  5. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Rysha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (fat content, fat content of dry matter, acidity, protein, dry matter, mineral and water content and sodium chloride content of 45-day brine cheese samples were also analyzed. Chemical and sensory assessment demonstrated large property differences. A recommendation stems from the results showing that the standardization of both artisanal and industrial production of Sharri cheese is required.

  6. Domestic cooked cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-01-01

    The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb), and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Sensory properties, chemical...

  7. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  8. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  9. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lactic-acid-producing bacteria or other harmless flavor-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added... mold-inhibiting ingredient consisting of sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, sodium sorbate, or any... acid. (e) The name of each semisoft part-skim cheese for which a definition and standard of identity...

  10. The Positioning of Greek Feta Cheese in a Local UK Market – A Major Marketing Strategy Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Papadopoulou, Victoria; Chryssochoidis, George M.

    2004-01-01

    The survey aims at analysing the current positioning of Greek feta cheese. A regional UK market is selected as a typical research location. Four components of feta cheese's marketing mix (country of origin, brand name, type of milk used and price) are included in a conjoint task of product evaluation. Based on the importance assigned to these attributes, the survey identifies a number of consumer segments, and defines those that have a possibility to constitute regular feta cheese buyers. Fet...

  11. Producción y Composición de la Leche y Queso Fresco Pasteurizado de Cabras Mestizas Canarias Suplementadas con Grasa Sobrepasante Production and Composition of Milk and Fresh Pasteurized Cheese in Crossbred Canarias Goats, Supplemented with Protected Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Zamora

    2011-06-01

    high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the production and composition of milk and fresh cheese in crossbred Canarias goats was evaluated. Experiments were conducted at the Goat Production Experimental Unit of the College of Veterinary Sciences of the Central University of Venezuela, Maracay, the State of Aragua, Venezuela . Twenty-two crossbred (3/4 and 5/8 Canarias goats from first calving were used. Animals were allotted into two groups: Group 1 (n =11: Treatment group; Group 2 (n = 11: Control group. The following chemical analyses were performed for milk and cheese: pH, titratable acidity; Wisconsin Mastitis Test; chloride; fat; casein; total proteins; total solids; humidity; ash; non-fatty solids; lactose; and fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 content present in cheese. Results show that addition of 3% PF caused a significant (P=0.0019 increase in milk production (43%, with a tendency (P=0.0821 to increase lactation days. Neither the characteristics nor the composition of milk and cheese were affected by PF inclusion, but the production of more milk without affecting its composition resulted in a greater concentration (kg/lactation of all its components. There were differences in the content of the following fatty acids: C18:1 (P=0,0064, C18:2 (P=0,4632, C18:3 (P=0,0322, precursors of ω-3 and ω-6 in processed cheese. Cheese performance was not affected, but the increase in milk production, increased cheese production (47.09% in treatment group. Treatment did not significantly affect physicochemical and organoleptic properties of fresh cheese, voluntary consumption of food, and body condition.

  12. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  13. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  14. Study on isolation, molecular detection of virulence gene and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from milk and milk products

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. Brahmbhatt; H. C. Thaker; J. B. Nayak; P. K. Virpari

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate pathogenic E. coli from milk and various milk products, detection of virulence gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Altogether 250 milk and various milk products samples consisting of raw milk (50), cheese (50), ice-cream (50), mawa (50) and dahi (50) were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city, under aseptic precautions. For the enrichment of th...

  15. The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, Giuseppe; Carpino, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 39 Italian cheeses carry protected designation of origin (PDO) status. These cheeses differ in their manufacturing technology and the microbial flora which comprise the finished products. The evolution of lactic microflora in cheeses with PDO status is of particular interest because the biochemical activities of these organisms participate in cheesemaking and may play an acknowledged role in the development of organoleptic characteristics during ripening. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) constitute complex microbial associations that are characterized by the occurrence of various species and many biotypes as a result of a number of selective conditions persisting during the manufacturing process and different ecological niches. The evolution of different species during ripening of Fiore Sardo showed that, when present, Lactobacillus paracasei persists and dominates the microflora of the cheese in the last period of ripening, suggesting that this species, more resistant to the constraints of the mature cheese, could be involved in proteolysis and in other enzymatic processes occurring during cheese ripening. In contrast, the stretching step typical of pasta filata cheese, such as Ragusano, induced a simplification of the raw milk profiles, allowing the persistence only of some predominant species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus macedonicus, after the stretching step. Lactobacillus plantarum and L. paracasei were isolated from ripened Castelmagno PDO cheese samples with the highest frequencies. These species, generally absent in the milk, occur in dairy ecosystems and dominate the bacterial flora of many ripened semihard cheeses. In PDO long-ripened Italian cheese such as Parmigiano Reggiano, the NSLAB population is mainly formed by L. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and L

  16. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  17. Probiotic cheese attenuates exercise-induced immune suppression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollo, P C B; Cruz, A G; Morato, P N; Moura, C S; Carvalho-Silva, L B; Oliveira, C A F; Faria, J A F; Amaya-Farfan, J

    2012-07-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2wk to adult Wistar rats, which then were brought to exhaustion on the treadmill. Two hours after exhaustion, the rats were killed and material was collected for the determination of serum uric acid, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, total protein, triacylglycerols, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and blood cell (monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and leukocyte) counts. Exercise was efficient in reducing lymphocyte counts, irrespective of the type of ingested cheese, but the decrease in the group fed the probiotic cheese was 22% compared with 48% in the animals fed regular cheese. Monocyte counts were unaltered in the rats fed probiotic cheese compared with a significant decrease in the rats fed the regular cheese. Most importantly, ingestion of the probiotic cheese resulted in a >100% increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a 50% decrease in triacylglycerols. We conclude that probiotic Minas Frescal cheese may be a viable alternative to enhance the immune system and could be used to prevent infections, particularly those related to the physical overexertion of athletes. PMID:22720913

  18. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C. Bertram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits.

  19. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Larsen, Lotte B; Bertram, Hanne C

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits. PMID:24957988

  20. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  1. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  2. Qualidade de leites fermentados funcionais elaborados a partir de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho Quality of functional fermented milks produced by the use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from coalho cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Viegas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Leites fermentados foram elaborados a partir de bactérias ácido-lácticas com propriedades funcionais, isoladas de queijo de coalho com e sem a adição de concentrado proteico de soro (CPS. Características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais dos produtos elaborados foram analisadas durante 40 dias de estocagem sob refrigeração a 8-10ºC. Todos os leites fermentados elaborados, independentemente da adição de CPS e da cultura utilizada, apresentaram contagens adequadas de bactérias (>10(8UFC/mL durante todo o período de avaliação, o que garantiria seu possível potencial funcional. Leites fermentados por Lactobacillus acidophilus apresentaram melhor aceitação (PFermented milks were produced using whey protein concentrate (WPC and potentially functional lactic acid bacteria, which were isolated from coalho cheese produced in. Physical-chemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of the fermented milks were analyzed during 40 days under refrigeration at 8-10ºC. All products, irrespectively of WPC adding or culture used, showed appropriated bacterial counts (>10(8CFU/mL throughout the evaluation time, which would guarantee their functional potential. Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented milks presented better sensorial approval (P<0.05 when evaluated at 10-day storage; while Weissella confusa fermented milks presented lower acceptance (P<0.05 at 40-day storage. The association of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Weissella confusa or Lactobacillus acidophilus isolatedly, irrespectively of WPC adding, should be recommended for the industrial elaboration of novel functional fermented milks using Brazilian lactic cultures as starters.

  3. Transfer of some artificial (226Sr and 137Cs) and natural (40K and 226Ra) radionuclides from milk to its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of some artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 85 Sr) and natural radionuclides (226 Ra and 40K) from milk (cheep and cows) to its products processed according to local manufacturing procedures (home made cheese, kashkawan cheese, shelal cheese, haloom cheese, kareshah cheese, sharkasiah cheese, liquid cheese, yogurt, butter and keshdah) has been studied. The results showed that the retention percent of radium 226 in milk products has reached %100 in the home made cheese and %72 for strontium 85 in the shelal cheese and %40 for cesium 137 in yogurt and %46 for potassium 40 also in yogurt. In addition, most of the retention percent ratios of the studied radionuclides in yogurt were relatively low (about %25 and % 40 in the yogurt processed from the milk of the cows and cheep respectively) with a high processing efficiency, so that making yogurt from the contaminated milk is the best way to reduce the contamination ratio and to make use of the contaminated milk. Furthermore, home made cheese was processed with salty solutions of different concentrations and the results showed that about %90 of cesium and potassium has transferred to the salty solution of %5 soaked for 48 hours, while %40 of the radium and %80 of strontium were removed from the contaminated cheese after 48 hours soaking in a salty solution of %2.5. However, the results of the present work can be used for processing of contaminated milk with artificial radionuclides in order to be utilized. (Authors)

  4. Transfer of some artificial (strontium 85 and caesium 137) and natural (potasium 40 and radium 226) radionuclides from milk to its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of some artificial radionuclides (137Cs and 85Sr) and natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) from milk (cheep and cows) to its products processed according to local manufacturing procedures (home made cheese, kashkawan cheese, shelal cheese, haloom cheese, kareshah cheese, sharkasiah cheese, liquid cheese, yogurt, butter and keshdah) has been studied. The results showed that the retention percent of radium 226 in milk products has reached %100 in the home made cheese and %72 for strontium 85 in the shelal cheese and %40 for cesium 137 in yogurt and %46 for potassium 40 also in yogurt. In addition, most of the retention percent ratios of the studied radionuclides in yogurt were relatively low (about %25 and % 40 in the yogurt processed from the milk of the cows and cheep respectively) with a high processing efficiency, so that making yogurt from the contaminated milk is the best way to reduce the contamination ratio and to make use of the contaminated milk. Furthermore, home made cheese was processed with salty solutions of different concentrations and the results showed that about %90 of cesium and potassium has transferred to the salty solution of %5 soaked for 48 hours, while %40 of the radium and %80 of strontium were removed from the contaminated cheese after 48 hours soaking in a salty solution of %2.5. However, the results of the present work can be used for processing of contaminated milk with artificial radionuclides in order to be utilized. (Authors)

  5. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  6. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  7. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akhigbe Ivbade; Olufemi Ernest Ojo; Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalenc...

  8. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  9. Production system and seasonal effects on textural properties of two-month ripened goat’s cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ronchietto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been a revival in goat rearing and a resumption in the making of goat’s cheeses in the Province of Trento. Given this, and the local interest in maintaining the production and its traditions, a qualitative description of the goat’s cheeses is desirable. In this study, texture profile analysis, TPA, was used to examine the variability of the rheological properties, depending on production system and season, in raw milk semicooked paste goat’s cheese, ripened for two months, as the Trento Goat Cheese of Traditional Agrifood Products (D.M. n. 350, 1999.

  10. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.;

    2004-01-01

    8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  11. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Božanić; Ljubica Tratnik; Ida Drgalić

    2002-01-01

    Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A) and 1,0% fat (B). Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus) and without rennet addition. After milk...

  12. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  13. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuworld cheese. 133.164 Section 133.164 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.164 Nuworld cheese. (a) Description. (1) Nuworld cheese is the food prepared by...

  14. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  15. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polimerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. The LAB isolates from cheese BGPT9 (four days old belonged to the eight species of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc garlicum, while in the BGPT10 cheese (eight months old only two species were present (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Proteolytic activity showed 30 LAB from BGPT9 cheese, mainly enterococci. From BGPT10 cheese only one isolate (which belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species possessed partial ability to hydrolyze β-casein. Seven enterococci from BGPT9 cheese and four enterococci from BGPT10 cheese produced antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Improving the Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Goat Cheese by the Addition of Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Apostu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the goat milk cheeses have gained popularity due to the increased interest of consumers in both the tradition of cheesemaking and the sensorial and nutritional value attributed to goat milk. This study aimed to assess and compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese with a mixture of cranberry fruits in different concentrations. The following average values were obtained for the chemical parameters analyzed: pH 4.85 ± 0.155, titratable acidity (°T 150 ± 0,094, dry matter (% 58.33 ± 1.55, and fat (% 27.74 ± 53.24. Sensory evaluation highlighted the influence of the addition of cranberry on the eating quality of goat cheese and its consumer acceptability. Results showed that the goat cheese supplementation with 9% cranberry significantly improves the stability of acidic flavor during storage.

  17. 131I and 137Cs removal from cheese, upon immersion in a sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheese samples have been ripened, using milk artificially contaminated with radioactive 137Cs and 131I. Tests have been carried out to investigate the effect of brine (18%W/V NaCl) on the radionuclide concentration in the cheese. The removal percent of both radionuclides is 45% at least for the first 24 hours of immersion and it was increased at about 5% in the next 48 hours. An attempt was made to examine the reverse situation. Cheese curd from uncontaminated milk was immersed in the brine which had been injected with 131I or 137Cs. It may be concluded that brine may act as a ''purifier'' of cheese curd in the case of 131I and 137Cs removal. (Author)

  18. Kontsevich's Swiss Cheese Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Justin D

    2010-01-01

    We prove a conjecture of Kontsevich which states that if $A$ is an $E_{d-1}$ algebra then the Hochschild cohomology object of $A$ is the universal $E_d$ algebra acting on $A$. The notion of an $E_d$ algebra acting on an $E_{d-1}$ algebra was defined by Kontsevich using the swiss cheese operad of Voronov. We prove a homotopical property of the swiss cheese operad from which the conjecture follows.

  19. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed and...... culture mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  20. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  1. Effect of feeding systems on aromatic characteristics of buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Di Napoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluated the effect of feeding systems (hay vs ray-grass silage on volatile compounds profiles of mozzarella cheese. Three mozzarella cheese making trials for each experimental group were conducted at our dairy technology laboratory. Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from whole raw water buffalo milk with the addition of natural starter. Volatile compounds were extracted by “purge and trap” system coupled to a gas chromatograph and detected operating with a mass-selective detector (Ciccioli et al., 2004 A total of 84 compounds of the following chemical families were detected: hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. The data overall indicated difference between the aromatic profiles of mozzarella cheese as consequence of feeding systems. Thus, differences in mozzarella cheese flavour are primarily caused by concentration differences of a common set of flavour compounds, rather than by the occurrence of compounds uniquely associated with a particular feed.

  2. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  3. Effect of Milk Fat Substitution of Rennet Milk Induced Coagulation on Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Imène Felfoul; Salwa Bornaz; Wiem Belhadj Hmida; Ali Sahli; Hamadi Attia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of milk fat substitution by (W1/O/W2) multiple emulsions based on olive oil in comparison with full and low-fat milks on milk behavior during rennet coagulation. Therefore, based on the turbidimetric and conductivimetric methods, a follow up of enzymatic coagulation is realized. Drainage of renneted gels was followed by syneresis study and cheese yield. The comparison between the coagulation aptitude of low fat milk and milk-olive oil emulsi...

  4. Microbiological food safety of cheese produced in Swedish small-scale dairies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Åsa

    2012-01-01

    The number of small-scale dairies in Sweden has increased during the past decade. Current agricultural policy encourages such small-scale production and various ways to help producers have been proposed. Combining traditional cheese making and good product safety is a challenge, since several human pathogens pose a hazard in the products. Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted via milk to cheese. Some strains can produce staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE...

  5. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial and proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Zlatar cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Topisirović Ljubiša; Veljović Katarina; Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Strahinić Ivana; Kojić Milan

    2007-01-01

    Traditional artisan Zlatar cheese belongs to the group of white, semi hard home-made cheeses, which are produced from no pasteurized cow's milk, without addition of any known bacterial starter culture. In total, 253 Gram-positive and catalase negative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated. Results showed that 70 out of 253 analyzed isolates produced antimicrobial compounds known as bacteriocins. Most isolates from genera Lactococcus and Enterococcus, and isolates belonging to ...

  6. Evaluation of hygiene and safety criteria in the production of a traditional Piedmont cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Astegiano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B. Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  7. STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN THE PRODUTION OF THE MOZZARELLA BUFFALO CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, M; L. Guzzon; A. Manocchio; Gregorio, A.; L. D’Amici; Cuoco, E.; Briganti, P.; T. Zottola; R. U. Condoleo

    2009-01-01

    Water Buffalo Mozzarella is a typical Italian product certificated with the European Protected Designation of Origin (DOP). Cheese-associated food poisoning outbreaks have been reported worldwide but are not common if pasteurised milk is used and hygienic measures are applied during cheese processing. The study reports data of a survey on the hygienic (Aerobic mesophilic plate count, E. coli glucuronidase – positive, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae and Staphylococci coagulase - posi...

  8. Incorporation of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp.) in Argentinean ovine cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, María; Wolf, Irma; Addis, Margherita; Comunian, Roberta; Paba, Antonio; Meinardi, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The market of cheeses from ewe’s milk has been growing steadily in Argentina. The nutritional benefits of these products can be enhanced by adding probiotic cultures. In the present study, the survival of a mix of probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) in a semi-hard ovine cheese, manufactured with a technology previously developed in our institute was evaluated. Besides, the effect of its incorporation on the chemical compositi...

  9. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Palva, Airi

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonousLactobacillus brevisstrain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  10. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  11. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CAMEL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by camel milk. A variety of food can be preserved by lactic acid fermentation, so starter culture was prepared from strains which were isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo's milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and can coagulate the milk in less lime. Camel milk cheese was prepared and compared with buffalo's milk cheese. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  12. Technological suitability of goat milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The world population of dairy goats is estimated at 300 million of which approximately 56% is reared in Asia. Goats raised in Europe (about 12 million constitute 4% of the world herd of these animals. The world goat milk production is assessed to be at the level of about 12 million tons and constitutes over 2% of the global milk obtained from different animal species. In many European countries, goat milk as a dairy raw material comes second after cow milk. The goat population in Poland is estimated at 190 000 heads. With regard to the content of basic constituents, goat milk is similar to cow milk, although it differs from it as to the qualitative composition of fat and protein. Species protein structure of goat milk, different from that of cow milk, causes fewer allergic reactions which are observed to occur in the case of intolerance to cow milk proteins. Rennin curd from goat milk is softer and less compact. A wide range of different products is manufactured from goat milk including: liquid milk (pasteurised and UHT, rennin and cottage cheeses, fermented beverages such as yoghurt, kefir, butter milk, cream, condensed milk, powdered milk, rice goats, butter and even chocolates “Goat’s Milk”.

  13. Aflatoxin M1 in the intermediate dairy products from Manchego cheese production: distribution and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, V.J.; Rubio, R; Berruga, M. I.; Molina, M.P.; Molina, A. (Ángel)

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) distribution in curd, whey, Manchego cheese, the traditional Spanish whey cheese Requesón and Requesón whey, and its stability during two different cold treatments, have been studied. Raw ewe’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 in a final concentration of 50 and 100 ng kg-1, and was used to produce Manchego cheese. AFM1 determinations were carried out by HPLC with fluorimetric detection after immunoaffinity clean-up. The mean AFM1 concentrations in the produced ...

  14. The “maturation” of milk for Parmigiano- Reggiano cheesemaking: effects on mineral equilibria and technological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, P.; P. Vecchia; A. Tambini; M. Pecorari; Franceschi, P.; A. Summer; M. Malacarne; P. Formaggioni

    2010-01-01

    The “maturation” of milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese is characterised by natural creaming process: the full cream milk is placed in large flat vats, for about 10-12 hours, to obtain the gravity separation of milk fat. The modifications of mineral equilibria and technological properties of milk during the “maturation” phase, were studied. To this aim 24 full cream (FC) milk samples and the corresponding partially skimmed (PS) milk, by natural creaming, were analysed....

  15. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact. PMID:25692216

  16. The occurrence of noncoagulating milk and the association of bovine milk coagulation properties with genetic variants of the caseins in 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Jensen, Hanne Bak; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Månsson, H Lindmark; Andrén, A; Paulsson, M; Bendixen, Christian; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Larsen, Lotte Bach

    2013-01-01

    Substantial variation in milk coagulation properties has been observed among dairy cows. Consequently, raw milk from individual cows and breeds exhibits distinct coagulation capacities that potentially affect the technological properties and milk processing into cheese. This variation is largely...... an increase in the number of cows producing milk with impaired coagulation. Selective breeding for variants associated with superior milk coagulation can potentially increase raw milk quality and cheese yield in all 3 Scandinavian breeds...... influenced by protein composition, which is in turn affected by underlying genetic polymorphisms in the major milk proteins. In this study, we conducted a large screening on 3 major Scandinavian breeds to resolve the variation in milk coagulation traits and the frequency of milk with impaired coagulation...

  17. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum TF711 against Clostridium sporogenes when used as adjunct culture in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorena; Zárate, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are of great interest to the food-processing industry as natural preservatives. This work aimed to investigate the efficacy of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum TF711, isolated from artisanal Tenerife cheese, in controlling Clostridium sporogenes during cheese ripening. Cheeses were made from pasteurised milk artificially contaminated with 10(4) spores m/l C. sporogenes. Experimental cheeses were manufactured with Lb. plantarum TF711 added at 1% as adjunct to commercial starter culture. Cheeses made under the same conditions but without Lb. plantarum TF711 served as controls. Evolution of microbiological parameters, pH and NaCl content, as well as bacteriocin production was studied throughout 45 d of ripening. Addition of Lb. plantarum TF711 did not bring about any significant change in starter culture counts, NaCl content and pH, compared with control cheese. In contrast, clostridial spore count in experimental cheeses were significantly lower than in control cheeses from 7 d onwards, reaching a maximum reduction of 2·2 log units on day 21. Inhibition of clostridia found in experimental cheeses was mainly attributed to plantaricin activity, which in fact was recovered from these cheeses. PMID:25702615

  18. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  19. Reducing fat levels in cheddar-like goat cheese: impact on proteolysis and rheological properties over 6 months of refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of low-fat goat cheeses that appeal to health conscious consumers requires information on how the reduction of fat affects the quality traits of the cheese, such as its proteolysis and rheology. Goat milk samples containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and <0.5% fat were processed into full-fat (F...

  20. An analysis of the whole milk powder prices in the international market through econometrics techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kennya Siqueira; Alziro Vasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest milk producers in the world. Nevertheless, the country is not a great exporter. In recent years, it exported mainly whole milk powder, condensed milk and cheese. Because whole milk powder is also an important dairy product in the international market, we decided to study the relationship among the Brazilian prices and the prices in Argentina, Oceania, UE and USA. These countries represent the most important prices and exporters of whole milk powder in the world. U...

  1. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal Zlatar cheeses produced at two different geographical location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-one strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from white semi-hard homemade cheese, designated Zlatar BGNV, which was taken from household settled on Northern side of mountain Zlatar. The Zlatar BGNV cheese was manufactured from raw cow's milk without addition of the starter culture. All isolates of LAB were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic tests. Identification of strains was done by the repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The most present species in Zlatar BGNV cheese were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei (65.43% and Enterococcus faecalis (29.63%. Two facultative heterofermentative rods were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (2.47%, and two obligate hetrofermentative LAB isolates as Lactobacillus parabuchneri (2.47%. Among all 81 tested isolates, only eight enterococci were producers of antimicrobial compounds. Fourteen of 16 tested lactobacilli isolates showed medium to very good proteolytic activity. All 57 lactobacilli from the Zlatar BGNV cheese curdled milk very slowly or did not curdle milk at all. However, three isolates of enterococci, BGNV1-63, BGNV1-76 and BGNV1-80, showed very good activity in milk and curdled milk within 5 h. They showed very high proteolytic activity hydrolyzing completely αs1- and κ-casein after 3 h, and β-casein after 30 min of incubation. In addition, those three enterococcal isolates degraded gelatin. Comparing obtained results with those previously achieved in examination of LAB microflora in another Zlatar BGZLS cheese made also from raw cow's milk, it can be concluded that LAB microflora in the Zlatar BGNV cheese is less diverse.

  2. Immobilized rennin in TC/SG composite in cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouni, Eleftheria; Petsi, Theano; Kolliopoulos, Dionysios; Vasileiou, Dimitrios; Panas, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-06-01

    The object of the current study was to develop a new process for continuous Feta-type cheese production using a biocatalyst consisting of immobilized rennin on a tubular cellulose/starch gel (TC/SG) composite, which has been proven to be an appropriate carrier for enzyme immobilization. Different methodologies were used in order to prepare four biocatalysts. The most effective was selected for cheese production in a 1L continuous system, providing two economically useful results for the dairy industries: (i) increase of productivity by the continuous coagulation of milk, and (ii) saving of the rennin enzyme expenses of the batch coagulation of milk. The criteria used to choose the appropriate biocatalyst was based on the time of coagulation in successive batches, the concentration of immobilized rennin combined with the filter efficiency and its application in the continuous system. Physicochemical analyses of the cheeses at various stages of the ripening were performed. No significant differences compared to cheeses prepared with the traditional method were found. Aroma compounds were determined by SPME GC-MS. PMID:26830563

  3. Processes that contribute to radiocesium decontamination of feta cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of experiments, the transfer of radiocesium from ovine milk to feta cheese was investigated through modifications of the standard cheese making procedure. All variations explored showed no significant change in the percentage of radiocesium transfer and the milk-to-cheese transfer coefficient was determined as f=.79 plus/minus .04 L.kg-1. It is concluded that cesium, like the rest of the alkali metals, remains in the water phase and thus follows very closely the distribution of moisture into the products of cheese making. The possibility of radiocesium decontamination of mature feta during the customary storage of the product in brine was also explored in a second series of experiments. The theoretical model employed in the analysis of cesium transport from feta to brine is presented in the Appendix to this paper. Predictions of the model were validated by experiments. A procedure is thus proposed for decontaminating mature feta during storage through successive replacements of the storage medium. Nomograms are presented for the determination of the optimum time interval between changes of the brine and the radiocesium concentration remaining in the feta. Changes in the properties of the product induced by the proposed treatment were also investigated with respect to composition, taste, and overall quality

  4. GROWTH DYNAMIC OF EWES’ LUMP CHEESE MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hudecová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of ewes’ lump cheese has been known in Slovakia for a long time. It is made from raw or pasteurized ewes’ milk, especially due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria. The encouragement of the acidification process by the starters is profitable to use with the respect to the quality of the product. In our study we focused on the growth analysis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in ewes’ cheeses prepared in laboratory conditions with or without addition of starter culture from raw or heat treated milk. According to our experimental data, the addition of the lactic acid bacteria culture and the following pH decrease on the levels lower than 5.0 for 1 to 2 days were able to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli on concentrations lower than 104 CFU/g required by European Union legislation. The growth data found in this work may provide the information for food technologists and microbiologists to get the studied organisms under the control. doi:10.5219/52

  5. The impact of milk properties and process conditions on consistency of rennet-coagulated curd and syneresis of rennet curd grains

    OpenAIRE

    Thomann, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Although cheesemaking is an ancient art, modern cheese production relies on the implementation of innovative technology and tailor-made starter bacteria to remain competitive in the production of commodity-type cheeses such as soft and semi-hard cheese. Any intervention in the cheesemaking procedure, i.e. in milk composition, milk treatment and microbial fermentation, affects textural properties of curd at cutting and finally syneresis. The latter is the key step in cheesemaking since the deg...

  6. Hot topic: Black spot defect in Cheddar cheese linked to intramammary teat sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, A M; Kolpin, K M; Sommer, D A; Rankin, S A

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize a novel appearance defect found in Cheddar cheese, heretofore referred to as black spot defect (BSD), and to determine an etiology. Uniformly distributed throughout the cheese mass, BSD appears as small spherical black spots from 0.20 to 4.7 mm in diameter and at an average frequency of about 2 spots per kg of cheese. To date, BSD has only been found in aged Cheddar cheese. Selected elemental analysis found the BSD region in cheese to have average concentrations of the element bismuth of approximately 400 microg/g, representing an approximately 2,500-fold increase over native levels of bismuth in cheese. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the BSD region revealed amorphous solid structures and one-dimensional hair-like structures, neither of which was present in non-BSD regions. Such amorphous "nanorod" structures can be formed by the crystallization of bismuth III sulfide and are proposed to be a source of black discoloration. We hypothesize that localized bismuth salts entrained within the cheese curd react with hydrogen sulfide generated during aging to generate bismuth III sulfide. We further propose that the presence of localized bismuth salt precursor results from residual levels of a commercial intra-mammary teat sealant containing bismuth subnitrate that becomes unintentionally entrained within the cheese milk. PMID:17954732

  7. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with two types of vegetable matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, M D; Palencia, G; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L

    2007-06-01

    Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determination of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed by separation, identification, and quantification of PAH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion-monitoring mode. The most abundant PAH are those with 2 and 3 aromatic rings. Although the highest total PAH concentrations corresponded to the cheeses smoked with almond shells, the degree of PAH contamination of the cheeses studied was lower than that found in other cheeses smoked in the traditional way. The nature of the vegetable material used for smoking seemed to have an influence on the type of PAH formed, especially on alkylderivatives and some light PAH. However, despite the artisanal, and consequently variable, production process of these cheeses, many similarities have been found among their PAH profiles. In fact, relatively constant relationships are observed between the concentrations of certain pairs of PAH. Benzo(a)pyrene was only present in 2 samples, and in much lower concentrations than the maximum allowed legal limits. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it appears that it is possible to obtain a safe product without renouncing the artisanal character or the sensory properties of this type of cheese. PMID:17517711

  8. Selection of dairy culture and changes of Podravec cheese acidity during production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection and characteristics of dairy culture play a basic role in all types of cheese production process. The most important characteristic is acidification ability i.e. lactic acid formation, which regulates manufacturing and maturing conditions of cheese, thus affecting its organoleptic characteristics as well. In this work the results on control of acidity increase in Podravec cheeseproduction are presented. In the production process, a technical culture as well as identical frozen and concentrated culture, with and without auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus for direct milk inoculation, were used. It was established that the acidity, expressed as pH value, is more intensively developed in cheeses produced with culture for direct inoculation. This was especially evident in the first phases of production i.e. before cheese salting. During salting the acidity of cheeses, in both cases, was almoust identical. Cheeses produced with identical frozen culture and auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus culture had more pronounced acidity before salting and lower after salting in comparison with cheeses with the mentioned two cultures. Organoleptic and other characteristics of mature cheeses were identical.

  9. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  10. Effect of camel chymosin on the texture, functionality, and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A; McSweeney, P L H

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coagulant (bovine calf chymosin, BCC, or camel chymosin, CC), on the functional and sensory properties and performance shelf-life of low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella. Both chymosins were used at 2 levels [0.05 and 0.037 international milk clotting units (IMCU)/mL], and clotting temperature was varied to achieve similar gelation times for each treatment (as this also affects cheese properties). Functionality was assessed at various cheese ages using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology and performance of baked cheese on pizza. Cheese composition was not significantly different between treatments. The level of total calcium or insoluble (INSOL) calcium did not differ significantly among the cheeses initially or during ripening. Proteolysis in cheese made with BCC was higher than in cheeses made with CC. At 84 d of ripening, maximum loss tangent values were not significantly different in the cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar melt characteristics. After 14 d of cheese ripening, the crossover temperature (loss tangent = 1 or melting temperature) was higher when CC was used as coagulant. This was due to lower proteolysis in the CC cheeses compared with those made with BCC because the pH and INSOL calcium levels were similar in all cheeses. Cheeses made with CC maintained higher hardness values over 84 d of ripening compared with BCC and maintained higher sensory firmness values and adhesiveness of mass scores during ripening. When melted on pizzas, cheese made with CC had lower blister quantity and the cheeses were firmer and chewier. Because the 2 types of cheeses had similar moisture contents, pH values, and INSOL Ca levels, differences in proteolysis were responsible for the firmer and chewier texture of CC cheeses. When cheese performance on baked pizza was analyzed, properties such as blister quantity, strand thickness, hardness, and chewiness were maintained for a longer

  11. Application of common packaging materials in the probiotic fresh cheese production

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Iličić; Spasenija Milanović; Marijana Carić; Vera Lazić; Eva Lončar; Radomir Malbaša; Katarina Kanurić; Nevena Hromiš

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the application of common packaging materials polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) in the probiotic fresh cheese production packaging. Probiotic and traditional cheeses were produced from milk with standardized milk fat content of 2.3 g/100 g including the application of two cultures (probiotic and traditional). The samples were packed in the PP and PS cups and stored at 4 ºC for 30 days. The observed permeability of gases through the two applied pac...

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil) on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Alsawaf; H. S. Alnaemi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g) in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator te...

  13. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.; Christensen, R.D.K; Sandstrøm, B.

    2004-01-01

    % of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 ( 4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled...... dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were taken at the end of the study periods. Measurements of the postprandial effect of the three different dairy test products (0.7 g of milk fat/kg body weight) were carried out on day 4 of each intervention period. Blood samples were taken before and at 2, 4, 6 and...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  14. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  15. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  16. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. Microbial biodiversity in cheese consortia and comparative Listeria growth on surfaces of uncooked pressed cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Cécile; Retureau, Emilie; Didienne, Robert; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-17

    The study set out to determine how changes in the microbial diversity of a complex antilisterial consortium from the surface of St-Nectaire cheese modify its antilisterial activities. On the basis of the microbial composition of a natural complex consortium named TR15 (Truefood consortium 15), three new consortia of different species and strain compositions were defined: TR15-SC (58 isolates from TR15 collection), TR15-M (pools of isolates from selective counting media) and TR15-BHI (pools of isolates from BHI medium). Their antilisterial activities on the surfaces of uncooked pressed cheese made with pasteurised milk were compared with the activity of complex consortium TR15 and a control cheese inoculated only with starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii). The natural consortium TR15 was the most inhibitory, followed by reconstituted consortium TR15-BHI. The dynamics of the cheese rind microbial flora were monitored by counting on media and by isolate identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and direct 16S rDNA Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis. The combination of these methods showed that rind with natural consortium TR15 had greater microbial diversity and different microbial dynamics than cheese rinds with reconstituted consortia. Cheese rind with the natural consortium showed higher citrate consumption and the highest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, connected with high levels of lactic acid bacteria such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Vagococcus fluvialis, Enterococcus gilvus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus lactis, ripening bacteria such as Arthrobacter nicotianae/arilaitensis, and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas psychrophila and Enterobacter spp.). The highest L. monocytogenes count was on rind with TR15-M and was positively associated with the highest pH value, high succinic and citric acid contents, and the highest levels of Marinilactibacillus

  18. Biosensing for the analysis of raw milk

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA, CLAUDIA

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate methods for monitoring raw milk in food sectors are required in order to prevent health-related issues from consuming milk or fermented dairy products such as cheese and yogurt. Conventional systems used for this purpose require sophisticated instruments, highly technical staff and several days to yield an estimated contaminant concentration profile. Currently, there is no technology available for fast and sensitive identification of unwanted substances that evidences several conc...

  19. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. PMID:27375251

  20. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Stålhammar, Hans; Andrén, A; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Paulsson, Marie; Bendixen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing cheese yield and quality is of central importance to cheese manufacturing. The yield is associated with the time it takes before the gel has an optimal consistency for further processing, and it is well known that gel formation differs between individual milk samples. By identifying...

  1. Efeito do aleitamento artificial à base de soro de queijo de leite cabra sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de cabritos "mamão" do tipo genético three cross Influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat milk cheese whey on meat composition carcass characteristics of three cross suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da substituição parcial na etapa de alimentação líquida do leite de vaca por soro de queijo de cabra (SLC sobre alguns aspectos qualitativos da carne e quantitativos da carcaça de cabritos "mamão" Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó, em quatro níveis: 0% (Tratamento1; 20% (Tratamento2; 40% (Tratamento3 60% (Tratamento 4. Os pesos vivos ao abate (84 dias mostraram-se homogêneos (10,88 a 13,42kg, assim como o rendimento de carcaça (44,62 a 47,86% e a área do Longíssimus dorsi (9,55 a 10,80cm². 0 Tratamento 2 apresentou os maiores teores de tecido muscular (48,37%. A composição centesimal mostrou valores médios entre 76,78 a 77,62% de umidade; 20,39 a 21,43% de proteína; 4,86 a 6,59% de gordura e 1,06 a 1,14% de cinza. Para os minerais estudados, os valores médios variaram de 16,77 a 35,68mg/100g para o cálcio; 110,33 a 153,90mg/100g para o fósforo; 1,29 a 2,17mg/100g para o ferro; 0,72 a 1,30mg/100g para magnésio; 128,86 a 165,94mg/100g para o sódio e 404,88 a 504,73mg/100g para o potássio. Concluiu-se que os níveis de soro de leite de cabra utilizados, de uma maneira geral, não tendo influenciado de forma significativa (PIn this study, the influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat cheese whey on some quality aspects of meat and on some aspects of carcass composition of suckling kids Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó was evaluated. The replacements goat cheese whey levels were: 0% (treatment 1; 20% (treatment 2; 40% (treatment 3; 60% (treatment 4. The values of live weight for all were statistically similar (10.88 to 13.42kg; the same happened to the carcass yield which ranged from 44.62 to 47.86% and to the Longissimus dorsi area (9.55 to 10.80cm². The treatment 2 showed the highest contents of muscular tissue (48.37%. Proximal composition of the meat showed mean values ranging from 76.78 to 77.62% for moisture; 20.39 to 21.43% for protein

  2. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  3. Milk and dairy products: possible effects on dental health

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ingegerd

    2002-01-01

    Milk and dairy products have a low cariogenic potential, but they are also claimed to be cariostatic. Thus, bovine milk and cheese provide protection against caries in rats and in situ, even in caries-susceptible conditions. The mechanisms involve several milk components and effects. Caseins and peptides thereof, i.e. casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and casein phosphopeptide (CPP), reduce the adhesion of cariogenic mutans streptococci in situ and seem to reduce colonization in the rat. They b...

  4. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  5. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hesham M.

    2011-11-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 °C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria.

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus species isolated from raw milk and milk products (lben and jben) in North Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Abdrezzak Bendahou,1,2 Mariam Lebbadi,3 Latifa Ennanei,2 Fatima Z. Essadqui,1 Mohammed Abid.2

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the incidence and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal strains isolated from milk and milk products and to trace the ecological origin of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated.Methodology: Eighty-one samples of raw milk, lben (whey) and jben (cheese) were analyzed for the presence of staphylococcal strains. Isolates were identified by Gram stains, tests for coagulase, the API staph system and the WalkAway® 40/96, which also determines the antimicrobial susceptibilit...

  7. Isolation and recovery of glycomacropeptide from milk whey by means of thermal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Rojas; Gabriel Torres

    2013-01-01

    During enzymatic process of cheese manufacturing, rennin cleaves κ-casein releasing two fractions: para-κ-casein and glycomacropeptide (GMP), which remains soluble in milk whey. GMP is a peptide with structural particularities such as chain carbohydrates linked to specific threonine residues, to which a great variety of biological activities is attributed. Worldwide cheese production has increased generating high volumes of milk whey that could be efficiently used as an alternative source of ...

  8. Properties of buffalo Mozzarella cheese as affected by type of coagulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal S. Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Mozzarella is one of several pasta filata or stretched curd cheeses that originated in Italy. The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5% fat. The effect of coagulant types (calf rennet, chymosin and Mucor miehei rennet on the cheese properties was carried out. Material and methods. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus salvarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA, microbial rennet powder (formase ISOTL from Mucor miehei and chymosin derived by fermentation (CDF. Milk, curd, whey,kneading water and cheese were analysed. The slab gel electrophoresis patterns of Mozzarella cheese were also applied. Statistical analyses were also applied on the obtained data. Results. Recovery of DM of both curd and cheese decreased in case of using Mucor miehei rennet while the recovery of TP and fat content in both curd and cheese and their loss to whey and kneading water were nearly the same. Soluble nitrogen and soluble tyrosine and tryptophan contents elevated with increasing the storage period. Increasing rate of the soluble nitrogen in case of using Mucor miehei rennet was higher compared to that made with the other types of coagulant. TVFA content increased with advancing the storage period, also increased with increasing the fat content of the original milk fat used. No effect can be seen due to the coagulant types. The meltability increased with storage period progress. While the effect of the type of coagulant enzyme hade neglect effect on meltability fat leakage and oiling off. Mozzarella cheese made with Mucor miehei rennet obtained the highest firmness compared with those made using calf rennet, or

  9. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese. The...... aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content of...... cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared to a...

  10. Optimization of supstrate composition for the obtaining of Trappist cheese flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Hardi, Jovica

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the possibility of development of trappist cheese flavour on substrates which were formulated as model-systems and optimized (based on the results of preliminary investigations) to provide for the maximal activity of starter cultures. Six different compositions were prepared using powdered casein, powdered milk, ultrafiltrated concentrated milk, butter and water. All compositions were fortified with oligo and microelements and vitamin components, homogenized, sterilized an...

  11. Decontamination of radioactive milk - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The holding of milk and milk products long enough to deactivate certain radioisotopes prior to consumption, conversion of milk into butter, and manufacturing cheese by using modified processes are some of the approaches in minimizing the radioactivity risk to consumers. Extensive studies carried out in the USA have shown that though somewhat expensive, ion-exchange treatment of milk in large-scale, automated plants can eliminate 90% or more of the radionuclides of concern, i.e. strontium-90, and iodine-131, and much of caesium-137. Various factors affecting the efficiency of the ion exchange process and properties of the treated milk are reviewed. Other processing techniques such as electrodialysis are also briefly discussed in relation to removal of radionuclides from milk. (Author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K+, Ca+, Na+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K+, Ca2+, Na+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  14. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on The Microbial Load and Quality Characteristics of Baladi Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) was treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined Immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of cold storage in brine. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased the the moisture content, Ca++, Na+ , K+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased the protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on the sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  15. Production and milk quality of Pag sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Vukašinović

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on

  16. Polyphasic Approach to Bacterial Dynamics during the Ripening of Spanish Farmhouse Cheese, Using Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martín-Sánchez, Inés; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of the microbial population during ripening of Cueva de la Magahá cheese using a combination of classical and molecular techniques. Samples taken during ripening of this Spanish goat's milk cheese in which Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures were analyzed. All bacterial isolates were clustered by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, species-specific PCR, and multiplex PCR...

  17. Contribution of coagulant and native microflora to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of an artisanal cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, Freni K.; Tavares, Tânia G.; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of the coagulant Cynara cardunculus and of the microflora of raw milk to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of Serra da Estrela cheese were evaluated. The experimental design included both a model system and, dual cheeses. The study in the model system showed that isovaleric acid was the predominant volatile compound after 7 d of ripening. The systems inoculated with Enterococcus faecium produced the highest amount of this volatile (ca. 135.8mg kg 1 curd), while t...

  18. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation. PMID:27268116

  19. Production of probiotic fresh white cheese using co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus was inoculated into milk as co-culture to produce probiotic cheese. The effects of using Streptococcus thermophilus with other probiotic bacteria on cheese composition, and microbiological viability during 28 days of storage were investigated. Sensorial properties were determined only at 1st and 28th days of storage. The results showed that the use of Streptococcus thermophilus as co-culture in probiotic cheese production did not affect negatively the cheese components. Fat and dry matter properties of cheese weren't influenced by added probiotic bacteria. However, different level of pH, salt and lactic acid were detected. All probiotic bacteria were present in high levels throughout storage of cheeses, above 7 Log cfu.g- 1, threshold required for probiotic activity. Sensory panel showed that the highest average sensory evaluation points were recorded in cheeses made with Streptococcus thermophilus plus Lactobacillus casei, whereas other probiotic bacteria combinations had been affected less in regard to taste or appearance.

  20. Effect of Brine Solution Containing Ginger Extracts on the Properties of Egyptian White Brined Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abd El-Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the physico-chemicals properties of white cheese pickled in brine solution containing ginger extracts. After cows milk coagulation and whey drained, fresh white cheese block was cut and divided into 3 equal portions. The first portion covered with 16.0% brine aqueous ginger extract and the second portion was covered with 16.0% brine ethanol ginger extract. The later was covered with 16.0% plain brine serves as a control. All white brined cheese treatments were stored at 5±2°C for the ripening period of 60 days. The results revealed that brine solution containing aqueous ginger extract or ethanol ginger extract enhances the growth of starter culture, protein proteolysis (WSN/TN, total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs, oxidative stability (reduced TBA and sensory properties of white brined cheese compared with control cheese. In addition, brine solution containing aqueous ginger extract or ethanol ginger extract caused an increase in reddish and yellowish color degree and decrease in hardness of white cheese. However, most of these observations were more pronounced in white cheese pickled in brine aqueous ginger extract compared with that pickled in brine ethanol ginger extract; the differences were not significant.

  1. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activities – work outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  2. Evaluation of genetic polymorphism among Lactobacillus rhamnosus non-starter Parmigiano Reggiano cheese strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Claudio Giorgio; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Lazzi, Camilla; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo

    2011-01-01

    Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) is an Italian cooked, long-ripened cheese made with unheated cow's milk and natural whey starter. The microflora is involved in the manufacturing of this cheese, arising from the natural whey starter, the raw milk and the environment. Molecular studies have shown that mesophilic non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) are the dominant microflora present during the ripening of PR. In this study, a characterisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from a single PR manufacturing and ripening process is reported, using a combination of genotypic fingerprinting techniques (RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR). The intraspecies heterogeneity evidenced for 66 strains is correlated to their abilities to adapt to specific environmental and technological conditions. The detection of biotypes that correlate with specific moments in cheese ripening or differential development throughout this process suggests that these strains may have specific roles closely linked to their peculiar technological properties. PMID:21131087

  3. Application of common packaging materials in the probiotic fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Iličić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the application of common packaging materials polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS in the probiotic fresh cheese production packaging. Probiotic and traditional cheeses were produced from milk with standardized milk fat content of 2.3 g/100 g including the application of two cultures (probiotic and traditional. The samples were packed in the PP and PS cups and stored at 4 ºC for 30 days. The observed permeability of gases through the two applied packaging materials was significantly different. Cheese samples were analysed for microbiological properties whereby lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB were determined. Packaging materials showed no significant effect on the content of ascorbic acid which is known to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen.

  4. Behavior of 14C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with 14C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days

  5. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Hesham M., E-mail: heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4{+-}1 {sup o}C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: > We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. > Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. > Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  6. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 oC for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: → We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. → Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. → Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  7. Metabolomics Investigation To Shed Light on Cheese as a Possible Piece in the French Paradox Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Yde, Christian Clement; Clausen, Morten Rahr;

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the differentiation between subjects consuming cheese or milk and to elucidate the potential link to an effect on the blood cholesterol level. Fifteen healthy young men participated in a full cross-over study where they consumed three iso...

  8. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-

  9. Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mioč; Zdravko Barać; Vesna Pavić; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić

    2005-01-01

    Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Brač, Cres, Istrian and Travnik΄s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest p...

  10. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  11. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - 137Cs and 90Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. 137Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than 90Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  12. "Petit suisse" cheese from kefir: an alternative dessert with microorganisms of probiotic activity Queijo "Petit suisse" de kefir: uma alternativa de sobremesa com microorganismos de ação probiótica

    OpenAIRE

    Thanise Sabrina Souza Santos; Joice de Fátima Laureano Martins; Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha; Ana Vládia Bandeira Moreira

    2012-01-01

    "Petit Suisse" is a creamy cheese. Kefir is a symbiotic mixture of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with probiotic activity including immunomodulation and balance of intestinal microflora. The present study aims to develop "Petit Suisse" cheese from kefir. Kefir grains were grown in pasteurized cow milk, and after the separation of kefir the serum was discarded and the "Petit Suisse" cheese was prepared using strawberry, mangaba, herbs, and dried tomatoes. The acceptance of the different prepa...

  13. Characterization of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from São Jorge cheese, using biochemical and ribotyping methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kongo, J.M.; Kongo, A. J.; Malcata, F. X.; Wiedman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To identify, using phenotypic and genotypic methods, the dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in São Jorge cheese – one of the 11 Portuguese cheeses currently bearing an Appéllation d’Origine Protegée status. Methods and Results:  A total of 225 isolates from milk, curd and cheeses throughout ripening were identified to the genus level, 108 to the species level and ten to the strain level. Phenotypic methods indicated that lactobacilli, followed by enterococci, were the domina...

  14. Production system and seasonal effects on textural properties of two-month ripened goat’s cheese

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ronchietto; N. Di Bernardo; S. Bovolenta; R. Valusso; W. Ventura

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a revival in goat rearing and a resumption in the making of goat’s cheeses in the Province of Trento. Given this, and the local interest in maintaining the production and its traditions, a qualitative description of the goat’s cheeses is desirable. In this study, texture profile analysis, TPA, was used to examine the variability of the rheological properties, depending on production system and season, in raw milk semicooked paste goat’s cheese...

  15. New foods: a case study of Portuguese “Serra da Estrela” cheese incorporated with chestnuts flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The “Serra da Estrela” is the most well-known Portuguese cheese, made from ewe’s milk for centuries, granted a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in 1996 by the European Union. To this date, not many studies have been carried out regarding the nutritional profile of this cheese. Chestnut flowers are usually leftovers of the nut harvest, and, being a very interesting flower in terms of antioxidants and antimicrobials, the incorporation of this by-product into the cheese may be o...

  16. Evaluation of false positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics in goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rueda, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk is primarily destined for the production of fermented products, in particular cheese. Therefore, the control of antibiotic residues in milk is of great importance, since these could have negative repercussions on technological properties of the milk as well as on the health of consumers. In milk quality control programs, microbial inhibitor tests are widely applied to detect antibiotics during the screening stage. However, tests are non-specific and may be affected...

  17. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W; Ardö, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower in the...... experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  18. Investigation on the Protein Degradation, Free Fatty Acid Content and Area Fraction of Poosti Cheese, Iranian Traditional Cheese Ripened in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Hemmatian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, the proteolysis and lipolysis of Poosti cheese produced from raw sheep milk in mountainous eastern regions of Iran were investigated during 90 days of ripening. Materials and Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for proteolysis (SDS-PAGE and gas chromatography (GC for free fatty acids (FFAs were applied to investigate the intensity of lipid degradation. To evaluate the Poosti cheese microstructural changes, the area fraction parameter of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs was also calculated by the Image J software. Results: The most alteration in protein profile was occurred in the first month of aging for high activity of the proteolytic microorganisms in this period. The amount of free fatty acids was depended on their length due to the variety of involved mechanisms. In addition, the microstructural parameter was considerably affected by the aging as a consequence of the effect of salt on the activity of raw milk and skin micro flora. Conclusions: The decline in proteolysis rate during the last stage of aging could be correlated with the inhibitory effects of salt on the engaged microorganisms, and increase in the pore fraction of the microstructure during the first month of Poosti cheese aging could be due to casein rearrangement and gas release by the fermentative activity of microorganisms. Keywords: Proteolysis, Lipolysis, Poosti cheese, Raw sheep milk.

  19. PRODUCTION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS OF “CASU MARZU” CHEESE: EFFECT OF THE Piophila Casei COLONIZATION ON MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coinu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Piophila casei colonization under controlled conditions on “casu marzu”, a typical Sardinian sheep milk cheese. Three batches of two different kind of cheese (PO, holed paste and PC, firm paste were produced in duplicate (test and control. Test cheeses were exposed to the Piophila casei colonization in a conditioned store room, while control cheeses were suitably protected. All the samples were analyzed at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days from the production. The pH and aw, the chemical composition and the microbiological parameters (food safety and process hygiene criteria were determined. The colonization was unhomogeneous between the batches: PO cheeses were more easily colonized and showed more intense proteolysis and lipolysis respect to PC cheeses. The microbiological parameters were strongly affected by the experimental process conditions. The authors discuss about the opportunity of a controlled production of “casu marzu” and the implications to the health of consumers.

  20. Análise microbiológica e caracterização eletroforética do queijo mussarela elaborado a partir de leite de búfala Microbiological analysis and electrophoretic characterization of mozzarella cheese made from buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Aparecida Buzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de queijos mussarela elaborados a partir de leite de búfala, adquiridos do comércio varejista, assim como, verificar a sua autenticidade, averiguando a possível presença de leite de vaca no produto. As análises microbiológicas compreenderam contagem de coliformes totais e E. coli, contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva e pesquisa de Salmonella spp.; enquanto que, para a determinação da pureza das mussarelas, a técnica utilizada foi a eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Com base nos resultados obtidos na avaliação microbiológica, pode-se afirmar que 98% das amostras estão dentro dos padrões microbiológicos legais vigentes, embora algumas delas tenham apresentado valores elevados para coliformes totais, os quais indicam inadequadas condições de higiene durante a fabricação dos queijos. Entretanto, 2% das amostras encontram-se em desacordo com a legislação, uma vez que apresentaram populações de coliformes fecais acima do permitido, como resultado de uma alta contaminação por E. coli. Mediante a caracterização eletroforética, detectou-se a presença de leite de vaca em 22% das amostras, adicionado, provavelmente, de forma intencional.This study evaluated the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese made from buffalo milk obtained from retail outlets and validated their authenticity by checking the product for the possible presence of cow milk. The microbiological analysis included counts of E. coli, total coliform, positive coagulase Staphylococcus, and Salmonella spp. For the determination of mozzarella purity, we used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Based on the results of the microbiological evaluation, we can state that 98% of samples comply with the legal microbiological standards although some have shown high values of total coliforms, which indicates poor hygienic conditions during manufacturing. However, 2% of the samples showed fecal