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Sample records for checkpoint gene bub-1

  1. Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in the Regulation of the Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Bub1.

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    Claudia Breit

    Full Text Available The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint.

  2. Distinct domains in Bub1 localize RZZ and BubR1 to kinetochores to regulate the checkpoint

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    Zhang, Gang; Lischetti, Tiziana; Hayward, Daniel G;

    2015-01-01

    , we show that a distinct region in Bub1 mediates kinetochore localization of BubR1 through direct binding, but surprisingly removal of this region increases checkpoint strength. Our work thus uncovers how Bub1 coordinates checkpoint signalling by distinct domains for RZZ and BubR1 recruitment...

  3. Spindle Checkpoint Factors Bub1 and Bub2 Promote DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Nonhomologous End Joining.

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    Jessulat, Matthew; Malty, Ramy H; Nguyen-Tran, Diem-Hang; Deineko, Viktor; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Vlasblom, James; Omidi, Katayoun; Jin, Ke; Minic, Zoran; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Burnside, Daniel; Samanfar, Bahram; Phanse, Sadhna; Freywald, Tanya; Prasad, Bhanu; Zhang, Zhaolei; Vizeacoumar, Franco; Krogan, Nevan J; Freywald, Andrew; Golshani, Ashkan; Babu, Mohan

    2015-07-01

    The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is essential for the preservation of genome integrity, as it efficiently repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Previous biochemical and genetic investigations have indicated that, despite the importance of this pathway, the entire complement of genes regulating NHEJ remains unknown. To address this, we employed a plasmid-based NHEJ DNA repair screen in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using 369 putative nonessential DNA repair-related components as queries. Among the newly identified genes associated with NHEJ deficiency upon disruption are two spindle assembly checkpoint kinases, Bub1 and Bub2. Both observation of resulting phenotypes and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Bub1 and -2, either alone or in combination with cell cycle regulators, are recruited near the DSB, where phosphorylated Rad53 or H2A accumulates. Large-scale proteomic analysis of Bub kinases phosphorylated in response to DNA damage identified previously unknown kinase substrates on Tel1 S/T-Q sites. Moreover, Bub1 NHEJ function appears to be conserved in mammalian cells. 53BP1, which influences DSB repair by NHEJ, colocalizes with human BUB1 and is recruited to the break sites. Thus, while Bub is not a core component of NHEJ machinery, our data support its dual role in mitotic exit and promotion of NHEJ repair in yeast and mammals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Inactivating the spindle checkpoint kinase Bub1 during embryonic development results in a global shutdown of proliferation

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    Taylor Stephen S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bub1 is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, a surveillance mechanism that maintains chromosome stability during M-phase. Bub1 is essential during the early stages of embryogenesis, with homozygous BUB1-null mice dying shortly after day E3.5. Bub1 is also required later during embryogenesis; inactivation of BUB1 on day E10.5 appears to rapidly block all further development. However, the mechanism(s responsible for this phenotype remain unclear. Findings Here we show that inactivating BUB1 on day E10.5 stalls embryogenesis within 48 hours. This is accompanied by a global shutdown of proliferation, widespread apoptosis and haemorrhaging. Conclusion Our results suggest that Bub1 is required throughout the developing embryo for cellular proliferation. Therefore, Bub1 has been shown to be essential in all scenarios analyzed thus far in mice: proliferation of cultured fibroblasts, spermatogenesis, oogenesis and both early and late embryonic development. This likely reflects the fact that Bub1 has dual functions during mitosis, being required for both SAC function and chromosome alignment.

  5. Localization of the Drosophila checkpoint control protein Bub3 to the kinetochore requires Bub1 but not Zw10 or Rod.

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    Basu, J; Logarinho, E; Herrmann, S; Bousbaa, H; Li, Z; Chan, G K; Yen, T J; Sunkel, C E; Goldberg, M L

    1998-12-01

    We report here the isolation and molecular characterization of the Drosophila homolog of the mitotic checkpoint control protein Bub3. The Drosophila Bub3 protein is associated with the centromere/kinetochore of chromosomes in larval neuroblasts whose spindle assembly checkpoints have been activated by incubation with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent colchicine. Drosophila Bub3 is also found at the kinetochore regions in mitotic larval neuroblasts and in meiotic primary and secondary spermatocytes, with the strong signal seen during prophase and prometaphase becoming increasingly weaker after the chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate. We further show that the localization of Bub3 to the kinetochore is disrupted by mutations in the gene encoding the Drosophila homolog of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Bub1. Combined with recent findings showing that the kinetochore localization of Bub1 conversely depends upon Bub3, these results support the hypothesis that the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins exist as a multiprotein complex recruited as a unit to the kinetochore. In contrast, we demonstrate that the kinetochore constituents Zw10 and Rod are not needed for the binding of Bub3 to the kinetochore. This suggests that the kinetochore is assembled in at least two relatively independent pathways.

  6. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice

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    Leland, Shawn; Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Polyzos, Aris; Thomas, Sharon; Samaan, George; Donnell, Robert; Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-24

    Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice, and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.

  7. Three BUB1 and BUBR1/MAD3-related spindle assembly checkpoint proteins are required for accurate mitosis in Arabidopsis.

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    Paganelli, Laetitia; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Quentin, Michaël; Damiani, Isabelle; Govetto, Benjamin; Lecomte, Philippe; Karpov, Pavel A; Abad, Pierre; Chabouté, Marie-Edith; Favery, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a refined surveillance mechanism which ensures that chromosomes undergoing mitosis do not segregate until they are properly attached to the spindle microtubules (MT). The SAC has been extensively studied in metazoans and yeast, but little is known about its role in plants. We identified proteins interacting with a MT-associated protein MAP65-3, which plays a critical role in organising mitotic MT arrays, and carried out a functional analysis of previously and newly identified SAC components. We show that Arabidopsis SAC proteins BUB3.1, MAD2, BUBR1/MAD3s and BRK1 interact with each other and with MAP65-3. We found that two BUBR1/MAD3s interacted specifically at centromeres. When stably expressed in Arabidopsis, BRK1 localised to the kinetochores during all stages of the mitotic cell cycle. Early in mitosis, BUB3.1 and BUBR1/MAD3.1 localise to the mitotic spindle, where MAP65-3 organises spindle MTs. A double-knockout mad3.1 mad3.2 mutant presented spindle MT abnormalities, chromosome misalignments on the metaphase plate and the production of lagging chromosomes and micronuclei during mitosis. We conclude that BRK1 and BUBR1/MAD3-related proteins play a key role in ensuring faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and that their interaction with MAP65-3 may be important for the regulation of MT-chromosome attachment. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Absence of aneuploidy and gastrointestinal tumours in a man with a chromosomal 2q13 deletion and BUB1 monoallelic deficiency.

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    Hoang, Don; Sue, Gloria R; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining; Narayan, Deepak

    2013-02-25

    Chromosomal instability is a potentially critical step in the development of colorectal cancer. The budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 (BUB1) gene is a highly conserved protein that plays a critical role at the spindle assembly checkpoint during cell division. BUB1 mutations function in a dominant-negative fashion and have been implicated in causing dysfunctional kinetochore attachments, premature chromatid separation, accelerated mis-segregation of whole chromosomes and aneuploidy. BUB1 mutations have been observed in patients with colorectal cancers. We report a remarkable case of BUB1 haploinsufficiency owing to a 1.7 Mb deletion of chromosome 2q13 in a 54-year-old man with no prior history of carcinoma. These mutant alleles were observed in both tissue from the hand and peripheral blood. Aneuploidy was not observed on cytogenetic analysis. These findings highlight the insufficiency of BUB1 haploinsufficiency to directly stimulate tumourigenesis, and suggest that other factors may be more critical to this process.

  9. Association between polymorphisms in segregation genes BUB1B and TTK and gastric cancer risk

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    Hudler Petra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of normal gastric cells is a complex and multistep process, resulting in development of heterogeneous tumours. Susceptible genetic background, accumulation of genetic changes, and environmental factors play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in mitotic segregation genes could be responsible for inducing the slow process of accumulation of genetic changes, leading to genome instability.

  10. BUB1 mRNA is significantly co-expressed with AURKA and AURKB mRNA in advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma.

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    Davidson, Ben; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Tropé, Claes G; Kærn, Janne; Reich, Reuven; Falkenthal, Thea E Hetland

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical role of the spindle checkpoint kinase budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 (Bub1) in primary and metastatic advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma. BUB1 mRNA expression was analyzed in 178 tumors (88 effusions, 38 primary carcinomas, and 52 solid metastases) from 144 patients with advanced-stage disease using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bub1 protein expression by Western blotting was studied in 63 carcinomas (30 effusions and 33 solid lesions). BUB1 mRNA expression at different anatomic sites was studied for association with clinicopathologic parameters, including chemotherapy resistance and survival. BUB1 mRNA was universally expressed in serous carcinomas, irrespective of anatomic site. BUB1 mRNA levels were uniformly low in six ovarian surface epithelium specimens analyzed for comparative purposes. Bub1 protein was expressed in 22/30 effusions and 28/33 solid lesions. BUB1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in chemo-naïve primary carcinomas and solid metastases compared to specimens obtained following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p cancer. BUB1 mRNA levels are lower following chemotherapy exposure in solid lesions, though its presence is unrelated to clinical behavior including response to chemotherapy and survival. BUB1 is co-expressed with AURKA and AURKB suggesting biological relationship between these spindle cell components.

  11. MicroRNA-450a-3p represses cell proliferation and regulates embryo development by regulating Bub1 expression in mouse.

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    Min Luo

    Full Text Available Bub1 is a critical component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC and closely linked to cell proliferation and differentiation. We previously found that spontaneous abortion embryos contained a low level of Bub1 protein but normal mRNA level, while the knockdown of Bub1 leads to abnormal numerical chromosomes in embryonic cells. Here, we investigated the mechanism through which governs the post-transcriptional regulation of Bub1 protein expression level. We first conducted bioinformatics analysis and identified eight putative miRNAs that may target Bub1. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-450a-3p can directly regulate Bub1 by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of Bub1 mRNA. We found that the overexpression of miR-450a-3p in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells down-regulated Bub1 protein level, repressed cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and restricted most cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, when the fertilized eggs were microinjected with miR-450a-3p mimics, the cleavage of zygotes was effectively suppressed. Our results strongly suggest that an abnormally decreased Bub1 level regulated by miRNAs may be implicated in the pathogenesis of spontaneous miscarriage. Therefore, the blockade of miR-450a-3p may be explored as a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing spontaneous miscarriages.

  12. The multiple roles of Bub1 in chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis

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    Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-19

    Aneuploidy, any deviation from an exact multiple of the haploid number of chromosomes, is a common occurrence in cancer and represents the most frequent chromosomal disorder in newborns. Eukaryotes have evolved mechanisms to assure the fidelity of chromosome segregation during cell division that include a multiplicity of checks and controls. One of the main cell division control mechanisms is the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that monitors the proper attachment of chromosomes to spindle fibers and prevents anaphase until all kinetochores are properly attached. The mammalian SAC is composed by at least 14 evolutionary-conserved proteins that work in a coordinated fashion to monitor the establishment of amphitelic attachment of all chromosomes before allowing cell division to occur. Among the SAC proteins, the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole protein 1 (Bub1), is a highly conserved protein of prominent importance for the proper functioning of the SAC. Studies have revealed many roles for Bub1 in both mitosis and meiosis, including the localization of other SAC proteins to the kinetochore, SAC signaling, metaphase congression and the protection of the sister chromatid cohesion. Recent data show striking sex specific differences in the response to alterations in Bub1 activity. Proper Bub1 functioning is particularly important during oogenesis in preventing the generation of aneuploid gametes that can have detrimental effects on the health status of the fetus and the newborn. These data suggest that Bub1 is a master regulator of SAC and chromosomal segregation in both mitosis and meiosis. Elucidating its many essential functions in regulating proper chromosome segregation can have important consequences for preventing tumorigenesis and developmental abnormalities.

  13. Expression profiling of 519 kinase genes in matched malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor/plexiform neurofibroma samples is discriminatory and identifies mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 as overexpressed with transformation.

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    Stricker, Thomas P; Henriksen, Kammi J; Tonsgard, James H; Montag, Anthony G; Krausz, Thomas N; Pytel, Peter

    2013-07-01

    About 50% of all malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arise as neurofibromatosis type 1 associated lesions. In those patients malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are thought to arise through malignant transformation of a preexisting plexiform neurofibroma. The molecular changes associated with this transformation are still poorly understood. We sought to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of expression of kinases contributes to this malignant transformation. We analyzed expression of all 519 kinase genes in the human genome using the nanostring nCounter system. Twelve cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a background of preexisting plexiform neurofibroma were included. Both components were separately sampled. Statistical analysis compared global changes in expression levels as well as changes observed in the pairwise comparison of samples taken from the same surgical specimen. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on tissue array slides to confirm expression of selected proteins. The expression pattern of kinase genes can separate malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and preexisting plexiform neurofibromas. The majority of kinase genes is downregulated rather than overexpressed with malignant transformation. The patterns of expression changes are complex without simple recurring alteration. Pathway analysis demonstrates that differentially expressed kinases are enriched for kinases involved in the direct regulation of mitosis, and several of these show increased expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Immunohistochemical studies for the mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 confirm higher expression levels at the protein level. These results suggest that the malignant transformation of plexiform neurofibroma is associated with distinct changes in the expression of kinase genes. The patterns of these changes are complex and heterogeneous. There is no single unifying alteration. Kinases involved

  14. Diverse functions of spindle assembly checkpoint genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Daniel, Jewel A; Keyes, Brice E; Ng, Yvonne P Y; Freeman, C Onyi; Burke, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint regulates the metaphase-to-anaphase transition from yeast to humans. We examined the genetic interactions with four spindle assembly checkpoint genes to identify nonessential genes involved in chromosome segregation, to identify the individual roles of the spindle assembly checkpoint genes within the checkpoint, and to reveal potential complexity that may exist. We used synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis using spindle assembly checkpoint mutants mad1, mad2, mad3, and bub3. We found 228 synthetic interactions with the four spindle assembly checkpoint mutants with substantial overlap in the spectrum of interactions between mad1, mad2, and bub3. In contrast, there were many synthetic interactions that were common to mad1, mad2, and bub3 that were not shared by mad3. We found shared interactions between pairs of spindle assembly checkpoint mutants, suggesting additional complexity within the checkpoint and unique interactions for all of the spindle assembly checkpoint genes. We show that most genes in the interaction network, including ones with unique interactions, affect chromosome transmission or microtubule function, suggesting that the complexity of interactions reflects diverse roles for the checkpoint genes within the checkpoint. Our analysis expands our understanding of the spindle assembly checkpoint and identifies new candidate genes with possible roles in chromosome transmission and mitotic spindle function.

  15. Spindle checkpoint proteins and chromosome-microtubule attachment in budding yeast.

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    Gillett, Emily S; Espelin, Christopher W; Sorger, Peter K

    2004-02-16

    Accurate chromosome segregation depends on precise regulation of mitosis by the spindle checkpoint. This checkpoint monitors the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and delays the metaphase to anaphase transition until all kinetochores have formed stable bipolar connections to the mitotic spindle. Components of the spindle checkpoint include the mitotic arrest defective (MAD) genes MAD1-3, and the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (BUB) genes BUB1 and BUB3. In animal cells, all known spindle checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores during normal mitoses. In contrast, we show that whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bub1p and Bub3p are bound to kinetochores early in mitosis as part of the normal cell cycle, Mad1p and Mad2p are kinetochore bound only in the presence of spindle damage or kinetochore lesions that interfere with chromosome-microtubule attachment. Moreover, although Mad1p and Mad2p perform essential mitotic functions during every division cycle in mammalian cells, they are required in budding yeast only when mitosis goes awry. We propose that differences in the behavior of spindle checkpoint proteins in animal cells and budding yeast result primarily from evolutionary divergence in spindle assembly pathways. Copyright The Rockefeller University Press

  16. Down-regulation of mitotic checkpoint in transformed human embryo lung fibroblasts induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguaridine

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    易宗春; 张旻; 傅娟玲; 王钊; 周宗灿

    2004-01-01

    Background Mutations in mitotic checkpoint genes have been detected in several human cancers, which exhibit chromosome instability. We wanted to know whether mutation of hBub1 could occur in transformed human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF) cells induced by a chemical carcinogen.Methods HELF cells were transformed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N- nitrosoguaridine (MNNG), and three flasks of transformed HELF cells (named as T1, T2, and T3) were selected as amplifiers, and mutations of hBub1 in these transformed cells were analyzed by PCR-SSCP and sequencing.Results It was found that any one of three transformed cell lines exhibited aneuploidy with a low mitotic checkpoint function. Subsequent PCR-SSCP and sequence analysis showed an AGT to CGT or ATT mutation at codon 80 in hBub1 gene in T1 cells with a resultant change in amino acid sequence.Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the mitotic checkpoint genes could be targets of MNNG.

  17. The RING finger domain E3 ubiquitin ligases BRCA1 and the RNF20/RNF40 complex in global loss of the chromatin mark histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) in cell line models and primary high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

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    Dickson, Kristie-Ann; Cole, Alexander J; Gill, Anthony J; Clarkson, Adele; Gard, Gregory B; Chou, Angela; Kennedy, Catherine J; Henderson, Beric R; Fereday, Sian; Traficante, Nadia; Alsop, Kathryn; Bowtell, David D; deFazio, Anna; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Marsh, Deborah J

    2016-12-15

    Enzymatic factors driving cancer-associated chromatin remodelling are of increasing interest as the role of the cancer epigenome in gene expression and DNA repair processes becomes elucidated. Monoubiquitination of histone H2B at lysine 120 (H2Bub1) is a central histone modification that functions in histone cross-talk, transcriptional elongation, DNA repair, maintaining centromeric chromatin and replication-dependent histone mRNA 3'-end processing, as well as being required for the differentiation of stem cells. The loss of global H2Bub1 is seen in a number of aggressive malignancies and has been linked to tumour progression and/or a poorer prognosis in some cancers. Here, we analyse a large cohort of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) and show loss of global H2Bub1 in 77% (313 of 407) of tumours. Loss of H2Bub1 was seen at all stages (I-IV) of HGSOC, indicating it is a relatively early epigenomic event in this aggressive malignancy. Manipulation of key H2Bub1 E3 ubiquitin ligases, RNF20, RNF40 and BRCA1, in ovarian cancer cell line models modulated H2Bub1 levels, indicative of the role of these RING finger ligases in monoubiquitination of H2Bub1 in vitro. However, in primary HGSOC, loss of RNF20 protein expression was identified in just 6% of tumours (26 of 424) and did not correlate with global H2Bub1 loss. Similarly, germline mutation of BRCA1 did not show a correlation with the global H2Bub1 loss. We conclude that the regulation of tumour-associated H2Bub1 levels is complex. Aberrant expression of alternative histone-associated 'writer' or 'eraser' enzymes are likely responsible for the global loss of H2Bub1 seen in HGSOC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Tumor-suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory checkpoints, and the skin

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms "tumor suppressor′s genes," "skin," and "cell cycle regulatory checkpoints." We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses.

  19. Chromatin structure is implicated in "late" elongation checkpoints on the U2 snRNA and beta-actin genes.

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    Egloff, Sylvain; Al-Rawaf, Hadeel; O'Reilly, Dawn; Murphy, Shona

    2009-07-01

    The negative elongation factor NELF is a key component of an early elongation checkpoint generally located within 100 bp of the transcription start site of protein-coding genes. Negotiation of this checkpoint and conversion to productive elongation require phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (pol II), NELF, and DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) by positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). P-TEFb is dispensable for transcription of the noncoding U2 snRNA genes, suggesting that a NELF-dependent checkpoint is absent. However, we find that NELF at the end of the 800-bp U2 gene transcription unit and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NELF causes a termination defect. NELF is also associated 800 bp downstream of the transcription start site of the beta-actin gene, where a "late" P-TEFb-dependent checkpoint occurs. Interestingly, both genes have an extended nucleosome-depleted region up to the NELF-dependent control point. In both cases, transcription through this region is P-TEFb independent, implicating chromatin in the formation of the terminator/checkpoint. Furthermore, CTCF colocalizes with NELF on the U2 and beta-actin genes, raising the possibility that it helps the positioning and/or function of the NELF-dependent control point on these genes.

  20. Structure of a Blinkin-BUBR1 complex reveals an interaction crucial for kinetochore-mitotic checkpoint regulation via an unanticipated binding Site

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    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Lischetti, Tiziana; Matak-Vinković, Dijana

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly bioriented and attached to the mitotic spindle. BUB1 and BUBR1 kinases are central for this proc...

  1. bir1 deletion causes malfunction of the spindle assembly checkpoint and apoptosis in yeast

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    Qun eRen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in yeast is a highly regulated and well studied event. Various checkpoints are placed throughout the cell cycle to ensure faithful segregation of sister chromatids. Unexpected events, such as DNA damage or oxidative stress, cause the activation of checkpoint(s and cell cycle arrest. Malfunction of the checkpoints may induce cell death. We previously showed that under oxidative stress, the budding yeast cohesin Mcd1, a homolog of human Rad21, was cleaved by the caspase-like protease Esp1. The cleaved Mcd1 C-terminal fragment was then translocated to mitochondria, causing apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we demonstrated that Bir1 plays an important role in spindle assembly checkpoint and cell death. Similar to H2O2 treatment, deletion of BIR1 using a BIR1-degron strain caused degradation of the securin Pds1, which binds and inactivates Esp1 until metaphase-anaphase transition in a normal cell cycle. BIR1 deletion caused an increase level of ROS and mis-location of Bub1, a major protein for spindle assembly checkpoint. In wild type, Bub1 was located at the kinetochores, but was primarily in the cytoplasm in bir1 deletion strain. When BIR1 was deleted, addition of nocodazole was unable to retain the Bub1 localization on kietochores, further suggesting that Bir1 is required to activate and maintain the spindle assembly checkpoint. Our study suggests that the BIR1 function in cell cycle regulation works in concert with its anti-apoptosis function.

  2. Mutation analysis of the checkpoint kinase 2 gene in colorectal cancer cell lines

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    LIU Wei-dong; ZHONG Bai-yun; ZHANG Yang-de; CHOI Gyu-seog

    2007-01-01

    Background Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is a DNA damage-activated protein kinase which is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control.CHK2 gene could be a candidate gene for colorectal cancer susceptibility.But there are few systematic repots on mutation of CHK2 in colorectal cancer.Methods The mutations of all 14 exons of CHK2 in 56 colorecfal cancer cell lines were screened systematically.using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) to screen the mismatches of the CHK2 exons amplified products,and then the suspected mutant cell lines were scanned by nucleotide sequence analysis.Results VACO400 in CHK2 exon 1a was suspected to have mutation by DHPLC and confirmed by sequence,but this was nonsense mutation.C106,CX-1,HT-29,SK01,SW480,SW620 and VACO400 in CHK2 exon 1b were confirmed to have the same nonsense mutation in 11609 A>G.DLD-1 and HCT-15 in CHK2 exon 2 were confirmed to have missense mutation R145W.which was heterozygous C>T missense mutation at nucleotide 433.leading to an Arg>Trp substitution within the FHA domain.Conclusions The CHK2 mutation in colorectal cancer is a low frequency event.There are just 10 cell lines to have sequence variations in all the 14 exons in 56 colorectal cancer cell lines and only DLD-1/HCT-15 had heterozygous missense mutation.These findings may give useful information of susceptibility of colorectal cancer as single nucleotide polymorphysim.

  3. Natural Loss of Mps1 Kinase in Nematodes Uncovers a Role for Polo-like Kinase 1 in Spindle Checkpoint Initiation

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    Julien Espeut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spindle checkpoint safeguards against chromosome loss during cell division by preventing anaphase onset until all chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules. Checkpoint signal is generated at kinetochores, the primary attachment site on chromosomes for spindle microtubules. Mps1 kinase initiates checkpoint signaling by phosphorylating the kinetochore-localized scaffold protein Knl1 to create phospho-docking sites for Bub1/Bub3. Mps1 is widely conserved but is surprisingly absent in many nematode species. Here, we show that PLK-1, which targets a substrate motif similar to that of Mps1, functionally substitutes for Mps1 in C. elegans by phosphorylating KNL-1 to direct BUB-1/BUB-3 kinetochore recruitment. This finding led us to re-examine checkpoint initiation in human cells, where we found that Plk1 co-inhibition significantly reduced Knl1 phosphorylation and Bub1 kinetochore recruitment relative to Mps1 inhibition alone. Thus, the finding that PLK-1 functionally substitutes for Mps1 in checkpoint initiation in C. elegans uncovered a role for Plk1 in species that have Mps1.

  4. Structural and functional insights into the role of the N-terminal Mps1 TPR domain in the SAC (spindle assembly checkpoint).

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    Thebault, Philippe; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Dou, Zhen; Blundell, Tom L; Elowe, Sabine; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M

    2012-12-15

    The SAC (spindle assembly checkpoint) is a surveillance system that ensures the timely and accurate transmission of the genetic material to offspring. The process implies kinetochore targeting of the mitotic kinases Bub1 (budding uninhibited by benzamidine 1), BubR1 (Bub1 related) and Mps1 (monopolar spindle 1), which is mediated by the N-terminus of each kinase. In the present study we report the 1.8 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) crystal structure of the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domain in the N-terminal region of human Mps1. The structure reveals an overall high similarity to the TPR motif of the mitotic checkpoint kinases Bub1 and BubR1, and a number of unique features that include the absence of the binding site for the kinetochore structural component KNL1 (kinetochore-null 1; blinkin), and determinants of dimerization. Moreover, we show that a stretch of amino acids at the very N-terminus of Mps1 is required for dimer formation, and that interfering with dimerization results in mislocalization and misregulation of kinase activity. The results of the present study provide an important insight into the molecular details of the mitotic functions of Mps1 including features that dictate substrate selectivity and kinetochore docking.

  5. Multiple Defects of Cell Cycle Checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, an U937 Cell Mutant Stably Expressing Anti-Sense ATM Gene cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) functions in control of cell cycle checkpoints in responding to DNA damage and protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Knock-out within tumor cells of endogenous ATM will achieve therapeutic benefits and nable a better understanding of the decisive mechanisms of cell death or survival in response to DNA damaging agents. ) In present paper, we sought to characterize the cell cycle checkpoint profiles in U937-ASPI3K, a U937 cell mutant that was previously established with endogenous ATM knock-out phenotype. Synchronized U937-ASPI3K was exposed to 137Cs irradiation, G1, S, G2/M cell cycle checkpoint profiles were evaluated by determining cell cycle kinetics, p53/p21 protein, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and p34CDC2 kinase activity in response to irradiation. U937-ASPI3K exhibited multiple defects in cell cycle checkpoints as defined by failing to arrest cells upon irradiation. The accumulation of cellular p53/p21 protein and inhibition of CDK kinase was also abolished in U937-ASPI3K. It was concluded that the stable expression of anti-sense PI3K cDNA fragment completely abolished multiple cell cycle checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, and hence U937-ASPI3K with an AT-like phenotype could serves as a valuable model system for investigating the signal transduction pathway in responding to DNA damaging-based cancer therapy.

  6. Spindle assembly checkpoint genes reveal distinct as well as overlapping expression that implicates MDF-2/Mad2 in postembryonic seam cell proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Wang, Jun; Chu, Jeffrey S C; Tu, Domena; Baillie, David L; Chen, Nansheng

    2010-09-21

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until all of the kinetochores have properly attached to the spindle. The importance of SAC genes for genome stability is well established; however, the roles these genes play, during postembryonic development of a multicellular organism, remain largely unexplored. We have used GFP fusions of 5' upstream intergenic regulatory sequences to assay spatiotemporal expression patterns of eight conserved genes implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint function in Caenorhabditis elegans. We have shown that regulatory sequences for all of the SAC genes drive ubiquitous GFP expression during early embryonic development. However, postembryonic spatial analysis revealed distinct, tissue-specific expression of SAC genes with striking co-expression in seam cells, as well as in the gut. Additionally, we show that the absence of MDF-2/Mad2 (one of the checkpoint genes) leads to aberrant number and alignment of seam cell nuclei, defects mainly attributed to abnormal postembryonic cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that these defects are completely rescued by fzy-1(h1983)/CDC20, suggesting that regulation of the APC/CCDC20 by the SAC component MDF-2 is important for proper postembryonic cell proliferation. Our results indicate that SAC genes display different tissue-specific expression patterns during postembryonic development in C. elegans with significant co-expression in hypodermal seam cells and gut cells, suggesting that these genes have distinct as well as overlapping roles in postembryonic development that may or may not be related to their established roles in mitosis. Furthermore, we provide evidence, by monitoring seam cell lineage, that one of the checkpoint genes is required for proper postembryonic cell proliferation. Importantly, our research provides the first evidence that postembryonic cell division is more sensitive to

  7. Spindle assembly checkpoint and its regulators in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Chen; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meiosis is a unique form of cell division in which cells divide twice but DNA is duplicated only once. Errors in chromosome segregation during meiosis will result in aneuploidy, followed by loss of the conceptus during pregnancy or birth defects. During mitosis, cells utilize a mechanism called the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. A similar mechanism has been uncovered for meiosis in the last decade, especially in the past several years. METHODS For this review, we included data and relevant information obtained through a PubMed database search for all articles published in English from 1991 through 2011 which included the term 'meiosis', 'spindle assembly checkpoint', or 'SAC'. RESULTS There are 91 studies included. Evidence for the existence of SAC functions in meiosis is provided by studies on the SAC proteins mitotic-arrest deficient-1 (Mad1), Mad2, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-1 (Bub1), Bub3, BubR1 and Mps1; microtubule-kinetochore attachment regulators Ndc80 complex, chromosomal passenger complex, mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK), kinetochore null 1 (KNL1) and Mis12 complex and spindle stability regulators. CONCLUSIONS SAC and its regulators exist and function in meiosis, and their malfunctions may cause germ cell aneuploidy. However, species and sexual differences exist. Moreover, interaction of SAC components with other regulators is still poorly understood, which needs further study.

  8. The tumor suppressor homolog in fission yeast, myh1{sup +}, displays a strong interaction with the checkpoint gene rad1{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Kristina; Warringer, Jonas; Farewell, Anne [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lundberg Laboratory, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 462, Goeteborg SE-405 30 (Sweden); Park, Han-Oh [Bioneer Corporation, 49-3, Munpyeong-dong, Daedeok-gu, Daejon 306-220 (Korea, Republic of); Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk [Functional Genomics Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yusong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hayles, Jacqueline [Cell Cycle Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln' s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX (United Kingdom); Sunnerhagen, Per [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lundberg Laboratory, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 462, Goeteborg SE-405 30 (Sweden)], E-mail: per.sunnerhagen@cmb.gu.se

    2008-09-26

    The DNA glycosylase MutY is strongly conserved in evolution, and homologs are found in most eukaryotes and prokaryotes examined. This protein is implicated in repair of oxidative DNA damage, in particular adenine mispaired opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine. Previous investigations in Escherichia coli, fission yeast, and mammalian cells show an association of mutations in MutY homologs with a mutator phenotype and carcinogenesis. Eukaryotic MutY homologs physically associate with several proteins with a role in replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint signaling, specifically the trimeric 9-1-1 complex. In a genetic investigation of the fission yeast MutY homolog, myh1{sup +}, we show that the myh1 mutation confers a moderately increased UV sensitivity alone and in combination with mutations in several DNA repair genes. The myh1 rad1, and to a lesser degree myh1 rad9, double mutants display a synthetic interaction resulting in enhanced sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and hydroxyurea. UV irradiation of myh1 rad1 double mutants results in severe chromosome segregation defects and visible DNA fragmentation, and a failure to activate the checkpoint. Additionally, myh1 rad1 double mutants exhibit morphological defects in the absence of DNA damaging agents. We also found a moderate suppression of the slow growth and UV sensitivity of rhp51 mutants by the myh1 mutation. Our results implicate fission yeast Myh1 in repair of a wider range of DNA damage than previously thought, and functionally link it to the checkpoint pathway.

  9. Checkpoint genes and Exo1 regulate nearby inverted repeat fusions that form dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaochar, Salma; Shanks, Lisa; Weinert, Ted

    2010-12-14

    Genomic rearrangements are common, occur by largely unknown mechanisms, and can lead to human diseases. We previously demonstrated that some genome rearrangements occur in budding yeast through the fusion of two DNA sequences that contain limited sequence homology, lie in inverted orientation, and are within 5 kb of one another. This inverted repeat fusion reaction forms dicentric chromosomes, which are well-known intermediates to additional rearrangements. We have previously provided evidence indicating that an error of stalled or disrupted DNA replication forks can cause inverted repeat fusion. Here we analyze how checkpoint protein regulatory pathways known to stabilize stalled forks affect this form of instability. We find that two checkpoint pathways suppress inverted repeat fusion, and that their activities are distinguishable by their interactions with exonuclease 1 (Exo1). The checkpoint kinase Rad53 (Chk2) and recombination protein complex MRX(MRN) inhibit Exo1 in one pathway, whereas in a second pathway the ATR-like kinases Mec1 and Tel1, adaptor protein Rad9, and effector kinases Chk1 and Dun1 act independently of Exo1 to prevent inverted repeat fusion. We provide a model that indicates how in Rad53 or MRX mutants, an inappropriately active Exo1 may facilitate faulty template switching between nearby inverted repeats to form dicentric chromosomes. We further investigate the role of Rad53, using hypomorphic alleles of Rad53 and null mutations in Rad9 and Mrc1, and provide evidence that only local, as opposed to global, activity of Rad53 is sufficient to prevent inverted repeat fusion.

  10. Phenotypic checkpoints regulate neuronal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2010-11-01

    Nervous system development proceeds by sequential gene expression mediated by cascades of transcription factors in parallel with sequences of patterned network activity driven by receptors and ion channels. These sequences are cell type- and developmental stage-dependent and modulated by paracrine actions of substances released by neurons and glia. How and to what extent these sequences interact to enable neuronal network development is not understood. Recent evidence demonstrates that CNS development requires intermediate stages of differentiation providing functional feedback that influences gene expression. We suggest that embryonic neuronal functions constitute a series of phenotypic checkpoint signatures; neurons failing to express these functions are delayed or developmentally arrested. Such checkpoints are likely to be a general feature of neuronal development and constitute presymptomatic signatures of neurological disorders when they go awry.

  11. Genetic analysis of the spindle checkpoint genes san-1, mdf-2, bub-3 and the CENP-F homologues hcp-1 and hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Vinita A; Stewart, Anil M; Moore, Landon L; Padilla, Pamela A

    2008-02-04

    The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi) to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580) deletion mutant. The san-1(ok1580) animal has low penetrating phenotypes including an increased incidence of males, larvae arrest, slow growth, protruding vulva, and defects in vulva morphogenesis. We found that the viability of san-1(ok1580) embryos is significantly reduced when HCP-1 (CENP-F homologue), MDF-1 (MAD-1 homologue), MDF-2 (MAD-2 homologue) or BUB-3 (predicted BUB-3 homologue) are reduced by RNAi. Interestingly, the viability of san-1(ok1580) embryos is not significantly reduced when the paralog of HCP-1, HCP-2, is reduced. The phenotype of san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) embryos includes embryonic and larval lethality, abnormal organ development, and an increase in abnormal chromosome segregation (aberrant mitotic nuclei, anaphase bridging). Several of the san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) animals displayed abnormal kinetochore (detected by MPM-2) and microtubule structure. The survival of mdf-2(RNAi);hcp-1(RNAi) embryos but not bub-3(RNAi);hcp-1(RNAi) embryos was also compromised. Finally, we found that san-1(ok1580) and bub-3(RNAi), but not hcp-1(RNAi) embryos, were sensitive to anoxia, suggesting that like SAN-1, BUB-3 has a functional role as a spindle checkpoint protein. Together, these data suggest that in the C. elegans embryo, HCP-1 interacts with a subset of the spindle checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the fact that san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) animals had a severe viability defect whereas in the san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(RNAi) and san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(ok1757) animals the viability defect was not as severe suggesting that hcp-1 and hcp-2 are not completely redundant.

  12. Genetic analysis of the spindle checkpoint genes san-1, mdf-2, bub-3 and the CENP-F homologues hcp-1 and hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Landon L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580 deletion mutant. Results The san-1(ok1580 animal has low penetrating phenotypes including an increased incidence of males, larvae arrest, slow growth, protruding vulva, and defects in vulva morphogenesis. We found that the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is significantly reduced when HCP-1 (CENP-F homologue, MDF-1 (MAD-1 homologue, MDF-2 (MAD-2 homologue or BUB-3 (predicted BUB-3 homologue are reduced by RNAi. Interestingly, the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is not significantly reduced when the paralog of HCP-1, HCP-2, is reduced. The phenotype of san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi embryos includes embryonic and larval lethality, abnormal organ development, and an increase in abnormal chromosome segregation (aberrant mitotic nuclei, anaphase bridging. Several of the san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals displayed abnormal kinetochore (detected by MPM-2 and microtubule structure. The survival of mdf-2(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos but not bub-3(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos was also compromised. Finally, we found that san-1(ok1580 and bub-3(RNAi, but not hcp-1(RNAi embryos, were sensitive to anoxia, suggesting that like SAN-1, BUB-3 has a functional role as a spindle checkpoint protein. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that in the C. elegans embryo, HCP-1 interacts with a subset of the spindle checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the fact that san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals had a severe viability defect whereas in the san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(RNAi and san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(ok1757 animals the viability defect was not as severe suggesting that hcp-1 and hcp-2 are not completely redundant.

  13. Spindle assembly checkpoint gene mdf-1 regulates germ cell proliferation in response to nutrition signals in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sonoko; Yamamoto, Takaharu G; Kitagawa, Risa

    2008-04-09

    When newly hatched Caenorhabditis elegans larvae are starved, their primordial germ cells (PGCs) arrest in the post-S phase. This starvation-induced PGC arrest is mediated by the DAF-18/PTEN-AKT-1/PKB nutrient-sensing pathway. Here, we report that the conserved spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component MDF-1/MAD1 is required for the PGC arrest. We identified 2 Akt kinase phosphorylation sites on MDF-1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant MDF-1 partially suppressed the defect in the starvation-induced PGC arrest in L1 larvae lacking DAF-18, suggesting that MDF-1 regulates germ cell proliferation as a downstream target of AKT-1, thereby demonstrating a functional link between cell-cycle regulation by the SAC components and nutrient sensing by DAF-18-AKT-1 during post-embryonic development. The phosphorylation status of MDF-1 affects its binding to another SAC component, MDF-2/MAD2. The loss of MDF-2 or another SAC component also caused inappropriate germ cell proliferation, but the defect was less severe than that caused by mdf-1 hemizygosity, suggesting that MDF-1 causes the PGC arrest by two mechanisms, one involving MDF-2 and another that is independent of other SAC components.

  14. miR-125b promotes cell death by targeting spindle assembly checkpoint gene MAD1 and modulating mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, S; Nath, S; Ghose, J; Maiti, G P; Biswas, N; Bandyopadhyay, S; Panda, C K; Bhattacharyya, N P; Roychoudhury, S

    2013-03-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a 'wait-anaphase' mechanism that has evolved in eukaryotic cells in response to the stochastic nature of chromosome-spindle attachments. In the recent past, different aspects of the SAC regulation have been described. However, the role of microRNAs in the SAC is vaguely understood. We report here that Mad1, a core SAC protein, is repressed by human miR-125b. Mad1 serves as an adaptor protein for Mad2 - which functions to inhibit anaphase entry till the chromosomal defects in metaphase are corrected. We show that exogenous expression of miR-125b, through downregulation of Mad1, delays cells at metaphase. As a result of this delay, cells proceed towards apoptotic death, which follows from elevated chromosomal abnormalities upon ectopic expression of miR-125b. Moreover, expressions of Mad1 and miR-125b are inversely correlated in a variety of cancer cell lines, as well as in primary head and neck tumour tissues. We conclude that increased expression of miR-125b inhibits cell proliferation by suppressing Mad1 and activating the SAC transiently. We hypothesize an optimum Mad1 level and thus, a properly scheduled SAC is maintained partly by miR-125b.

  15. The role of micro RNAs let7c, 100 and 218 expression and their target RAS, C-MYC, BUB1, RB, SMARCA5, LAMB3 and Ki-67 in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina T. Reis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c, 100 and 218 using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray representative of localized and metastasized the lymph nodes and bone prostate cancer. METHODS: To verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c (C-MYC, BUB1, RAS 100 (SMARCA5, RB and 218 (LAMB3 and cell proliferation (Ki-67 we used immunohistochemistry and computerized image system ImageJ MacBiophotonics in three tissue microarrays representative of localized prostate cancer and lymph node and bone metastases. miRNA expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR using 60 paraffin blocks to construct the tissue microarray representative of localized disease. RESULTS: RAS expression was increased in localized prostate cancer and bone metastases compared to the lymph nodes (p=0.017. RB showed an increase in expression from localized prostate cancer to lymph node and bone metastasis (p=0.036. LAMB3 was highly expressed in localized and lymph node metastases (p<0.001. Cell proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 showed an increase from localized prostate cancer to metastases (p<0.001. We did not found any relationship between C-MYC (p=0.253, BUB1 (p=0.649 and SMARCA5 (p=0.315 protein expression with prognosis or tumor behavior. CONCLUSION: We found that the expression of RAS, RB, LAMB3 and Ki-67 changed in the different stages of prostate cancer. Furthermore, we confirmed the overexpression of the miRNAs let7c, 100 and 218 in localized prostate cancer but failed to show the control of protein expression by the putative controller miRNAs using immunohistochemistry.

  16. Negotiating checkpoints in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheerin Al Araj

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In Palestine I can never drive for more than half an hourwithout being stopped at checkpoints. Soldiers irritate mewith the same questions, the same procedures, time andtime again. No value is put on the time of a Palestinian.

  17. Bub3 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Li

    Full Text Available In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes have been attached to the spindle microtubules and aligned correctly at the equatorial metaphase plate. The major checkpoint proteins in mitosis consist of mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad1-3, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (Bub1, Bub3, and monopolar spindle 1(Mps1. During meiosis, for the formation of a haploid gamete, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation occur with only one round of DNA replication. To pull homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles during meiosis I, both sister kinetochores of a homologue must face toward the same pole which is very different from mitosis and meiosis II. As a core member of checkpoint proteins, the individual role of Bub3 in mammalian oocyte meiosis is unclear. In this study, using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi approaches, we analyzed the role of Bub3 in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our data showed that overexpressed Bub3 inhibited meiotic metaphase-anaphase transition by preventing homologous chromosome and sister chromatid segregations in meiosis I and II, respectively. Misaligned chromosomes, abnormal polar body and double polar bodies were observed in Bub3 knock-down oocytes, causing aneuploidy. Furthermore, through cold treatment combined with Bub3 overexpression, we found that overexpressed Bub3 affected the attachments of microtubules and kinetochores during metaphase-anaphase transition. We propose that as a member of SAC, Bub3 is required for regulation of both meiosis I and II, and is potentially involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mammalian oocytes.

  18. Bub3 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Li, Sen; Yuan, Ju; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2009-11-02

    In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes have been attached to the spindle microtubules and aligned correctly at the equatorial metaphase plate. The major checkpoint proteins in mitosis consist of mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad)1-3, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (Bub)1, Bub3, and monopolar spindle 1(Mps1). During meiosis, for the formation of a haploid gamete, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation occur with only one round of DNA replication. To pull homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles during meiosis I, both sister kinetochores of a homologue must face toward the same pole which is very different from mitosis and meiosis II. As a core member of checkpoint proteins, the individual role of Bub3 in mammalian oocyte meiosis is unclear. In this study, using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches, we analyzed the role of Bub3 in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our data showed that overexpressed Bub3 inhibited meiotic metaphase-anaphase transition by preventing homologous chromosome and sister chromatid segregations in meiosis I and II, respectively. Misaligned chromosomes, abnormal polar body and double polar bodies were observed in Bub3 knock-down oocytes, causing aneuploidy. Furthermore, through cold treatment combined with Bub3 overexpression, we found that overexpressed Bub3 affected the attachments of microtubules and kinetochores during metaphase-anaphase transition. We propose that as a member of SAC, Bub3 is required for regulation of both meiosis I and II, and is potentially involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mammalian oocytes.

  19. Systematic comparison of RNA extraction techniques from frozen and fresh lung tissues: checkpoint towards gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifart Carola

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliability of gene expression profiling-based technologies to detect transcriptional differences representative of the original samples is affected by the quality of the extracted RNA. It strictly depends upon the technique that has been employed. Hence, the present study aimed at systematically comparing silica-gel column (SGC and guanidine isothiocyanate (GTC techniques of RNA isolation to answer the question which technique is preferable when frozen, long-term stored or fresh lung tissues have to be evaluated for the downstream molecular analysis. Methods Frozen lungs (n = 3 were prepared by long-term storage (2.5 yrs in -80°C while fresh lungs (n = 3 were harvested and processed immediately. The purity and quantification of RNA was determined with a spectrophotometer whereas the total amounted copy numbers of target sequences were determined with iCycler detection system for assessment of RNA intactness (28S and 18S and fragment sizes, i.e. short (GAPDH-3' UTR, medium (GAPDH, and long (PBGD with 200 bp, 700 bp, and 1400 bp distance to the 3'ends of mRNA motif, respectively. Results Total yield of RNA was higher with GTC than SGC technique in frozen as well as fresh tissues while the purity of RNA remained comparable. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction data revealed that higher mean copy numbers of 28S and a longer fragment (1400 bp were obtained from RNA isolated with SGC than GTC technique using fresh as well as frozen tissues. Additionally, a high mean copy number of 18S and medium fragment (700 bp were obtained in RNA isolated with SGC technique from fresh tissues, only. For the shorter fragment, no significant differences between both techniques were noticed. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that although the GTC technique has yielded a higher amount of RNA, the SGC technique was much more superior with respect to the reliable generation of an intact RNA and effectively amplified

  20. Relação funcional entre a proteína Bub3 do checkpoint mitótico e a proteína motora dineína na ligação cinetocoro-microtúbulos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Patrícia Manuela Areias da

    2011-01-01

    O checkpoint mitótico assegura a fidelidade da segregação cromossómica a cada divisão celular. Este mecanismo de controlo inibe a anafase até que todos os cromossomas estabeleçam uma ligação bipolar, através dos seus cinetocoros irmãos, com os microtúbulos provenientes de pólos opostos do fuso mitótico, culminando no seu alinhamento na placa metafásica, fenómeno designado de congressão. Algumas das proteínas do checkpoint mitótico, designadamente Bub1, BubR1 e Bub3, para alé...

  1. A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Tobias; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard;

    2011-01-01

    To identify key connections between DNA-damage repair and checkpoint pathways, we performed RNA interference screens for regulators of the ionizing radiation-induced G2 checkpoint, and we identified the breast cancer gene BRCA2. The checkpoint was also abrogated following depletion of PALB2......, an interaction partner of BRCA2. BRCA2 and PALB2 depletion led to premature checkpoint abrogation and earlier activation of the AURORA A-PLK1 checkpoint-recovery pathway. These results indicate that the breast cancer tumour suppressors and homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 are main...

  2. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  3. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 3

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  4. Targeting checkpoint kinase 1 in cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Archie N; Carvajal, Richard; Schwartz, Gary K

    2007-04-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is monitored by surveillance mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. Our knowledge of the biochemical nature of checkpoint regulation during an unperturbed cell cycle and following DNA damage has expanded tremendously over the past decade. We now know that dysfunction in cell cycle checkpoints leads to genomic instability and contributes to tumor progression, and most agents used for cancer therapy, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, also activate cell cycle checkpoints. Understanding how checkpoints are regulated is therefore important from the points of view of both tumorigenesis and cancer treatment. In this review, we present an overview of the molecular hierarchy of the checkpoint signaling network and the emerging role of checkpoint targets, especially checkpoint kinase 1, in cancer therapy. Further, we discuss the results of recent clinical trials involving the nonspecific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor, UCN-01, and the challenges we face with this new therapeutic approach.

  5. A spindle checkpoint functions during mitosis in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encalada, Sandra E; Willis, John; Lyczak, Rebecca; Bowerman, Bruce

    2005-03-01

    During mitosis, chromosome segregation is regulated by a spindle checkpoint mechanism. This checkpoint delays anaphase until all kinetochores are captured by microtubules from both spindle poles, chromosomes congress to the metaphase plate, and the tension between kinetochores and their attached microtubules is properly sensed. Although the spindle checkpoint can be activated in many different cell types, the role of this regulatory mechanism in rapidly dividing embryonic animal cells has remained controversial. Here, using time-lapse imaging of live embryonic cells, we show that chemical or mutational disruption of the mitotic spindle in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos delays progression through mitosis. By reducing the function of conserved checkpoint genes in mutant embryos with defective mitotic spindles, we show that these delays require the spindle checkpoint. In the absence of a functional checkpoint, more severe defects in chromosome segregation are observed in mutants with abnormal mitotic spindles. We also show that the conserved kinesin CeMCAK, the CENP-F-related proteins HCP-1 and HCP-2, and the core kinetochore protein CeCENP-C all are required for this checkpoint. Our analysis indicates that spindle checkpoint mechanisms are functional in the rapidly dividing cells of an early animal embryo and that this checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation defects during mitosis.

  6. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  7. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F

    2003-11-27

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Pol{kappa}). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development.

  8. Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Alan J.; Peggs, Karl S.; Allison, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The progression of a productive immune response requires that a number of immunological checkpoints be passed. Passage may require the presence of excitatory costimulatory signals or the avoidance of negative or coinhibitory signals, which act to dampen or terminate immune activity. The immunoglobulin superfamily occupies a central importance in this coordination of immune responses, and the CD28/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4):B7.1/B7.2 receptor/ligand grouping represents the archetypal example of these immune regulators. In part the role of these checkpoints is to guard against the possibility of unwanted and harmful self-directed activities. While this is a necessary function, aiding in the prevention of autoimmunity, it may act as a barrier to successful immunotherapies aimed at targeting malignant self-cells that largely display the same array of surface molecules as the cells from which they derive. Therapies aimed at overcoming these mechanisms of peripheral tolerance, in particular by blocking the inhibitory checkpoints, offer the potential to generate antitumor activity, either as monotherapies or in synergism with other therapies that directly or indirectly enhance presentation of tumor epitopes to the immune system. Such immunological molecular adjuvants are showing promise in early clinical trials. This review focuses on the results of the archetypal example of checkpoint blockade, anti-CTLA-4, in preclinical tumor models and clinical trials, while also highlighting other possible targets for immunological checkpoint blockade. PMID:16730267

  9. Human Zwint-1 Specifies Localization of Zeste White 10 to Kinetochores and Is Essential for Mitotic Checkpoint Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongmeiWang; XiaoyuHu; XiaDing; ZhenDou; ZhihongYank; AndrewW.Shaw; MaikunTcng; DonW.Cleveland; MichaelL.Goldberg; LiwenNiu; XucbiaoYao

    2005-01-01

    Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by dynamic interaction between spindle microtubules and the kinetochore, a multiprotein complex assembled onto centromeric DNA of the chromosome. Here we show that Zwint-1 is required and is sufficient for kinetochore localization of Zestc White 10 (ZW10) in HeLa cells. Zwint-1 specifies the kinetochore association of ZW10 by interacting with its N-terminal domain. Suppression of synthesis of Zwint-1 by small interfering RNA abolishes the localization of ZW10 to the kinetochore, demonstrating the requirement of Zwint-1 for ZWl0 kinetochore localization. In addition, dcplction of Zwint-1 affects no mitotic arrest but causes aberrant premature chromo. some segregation. These Zwint-l-suppressed cells dis. play chromosome bridge phenotype with sister chromatids inter-connected. Moreover, Zwint-1 is required for stable association of CENP.F and dynamitin but not BUB1 with the kinetochore. Finally, our studies showthat Zwint-1 is a new component of the mitotic check. point, as cells lacking Zwint-1 fail to arrest in mitosis when exposed to microtubule inhibitors, yielding inter. phase cells with multinuclei. As ZWl0 and Zwint.1 are absent from yeast, we reasoned that metazoans evolved an elaborate spindle checkpoint machinery to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in mitosis.

  10. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  11. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 1

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint English series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint English tests. - Offers plenty of additional questions for use in class or as homework. - Includes clearly identified questions on grammar and punctuation, comprehension, use of language and essay planning. - Follows the structure of the relevant textbook to ensure a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course. - Provides a space for Students to write their answers. This Workbook is matched to the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum Fr

  12. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  13. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  14. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  15. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyong [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshan [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Teng, Lisong, E-mail: lsteng@zju.edu.cn [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Legerski, Randy J., E-mail: rlegersk@mdanderson.org [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  16. Clinical impact of checkpoint inhibitors as novel cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kent; Arkenau, Hendrik-Tobias; Infante, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    Immune responses are tightly regulated via signaling through numerous co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules. Exploitation of these immune checkpoint pathways is one of the mechanisms by which tumors evade and/or escape the immune system. A growing understanding of the biology of immune checkpoints and tumor immunology has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies designed to target co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules in order to re-engage the immune system and restore antitumor immune responses. Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies were among the first to be tested in the clinic, and ipilimumab was the first immune checkpoint inhibitor approved for an anticancer indication. Agents targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway, either PD-1 or one of its ligands, programmed death ligand 1, are in active clinical development for numerous cancers, including advanced melanoma and lung cancer. Understanding the different mechanisms of action, safety profiles, and response patterns associated with inhibition of the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways may improve patient management as these therapies are moved in to the clinical practice setting and may also provide a rationale for combination therapy with different inhibitors. Additional immune checkpoint molecules with therapeutic potential, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related gene, also have inhibitors in early stages of clinical development. Clinical responses and safety data reported to date on immune checkpoint inhibitors suggest these agents may have the potential to markedly improve outcomes for patients with cancer.

  17. The pachytene checkpoint and its relationship to evolutionary patterns of polyploidization and hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X C; Barringer, B C; Barbash, D A

    2009-01-01

    Sterility is a commonly observed phenotype in interspecific hybrids. Sterility may result from chromosomal or genic incompatibilities, and much progress has been made toward understanding the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in various taxa. The underlying mechanisms causing hybrid sterility, however, are less well known. The pachytene checkpoint is a meiotic surveillance system that many organisms use to detect aberrant meiotic products, in order to prevent the production of defective gametes. We suggest that activation of the pachytene checkpoint may be an important mechanism contributing to two types of hybrid sterility. First, the pachytene checkpoint may form the mechanistic basis of some gene-based hybrid sterility phenotypes. Second, the pachytene checkpoint may be an important mechanism that mediates chromosomal-based hybrid sterility phenotypes involving gametes with non-haploid (either non-reduced or aneuploid) chromosome sets. Studies in several species suggest that the strength of the pachytene checkpoint is sexually dimorphic, observations that warrant future investigation into whether such variation may contribute to differences in patterns of sterility between male and female interspecific hybrids. In addition, plants seem to lack the pachytene checkpoint, which correlates with increased production of unreduced gametes and a higher incidence of polyploid species in plants versus animals. Although the pachytene checkpoint occurs in many animals and in fungi, at least some of the genes that execute the pachytene checkpoint are different among organisms. This finding suggests that the penetrance of the pachytene checkpoint, and even its presence or absence can evolve rapidly. The surprising degree of evolutionary flexibility in this meiotic surveillance system may contribute to the observed variation in patterns of hybrid sterility and in rates of polyploidization.

  18. A conserved checkpoint monitors meiotic chromosome synapsis inCaenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Needhi; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-07-14

    We report the discovery of a checkpoint that monitorssynapsis between homologous chromosomes to ensure accurate meioticsegregation. Oocytes containing unsynapsed chromosomes selectivelyundergo apoptosis even if agermline DNA damage checkpoint is inactivated.This culling mechanism isspecifically activated by unsynapsed pairingcenters, cis-acting chromosomesites that are also required to promotesynapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apoptosis due to synaptic failurealso requires the C. elegans homolog of PCH2,a budding yeast pachytenecheckpoint gene, which suggests that this surveillance mechanism iswidely conserved.

  19. GRID COMPUTING AND CHECKPOINT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a means of allocating the computational power of alarge number of computers to complex difficult computation or problem. Grid computing is a distributed computing paradigm thatdiffers from traditional distributed computing in that it is aimed toward large scale systems that even span organizational boundaries. In this paper we investigate the different techniques of fault tolerance which are used in many real time distributed systems. The main focus is on types of fault occurring in the system, fault detection techniques and the recovery techniques used. A fault can occur due to link failure, resource failure or by any other reason is to be tolerated for working the system smoothly and accurately. These faults can be detected and recovered by many techniques used accordingly. An appropriate fault detector can avoid loss due to system crash and reliable fault tolerance technique can save from system failure. This paper provides how these methods are applied to detect and tolerate faults from various Real Time Distributed Systems. The advantages of utilizing the check pointing functionality are obvious; however so far the Grid community has notdeveloped a widely accepted standard that would allow the Gridenvironment to consciously utilize low level check pointing packages.Therefore, such a standard named Grid Check pointing Architecture isbeing designed. The fault tolerance mechanism used here sets the jobcheckpoints based on the resource failure rate. If resource failureoccurs, the job is restarted from its last successful state using acheckpoint file from another grid resource. A critical aspect for anautomatic recovery is the availability of checkpoint files. A strategy to increase the availability of checkpoints is replication. Grid is a form distributed computing mainly to virtualizes and utilize geographically distributed idle resources. A grid is a distributed computational and storage environment often composed of

  20. Melanoma therapy: Check the checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Masutaka; Kadono, Takafumi

    2016-02-01

    Recent mutational and translational studies have revealed that the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway plays a key role in melanomagenesis. Mutations in NRAS and BRAF are found in the majority of melanomas resulting in the formation of constitutively active NRAS and BRAF molecules, which leads to the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells through the activation of MEK/ERK signals. Inhibitors of BRAF or MEK significantly extend the progression-free survival and overall survival of melanoma patients compared with conventional chemotherapies. Combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors further enhances the clinical effectiveness. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an immune checkpoint molecule that downregulates T-cell activation by binding to B7 (CD80/CD86) molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Programmed death receptor ligand 1 on melanoma cells negatively regulates T-cell function by binding to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on T cells. Antibodies against CTLA-4 and PD-1 also enhance the survival of melanoma patients. In this review, we summarize the clinical effectiveness and adverse events of the BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors and anti-immune checkpoint antibodies in melanoma treatment.

  1. Overlapped checkpointing with hardware assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jun [U. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA (UCF)

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to handling the demanding I/O workload incurred during checkpoint writes encountered in High Performance Computing. Prior efforts to improve performance have been primarily bound by mechanical limitations of the hard drive. Our research surpasses this limitation by providing a method to: (1) write checkpoint data to a high-speed, non-volatile buffer, and (2) asynchronously write this data to permanent storage while resuming computation. This removes the hard drive from the critical data path because our I/O node based buffers isolate the compute nodes from the storage servers. This solution is feasible because of industry declines in cost for high-capacity, non-volatile storage technologies. Testing was conducted on a small-scale cluster to prove the design, and then scaled at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results show a definitive speedup factor for select workloads over writing directly to a typical global parallel file system; the Panasas ActiveScale File System.

  2. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to DNA damage by activating cell cycle checkpoints to delay proliferation and facilitate DNA repair. Here, to uncover new checkpoint regulators, we perform RNA interference screening targeting genes involved in ubiquitylation processes. We show that the F-box protein cyclin F plays...... an important role in checkpoint control following ionizing radiation. Cyclin F-depleted cells initiate checkpoint signalling after ionizing radiation, but fail to maintain G2 phase arrest and progress into mitosis prematurely. Importantly, cyclin F suppresses the B-Myb-driven transcriptional programme...... that promotes accumulation of crucial mitosis-promoting proteins. Cyclin F interacts with B-Myb via the cyclin box domain. This interaction is important to suppress cyclin A-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb, a key step in B-Myb activation. In summary, we uncover a regulatory mechanism linking the F-box protein...

  3. REVIEW OF CHECKPOINTING ALGORITHMS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gahlan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Checkpointing is the process of saving the status information. Checkpoint is defined as a designated place in a program at which normal processing is interrupted specifically to preserve the status information necessary to allow resumption of processing at a later time. Mobile computing raises many new issues such as lack of stablestorage, low bandwidth of wireless channel, high mobility, and limited battery life. Coordinated checkpointing is an attractive approach for transparently adding fault tolerance to distributed applications since it avoids domino effects and minimizes the stable storage requirement. This paper presents the review of the algorithms,which have been reported in the literature for checkpointing. This paper also covers backward error recovery techniques for distributed systems specially the distributed mobile systems.

  4. Slipping past the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Radhika; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2013-11-01

    Error-free genome segregation depends on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a signalling network that delays anaphase onset until chromosomes have established proper spindle attachments. Three reports now quantitatively examine the sensitivity and robustness of the SAC response.

  5. Checkpoint Kinases Regulate a Global Network of Transcription Factors in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Jaehnig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage activates checkpoint kinases that induce several downstream events, including widespread changes in transcription. However, the specific connections between the checkpoint kinases and downstream transcription factors (TFs are not well understood. Here, we integrate kinase mutant expression profiles, transcriptional regulatory interactions, and phosphoproteomics to map kinases and downstream TFs to transcriptional regulatory networks. Specifically, we investigate the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Chk1, Rad53, and Dun1 in the transcriptional response to DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate. The result is a global kinase-TF regulatory network in which Mec1 and Tel1 signal through Rad53 to synergistically regulate the expression of more than 600 genes. This network involves at least nine TFs, many of which have Rad53-dependent phosphorylation sites, as regulators of checkpoint-kinase-dependent genes. We also identify a major DNA damage-induced transcriptional network that regulates stress response genes independently of the checkpoint kinases.

  6. Mammalian Homologs of Yeast Checkpoint Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    with the indications of the portions of this data which are subject to such limitations, shall be included on any reproduction hereof which includes any...1998; Gardner et al., 1999; San- directly implicated specific Rad9 [S/T]Q residues as chez et al., 1999; Liu et al., 2000). Thus, the intermediate...indicating that autophosphorylation is re- medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 50 U of quired for the mobility shift

  7. A tumor suppressor role of the Bub3 spindle checkpoint protein after apoptosis inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain aneuploid cells, indicating that the mitotic checkpoint is permissive to the proliferation of chromosomally aberrant cells. However, mutated or altered expression of mitotic checkpoint genes accounts for a minor proportion of human tumors. We describe a Drosophila melanogaster tumorigenesis model derived from knocking down spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes and preventing apoptosis in wing imaginal discs. Bub3-deficient tumors that were also deficient in apoptosis displayed neoplastic growth, chromosomal aneuploidy, and high proliferative potential after transplantation into adult flies. Inducing aneuploidy by knocking down CENP-E and preventing apoptosis does not induce tumorigenesis, indicating that aneuploidy is not sufficient for hyperplasia. In this system, the aneuploidy caused by a deficient SAC is not driving tumorigenesis because preventing Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore does not cause hyperproliferation. Our data suggest that Bub3 has a nonkinetochore-dependent function that is consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:23609535

  8. Choreography of the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex: DDK puts a check on the checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Andrew L; Weinert, Ted

    2010-11-24

    Checkpoint proteins respond to DNA damage by halting the cell cycle until the damage is repaired. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Furuya et al. (2010) provide evidence that checkpoint proteins need to be removed from sites of damage in order to properly repair it.

  9. Preserving Yeast Genetic Heritage through DNA Damage Checkpoint Regulation and Telomere Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Zhou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve genome integrity, extrinsic or intrinsic DNA damages must be repaired before they accumulate in cells and trigger other mutations and genome rearrangements. Eukaryotic cells are able to respond to different genotoxic stresses as well as to single DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, suggesting highly sensitive and robust mechanisms to detect lesions that trigger a signal transduction cascade which, in turn, controls the DNA damage response (DDR. Furthermore, cells must be able to distinguish natural chromosomal ends from DNA DSBs in order to prevent inappropriate checkpoint activation, DDR and chromosomal rearrangements. Since the original discovery of RAD9, the first DNA damage checkpoint gene identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes that have a role in this pathway have been identified, including MRC1, MEC3, RAD24, RAD53, DUN1, MEC1 and TEL1. Extensive studies have established most of the genetic basis of the DNA damage checkpoint and uncovered its different functions in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, and telomere maintenance. However, major questions concerning the regulation and functions of the DNA damage checkpoint remain to be answered. First, how is the checkpoint activity coupled to DNA replication and repair? Second, how do cells distinguish natural chromosome ends from deleterious DNA DSBs? In this review we will examine primarily studies performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system.

  10. Asynchronous Checkpoint Migration with MRNet in the Scalable Checkpoint / Restart Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, K; Moody, A; de Supinski, B R

    2012-03-20

    Applications running on today's supercomputers tolerate failures by periodically saving their state in checkpoint files on stable storage, such as a parallel file system. Although this approach is simple, the overhead of writing the checkpoints can be prohibitive, especially for large-scale jobs. In this paper, we present initial results of an enhancement to our Scalable Checkpoint/Restart Library (SCR). We employ MRNet, a tree-based overlay network library, to transfer checkpoints from the compute nodes to the parallel file system asynchronously. This enhancement increases application efficiency by removing the need for an application to block while checkpoints are transferred to the parallel file system. We show that the integration of SCR with MRNet can reduce the time spent in I/O operations by as much as 15x. However, our experiments exposed new scalability issues with our initial implementation. We discuss the sources of the scalability problems and our plans to address them.

  11. DTL/CDT2 is essential for both CDT1 regulation and the early G2/M checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansam, Christopher L; Shepard, Jennifer L; Lai, Kevin; Ianari, Alessandra; Danielian, Paul S; Amsterdam, Adam; Hopkins, Nancy; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2006-11-15

    Checkpoint genes maintain genomic stability by arresting cells after DNA damage. Many of these genes also control cell cycle events in unperturbed cells. By conducting a screen for checkpoint genes in zebrafish, we found that dtl/cdt2 is an essential component of the early, radiation-induced G2/M checkpoint. We subsequently found that dtl/cdt2 is required for normal cell cycle control, primarily to prevent rereplication. Both the checkpoint and replication roles are conserved in human DTL. Our data indicate that the rereplication reflects a requirement for DTL in regulating CDT1, a protein required for prereplication complex formation. CDT1 is degraded in S phase to prevent rereplication, and following DNA damage to prevent origin firing. We show that DTL associates with the CUL4-DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and is required for CDT1 down-regulation in unperturbed cells and following DNA damage. The cell cycle defects of Dtl-deficient zebrafish are suppressed by reducing Cdt1 levels. In contrast, the early G2/M checkpoint defect appears to be Cdt1-independent. Thus, DTL promotes genomic stability through two distinct mechanisms. First, it is an essential component of the CUL4-DDB1 complex that controls CDT1 levels, thereby preventing rereplication. Second, it is required for the early G2/M checkpoint.

  12. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  13. Functional and Physical Interaction between Rad24 and Rfc5 in the Yeast Checkpoint Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Ando, Seiko; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    1998-01-01

    The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C (RFC) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been shown to be required for the checkpoints which respond to replication block and DNA damage. Here we describe the isolation of RAD24, known to play a role in the DNA damage checkpoint, as a dosage-dependent suppressor of rfc5-1. RAD24 overexpression suppresses the sensitivity of rfc5-1 cells to DNA-damaging agents and the defect in DNA damage-induced Rad53 phosphorylation. Rad24...

  14. Mouse pachytene checkpoint 2 (trip13 is required for completing meiotic recombination but not synapsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chenglin Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian meiosis, homologous chromosome synapsis is coupled with recombination. As in most eukaryotes, mammalian meiocytes have checkpoints that monitor the fidelity of these processes. We report that the mouse ortholog (Trip13 of pachytene checkpoint 2 (PCH2, an essential component of the synapsis checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans, is required for completion of meiosis in both sexes. TRIP13-deficient mice exhibit spermatocyte death in pachynema and loss of oocytes around birth. The chromosomes of mutant spermatocytes synapse fully, yet retain several markers of recombination intermediates, including RAD51, BLM, and RPA. These chromosomes also exhibited the chiasmata markers MLH1 and MLH3, and okadaic acid treatment of mutant spermatocytes caused progression to metaphase I with bivalent chromosomes. Double mutant analysis demonstrated that the recombination and synapsis genes Spo11, Mei1, Rec8, and Dmc1 are all epistatic to Trip13, suggesting that TRIP13 does not have meiotic checkpoint function in mice. Our data indicate that TRIP13 is required after strand invasion for completing a subset of recombination events, but possibly not those destined to be crossovers. To our knowledge, this is the first model to separate recombination defects from asynapsis in mammalian meiosis, and provides the first evidence that unrepaired DNA damage alone can trigger the pachytene checkpoint response in mice.

  15. Checkpoint kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation of BRCA1 regulates the fidelity of nonhomologous end-joining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zhuang; J. Zhang (Shuzhong); H. Willers; H. Wang (Hong); J.H. Chung; D.C. van Gent (Dik); D.E. Hallahan; S.N. Powell; F. Xia

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 maintains genomic integrity by protecting cells from the deleterious effects of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Through its interactions with the checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) kinase and Rad51, BRCA1 promotes homologous recombination, which

  16. A Checkpoint Storage System for Desktop Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kiswany, Samer Al; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2007-01-01

    Checkpointing is an indispensable technique to provide fault tolerance for long-running high-throughput applications like those running on desktop grids. In these environments, a checkpoint storage system can offer multiple benefits: reduce the load on a traditional file system, offer high-performance through specialization, and, finally, optimize checkpoint data management by taking into account application semantics. Such a storage system can present a unifying abstraction to checkpoint operations, while hiding the fact that there are no dedicated resources to store the checkpoint data. This paper presents a dedicated checkpoint storage system for desktop grid environments. Our solution uses scavenged disk space from participating desktops to build an inexpensive storage space, offering a traditional file system interface for easy integration with checkpointing applications. This paper presents the architecture of our checkpoint storage system, key write optimizations for high-speed I/O, support for increme...

  17. Transcriptional pausing at the translation start site operates as a critical checkpoint for riboswitch regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvier, Adrien; Picard-Jean, Frédéric; Berger-Dancause, Jean-Christophe; Bastet, Laurène; Naghdi, Mohammad Reza; Dubé, Audrey; Turcotte, Pierre; Perreault, Jonathan; Lafontaine, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of nascent transcript sequencing, it has been postulated but never demonstrated that transcriptional pausing at translation start sites is important for gene regulation. Here we show that the Escherichia coli thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) thiC riboswitch contains a regulatory pause site in the translation initiation region that acts as a checkpoint for thiC expression. By biochemically probing nascent transcription complexes halted at defined positions, we find a narrow transcriptional window for metabolite binding, in which the downstream boundary is delimited by the checkpoint. We show that transcription complexes at the regulatory pause site favour the formation of a riboswitch intramolecular lock that strongly prevents TPP binding. In contrast, cotranscriptional metabolite binding increases RNA polymerase pausing and induces Rho-dependent transcription termination at the checkpoint. Early transcriptional pausing may provide a general mechanism, whereby transient transcriptional windows directly coordinate the sensing of environmental cues and bacterial mRNA regulation. PMID:28071751

  18. User Process Checkpoint/Restart. Revision 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    This document describes the design of the Tera user process checkpoint facility. Checkpoint is a means for saving the state of an executing process...or group of processes and restarting them later on demand. The motivation for providing checkpoint on the Tera is to allow long running computationally

  19. Checkpointing and Recovery in Distributed and Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    A transaction-consistent global checkpoint of a database records a state of the database which reflects the effect of only completed transactions and not the results of any partially executed transactions. This thesis establishes the necessary and sufficient conditions for a checkpoint of a data item (or the checkpoints of a set of data items) to…

  20. RNA interference regulates the cell cycle checkpoint through the RNA export factor, Ptr1, in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Tetsushi, E-mail: tiida@nig.ac.jp [Division of Cytogenetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sokendai, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Iida, Naoko [Division of Mutagenesis, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); Tsutsui, Yasuhiro [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Yamao, Fumiaki [Division of Mutagenesis, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sokendai, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takehiko [Division of Cytogenetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sokendai, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNAi is linked to the cell cycle checkpoint in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr1 co-purifies with Ago1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ptr1-1 mutation impairs the checkpoint but does not affect gene silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} regulate the cell cycle checkpoint via the same pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations in ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} lead to the nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs. -- Abstract: Ago1, an effector protein of RNA interference (RNAi), regulates heterochromatin silencing and cell cycle arrest in fission yeast. However, the mechanism by which Ago1 controls cell cycle checkpoint following hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that Ago1 and other RNAi factors control cell cycle checkpoint following HU treatment via a mechanism independent of silencing. While silencing requires dcr1{sup +}, the overexpression of ago1{sup +} alleviated the cell cycle defect in dcr1{Delta}. Ago1 interacted with the mRNA export factor, Ptr1. The ptr1-1 mutation impaired cell cycle checkpoint but gene silencing was unaffected. Genetic analysis revealed that the regulation of cell cycle checkpoint by ago1{sup +} is dependent on ptr1{sup +}. Nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs was detected in mutants of ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +}, suggesting there is a functional link between the cell cycle checkpoint and RNAi-mediated RNA quality control.

  1. Selection of checkpoints provided by the ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture tool for mechanized sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Rodrigues Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The changing work dynamics of sugarcane harvesting owing to increasing mechanization has submitted workers to new working conditions, including interaction with machinery and equipment, thereby changing the profile of work-related diseases and injuries. One of the ways to solve problems resulting from the impact of mechanization on working conditions is the use of instruments that allow risk identification from man-labor ratio. This study aimed at selecting checkpoints applicable to mechanized sugarcane harvesting provided by the Ergonomic Checkpoints in Agriculture tool. A literature review of the mechanical sugarcane harvesting stages was conducted and, in light of its particularities, checkpoints provided by the aforementioned tool were analyzed. As a result, there were identified thirty-four checkpoints with potential application to mechanical sugarcane harvesting.

  2. Detailed Modeling and Evaluation of a Scalable Multilevel Checkpointing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); de Supinski, Bronis R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more components. As the system mean time before failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint frequently to make progress. But, at scale, the cost of checkpointing becomes prohibitive. A solution to this problem is multilevel checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints in a single run. Moreover, lightweight checkpoints can handle the most common failure modes, while more expensive checkpoints can handle severe failures. We designed a multilevel checkpointing library, the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes lightweight checkpoints to node-local storage in addition to the parallel file system. We present probabilistic Markov models of SCR's performance. We show that on future large-scale systems, SCR can lead to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35 percent, and reduce the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two. In addition, we predict that checkpoint scavenging, or only writing checkpoints to the parallel file system on application termination, can reduce the load on the parallel file system by 20 × on today's systems and still maintain high application efficiency.

  3. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; Rugina, R; McKee, S A

    2008-01-21

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, reduces checkpoint sizes by as much as 80% and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  4. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; McKee, S; Rugina, R

    2009-02-18

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, significantly reduces checkpoint sizes and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  5. Immunotherapy against endocrine malignancies: immune checkpoint inhibitors lead the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Lucas Leite; Marcello, Marjory Alana; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2017-09-11

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are agents that act by inhibiting the mechanisms of immune escape displayed by various cancers. The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors against several tumors has promoted a new treatment strategy in clinical oncology, and this has encouraged physicians to increase the number of patients who receive the immune checkpoint therapy. In the present article, we review the main concepts regarding immune checkpoint mechanisms and how cancer disrupts them to undergo immune escape. In addition, we describe the most essential concepts related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We critically review the literature on preclinical and clinical studies of the immune checkpoint inhibitors as a treatment option for thyroid cancer, ovarian carcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. We present the challenges and the opportunities of using immune checkpoint inhibitors against these endocrine malignancies, highlighting the breakthroughs and pitfalls that have recently emerged.

  6. The spindle checkpoint and chromosome segregation in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbsky, Gary J

    2015-07-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a key regulator of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Its function is to prevent precocious anaphase onset before chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment to the spindle. The spindle checkpoint comprises a complex set of signaling pathways that integrate microtubule dynamics, biomechanical forces at the kinetochores, and intricate regulation of protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Historically, many key observations that gave rise to the initial concepts of the spindle checkpoint were made in meiotic systems. In contrast with mitosis, the two distinct chromosome segregation events of meiosis present a special challenge for the regulation of checkpoint signaling. Preservation of fidelity in chromosome segregation in meiosis, controlled by the spindle checkpoint, also has a significant impact in human health. This review highlights the contributions from meiotic systems in understanding the spindle checkpoint as well as the role of checkpoint signaling in controlling the complex divisions of meiosis.

  7. Sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint response requires de novo transcription and translation of cyclin B1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Mena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microtubule-targeting drugs induce mitotic delay at pro-metaphase by preventing the spindle assembly checkpoint to be satisfied. However, especially after prolonged treatments, cells can escape this arrest in a process called mitotic slippage. The mechanisms underlying the spindle assembly checkpoint and slippage are not fully understood. It has been generally accepted that during mitosis there is a temporary shutdown of high-energy-consuming processes, such as transcription and translation. However, the synthesis of specific proteins is maintained or up-regulated since protein synthesis is necessary for entry into and progression through mitosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we investigated whether the mitotic arrest caused by the mitotic checkpoint is independent of transcription and translation. By using immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting, we demonstrate that inhibition of either of these processes induces a shortening of the mitotic arrest caused by the nocodazole treatment, and ultimately leads to mitotic slippage. Our western blotting and RTQ-PCR results show that inhibition of transcription during mitotic arrest does not affect the expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins, whereas it induces a significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Cyclin B1. The exogenous expression of Cyclin B1 substantially rescued the mitotic phenotype in nocodazole cells treated with the inhibitors of transcription and translation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work emphasizes the importance of transcription and translation for the maintenance of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting the existence of a mechanism dependent on cyclin B1 gene regulation during mitosis. We propose that continuous transcription of mitotic regulators is required to sustain the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of gene expression profiles of stomach carcinoma reveal abnormal expression of mitotic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hongfei; Wang, Jisheng; Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhaohong; Fan, Henwei; Ni, Zhonglin

    2017-02-01

    In order to explore the etiology of gastric cancer on global gene expression level, we developed advanced bioinformatic analysis to investigate the variations of global gene expression and the interactions among them. We downloaded the dataset GSE63288 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database which included 22 human gastric cancer and 22 healthy control samples. We identified the differential expression genes, and explored the Gene ontology (GO) and pathways of the differentially expressed genes. Furthermore, integrative interaction network and co-expression network were employed to identify the key genes which may contribute to gastric cancer progression. The results indicated that 5 kinases including BUB1, TTK protein kinase, Citron Rho-interacting kinase (CIT), ZAK and NEK2 were upregulated in gastric cancer. Interestingly, BUB1, TTK, CIT and NEK2 have shown high expression similarities and bound with each other, and participated in multiple phases of mitosis. Moreover, a subnet of co-expression genes e.g. KIF14, PRC1, CENPF and CENPI was also involved in mitosis which was functionally coupled with the kinases above. By validation assays, the results indicated that CIT, PRC1, TTK and KIF14 were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer. These evidences have suggested that aberrant expression of these genes may drive gastric cancer including progression, invasion and metastasis. Although the causal relationships between gastric cancer and the genes are still lacking, it was reasonable to take them as biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Renal effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzedine, Hassan; Mateus, Christine; Boutros, Céline; Robert, Caroline; Rouvier, Philippe; Amoura, Zahir; Mathian, Alexis

    2016-12-26

    Recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) development have led to major improvements in oncology patient outcomes. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are two essential immune checkpoint receptors. Ipilimumab and tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4-blocking antibodies) and pembrolizumab and nivolumab (antibodies targeting PD-1 receptors) have already been approved by US Food and Drug Administration in several malignancies. Two different forms of ICPI-induced renal damage have been identified, including acute (granulomatous) tubulointerstitial nephritis and immune complex glomerulonephritis. The observed acute renal damage can be reversed upon ICPI drug discontinuation and renal function can recover back to normal following the introduction of systemic corticosteroid treatment. Any delay in treating this complication could result in definitive and irreversible renal injury.

  10. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  11. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  12. Extending the Binomial Checkpointing Technique for Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-10-10

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, re- quired, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algo- rithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We de- scribe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding imple- mentation and discuss numerical results.

  13. Chl12 (Ctf18) Forms a Novel Replication Factor C-Related Complex and Functions Redundantly with Rad24 in the DNA Replication Checkpoint Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Naiki, Takahiro; Kondo, Tae; Nakada, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    2001-01-01

    RAD24 has been identified as a gene essential for the DNA damage checkpoint in budding yeast. Rad24 is structurally related to subunits of the replication factor C (RFC) complex, and forms an RFC-related complex with Rfc2, Rfc3, Rfc4, and Rfc5. The rad24Δ mutation enhances the defect of rfc5-1 in the DNA replication block checkpoint, implicating RAD24 in this checkpoint. CHL12 (also called CTF18) encodes a protein that is structurally related to the Rad24 and RFC proteins. We show here that a...

  14. Loss of cell cycle checkpoint control in Drosophila Rfc4 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S A; Loupart, M L; Vass, S; Schoenfelder, S; Harrison, S; Heck, M M

    2001-08-01

    Two alleles of the Drosophila melanogaster Rfc4 (DmRfc4) gene, which encodes subunit 4 of the replication factor C (RFC) complex, cause striking defects in mitotic chromosome cohesion and condensation. These mutations produce larval phenotypes consistent with a role in DNA replication but also result in mitotic chromosomal defects appearing either as premature chromosome condensation-like or precocious sister chromatid separation figures. Though the DmRFC4 protein localizes to all replicating nuclei, it is dispersed from chromatin in mitosis. Thus the mitotic defects appear not to be the result of a direct role for RFC4 in chromosome structure. We also show that the mitotic defects in these two DmRfc4 alleles are the result of aberrant checkpoint control in response to DNA replication inhibition or damage to chromosomes. Not all surveillance function is compromised in these mutants, as the kinetochore attachment checkpoint is operative. Intriguingly, metaphase delay is frequently observed with the more severe of the two alleles, indicating that subsequent chromosome segregation may be inhibited. This is the first demonstration that subunit 4 of RFC functions in checkpoint control in any organism, and our findings additionally emphasize the conserved nature of RFC's involvement in checkpoint control in multicellular eukaryotes.

  15. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Inglett, Todd Alan

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  16. Efficient Checkpointing of Virtual Machines using Virtual Machine Introspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Han, Fang [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing environments rely heavily on system-level virtualization. This is due to the inherent benefits of virtualization including fault tolerance through checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanisms. Because clouds are the abstraction of large data centers and large data centers have a higher potential for failure, it is imperative that a C/R mechanism for such an environment provide minimal latency as well as a small checkpoint file size. Recently, there has been much research into C/R with respect to virtual machines (VM) providing excellent solutions to reduce either checkpoint latency or checkpoint file size. However, these approaches do not provide both. This paper presents a method of checkpointing VMs by utilizing virtual machine introspection (VMI). Through the usage of VMI, we are able to determine which pages of memory within the guest are used or free and are better able to reduce the amount of pages written to disk during a checkpoint. We have validated this work by using various benchmarks to measure the latency along with the checkpoint size. With respect to checkpoint file size, our approach results in file sizes within 24% or less of the actual used memory within the guest. Additionally, the checkpoint latency of our approach is up to 52% faster than KVM s default method.

  17. Checkpointing and rollback recovery for network of workstations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东升; 郑纬民; 王鼎兴; 沈美明

    1999-01-01

    Network of workstations (NOW) now becomes one of the main trends of parallel computing. But for long-running scientific programs, it needs effective fault tolerance for its changing property. Checkpointing and rollback recovery is a solution to this problem. First the main problems upon rollback recovery are discussed, the different checkpointing techniques for NOW are analyzed, and then the design and implementation of ChaRM (checkpoint-based rollback recovery and process migration) system are described. The comparison of three coordinated checkpointing systems is given.

  18. The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-03-15

    Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment.

  19. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    distractor , optical suppression , human behavior, checkpoint, ambient light, driver suppression , human experimentation, light, paintball, obscuration...HAIL/WARN AND - SUPPRESS /STOP Poster Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...warning to a driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression

  20. Anaphase onset before complete DNA replication with intact checkpoint responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Cordon-Preciado, Violeta

    2007-01-01

    Cellular checkpoints prevent mitosis in the presence of stalled replication forks. Whether checkpoints also ensure the completion of DNA replication before mitosis is unknown. Here, we show that in yeast smc5-smc6 mutants, which are related to cohesin and condensin, replication is delayed, most...

  1. Immune checkpoints in cancer clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elad Sharon; Howard Streicher; Priscila Goncalves; Helen XChen

    2014-01-01

    Immunology-based therapy is rapidly developing into an effective treatment option for a surprising range of cancers. We have learned over the last decade that powerful immunologic effector cells may be blocked by inhibitory regulatory pathways controlled by specific molecules often called“immune checkpoints.” These checkpoints serve to control or turn off the immune response when it is no longer needed to prevent tissue injury and autoimmunity. Cancer cells have learned or evolved to use these mechanisms to evade immune control and elimination. The development of a new therapeutic class of drugs that inhibit these inhibitory pathways has recently emerged as a potent strategy in oncology. Three sets of agents have emerged in clinical trials exploiting this strategy. These agents are antibody-based therapies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). These inhibitors of immune inhibition have demonstrated extensive activity as single agents and in combinations. Clinical responses have been seen in melanoma, renal cellcarcinoma, non-smal celllung cancer, and several other tumor types. Despite the autoimmune or inflammatory immune-mediated adverse effects which have been seen, the responses and overall survival benefits exhibited thus far warrant further clinical development.

  2. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  3. Using the Sirocco File System for high-bandwidth checkpoints.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klundt, Ruth Ann; Curry, Matthew L.; Ward, H. Lee

    2012-02-01

    The Sirocco File System, a file system for exascale under active development, is designed to allow the storage software to maximize quality of service through increased flexibility and local decision-making. By allowing the storage system to manage a range of storage targets that have varying speeds and capacities, the system can increase the speed and surety of storage to the application. We instrument CTH to use a group of RAM-based Sirocco storage servers allocated within the job as a high-performance storage tier to accept checkpoints, allowing computation to potentially continue asynchronously of checkpoint migration to slower, more permanent storage. The result is a 10-60x speedup in constructing and moving checkpoint data from the compute nodes. This demonstration of early Sirocco functionality shows a significant benefit for a real I/O workload, checkpointing, in a real application, CTH. By running Sirocco storage servers within a job as RAM-only stores, CTH was able to store checkpoints 10-60x faster than storing to PanFS, allowing the job to continue computing sooner. While this prototype did not include automatic data migration, the checkpoint was available to be pushed or pulled to disk-based storage as needed after the compute nodes continued computing. Future developments include the ability to dynamically spawn Sirocco nodes to absorb checkpoints, expanding this mechanism to other fast tiers of storage like flash memory, and sharing of dynamic Sirocco nodes between multiple jobs as needed.

  4. Modeling Checkpoint-Based Movement with the Earth Mover’s Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duckham, Matt; van Kreveld, Marc; Purves, Ross; Speckmann, Bettina; Tao, Yaguang; Verbeek, Kevin; Wood, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Movement data comes in various forms, including trajectory data and checkpoint data. While trajectories give detailed information about the movement of individual entities, checkpoint data in its simplest form does not give identities, just counts at checkpoints. However, checkpoint data is of incre

  5. Combination approaches with immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Swart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, immune checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune checkpoint blockade, aimed at increasing response-rates to the single treatments.

  6. A divergent role of the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis in regulating metabolic checkpoint and DNA damage checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongzheng; Lin, Yi-Hui; Leng, Wenchuan; Jung, Sung Yun; Zhang, Haoxing; Deng, Min; Evans, Debra; Li, Yunhui; Luo, Kuntian; Qin, Bo; Qin, Jun; Yuan, Jian; Lou, Zhenkun

    2014-12-04

    DNA replication is executed only when cells have sufficient metabolic resources and undamaged DNA. Nutrient limitation and DNA damage cause a metabolic checkpoint and DNA damage checkpoint, respectively. Although SIRT1 activity is regulated by metabolic stress and DNA damage, its function in these stress-mediated checkpoints remains elusive. Here we report that the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis functions as a switch for both checkpoints. With glucose deprivation, SIRT1 is activated and deacetylates TopBP1, resulting in TopBP1-Treslin disassociation and DNA replication inhibition. Conversely, SIRT1 activity is inhibited under genotoxic stress, resulting in increased TopBP1 acetylation that is important for the TopBP1-Rad9 interaction and activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway. Mechanistically, we showed that acetylation of TopBP1 changes the conformation of TopBP1, thereby facilitating its interaction with distinct partners in DNA replication and checkpoint activation. Taken together, our studies identify the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis as a key signaling mode in the regulation of the metabolic checkpoint and the DNA damage checkpoint.

  7. Use of the Protein Ontology (PRO for Multi-Faceted Analysis of Biological Processes: a Case Study of the Spindle Checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Ross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO foundry, the Protein Ontology (PRO provides an ontological representation of protein forms and complexes and their relationships. Annotations in PRO can be assigned to individual protein forms and complexes, each distinguishable down to the level of post-translational modification, thereby allowing for a more precise depiction of protein function than is possible with annotations to the gene as a whole. Moreover, PRO is fully interoperable with other OBO ontologies and integrates knowledge from other protein-centric resources such as UniProt and Reactome. Here we demonstrate the value of the PRO framework in the investigation of the spindle checkpoint, a highly conserved biological process that relies extensively on protein modification and protein complex formation. The spindle checkpoint maintains genomic integrity by monitoring the attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules and delaying cell cycle progression until the spindle is fully assembled. Using PRO in conjunction with other bioinformatics tools, we explored the cross-species conservation of spindle checkpoint proteins, including phosphorylated forms and complexes; studied the impact of phosphorylation on spindle checkpoint function; and examined the interactions of spindle checkpoint proteins with the kinetochore, the site of checkpoint activation. Our approach can be generalized to any biological process of interest.

  8. WEE1 inhibition targets cell cycle checkpoints for triple negative breast cancers to overcome cisplatin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongping; Shao, Fangyuan; Martin, Scots; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2017-03-06

    Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used therapeutic drugs for cancer therapy, yet prolonged cisplatin treatment frequently results in drug resistance. To enhance therapeutic effect of cisplatin, we conducted a high throughput screening using a kinase library containing 704 kinases against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We demonstrated that cisplatin activates ATR, CHK1 and WEE1, which shut down DNA replication and attenuate cisplatin induced-lethality. WEE1 inhibition sensitizes TNBCs and cisplatin resistant cancer cells to cisplatin-induced lethality, because it not only impairs DNA replication checkpoint more profoundly than inhibition of ATR or CHK1, but also defects G2-M cell cycle checkpoint. Finally, we demonstrated that combined cisplatin treatment and WEE1 inhibition synergistically inhibits xenograft cancer growth accompanied by markedly reduced expression of TNBC signature genes. Thus targeting DNA replication and G2-M cell cycle checkpoint simultaneously by cisplatin and WEE1 inhibition is promising for TNBCs treatment, and for overcoming their cisplatin resistance.

  9. WEE1 inhibition targets cell cycle checkpoints for triple negative breast cancers to overcome cisplatin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongping; Shao, Fangyuan; Martin, Scots; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used therapeutic drugs for cancer therapy, yet prolonged cisplatin treatment frequently results in drug resistance. To enhance therapeutic effect of cisplatin, we conducted a high throughput screening using a kinase library containing 704 kinases against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We demonstrated that cisplatin activates ATR, CHK1 and WEE1, which shut down DNA replication and attenuate cisplatin induced-lethality. WEE1 inhibition sensitizes TNBCs and cisplatin resistant cancer cells to cisplatin-induced lethality, because it not only impairs DNA replication checkpoint more profoundly than inhibition of ATR or CHK1, but also defects G2-M cell cycle checkpoint. Finally, we demonstrated that combined cisplatin treatment and WEE1 inhibition synergistically inhibits xenograft cancer growth accompanied by markedly reduced expression of TNBC signature genes. Thus targeting DNA replication and G2-M cell cycle checkpoint simultaneously by cisplatin and WEE1 inhibition is promising for TNBCs treatment, and for overcoming their cisplatin resistance. PMID:28262781

  10. Combined immune checkpoint blockade as a therapeutic strategy for BRCA1-mutated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emma; Savas, Peter; Policheni, Antonia N; Darcy, Phillip K; Vaillant, François; Mintoff, Christopher P; Dushyanthen, Sathana; Mansour, Mariam; Pang, Jia-Min B; Fox, Stephen B; Perou, Charles M; Visvader, Jane E; Gray, Daniel H D; Loi, Sherene; Lindeman, Geoffrey J

    2017-06-07

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a potent new class of anticancer therapy. They have changed the treatment landscape for a range of tumors, particularly those with a high mutational load. To date, however, modest results have been observed in breast cancer, where tumors are rarely hypermutated. Because BRCA1-associated tumors frequently exhibit a triple-negative phenotype with extensive lymphocyte infiltration, we explored their mutational load, immune profile, and response to checkpoint inhibition in a Brca1-deficient tumor model. BRCA1-mutated triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) exhibited an increased somatic mutational load and greater numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, with increased expression of immunomodulatory genes including PDCD1 (PD-1) and CTLA4, when compared to TNBCs from BRCA1-wild-type patients. Cisplatin treatment combined with dual anti-programmed death-1 and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 therapy substantially augmented antitumor immunity in Brca1-deficient mice, resulting in an avid systemic and intratumoral immune response. This response involved enhanced dendritic cell activation, reduced suppressive FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells, and concomitant increase in the activation of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, characterized by the induction of polyfunctional cytokine-producing T cells. Dual (but not single) checkpoint blockade together with cisplatin profoundly attenuated the growth of Brca1-deficient tumors in vivo and improved survival. These findings provide a rationale for clinical studies of combined immune checkpoint blockade in BRCA1-associated TNBC. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Regulation of mitotic progression by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Equal segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis requires that pairs of kinetochores establish proper attachment to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protects against errors in segregation by delaying sister separation...

  12. Radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades: a snapshot in 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Yool [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Immune checkpoint blockades including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been emerged as a promising anticancer therapy. Several immune checkpoint blockades have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and have shown notable success in clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy is a promising combination partner of immune checkpoint blockades due to its potent pro-immune effect. This review will cover the current issue and the future perspectives for combined with radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades based upon the available preclinical and clinical data.

  13. Immune checkpoint receptors in regulating immune reactivity in rheumatic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ceeraz, Sabrina; Nowak, Elizabeth C.; Burns, Christopher M.; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2014-01-01

    Immune checkpoint regulators are critical modulators of the immune system, allowing the initiation of a productive immune response and preventing the onset of autoimmunity. Co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory immune checkpoint receptors are required for full T-cell activation and effector functions such as the production of cytokines. In autoimmune rheumatic diseases, impaired tolerance leads to the development of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjogren’s...

  14. A New Adaptive Checkpointing Strategy for Mobile Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENChaoguang; ZUODecheng; YANGXiaozong

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive checkpointing strategy is an efficient recovery scheme, which is suitable for mobile computing system. However, all existing adaptive checkpointing schemes are not correct to recover system when failure occurs in some special period. In this paper, the issues that will lead to system inconsistency are first discussed and then a new adaptive strategy that can recover system to correct consistent state is proposed. Our algorithm improves system recovery performance because only failure process needs rollback through logging.

  15. Unprotected Drosophila melanogaster telomeres activate the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarò, Mariarosaria; Ciapponi, Laura; Fasulo, Barbara; Gatti, Maurizio; Cenci, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    In both yeast and mammals, uncapped telomeres activate the DNA damage response (DDR) and undergo end-to-end fusion. Previous work has shown that the Drosophila HOAP protein, encoded by the caravaggio (cav) gene, is required to prevent telomeric fusions. Here we show that HOAP-depleted telomeres activate both the DDR and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The cell cycle arrest elicited by the DDR was alleviated by mutations in mei-41 (encoding ATR), mus304 (ATRIP), grp (Chk1) and rad50 but not by mutations in tefu (ATM). The SAC was partially overridden by mutations in zw10 (also known as mit(1)15) and bubR1, and also by mutations in mei-41, mus304, rad50, grp and tefu. As expected from SAC activation, the SAC proteins Zw10, Zwilch, BubR1 and Cenp-meta (Cenp-E) accumulated at the kinetochores of cav mutant cells. Notably, BubR1 also accumulated at cav mutant telomeres in a mei-41-, mus304-, rad50-, grp- and tefu-dependent manner. Our results collectively suggest that recruitment of BubR1 by dysfunctional telomeres inhibits Cdc20-APC function, preventing the metaphase-to-anaphase transition.

  16. An Analysis of Checkpointing Algorithms for Distributed Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Khunteta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed snapshots are an important building block for distributed systems, and are useful for constructing efficient checkpointing protocols, among other uses. Direct application of these algorithms to mobile systems is not easible, however, due to differences in the environment in which mobile systems operate, relative to general distributed systems. The mobile computing environment introduces newchallenges in the area of fault-tolerant computing. Compared to traditional distributed environments, wireless networks are typically slower, providing lower throughput and latency, comparing to wireline networks. In addition, the mobile hosts have limited computation esources, are often exposed to harsh operating environment that makes them more likely to fail, and can roam while operating. Over the past two decades, intensive research work has been carried out on providing efficient checkpointing protocols in traditional distributed computing. Recently, more attention has been paid to providing checkpointing protocols for mobile systems. Some of these protocols have been adapted from the traditional distributed environment; others have been created from scratch for mobile systems. Checkpoint is defined as a designated place in a program at which normal processing is interrupted specifically to preserve the status information necessary to allow resumption of processing at alater time. Checkpointing is the process of saving the status information. This paper surveys the algorithms which have been reported in the literature for checkpointing in Mobile Distributed systems.

  17. A survey of checkpointing algorithms for parallel and distributed computers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kalaiselvi; V Rajaraman

    2000-10-01

    Checkpoint is defined as a designated place in a program at which normal processing is interrupted specifically to preserve the status information necessary to allow resumption of processing at a later time. Checkpointing is the process of saving the status information. This paper surveysthe algorithms which have been reported in the literature for checkpointing parallel/distributed systems. It has been observed that most of the algorithms published for checkpointing in message passing systems are based on the seminal article by Chandy and Lamport. A large number of articles have been published in this area by relaxing the assumptions made in this paper and by extending it to minimise the overheads of coordination and context saving. Checkpointing for sharedmemory systems primarily extend cache coherence protocolstomaintain a consistent memory. All of them assume that the main memory is safe for storing the context. Recently algorithms have been published for distributed shared memory systems, which extend the cache coherence protocols used in shared memory systems. They however also include methods for storing the status of distributed memory in stable storage. Most of the algorithms assume that there is no knowledge about the programs being executed.It is howeverfelt that in development of parallel programs the user has to do a fair amount of work in distributing tasks and this information can be effectively used to simplify checkpointing and rollback recovery.

  18. A Tunable Checkpointing Algorithm for Distributed Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchae Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a distributed checkpointing algorithm is to efficiently restore the execution state of distributed applications in face of hardware or software failures. Originally, such algorithms were devised for fixed networking systems, of which computing components communicate with each other via wired networks. Therefore, those algorithms usually suffer from heavy networking costs coming from frequent data transits over wireless networks, if they are used in the wireless computing environment. In this paper, to reduce usage of wireless communications, our checkpointing algorithm allows the distributed mobile application to tune the level of its checkpointing strictness. The strictness is defined by the maximum rollback distance (MRD that says how many recent local checkpoints can be rolled back in the worst case. Since our algorithm have more flexibility in checkpointing schedule due to the use of MRD, it is possible to reduce the number of enforced local checkpointing. In particular, the amount of data transited on wirelesses networks becomes smaller than in earlier methods; thus, our algorithm provides less communication cost and shortened blocking time.

  19. The protein phosphatase 2A functions in the spindle position checkpoint by regulating the checkpoint kinase Kin4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leon Y; Amon, Angelika

    2009-07-15

    In budding yeast, a surveillance mechanism known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) ensures accurate genome partitioning. In the event of spindle misposition, the checkpoint delays exit from mitosis by restraining the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN). To date, the only component of the checkpoint to be identified is the protein kinase Kin4. Furthermore, how the kinase is regulated by spindle position is not known. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in complex with the regulatory subunit Rts1 as a component of the SPOC. Loss of PP2A-Rts1 function abrogates the SPOC but not other mitotic checkpoints. We further show that the protein phosphatase functions upstream of Kin4, regulating the kinase's phosphorylation and localization during an unperturbed cell cycle and during SPOC activation, thus defining the phosphatase as a key regulator of SPOC function.

  20. Endocrine dysfunction following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Bhavana; Nabhan, Fadi; Shah, Manisha H

    2017-10-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) represent an important milestone in the modern era of antineoplastic therapy and have ushered optimism amongst oncologists and patients alike. These agents, however, are associated with significant potential toxicities, the importance of which cannot be overstated. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies of immune-related endocrinopathies associated with ICI use are described in this case-based review. An increasing number of ICI have shown promise in the management of various malignancies in the recent years. These include cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies, and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies. Several endocrinopathies, including hypophysitis, thyroid dysfunction, hyperglycemia, and primary adrenal insufficiency, have been associated with the use of these agents. Toxicities may range from mild transient laboratory abnormalities to potentially life-threatening ones, warranting immediate therapeutic intervention. Combination ICI therapies may be associated with a greater risk of endocrine dysfunction when compared with monotherapy. The clinical presentation and laboratory assessment of these patients often pose a diagnostic challenge as they may be confused by the symptoms related to their underlying malignancy or potential associated acute illnesses. ICI use is associated with serious endocrinopathies that may have a nonspecific initial presentation. A constant eye for these symptoms and a systematic approach to diagnosis are essential for prompt initiation of therapy and prevention of significant complications.

  1. Phosphorylation of Minichromosome Maintenance 3 (MCM3) by Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Negatively Regulates DNA Replication and Checkpoint Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangzi; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Wisotsky, Jacob N; Wang, Benlian; Jacobberger, James W; Zhang, Youwei

    2015-05-08

    Mechanisms controlling DNA replication and replication checkpoint are critical for the maintenance of genome stability and the prevention or treatment of human cancers. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key effector protein kinase that regulates the DNA damage response and replication checkpoint. The heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the core component of mammalian DNA helicase and has been implicated in replication checkpoint activation. Here we report that Chk1 phosphorylates the MCM3 subunit of the MCM complex at Ser-205 under normal growth conditions. Mutating the Ser-205 of MCM3 to Ala increased the length of DNA replication track and shortened the S phase duration, indicating that Ser-205 phosphorylation negatively controls normal DNA replication. Upon replicative stress treatment, the inhibitory phosphorylation of MCM3 at Ser-205 was reduced, and this reduction was accompanied with the generation of single strand DNA, the key platform for ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation. As a result, the replication checkpoint is activated. Together, these data provide significant insights into the regulation of both normal DNA replication and replication checkpoint activation through the novel phosphorylation of MCM3 by Chk1.

  2. Reduced dosage of the chromosome axis factor Red1 selectively disrupts the meiotic recombination checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovah E Markowitz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic chromosomes assemble characteristic "axial element" structures that are essential for fertility and provide the chromosomal context for meiotic recombination, synapsis and checkpoint signaling. Whether these meiotic processes are equally dependent on axial element integrity has remained unclear. Here, we investigated this question in S. cerevisiae using the putative condensin allele ycs4S. We show that the severe axial element assembly defects of this allele are explained by a linked mutation in the promoter of the major axial element gene RED1 that reduces Red1 protein levels to 20-25% of wild type. Intriguingly, the Red1 levels of ycs4S mutants support meiotic processes linked to axis integrity, including DNA double-strand break formation and deposition of the synapsis protein Zip1, at levels that permit 70% gamete survival. By contrast, the ability to elicit a meiotic checkpoint arrest is completely eliminated. This selective loss of checkpoint function is supported by a RED1 dosage series and is associated with the loss of most of the cytologically detectable Red1 from the axial element. Our results indicate separable roles for Red1 in building the structural axis of meiotic chromosomes and mounting a sustained recombination checkpoint response.

  3. Genetic Control of the Trigger for the G2/M Checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Eric J. [Columbia University; Smilenov, Lubomir B. [Columbia University; Young, Erik F. [Columbia University

    2013-10-01

    The work undertaken in this project addressed two seminal areas of low dose radiation biology that are poorly understood and controversial. These areas are the challenge to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) paradigm at low doses of radiation and, the fundamental elements of radiation bystander effect biology Genetic contributions to low dose checkpoint engagement: The LNT paradigm is an extrapolation of known, measured cancer induction endpoints. Importantly, data for lower doses is often not available. Debatably, radiation protection standards have been introduced which are prudently contingent on the adherence of cancer risk to the established trend seen at higher doses. Intriguing findings from other labs have hinted at separate DNA damage response programs that engage at low or high levels of radiation. Individual radiation sensitivity commensurate with hemizygosity for a radiation sensitivity gene has been estimated at 1-2% in the U.S.. Careful interrogation of the DNA damage response at low doses of radiation became important and served as the basis for this grant. Several genes were tested in combinations to determine if combined haploinsufficiency for multiple radiosensitizing genes could render a cell more sensitive to lower levels of acute radiation exposure. We measured a classical radiation response endpoint, cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis. Mouse embryo fibroblasts were used and provided a uniform, rapidly dividing and genetically manipulable population of study. Our system did not report checkpoint engagement at acute doses of gamma rays below 100 mGy. The system did report checkpoint engagement reproducibly at 500 mGy establishing a threshold for activation between 100 and 500 mGy. Engagement of the checkpoint was ablated in cells nullizygous for ATM but was otherwise unperturbed in cells combinatorially haploinsufficient for ATM and Rad9, ATM and PTEN or PTEN and Rad9. Taken together, these experiments tell us that, in a sensitive fibroblast culture

  4. Gene expression time-series analysis of Camptothecin effects in U87-MG and DBTRG-05 glioblastoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Roberto

    2008-08-01

    and mitosis and to the up-regulation of cell growth inhibition and DNA damage. Furthermore, the down-regulation of MYC and DP1 genes, which act as key transcription factors in cell growth control, together with the inhibition of BUB1, BUB3 and MAD2 mRNAs, which are known to be involved in the spindle checkpoint pathway, were specifically associated with the execution of senescence in U87-MG cells and addressed as critical factors that could drive the choice between different CPT-inducible effectors programs. In U87-MG cells we also found inflammation response and IL1-beta induction, as late transcriptional effects of Topo I treatment but these changes were only partially involved in the senescence development, as shown by IL1-beta gene silencing. Conclusion By comparing the transcription profile of two glioblastoma cell lines treated with camptothecin, we were able to identify the common cellular pathways activated upon Topo I inhibition. Moreover, our results helped in identifying some key genes whose expression seemed to be associated with the execution of senescence or apoptosis in U87-MG and DBTRG-05 cells, respectively.

  5. Dpb11/TopBP1 contributes to genomicstability via homologous recombinationand checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, Susanne Manuela

    Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is a major pathway for repairing (DSBs). DPB11 is an essential gene conserved from yeast to human (TopBP1), which is involved in initiation of DNA replication and DNA checkpoint signaling. We found that Dpb11 forms foci...... rates of heteroallelic and direct repeat recombination implicate a role for Dpb11 in homologous recombination. Physical monitoring of mating-type switching as a model for DSB repair revealed that the repair kinetics of dpb11-PF are delayed. Finally, we found Dpb11 in budding yeast as well as TopBP1...

  6. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and prostate cancer: a new frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Modena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer (mCRPC, agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC, making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy.

  7. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC), making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways) to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy. PMID:27471580

  8. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  9. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-04-15

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC), making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways) to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy.

  10. Berkeley lab checkpoint/restart (BLCR) for Linux clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Paul H.; Duell, Jason C.

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the motivation, design and implementation of Berkeley Lab Checkpoint/Restart (BLCR), a system-level checkpoint/restart implementation for Linux clusters that targets the space of typical High Performance Computing applications, including MPI. Application-level solutions, including both checkpointing and fault-tolerant algorithms, are recognized as more time and space efficient than system-level checkpoints, which cannot make use of any application-specific knowledge. However, system-level checkpointing allows for preemption, making it suitable for responding to ''fault precursors'' (for instance, elevated error rates from ECC memory or network CRCs, or elevated temperature from sensors). Preemption can also increase the efficiency of batch scheduling; for instance reducing idle cycles (by allowing for shutdown without any queue draining period or reallocation of resources to eliminate idle nodes when better fitting jobs are queued), and reducing the average queued time (by limiting large jobs to running during off-peak hours, without the need to limit the length of such jobs). Each of these potential uses makes BLCR a valuable tool for efficient resource management in Linux clusters.

  11. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpavalli Sreerangam NCVL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Results Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof1/+; mnkp6/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. Conclusion mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using

  12. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Chowdhury, Debabani Roy; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2013-01-24

    In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof¹/+; mnkp⁶/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using Drosophila as model system and carry out the interaction of MOF

  13. Hypermethylation of checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finger gene, endothelin receptor B gene and heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-2 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma%肝细胞癌中CHFR、EDNRB和3-OST-2基因异常甲基化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢坤; 朱立新; 耿小平; 李晓明; 熊奇如; 孙昀; 刘念

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究肝细胞癌中细胞有丝分裂前期检查点(checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finge,CHFR)基因、内皮素B受体(endothelin receptor B,EDNRB)基因和3-O-硫基转移酶-2(heparan sulfate D-glucososaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-2,3-OST-2)基因启动子区异常甲基化状态及其临床意义.方法 收集癌组织及相应癌旁组织标本40例,以及14例肝血管瘤患者肝脏和2例肝移植供肝标本,并排除乙肝病毒感染和肝硬化.使用甲基化特异性PCR反应检测上述标本中CHFR、EDNRB和3-OST-2基因的甲基化状态.结果 CHFR基因在癌组织和癌旁组织的甲基化率分别为52.5%和27.5%,癌组织中的甲基化率高于癌旁组织(P<0.05).EDNRB基因在癌组织和癌旁组织中的甲基化率都为27.5%.3-OST-2基因在癌组织中甲基化率为12.5%,癌旁组织没有发现甲基化.16例正常肝组织中没有发现上述3种基因的异常甲基化.癌组织中CHFR基因甲基化与非甲基化患者相比,男性多于女性.癌旁组织中EDNRB基因甲基化患者肿瘤的包膜出现率低于非甲基化患者.癌组织中3-OST-2基因甲基化患者的年龄和肿瘤直径大于非甲基化患者.结论 肝细胞癌中CHFR基因、EDNRB基因启动子的高甲基化是普遍现象,而3-OST-2基因启动子甲基化率较低.

  14. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing.

  15. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B.

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing. PMID:27847783

  16. Mechanisms and Components of the DNA Damage Checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage checkpoint. Molecular Cell 9: 1055-1065. (reprint included as Appendix 2) "* Schwartz, M.F., Duong, J.K., Sun, Z., Pradhan...phosphorylation sites couple Rad53 to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage checkpoint. Molecular Cell 9, 1055-1065. 13 Molecular Cell , Vol. 9,1055-1065...Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139. 1999), and mutation of conserved amino acids in the Molecular Cell 1056 A Rad9 B ,•o 0, 1 sitesN NC -T6 RVTQSA o- 0~ --T240

  17. Deregulated Ras signaling compromises DNA damage checkpoint recovery in S. cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Matthew D; Sanchez, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint maintains genome stability by arresting the cell cycle and promoting DNA repair under genotoxic stress. Cells must downregulate the checkpoint signaling pathways in order to resume cell division after completing DNA repair. While the mechanisms of checkpoint activation have been well-characterized, the process of checkpoint recovery, and the signals regulating it, has only recently been investigated. We have identified a new role for the Ras signaling pathway as a re...

  18. Inactivation of ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint promotes androgen induced chromosomal instability in prostate epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tuen Chiu

    Full Text Available The ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint functions in the maintenance of genetic stability and some missense variants of the ATM gene have been shown to confer a moderate increased risk of prostate cancer. However, whether inactivation of this checkpoint contributes directly to prostate specific cancer predisposition is still unknown. Here, we show that exposure of non-malignant prostate epithelial cells (HPr-1AR to androgen led to activation of the ATM/ATR DNA damage response and induction of cellular senescence. Notably, knockdown of the ATM gene expression in HPr-1AR cells can promote androgen-induced TMPRSS2: ERG rearrangement, a prostate-specific chromosome translocation frequently found in prostate cancer cells. Intriguingly, unlike the non-malignant prostate epithelial cells, the ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint appears to be defective in prostate cancer cells, since androgen treatment only induced a partial activation of the DNA damage response. This mechanism appears to preserve androgen induced autophosphorylation of ATM and phosphorylation of H2AX, lesion processing and repair pathway yet restrain ATM/CHK1/CHK2 and p53 signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that ATM/ATR inactivation is a crucial step in promoting androgen-induced genomic instability and prostate carcinogenesis.

  19. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Brian J. [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Okada, Hideho, E-mail: okadah@upmc.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas.

  20. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Ahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas.

  1. Checkpoint Inhibitors and Their Application in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedognetti, Davide; Maccalli, Cristina; Bader, Salha B.J. Al; Marincola, Francesco M.; Seliger, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immune checkpoints are crucial for the maintenance of self-tolerance and for the modulation of immune responses in order to minimize tissue damage. Tumor cells take advantage of these mechanisms to evade immune recognition. A significant proportion of tumors, including breast cancers, can express co-inhibitory molecules that are important formediating the escape from T cell-mediated immune surveillance. The interaction of inhibitory receptors with their ligands can be blocked by specific molecules. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and, more recently, against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), have been approved for the therapy of melanoma (anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 mAbs) and non-small cell lung cancer (anti-PD1 mAbs). Moreover, inhibition of PD1 signaling has shown extremely promising signs of activity in breast cancer. An increasing number of molecules directed against other immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the implementation of checkpoint inhibition in breast cancer by reviewing in detail data on PD-L1 expression and its regulation. In addition, opportunities to boost anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer with checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapies alone and in combination with other treatment options will be discussed. PMID:27239172

  2. Checkpoint Inhibition in Hodgkin Lymphoma: Saving the Best for Last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard J; Diefenbach, Catherine S

    2016-10-15

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a unique disease entity characterized by a low number of neoplastic tumor cells surrounded by an inflammatory microenvironment composed of dysfunctional immune cells. Recent molecular and genetic studies have revealed that upregulation of the immune checkpoint pathway programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 is a key oncogenic driver of Hodgkin lymphoma. Corroborating these mechanistic studies, early-phase clinical trials using the checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab in treatment regimens for relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma have demonstrated impressive response rates, a promising durability of response, and a favorable side-effect profile. Given its targeted mechanism of action, acceptable safety, and clinically meaningful activity, the checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as therapy for classical Hodgkin lymphoma that has relapsed or progressed after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and post-ASCT consolidation therapy with brentuximab vedotin. In this article we review the scientific rationale, preclinical evidence, and most recent clinical data for the use of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma.

  3. CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY BASED ON THE BLOCKADE OF IMMUNE CHECKPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogolyubova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoints represent the system of inhibitory mechanisms regulating the activation of the immune response, preventing the autoimmune processes and modulating the immune response by decreasing the immune cell-mediated damage of tissues and organs. Tumor cells may utilize these checkpoints to prevent the activation of tumor-specific lymphocytes, thereby acquiring resistance against the immune response. The blockade of inhibitory signal that is transduced in immune checkpoints leading to the reactivation of antitumor immune response is a promising method of tumor immunotherapy. Since the majority of immune checkpoints are based on the ligand-receptor interactions, one of contemporary modalities of anti-tumor therapy is based on the development of ligandor receptor-blocking therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, as well as soluble recombinant receptors capable of competing for a ligand and thereby modulating the signal transduction. In the past few years, this field of tumor immunotherapy experienced an impressive success; however, the potential tradeoff for altering of the natural suppressive mechanisms is the development of the autoimmune reactions.

  4. Harnessing the Power of Onco-Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma R. Rajani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses represent a diverse class of replication competent viruses that curtail tumor growth. These viruses, through their natural ability or through genetic modifications, can selectively replicate within tumor cells and induce cell death while leaving normal cells intact. Apart from the direct oncolytic activity, these viruses mediate tumor cell death via the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. The field of oncolytic viruses has seen substantial advancement with the progression of numerous oncolytic viruses in various phases of clinical trials. Tumors employ a plethora of mechanisms to establish growth and subsequently metastasize. These include evasion of immune surveillance by inducing up-regulation of checkpoint proteins which function to abrogate T cell effector functions. Currently, antibodies blocking checkpoint proteins such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 have been approved to treat cancer and shown to impart durable clinical responses. These antibodies typically need pre-existing active immune tumor microenvironment to establish durable clinical outcomes and not every patient responds to these therapies. This review provides an overview of published pre-clinical studies demonstrating superior therapeutic efficacy of combining oncolytic viruses with checkpoint blockade compared to monotherapies. These studies provide compelling evidence that oncolytic therapy can be potentiated by coupling it with checkpoint therapies.

  5. Checkpoint adaptation and recovery: back with Polo after the break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, M.A.T.M. van; Medema, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    S. cerevisiae cells that are unable to repair a double strand break ultimately escape the DNA damage checkpoint arrest and enter mitosis. This process called 'adaptation' depends on functional Cdc5, a Polo-like kinase, and was long thought to be limited to single-cell organisms. However, the recent

  6. Checkpoint adaptation and recovery : back with Polo after the break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Medema, René H

    2004-01-01

    S. cerevisiae cells that are unable to repair a double strand break ultimately escape the DNA damage checkpoint arrest and enter mitosis. This process called 'adaptation' depends on functional Cdc5, a Polo-like kinase, and was long thought to be limited to single-cell organisms. However, the recent

  7. Immune Checkpoint Blockade Biology in Mouse Models of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Alan T; Charest, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain cancer that is associated with abysmal prognosis. The median survival of GBM patients is ∼15 months and there have not been any significant advance in therapies in over a decade, leaving treatment options limited. There is clearly an unmet need for GBM treatment. Immunotherapies are treatments based on usurping the power of the host's immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. They have recently proven to be a successful strategy for combating a variety of cancers. Of the various types of immunotherapies, checkpoint blockade approaches have thus far produced significant clinical responses in several cancers including melanoma, non small-cell lung cancer, renal cancer, and prostate cancer. This review focuses on the biological rationale for using checkpoint blockade immunotherapeutic approaches in primary brain cancer and an up-to-date summary of current and ongoing checkpoint inhibitors-based clinical trials for malignant glioma. In addition, we expand on new concepts for further improving checkpoint blockade treatments, with a particular focus on the advantages of using genetically engineered mouse models for studies of immunotherapies in GBM. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2516-2527, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. G2 Checkpoint Responses in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Anne

    2013-03-18

    This project focused on the mechanism and biological significance of the G2 arrest response to replication stress in plants. We employed both forward and reverse genetic approaches to identify genes required for this response. A total of 3 different postdocs, 5 undergraduates, and 2 graduate students participated in the project. We identified several genes required for damage response in plants, including homologs of genes previously identified in animals (ATM and ATR), novel, a plant-specific genes (SOG1) and a gene known in animals but previously thought to be missing from the Arabidopsis genome (ATRIP). We characterized the transcriptome of gamma-irradiated plants, and found that plants, unlike animals, express a robust transcriptional response to damage, involving genes that regulate the cell cycle and DNA metabolism. This response requires both ATM and the transcription factor SOG1. We found that both ATM and ATR play a role in meiosis in plants. We also found that plants have a cell-type-specific programmed cell death response to ionizing radiation and UV light, and that this response requires ATR, ATM, and SOG1. These results were published in a series of 5 papers.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Immune Checkpoint Molecules and Their Potential Role in the Transmissible Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies, Andrew S.; Blackburn, Nicholas B.; Lyons, Alan Bruce; Hayball, John D.; Woods, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    ) in genes and protein domains that have not been previously reported in any species. This checkpoint molecule analysis and review of salient features for each of the molecules presented here can serve as road map for the development of a Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease immunotherapy. Finally, the strategies can be used as a guide for veterinarians, ecologists, and other researchers willing to venture into the nascent field of wild immunology. PMID:28515726

  10. Comparative Analysis of Immune Checkpoint Molecules and Their Potential Role in the Transmissible Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Flies

    2017-05-01

    motifs (ITSMs in genes and protein domains that have not been previously reported in any species. This checkpoint molecule analysis and review of salient features for each of the molecules presented here can serve as road map for the development of a Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease immunotherapy. Finally, the strategies can be used as a guide for veterinarians, ecologists, and other researchers willing to venture into the nascent field of wild immunology.

  11. The DNA damage checkpoint response to replication stress: A Game of Forks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eJossen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions challenging replication fork progression, collectively referred to as replication stress, represent a major source of genomic instability and are associated to cancer onset. The replication checkpoint, a specialized branch of the DNA damage checkpoint, monitors fork problems and triggers a cellular response aimed at preserving genome integrity. Here, we review the mechanisms by which the replication checkpoint monitors and responds to replication stress, focusing on the checkpoint-mediated pathways contributing to protect replication fork integrity. We discuss how cells achieve checkpoint signaling inactivation once replication stress is overcome and how a failure to timely revert checkpoint-mediated changes in cellular physiology might impact on replication dynamics and genome integrity. We also highlight the checkpoint function as an anti-cancer barrier preventing cells malignant transformation following oncogene-induced replication stress.

  12. Duplication of cyb-3 (cyclin B3) suppresses sterility in the absence of mdf-1/MAD1 spindle assembly checkpoint component in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Wang, Jun; Tu, Domena; Baillie, David L; Rose, Ann M; Chen, Nansheng

    2010-12-15

    mdf-1/MAD1 is a conserved spindle assembly checkpoint component that is essential for the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans. Previously, using a dog-1(gk10)/FANCJ mutator strain, we have isolated a suppressor of mdf-1(gk2) sterility. This suppressor, named such-4, was demonstrated to be a tandem duplication that contained 62 putative protein coding genes. We apply here the recently developed Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) method to study this copy number variation (CNV) in C. elegans and show that such-4 is caused by the duplication of a single gene cyb-3, illustrating the power of MosSCI-mediated single-gene duplications for uncovering gene dosage genetic interactions. Importantly, we show here, for the first time, that doubling the CYB-3 (Cyclin B3) dosage suppresses sterility in the absence of the essential spindle assembly checkpoint component MDF-1 without causing a delay in the onset of anaphase.

  13. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude

    2015-04-14

    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  14. Role of Clinical Pharmacology in the Development and Approval of Immunotherapies Targeting Immune Checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A

    2016-12-01

    Immune surveillance plays a critical role in preventing the development and progression of cancer. Immune modulators, such as interferon-gamma or interleukin-2, have been a part of the cancer treatment armament over the past few decades. However, new understandings regarding the role of the costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules associated with T-cells and antigen-presenting cells as well as tumor necrosis factor receptors and ligands have ushered the new era of immunotherapy for cancer treatment. We now know that primary cancer cells evade screening by the innate immune system, proliferate, and form metastases by upregulating immune inhibitory pathways referred to as immune checkpoints. The recent development of therapies that target immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, programmed cell death 1, programmed cell death ligand 1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3, and lymphocyte activation gene 3 precisely target the immune system and give new hope for treating various types of cancer. In select marker-enriched populations, immunotherapies provide high response rates as well as durable responses in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. Numerous factors, such as patient's immune system, the expression of targets on both immune and cancer cells, maintenance of an effective drug exposure, and tolerability to these agents may play a role in this unique observation.

  15. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Rodier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  16. Suppressors of spindle checkpoint defect (such) mutants identify new mdf-1/MAD1 interactors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarailo, Maja; Kitagawa, Risa; Rose, Ann M

    2007-04-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) governs the timing of metaphase-to-anaphase transition and is essential for genome stability. The Caenorhabditis elegans mutant strain gk2 carries a deletion within the mdf-1/MAD1 gene that results in death of the homozygous strain after two or three generations. Here we describe 11 suppressors of the mdf-1(gk2) lethality, 10 identified in an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis screen and 1 isolated using the dog-1(gk10) (deletions of guanine-rich DNA) mutator strain. Using time-lapse imaging of early embryonic cells and germline mitotic division, we demonstrate that there are two classes of suppressors. Eight suppressors compensate for the loss of the checkpoint by delaying mitotic progression, which coincides with securin (IFY-1/Pds1) accumulation; three suppressors have normal IFY-1/Pds1 levels and normal anaphase onset. Furthermore, in the class of suppressors with delayed mitotic progression, we have identified four alleles of known suppressors emb-30/APC4 and fzy-1/CDC20, which are components of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In addition, we have identified another APC/C component capable of bypassing the checkpoint requirement that has not previously been described in C. elegans. The such-1/APC5-like mutation, h1960, significantly delays anaphase onset both in germline and in early embryonic cells.

  17. Dpb11/TopBP1 plays distinct roles in DNA replication, checkpoint response and homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, Susanne Manuela; Østergaard, Vibe Hallundbæk; Haas, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    displays altered rates of heteroallelic and direct-repeat recombination, sensitivity to DSB-inducing drugs as well as delayed kinetics of mating-type switching with a defect in the DNA synthesis step thus implicating Dpb11 in homologous recombination. We conclude that Dpb11/TopBP1 plays distinct roles......DPB11/TopBP1 is an essential evolutionarily conserved gene involved in initiation of DNA replication and checkpoint signaling. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dpb11 forms nuclear foci that localize to sites of DNA damage in G1, S and G2 phase, a recruitment that is conserved for its...... and Tel1, and of the checkpoint mediator Rad9. In a site-directed mutagenesis screen, we identify a separation-of-function mutant, dpb11-PF, that is sensitive to DSB-inducing agents yet remains proficient for DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint at the permissive temperature. The dpb11-PF mutant...

  18. Update on immune checkpoint inhibitors in gynecological cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, progress in our understanding of immune-modulatory signaling pathways in immune cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) has led to rejuvenated interest in cancer immunotherapy. In particular, immunotherapy targeting the immune checkpoint receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have demonstrated clinical activity in a wide variety of tumors, including gynecological cancers. This review will focus on the emerging clinical data on the therapeutic role of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and potential strategies to enhance the efficacy of this class of compounds, in the context of gynecological cancers. It is anticipated that future biomarker-directed clinical trials will provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying response and resistance to immunotherapy, and help guide our approach to designing therapeutic combinations that have the potential to enhance the benefit of immunotherapy in patients with gynecologic cancers. PMID:28028993

  19. Minimum Process Coordinated Checkpointing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tuli, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    The wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) architecture is one consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. This has made possible creating a mobile distributed computing environment and has also brought several new challenges in distributed protocol design. In this paper, we study a very fundamental problem, the fault tolerance problem, in a MANET environment and propose a minimum process coordinated checkpointing scheme. Since potential problems of this new environment are insufficient power and limited storage capacity, the proposed scheme tries to reduce the amount of information saved for recovery. The MANET structure used in our algorithm is hierarchical based. The scheme is based for Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) which belongs to a class of Hierarchical Reactive routing protocols. The protocol proposed by us is nonblocking coordinated checkpointing algorithm suitable for ad hoc environments. It produces a consistent set of...

  20. Covering Resilience: A Recent Development for Binomial Checkpointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-09-12

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, required, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algorithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We describe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding implementation and discuss first numerical results.

  1. Sister chromatid tension and the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezi, Luigi; Musacchio, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a feedback control system that monitors the state of kinetochore/microtubule attachment during mitosis and halts cell cycle progression until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. The state of chromosome-microtubule attachment is implicated as a crucial factor in the checkpoint response. On the contrary, lack of tension in the centromere-kinetochore region of sister chromatids has been shown to regulate a pathway of correction of undesired chromosome-microtubule connections, while the presence of tension is believed to promote the stabilization of attachments. We discuss how tension-sensitive phenomena, such as attachment correction and stabilization, relate to the SAC and we speculate on the existence of a single pathway linking error correction and SAC activation.

  2. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Francesco; Falbo, Lucia; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells.

  3. Combined Radiation Therapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zishuo I; Ho, Alice Y; McArthur, Heather L

    2017-09-01

    Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors has shown durable responses in a number of solid tumors, including melanoma, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. However, most breast cancers are resistant to monotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors. Radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to have a number of immunostimulatory effects, including priming the immune system, recruiting immune cells to the tumor environment, and altering the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment. RT therefore represents a promising adjuvant therapy to checkpoint blockade in breast cancer. We review the data from the checkpoint blockade studies on breast cancer reported to date, the mechanisms by which RT potentiates immune responses, the preclinical and clinical data of checkpoint blockade and RT combinations, and the landscape of current clinical trials of RT and immune checkpoint inhibitor combinations in breast cancer. Clinical trials with checkpoint blockade therapy have demonstrated response rates of up to 19% in breast cancer, and many of the responses are durable. Preclinical data indicate that RT combined with checkpoint inhibition synergizes not only to enhance antitumor efficacy but also to induce responses outside of the radiation field. Thus multiple clinical trials are currently investigating the combination of checkpoint inhibition with RT. The use of combination strategies that incorporate chemotherapy and/or local strategies such as RT may be needed to augment responses to immune therapy in breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical results show that RT in combination with checkpoint blockade may be a promising therapeutic option in breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy In Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    lab) b) obtain IACUC/ACURO approval for the animal protocol c) test the effect of radiation of radiation and cryotherapy +/- PD1 inhibition on the...to develop strategies to enhance immune checkpoint inhibition in kidney cancer. The work is designed to test different strategies to induce or...that the funds were made available to Johns Hopkins. Hence the PI did not hire respective personnel as described in the SOW and animal studies were not

  5. Checkpointing Shared Memory Programs at the Application-level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Schulz, M; Szwed, P; Marques, D; Pingali, K

    2004-09-08

    Trends in high-performance computing are making it necessary for long-running applications to tolerate hardware faults. The most commonly used approach is checkpoint and restart(CPR)-the state of the computation is saved periodically on disk, and when a failure occurs, the computation is restarted from the last saved state. At present, it is the responsibility of the programmer to instrument applications for CPR. Our group is investigating the use of compiler technology to instrument codes to make them self-checkpointing and self-restarting, thereby providing an automatic solution to the problem of making long-running scientific applications resilient to hardware faults. Our previous work focused on message-passing programs. In this paper, we describe such a system for shared-memory programs running on symmetric multiprocessors. The system has two components: (i)a pre-compiler for source-to-source modification of applications, and (ii) a runtime system that implements a protocol for coordinating CPR among the threads of the parallel application. For the sake of concreteness, we focus on a non-trivial subset of OpenMP that includes barriers and locks. One of the advantages of this approach is that the ability to tolerate faults becomes embedded within the application itself, so applications become self-checkpointing and self-restarting on any platform. We demonstrate this by showing that our transformed benchmarks can checkpoint and restart on three different platforms (Windows/x86, Linux/x86, and Tru64/Alpha). Our experiments show that the overhead introduced by this approach is usually quite small; they also suggest ways in which the current implementation can be tuned to reduced overheads further.

  6. The final checkpoint. Cancer as an adaptive evolutionary mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumena Petkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for identification of DNA damage and repair usually manage DNA damage very efficiently. If damaged cells manage to bypass the checkpoints where the integrity of the genome is assessed and the decisions whether to proceed with the cell cycle are made, they may evade the imperative to stop dividing and to die. As a result, cancer may develop. Warding off the potential sequence-altering effects of DNA damage during the life of the individual or the existence span of the species is controlled by a set of larger checkpoints acting on a progressively increasing scale, from systematic removal of damaged cells from the proliferative pool by means of repair of DNA damage/programmed cell death through ageing to, finally, cancer. They serve different purposes and act at different levels of the life cycle, safeguarding the integrity of the genetic backup of the individual, the genetic diversity of the population, and, finally, the survival of the species and of life on Earth. In the light of the theory that cancer is the final checkpoint or the nature's manner to prevent complex organisms from living forever at the expense of genetic stagnation, the eventual failure of modern anti-cancer treatments is only to be expected. Nevertheless, the medicine of today and the near future has enough potential to slow down the progression to terminal cancer so that the life expectancy and the quality of life of cancer-affected individuals may be comparable to those of healthy aged individuals.

  7. Emerging role of checkpoint blockade therapy in lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, Natalie; Kline, Justin; Bishop, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Following the successful application of immune checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) in refractory solid tumors, it has recently gained momentum as a promising modality in the treatment of relapsed lymphoma. This significant therapeutic advance stems from decades of research that elucidated the role of immune regulation pathways and the mechanisms by which tumors can engage these critical pathways to escape immune detection. To date, two main pathways, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), have emerged as key targets of CBT demonstrating unprecedented activity particularly in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and some forms of non-Hodgkin disease. Herein we provide a brief discussion of checkpoint blockade in the context of lymphoma biology with a specific focus on novel checkpoint inhibitors and their therapeutic activity. We discuss current clinical trials and the landscape of CBT to underscore both the remarkable progress and foreseeable limitations of this novel treatment strategy. In particular, we build upon state-of-the-art knowledge and clinical insights gained from the early trials to review potential approaches to how CBT may be integrated with other treatment modalities, including chemoimmunotherapy to improve patient outcomes in the future. Finally, as the role of CBT evolves to potentially become a cornerstone of therapy in refractory/relapsed lymphoma, we briefly emphasize the importance of predictive biomarkers in an effort to select appropriate patients who are most likely to derive benefit from CBT. PMID:28203344

  8. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Gussgard Syljuåsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1 and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1 and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways.

  9. Sobriety checkpoints in Thailand: a review of effectiveness and developments over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsuwan, Vallop; Veerman, J Lennert; Bertram, Melanie; Vos, Theo

    2015-03-01

    This review describes the legal basis for and implementation of sobriety checkpoints in Thailand and identifies factors that influenced their historical development and effectiveness. The first alcohol and traffic injury control law in Thailand was implemented in 1934. The 0.05 g/100 mL blood alcohol concentration limit was set in 1994. Currently, 3 types of sobriety checkpoints are used: general police checkpoints, selective breath testing, and special event sobriety checkpoints. The authors found few reports on the strategies, frequencies, and outcomes for any of these types of checkpoints, despite Thailand having devoted many resources to their implementation. In Thailand and other low-middle income countries, it is necessary to address the country-specific barriers to successful enforcement (including political and logistical issues, lack of equipment, and absence of other supportive alcohol harm reduction measures) before sobriety checkpoints can be expected to be as effective as reported in high-income countries.

  10. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  11. DNA-damage response network at the crossroads of cell-cycle checkpoints,cellular senescence and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHMITT Estelle; PAQUET Claudie; BEAUCHEMIN Myriam; BERTRAND Richard

    2007-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a carefully-orchestrated balance between cell proliferation,cellular senescence and cell death.Cells proliferate through a cell cycle that is tightly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase activities.Cellular senescence is a safeguard program limiting the proliferative competence of cells in living organisms.Apoptosis eliminates unwanted cells by the coordinated activity of gene products that regulate and effect cell death.The intimate link between the cell cycle,cellular senescence,apoptosis regulation,cancer development and tumor responses to cancer treatment has become eminently apparent.Extensive research on tumor suppressor genes,oncogenes,the cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory genes has revealed how the DNA damage-sensing and -signaling pathways,referred to as the DNA-damage response network,are tied to cell proliferation,cell-cycle arrest,cellular senescence and apoptosis.DNA-damage responses are complex,involving "sensor" proteins that sense the damage,and transmit signals to "transducer" proteins,which,in turn,convey the signals to numerous "effector" proteins implicated in specific cellular pathways,including DNA repair mechanisms,cell-cycle checkpoints,cellular senescence and apoptosis.The Bcl-2 family of proteins stands among the most crucial regulators of apoptosis and performs vital functions in deciding whether a cell will live or die after cancer chemotherapy and irradiation.In addition,several studies have now revealed that members of the Bcl-2 family also interface with the cell cycle,DNA repair/recombination and cellular senescence,effects that are generally distinct from their function in apoptosis.In this review,we report progress in understanding the molecular networks that regulate cell-cycle checkpoints,cellular senescence and apoptosis after DNA damage,and discuss the influence of some Bcl-2 family members on cell-cycle checkpoint regulation.

  12. Fission yeast cut5 links nuclear chromatin and M phase regulator in the replication checkpoint control.

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Y.; Fantes, P; Sutani, T; McInerny, C; Creanor, J; Yanagida, M

    1994-01-01

    Fission yeast temperature-sensitive cut5 (cell untimely torn) mutants are defective in initiation and/or elongation of DNA replication but allow mitosis and cell division at a restrictive temperature. We show that the cut5 protein (identical to rad4) (i) is an essential component of the replication checkpoint system but not the DNA damage checkpoint, and (ii) negatively regulates the activation of M phase kinase at mitotic entry. Even if the replication checkpoint has been activated previousl...

  13. Two-Level Incremental Checkpoint Recovery Scheme for Reducing System Total Overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given. PMID:25111048

  14. Action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints for healthy work design in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2007-12-01

    Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.

  15. McrEngine: A Scalable Checkpointing System Using Data-Aware Aggregation and Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzima Zerin Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing (HPC systems use checkpoint-restart to tolerate failures. Typically, applications store their states in checkpoints on a parallel file system (PFS. As applications scale up, checkpoint-restart incurs high overheads due to contention for PFS resources. The high overheads force large-scale applications to reduce checkpoint frequency, which means more compute time is lost in the event of failure. We alleviate this problem through a scalable checkpoint-restart system, mcrEngine. McrEngine aggregates checkpoints from multiple application processes with knowledge of the data semantics available through widely-used I/O libraries, e.g., HDF5 and netCDF, and compresses them. Our novel scheme improves compressibility of checkpoints up to 115% over simple concatenation and compression. Our evaluation with large-scale application checkpoints show that mcrEngine reduces checkpointing overhead by up to 87% and restart overhead by up to 62% over a baseline with no aggregation or compression.

  16. Genetic Control of the Trigger for the G2/M Checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Eric J. [Columbia University; Smilenov, Lubomir B. [Columbia University; Young, Erik F. [Columbia University

    2013-10-01

    The work undertaken in this project addressed two seminal areas of low dose radiation biology that are poorly understood and controversial. These areas are the challenge to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) paradigm at low doses of radiation and, the fundamental elements of radiation bystander effect biology Genetic contributions to low dose checkpoint engagement: The LNT paradigm is an extrapolation of known, measured cancer induction endpoints. Importantly, data for lower doses is often not available. Debatably, radiation protection standards have been introduced which are prudently contingent on the adherence of cancer risk to the established trend seen at higher doses. Intriguing findings from other labs have hinted at separate DNA damage response programs that engage at low or high levels of radiation. Individual radiation sensitivity commensurate with hemizygosity for a radiation sensitivity gene has been estimated at 1-2% in the U.S.. Careful interrogation of the DNA damage response at low doses of radiation became important and served as the basis for this grant. Several genes were tested in combinations to determine if combined haploinsufficiency for multiple radiosensitizing genes could render a cell more sensitive to lower levels of acute radiation exposure. We measured a classical radiation response endpoint, cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis. Mouse embryo fibroblasts were used and provided a uniform, rapidly dividing and genetically manipulable population of study. Our system did not report checkpoint engagement at acute doses of gamma rays below 100 mGy. The system did report checkpoint engagement reproducibly at 500 mGy establishing a threshold for activation between 100 and 500 mGy. Engagement of the checkpoint was ablated in cells nullizygous for ATM but was otherwise unperturbed in cells combinatorially haploinsufficient for ATM and Rad9, ATM and PTEN or PTEN and Rad9. Taken together, these experiments tell us that, in a sensitive fibroblast culture

  17. The long noncoding RNA Chaer defines an epigenetic checkpoint in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Deng, Ke-Qiong; Gong, Jun; Ren, Shuxun; Wang, Xinghua; Chen, Iris; Wang, He; Gao, Chen; Yokota, Tomohiro; Ang, Yen Sin; Li, Shen; Cass, Ashley; Vondriska, Thomas M; Li, Guangping; Deb, Arjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Yang, Huang-Tian; Xiao, Xinshu; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Yibin

    2016-10-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical process of pathological gene induction during cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we identified a heart-enriched long noncoding (lnc)RNA, named cardiac-hypertrophy-associated epigenetic regulator (Chaer), which is necessary for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, Chaer directly interacts with the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2). This interaction, which is mediated by a 66-mer motif in Chaer, interferes with PRC2 targeting to genomic loci, thereby inhibiting histone H3 lysine 27 methylation at the promoter regions of genes involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The interaction between Chaer and PRC2 is transiently induced after hormone or stress stimulation in a process involving mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, and this interaction is a prerequisite for epigenetic reprogramming and induction of genes involved in hypertrophy. Inhibition of Chaer expression in the heart before, but not after, the onset of pressure overload substantially attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Our study reveals that stress-induced pathological gene activation in the heart requires a previously uncharacterized lncRNA-dependent epigenetic checkpoint.

  18. Fission Yeast Apc15 Stabilizes MCC-Cdc20-APC/C Complexes, Ensuring Efficient Cdc20 Ubiquitination and Checkpoint Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Karen M; Paldi, Flora; Hardwick, Kevin G

    2017-03-28

    During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14Δ mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15Δ mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15Δ cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed.

  19. Cell cycle checkpoint abnormalities during dementia: A plausible association with the loss of protection against oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Katsel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests an association between neuronal cell cycle (CCL events and the processes that underlie neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Elevated levels of oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial dysfunction are also among early events in AD. Recent studies have reported the role of CCL checkpoint proteins and tumor suppressors, such as ATM and p53 in the control of glycolysis and oxidative metabolism in cancer, but their involvement in AD remains uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this postmortem study, we measured gene expression levels of eight CCL checkpoint proteins in the superior temporal cortex (STC of persons with varying severities of AD dementia and compare them to those of cognitively normal controls. To assess whether the CCL changes associated with cognitive impairment in AD are specific to dementia, gene expression of the same proteins was also measured in STC of persons with schizophrenia (SZ, which is also characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. The expression of CCL-checkpoint and DNA damage response genes: MDM4, ATM and ATR was strongly upregulated and associated with progression of dementia (cognitive dementia rating, CDR, appearing as early as questionable or mild dementia (CDRs 0.5-1. In addition to gene expression changes, the downstream target of ATM-p53 signaling - TIGAR, a p53-inducible protein, the activation of which can regulate energy metabolism and protect against oxidative stress was progressively decreased as severity of dementia evolved, but it was unaffected in subjects with SZ. In contrast to AD, different CCL checkpoint proteins, which include p53, CHEK1 and BRCA1 were significantly downregulated in SZ. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the activation of an ATM signaling and DNA damage response network during the progression of AD dementia, while the progressive decrease in the levels of TIGAR suggests loss of protection initiated by ATM-p53 signaling against

  20. Greatwall and Polo-like Kinase 1 Coordinate to Promote Checkpoint Recovery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aimin; Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Checkpoint recovery upon completion of DNA repair allows the cell to return to normal cell cycle progression and is thus a crucial process that determines cell fate after DNA damage. We previously studied this process in Xenopus egg extracts and established Greatwall (Gwl) as an important regulator. Here we show that preactivated Gwl kinase can promote checkpoint recovery independently of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) or Plx1 (Xenopus polo-like kinase 1), whereas depletion of Gwl from extracts exhibits no synergy with that of Plx1 in delaying checkpoint recovery, suggesting a distinct but related relationship between Gwl and Plx1. In further revealing their functional relationship, we found mutual dependence for activation of Gwl and Plx1 during checkpoint recovery, as well as their direct association. We characterized the protein association in detail and recapitulated it in vitro with purified proteins, which suggests direct interaction. Interestingly, Gwl interaction with Plx1 and its phosphorylation by Plx1 both increase at the stage of checkpoint recovery. More importantly, Plx1-mediated phosphorylation renders Gwl more efficient in promoting checkpoint recovery, suggesting a functional involvement of such regulation in the recovery process. Finally, we report an indirect regulatory mechanism involving Aurora A that may account for Gwl-dependent regulation of Plx1 during checkpoint recovery. Our results thus reveal novel mechanisms underlying the involvement of Gwl in checkpoint recovery, in particular, its functional relationship with Plx1, a well characterized regulator of checkpoint recovery. Coordinated interplays between Plx1 and Gwl are required for reactivation of these kinases from the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint and efficient checkpoint recovery. PMID:21708943

  1. Monitoring spindle orientation: Spindle position checkpoint in charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caydasi, Ayse K; Ibrahim, Bashar; Pereira, Gislene

    2010-12-11

    Every cell division in budding yeast is inherently asymmetric and counts on the correct positioning of the mitotic spindle along the mother-daughter polarity axis for faithful chromosome segregation. A surveillance mechanism named the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC), monitors the orientation of the mitotic spindle and prevents cells from exiting mitosis when the spindle fails to align along the mother-daughter axis. SPOC is essential for maintenance of ploidy in budding yeast and similar mechanisms might exist in higher eukaryotes to ensure faithful asymmetric cell division. Here, we review the current model of SPOC activation and highlight the importance of protein localization and phosphorylation for SPOC function.

  2. Monitoring spindle orientation: Spindle position checkpoint in charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gislene

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Every cell division in budding yeast is inherently asymmetric and counts on the correct positioning of the mitotic spindle along the mother-daughter polarity axis for faithful chromosome segregation. A surveillance mechanism named the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC, monitors the orientation of the mitotic spindle and prevents cells from exiting mitosis when the spindle fails to align along the mother-daughter axis. SPOC is essential for maintenance of ploidy in budding yeast and similar mechanisms might exist in higher eukaryotes to ensure faithful asymmetric cell division. Here, we review the current model of SPOC activation and highlight the importance of protein localization and phosphorylation for SPOC function.

  3. Immune-Related Adverse Events Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daphne; Hansen, Aaron R

    2016-12-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), have shown durable treatment responses in multiple tumor types by enhancing antitumor immunity. However, removal of self-tolerance can induce autoimmunity and produce a unique immune-driven toxicity profile, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs). As ICIs gain approval for a growing number of indications, it is imperative clinicians increase their knowledge of and ability to manage irAEs. This review examines the etiology, presentation, kinetics, and treatment of irAEs and aims to provide practical guidance for clinicians.

  4. Endocrine side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Barnabei, Agnese; Marchetti, Paolo; De Vecchis, Liana; Salvatori, Roberto; Torino, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy by the development of drugs acting as modulators of immune checkpoint proteins, such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on T cells upon activation. These molecules play crucial roles in maintaining immune homeostasis by down-regulating T-cell signaling, thereby preventing unbridled T-cell proliferation while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens. CTLA4 blockade through systemic administration of the CTLA4-blocking antibody ipilimumab was shown to confer significant survival benefit and prolonged stable disease in patients affected by advanced cutaneous melanoma. Other immune checkpoint inhibitors are under clinical evaluation. However, immune checkpoint blockade can lead to the breaking of immune self-tolerance, thereby inducing a novel syndrome of autoimmune/autoinflammatory side effects, designated as "immune-related adverse events," mainly including rash, colitis, hepatitis, and endocrinopathies. We searched the medical literature using the words "hypophysitis," "hypopituitarism," "thyroid," "adrenal insufficiency," and "endocrine adverse events" in association with "immune checkpoint inhibitors," "ipilimumab," "tremelimumab," "PD-1," and "PD-1-L." The spectrum of endocrine disease experienced by patients treated with ipilimumab includes most commonly hypophysitis, more rarely thyroid disease or abnormalities in thyroid function tests, and occasionally primary adrenal insufficiency. Hypophysitis has emerged as a distinctive side effect of CTLA4-blocking antibodies, establishing a new form of autoimmune pituitary disease. This condition, if not promptly recognized, may be life-threatening (due to secondary hypoadrenalism). Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, and prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment is often required. The precise

  5. Centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint as targets for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broaddus Russell R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In eukaryotic cells, control mechanisms have developed that restrain cell-cycle transitions in response to stress. These regulatory pathways are termed cell-cycle checkpoints. The G2/M checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged in order to afford these cells an opportunity to repair the damaged DNA before propagating genetic defects to the daughter cells. If the damage is irreparable, checkpoint signaling might activate pathways that lead to apoptosis. Since alteration of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, cell-cycle regulators represent potential targets for therapy. The centrosome has recently come into focus as a critical cellular organelle that integrates G2/M checkpoint control and repairs signals in response to DNA damage. A growing number of G2/M checkpoint regulators have been found in the centrosome, suggesting that centrosome has an important role in G2/M checkpoint function. In this review, we discuss centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint, the dysregulation of this checkpoint in cancer, and potential candidate targets for cancer therapy.

  6. Twitter as a Tool to Warn Others about Sobriety Checkpoints: A Pilot Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Hatzudis, Kiki; Wyrick, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that young people use the website Twitter as a tool to warn drivers about the locations of sobriety checkpoints. Researchers investigated this claim by independently analyzing the website's content regarding a sample of 10 sobriety checkpoints that were conducted in cities throughout the United States during the weekend…

  7. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Rob; Clay-Farrace, Lori; van Zon, Wouter; Yekezare, Mona; Koop, Lars; Ogink, Janneke; Medema, Rene; Pines, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Successful mitosis requires the right protein be degraded at the right time. Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin 131 when there are improperly attached chromosomes. The principal target of the checkpoint is Cdc20, which activates the anaphase

  8. Exploiting the compromised spindle assembly checkpoint function of tumor cells: dawn on the horizon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.; Medema, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Aneuploidy is a frequent property of cancer cells that arises as a consequence of chromosomal instability (CIN). A major safeguard mechanism protecting cells from CIN is the spindle assembly checkpoint. This checkpoint surveys proper attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle and effectively s

  9. Polo-like kinase-1 controls proteasome-dependent degradation of claspin during checkpoint recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamely, Ivan; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Smits, Veronique A. J.; Semple, Jennifer I.; Lemmens, Bennie; Perrakis, Anastassis; Medema, Rene H.; Freire, Raimundo

    2006-01-01

    DNA-damage checkpoints maintain genomic integrity by mediating a cell-cycle delay in response to genotoxic stress or stalled replication forks. In response to damage, the checkpoint kinase ATR phosphorylates and activates its effector kinase Chk1 in a process that critically depends on Claspin [1].

  10. Determinants of mitotic catastrophe on abrogation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint by UCN-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Kin Fan; Chen, Yue; Ma, Hoi Tang; Chow, Jeremy P H; Poon, Randy Y C

    2011-05-01

    Genotoxic stress such as ionizing radiation halts entry into mitosis by activation of the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint. The CHK1 inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can bypass the checkpoint and induce unscheduled mitosis in irradiated cells. Precisely, how cells behave following checkpoint abrogation remains to be defined. In this study, we tracked the fates of individual cells after checkpoint abrogation, focusing in particular on whether they undergo mitotic catastrophe. Surprisingly, while a subset of UCN-01-treated cells were immediately eliminated during the first mitosis after checkpoint abrogation, about half remained viable and progressed into G(1). Both the delay of mitotic entry and the level of mitotic catastrophe were dependent on the dose of radiation. Although the level of mitotic catastrophe was specific for different cell lines, it could be promoted by extending the mitosis. In supporting this idea, weakening of the spindle-assembly checkpoint, by either depleting MAD2 or overexpressing the MAD2-binding protein p31(comet), suppressed mitotic catastrophe. Conversely, delaying of mitotic exit by depleting either p31(comet) or CDC20 tipped the balance toward mitotic catastrophe. These results underscore the interplay between the level of DNA damage and the effectiveness of the spindle-assembly checkpoint in determining whether checkpoint-abrogated cells are eliminated during mitosis.

  11. Stable MCC binding to the APC/C is required for a functional spindle assembly checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jamin B; Nilsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays progression into anaphase until all chromosomes have aligned on the metaphase plate by inhibiting Cdc20, the mitotic co-activator of the APC/C. Mad2 and BubR1 bind and inhibit Cdc20, thereby forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which can bind...

  12. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Rob; Clay-Farrace, Lori; van Zon, Wouter; Yekezare, Mona; Koop, Lars; Ogink, Janneke; Medema, Rene; Pines, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Successful mitosis requires the right protein be degraded at the right time. Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin 131 when there are improperly attached chromosomes. The principal target of the checkpoint is Cdc20, which activates the

  13. Molecular Pathways: Immune Checkpoint Antibodies and their Toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Sophie; Italiano, Antoine

    2016-09-15

    The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumor treatments represents a major oncologic advance. Since the approval of ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, many drugs, especially those targeting PD-1/PD-L1, have demonstrated promising antitumor effects in many types of cancer. By reactivating the immune system, these immunotherapies have led to the development of new toxicity profiles, also called immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAEs can involve many organ systems, and their management is radically different from that of cytotoxic drugs; irAEs require immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticoids or TNFα antibody. In addition, the occurrence of irAEs has raised significant questions. Here, we summarize progress that has been made toward answering these questions, focusing on (i) the impact of immunotherapy dose on irAE occurrence, (ii) the correlation between irAE and patient outcome, (iii) the safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients already treated for autoimmune disease, and (iv) the suspected effect on tumor growth of steroids used for the management of irAEs. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4550-5. ©2016 AACR.

  14. [The pathology of adverse events with immune checkpoint inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelzer, V H; Glatz, K; Bubendorf, L; Weber, A; Gaspert, A; Cathomas, G; Lugli, A; Zippelius, A; Kempf, W; Mertz, K D

    2017-05-01

    Immunotherapy has gained importance with the development of new effective cancer treatments. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are monoclonal antibodies that promote T‑cell mediated tumor immune rejection. Checkpoint blockade also carries the risk of inducing autoimmune reactions ("immune related adverse events", irAEs). The diagnosis and classification of irAEs constitute a new and important field in pathology. Practice-oriented review of the diagnosis and classification of irAEs. Structured, selective literature review based on PubMed und UpToDate ® online. The most common irAEs affect the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, and the respiratory system. The correct diagnosis and classification of irAEs by an interdisciplinary care team is essential for appropriate therapy and the prevention of long-term sequelae. Other important irAEs affect the endocrine organs, the heart, the joints, the kidneys and the nervous system. Because of their rarity and/or limited options for bioptic diagnosis, only limited data on the morphology and pathophysiology of these irAEs are currently available. Autopsies carried out after ICI therapy constitute an important element of quality control and allow better documentation of the incidence and pathogenesis of irAEs. Pathology plays a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of irAEs. Future studies may contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of irAEs for individualized knowledge-based risk assessment.

  15. Cenp-meta is required for sustained spindle checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rubin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cenp-E is a kinesin-like motor protein required for efficient end-on attachment of kinetochores to the spindle microtubules. Cenp-E immunodepletion in Xenopus mitotic extracts results in the loss of mitotic arrest and massive chromosome missegregation, whereas its depletion in mammalian cells leads to chromosome segregation defects despite the presence of a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. Cenp-meta has previously been reported to be the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate Cenp-E. In this study, we show that cenp-metaΔ mutant neuroblasts arrest in mitosis when treated with colchicine. cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a mitotic delay. Yet, despite the persistence of the two checkpoint proteins Mad2 and BubR1 on unattached kinetochores, these cells eventually enter anaphase and give rise to highly aneuploid daughter cells. Indeed, we find that cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a slow but continuous degradation of cyclin B, which eventually triggers the mitotic exit observed. Thus, our data provide evidence for a role of Cenp-meta in sustaining the SAC response.

  16. Immunotherapy comes of age: Immune aging & checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rawad; Karantanos, Theodoros; Sira, Elizabeth; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2017-02-17

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are based on the understanding that there are multilayered checks and balances which can be manipulated to unleash already existing, but paralyzed, immune responses to cancer. These agents are safer and more efficacious than classic cytotoxic drugs making them a very attractive therapeutic option, especially in older adults. Current available data do not suggest significant age-associated differences in the clinical profile of ICIs. It must be noted, however, that there is still relatively little information on the use of ICIs in adults over 75years of age and aging is associated with a decline in the immune system or "immunosenescence" which theoretically can reduce the efficacy of these immune based therapies. In this paper, we review the mechanism of action of ICIs, current clinical data on their use in older adults, and age-associated immune changes that might have a direct impact on their activity in this population. We chose to focus on mainly adaptive cellular immunity, and especially on components of the immune system that are implicated directly in the immune checkpoint process.

  17. Evidence that the spindle assembly checkpoint does not regulate APC(Fzy) activity in Drosophila female meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiha, Osamah; Swan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) plays an important role in mitotic cells to sense improper chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules and to inhibit APC(Fzy)-dependent destruction of cyclin B and Securin; consequent initiation of anaphase until correct attachments are made. In Drosophila , SAC genes have been found to play a role in ensuring proper chromosome segregation in meiosis, possibly reflecting a similar role for the SAC in APC(Fzy) inhibition during meiosis. We found that loss of function mutations in SAC genes, Mad2, zwilch, and mps1, do not lead to the predicted rise in APC(Fzy)-dependent degradation of cyclin B either globally throughout the egg or locally on the meiotic spindle. Further, the SAC is not responsible for the inability of APC(Fzy) to target cyclin B and promote anaphase in metaphase II arrested eggs from cort mutant females. Our findings support the argument that SAC proteins play checkpoint independent roles in Drosophila female meiosis and that other mechanisms must function to control APC activity.

  18. Detailed Modeling, Design, and Evaluation of a Scalable Multi-level Checkpointing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, A T; Bronevetsky, G; Mohror, K M; de Supinski, B R

    2010-04-09

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more hardware components. As the system mean-time-before-failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint more frequently to make progress. However, as the system memory sizes grow faster than the bandwidth to the parallel file system, the cost of checkpointing begins to dominate application run times. A potential solution to this problem is to use multi-level checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints with different costs and different levels of resiliency in a single run. The goal is to design light-weight checkpoints to handle the most common failure modes and rely on more expensive checkpoints for less common, but more severe failures. While this approach is theoretically promising, it has not been fully evaluated in a large-scale, production system context. To this end we have designed a system, called the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes checkpoints to storage on the compute nodes utilizing RAM, Flash, or disk, in addition to the parallel file system. We present the performance and reliability properties of SCR as well as a probabilistic Markov model that predicts its performance on current and future systems. We show that multi-level checkpointing improves efficiency on existing large-scale systems and that this benefit increases as the system size grows. In particular, we developed low-cost checkpoint schemes that are 100x-1000x faster than the parallel file system and effective against 85% of our system failures. This leads to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35%, and it reduces the the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two on current and future systems.

  19. Trabectedin Overrides Osteosarcoma Differentiative Block and Reprograms the Tumor Immune Environment Enabling Effective Combination with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Chiara; Botti, Laura; Cancila, Valeria; Galvan, Silvia; Torselli, Ilaria; Garofalo, Cecilia; Manara, Maria Cristina; Bongiovanni, Lucia; Valenti, Cesare F; Burocchi, Alessia; Parenza, Mariella; Cappetti, Barbara; Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio; Scotlandi, Katia; Colombo, Mario P; Chiodoni, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: Osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone tumor, is characterized by an aggressive behavior with high tendency to develop lung metastases as well as by multiple genetic aberrations that have hindered the development of targeted therapies. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed; however, novel combinations with immunotherapies and checkpoint inhibitors require suitable preclinical models with intact immune systems to be properly tested.Experimental Design: We have developed immunocompetent osteosarcoma models that grow orthotopically in the bone and spontaneously metastasize to the lungs, mimicking human osteosarcoma. These models have been used to test the efficacy of trabectedin, a chemotherapeutic drug utilized clinically for sarcomas and ovarian cancer.Results: Trabectedin, as monotherapy, significantly inhibited osteosarcoma primary tumor growth and lung metastases by both targeting neoplastic cells and reprogramming the tumor immune microenvironment. Specifically, trabectedin induced a striking differentiation of tumor cells by favoring the recruitment of Runx2, the master genetic regulator of osteoblastogenesis, on the promoter of genes involved in the physiologic process of terminal osteoblast differentiation. Differentiated neoplastic cells, as expected, showed reduced proliferation rate. Concomitantly, trabectedin enhanced the number of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, with local CD8 T cells, however, likely post-activated or exhausted, as suggested by their high expression of the inhibitory checkpoint molecule PD-1. Accordingly, the combination with a PD-1-blocking antibody significantly increased trabectedin efficacy in controlling osteosarcoma progression.Conclusions: These results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of trabectedin in osteosarcoma treatment, unveiling its multiple activities and providing a solid rationale for its combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 23(17); 5149-61. ©2017 AACR. ©2017

  20. Role of swi7H4 mutant allele of DNA polymerase α in the DNA damage checkpoint response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saman; Ahmed, Shakil

    2015-01-01

    Besides being a mediator of initiation of DNA replication, DNA polymerase α plays a key role in chromosome maintenance. Swi7H4, a novel temperature sensitive mutant of DNA polymerase α was shown to be defective in transcriptional silencing at the mating type centromere and telomere loci. It is also required for the establishment of chromatin state that can recruit the components of the heterochromatin machinery at these regions. Recently the role of DNA polymerase α in the S-phase alkylation damage response in S. pombe has also been studied. Here we investigate whether defects generated by swi7H4, a mutant allele of DNA polymerase α can activate a checkpoint response. We show that swi7H4 exhibit conditional synthetic lethality with chk1 null mutant and the double mutant of swi7H4 with chk1 deletion aggravate the chromosome segregation defects. More importantly swi7H4 mutant cells delay the mitotic progression at non permissive temperature that is mediated by checkpoint protein kinase Chk1. In addition we show that, in the swi7H4 mutant background, cells accumulate DNA damage at non permissive temperature activating the checkpoint kinase protein Chk1. Further, we observed synthetic lethality between swi7H4 and a number of genes involved in DNA repair pathway at semi permissive temperature. We summarize that defects in swi7H4 mutant results in DNA damage that delay mitosis in a Chk1 dependent manner that also require the damage repair pathway for proper recovery.

  1. Role of swi7H4 mutant allele of DNA polymerase α in the DNA damage checkpoint response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Khan

    Full Text Available Besides being a mediator of initiation of DNA replication, DNA polymerase α plays a key role in chromosome maintenance. Swi7H4, a novel temperature sensitive mutant of DNA polymerase α was shown to be defective in transcriptional silencing at the mating type centromere and telomere loci. It is also required for the establishment of chromatin state that can recruit the components of the heterochromatin machinery at these regions. Recently the role of DNA polymerase α in the S-phase alkylation damage response in S. pombe has also been studied. Here we investigate whether defects generated by swi7H4, a mutant allele of DNA polymerase α can activate a checkpoint response. We show that swi7H4 exhibit conditional synthetic lethality with chk1 null mutant and the double mutant of swi7H4 with chk1 deletion aggravate the chromosome segregation defects. More importantly swi7H4 mutant cells delay the mitotic progression at non permissive temperature that is mediated by checkpoint protein kinase Chk1. In addition we show that, in the swi7H4 mutant background, cells accumulate DNA damage at non permissive temperature activating the checkpoint kinase protein Chk1. Further, we observed synthetic lethality between swi7H4 and a number of genes involved in DNA repair pathway at semi permissive temperature. We summarize that defects in swi7H4 mutant results in DNA damage that delay mitosis in a Chk1 dependent manner that also require the damage repair pathway for proper recovery.

  2. Identification of ovarian cancer associated genes using an integrated approach in a Boolean framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is a complex disease where molecular mechanism remains elusive. A systems approach is needed to integrate diverse biological information for the prognosis and therapy risk assessment using mechanistic approach to understand gene interactions in pathways and networks and functional attributes to unravel the biological behaviour of tumors. Results We weighted the functional attributes based on various functional properties observed between cancerous and non-cancerous genes reported from literature. This weighing schema was then encoded in a Boolean logic framework to rank differentially expressed genes. We have identified 17 genes to be differentially expressed from a total of 11,173 genes, where ten genes are reported to be down-regulated via epigenetic inactivation and seven genes are up-regulated. Here, we report that the overexpressed genes IRAK1, CHEK1 and BUB1 may play an important role in ovarian cancer. We also show that these 17 genes can be used to form an ovarian cancer signature, to distinguish normal from ovarian cancer subjects and that the set of three genes, CHEK1, AR, and LYN, can be used to classify good and poor prognostic tumors. Conclusion We provided a workflow using a Boolean logic schema for the identification of differentially expressed genes by integrating diverse biological information. This integrated approach resulted in the identification of genes as potential biomarkers in ovarian cancer. PMID:23383610

  3. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Damian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have benefited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and

  4. Fueling the engine and releasing the break:combinational therapy of cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Kleponis; Richard Skelton; Lei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly drawing much attention in the therapeutic development for cancer treatment. However, many cancer patients do not respond to treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors, partly because of the lack of tumor-inifltrating effector T cells. Cancer vaccines may prime patients for treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors by inducing effector T-cell infiltration into the tumors and immune checkpoint signals. The combination of cancer vaccine and an immune checkpoint inhibitor may function synergistically to induce more effective antitumor immune responses, and clinical trials to test the combination are currently ongoing.

  5. Regulation of DNA replication by the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhind Nicholas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells slow replication in response to DNA damage. This slowing was the first DNA damage checkpoint response discovered and its study led to the discovery of the central checkpoint kinase, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM. Nonetheless, the manner by which the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint slows replication is still unclear. The checkpoint could slow bulk replication by inhibiting replication origin firing or slowing replication fork progression, and both mechanisms appear to be used. However, assays in various systems using different DNA damaging agents have produced conflicting results as to the relative importance of the two mechanisms. Furthermore, although progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of origin regulation in vertebrates, the mechanism by which forks are slowed remains unknown. We review both past and present efforts towards determining how cells slow replication in response to damage and try to resolve apparent conflicts and discrepancies within the field. We propose that inhibition of origin firing is a global checkpoint mechanism that reduces overall DNA synthesis whenever the checkpoint is activated, whereas slowing of fork progression reflects a local checkpoint mechanism that only affects replisomes as they encounter DNA damage and therefore only affects overall replication rates in cases of high lesion density.

  6. Evidence that Aurora B is implicated in spindle checkpoint signalling independently of error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Stefano; Vernieri, Claudio; Villa, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Andrea; Musacchio, Andrea

    2011-04-20

    Fidelity of chromosome segregation is ensured by a tension-dependent error correction system that prevents stabilization of incorrect chromosome-microtubule attachments. Unattached or incorrectly attached chromosomes also activate the spindle assembly checkpoint, thus delaying mitotic exit until all chromosomes are bioriented. The Aurora B kinase is widely recognized as a component of error correction. Conversely, its role in the checkpoint is controversial. Here, we report an analysis of the role of Aurora B in the spindle checkpoint under conditions believed to uncouple the effects of Aurora B inhibition on the checkpoint from those on error correction. Partial inhibition of several checkpoint and kinetochore components, including Mps1 and Ndc80, strongly synergizes with inhibition of Aurora B activity and dramatically affects the ability of cells to arrest in mitosis in the presence of spindle poisons. Thus, Aurora B might contribute to spindle checkpoint signalling independently of error correction. Our results support a model in which Aurora B is at the apex of a signalling pyramid whose sensory apparatus promotes the concomitant activation of error correction and checkpoint signalling pathways.

  7. EMODnet MedSea Checkpoint for sustainable Blue Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussat, Eric; Pinardi, Nadia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Blanc, Frederique

    2016-04-01

    The EMODNET checkpoint is a wide monitoring system assessment activity aiming to support the sustainable Blue Growth at the scale of the European Sea Basins by: 1) Clarifying the observation landscape of all compartments of the marine environment including Air, Water, Seabed, Biota and Human activities, pointing out to the existing programs, national, European and international 2) Evaluating fitness for use indicators that will show the accessibility and usability of observation and modeling data sets and their roles and synergies based upon selected applications by the European Marine Environment Strategy 3) Prioritizing the needs to optimize the overall monitoring Infrastructure (in situ and satellite data collection and assembling, data management and networking, modeling and forecasting, geo-infrastructure) and release recommendations for evolutions to better meet the application requirements in view of sustainable Blue Growth The assessment is designed for : - Institutional stakeholders for decision making on observation and monitoring systems - Data providers and producers to know how their data collected once for a given purpose could fit other user needs - End-users interested in a regional status and possible uses of existing monitoring data Selected end-user applications are of paramount importance for: (i) the blue economy sector (offshore industries, fisheries); (ii) marine environment variability and change (eutrophication, river inputs and ocean climate change impacts); (iii) emergency management (oil spills); and (iv) preservation of natural resources and biodiversity (Marine Protected Areas). End-user applications generate innovative products based on the existing observation landscape. The fitness for use assessment is made thanks to the comparison of the expected product specifications with the quality of the product derived from the selected data. This involves the development of checkpoint information and indicators based on Data quality and

  8. Probabilistic Checkpointing Protocol to Sensor Network Fault-Tolerant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titouna Faiza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network WSN is a collection of autonomous sensors nodes organized into a cooperative network. A sensor node transmits the data quantity to the sink. Indeed, a failed sink may abort the overall mission of the network. Due to their crucial functions, sinks must be designed and maintained to be robust enough in order to face trouble coming from the harsh environment. Thus, as a keystone of a WSN, a sink has to be provided with ability to recover from failures. In this paper, we propose a new protocol avoiding to the sink to be a central point of failure. First, we model a sensor node failure estimation problem through a causal network. Then, we show how the checkpointing process ensures the recovery of the network. This approach reduces both energy consumption and communication bandwidth requirements, and prolongs the lifetime of WSN. Interesting results are given by simulation

  9. EMODnet Black Sea Checkpoint First Data Adequacy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Manzella, Giuseppe; Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Buga, Luminita; Kallos, George; Zodiatis, George; Stylianou, Stavros; Blanc, Frederique; Cesarini, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the first Data Adequacy Report (DAR) of the EMODnet Black Sea Checkpoint project is to assess the basin scale monitoring systems on the basis of input data sets for 11 prescribed Challenges. The first step in this process involved the definition of a "Data Adequacy Framework", which was derived from the ISO 9004:2009 standards. Data Adequacy is essentially defined as the fitness for use of the monitoring data required by the Challenges. The CheckPoint adequacy relates to both the requirements as well as the needs of the Challenges and was developed considering the ISO 9001 Quality Management System. The quality assessment is subdivided into two major "territories": "appropriateness" and "availability". In the first DAR only the "availability" indicators are explored and analyzed. The second step in the analysis is to set up a metadatabase containing standardized information about the input datasets potentially usable by the Challenges to generate their products. The metadatabase is at the back-end of an INSPIRE Web and GIS platform, known as Sextant, and uses the SeaDataNet common vocabulary to identify the categories of characteristics needed by the Challenges and to analyze the statistics of indicators. The DAR contains the first assessment of the Black Sea monitoring system on the basis of the analysis of the availability indicators across all Challenges for the 452 input data sets and the 40 characteristic categories. The 8 availability indicators are classified based upon a three value range color system: "red" meaning "not adequate", "yellow" "partly adequate" and "green" "fully adequate". The analysis shows that for most of the indicators half are "not adequate" and the other half are "adequate". The single most negative score is for the "INSPIRE catalogue service" indicator, which is generally not adequate. Furthermore, the "Pricing" indicator is split in half between "not well documented pricing policy" and "open and free data policy". In

  10. Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy: Squaring the Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A.V. Marzolini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating the complex interaction between the immune system and tumour cells has been the focus of cancer research for many years, but it is only in the past decade that significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy resulting in clinically effective treatments. The blockade of co-inhibitory immune checkpoints, essential for maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis and self-tolerance, by immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies has resulted in the augmentation of anti-tumour responses. The greatest successes so far have been seen with the blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4, which has resulted in the first Phase III clinical trial showing an overall survival benefit in metastatic melanoma, and in the blockade of the programmed cell death protein-1 axis. This concise review will focus on the clinical advances made by the blockade of these two pathways and their role in current cancer treatment strategies.

  11. Performance comparison of hierarchical checkpoint protocols grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeye Massata NDIAYE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Grid infrastructure is a large set of nodes geographically distributed and connected by a communication. In this context, fault tolerance is a necessity imposed by the distribution that poses a number of problems related to the heterogeneity of hardware, operating systems, networks, middleware, applications, the dynamic resource, the scalability, the lack of common memory, the lack of a common clock, the asynchronous communication between processes. To improve the robustness of supercomputing applications in the presence of failures, many techniques have been developed to provide resistance to these faults of the system. Fault tolerance is intended to allow the system to provide service as specified in spite of occurrences of faults. It appears as an indispensable element in distributed systems. To meet this need, several techniques have been proposed in the literature. We will study the protocols based on rollback recovery. These protocols are classified into two categories: coordinated checkpointing and rollback protocols and log-based independent checkpointing protocols or message logging protocols. However, the performance of a protocol depends on the characteristics of the system, network and applications running. Faced with the constraints of large-scale environments, many of algorithms of the literature showed inadequate. Given an application environment and a system, it is not easy to identify the recovery protocol that is most appropriate for a cluster or hierarchical environment, like grid computing. While some protocols have been used successfully in small scale, they are not suitable for use in large scale. Hence there is a need to implement these protocols in a hierarchical fashion to compare their performance in grid computing. In this paper, we propose hierarchical version of four well-known protocols. We have implemented and compare the performance of these protocols in clusters and grid computing using the Omnet++ simulator

  12. Thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-08-22

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31(comet). Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31(comet)-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development.

  13. The checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 facilitates DNA-end resection and prevents alternative non-homologous end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Ling; Kai, Mihoko

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage activates the cell cycle checkpoint to regulate cell cycle progression. The checkpoint clamp (Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex) is recruited to damage sites, and is required for checkpoint activation. While functions of the checkpoint clamp in checkpoint activation have been well studied, its functions in DNA repair regulation remain elusive. Here we show that Rad9 is required for efficient homologous recombination (HR), and facilitates DNA-end resection. The role of Rad9 in homologous recombination is independent of its function in checkpoint activation, and this function is important for preventing alternative non-homologous end joining (altNHEJ). These findings reveal novel function of the checkpoint clamp in HR.

  14. Conformation-specific anti-Mad2 monoclonal antibodies for the dissection of checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Garry G; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Lischetti, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    present in mitotic cells. Our antibodies validate current Mad2 models but also suggest that O-Mad2 can associate with checkpoint complexes, most likely through dimerization with C-Mad2. Furthermore, we investigate the makeup of checkpoint complexes bound to the APC/C, which indicate the presence of both...... Cdc20-BubR1-Bub3 and Mad2-Cdc20-BubR1-Bub3 complexes, with Cdc20 being ubiquitinated in both. Thus, our defined mAbs provide insight into checkpoint signaling and provide useful tools for future research on Mad2 function and regulation....

  15. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...... is required for beta-TrCP mediated CDC25A polyubiquitylation and degradation. The activity of NEK11 is in turn controlled by CHK1 that activates NEK11 via phosphorylation on serine 273. Since inhibition of NEK11 activity forces checkpoint-arrested cells into mitosis and cell death, NEK11 is, like CHK1...

  16. Loss of yeast peroxiredoxin Tsa1p induces genome instability through activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and elevation of dNTP levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Man Vincent Tang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins are a family of antioxidant enzymes critically involved in cellular defense and signaling. Particularly, yeast peroxiredoxin Tsa1p is thought to play a role in the maintenance of genome integrity, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. In this study, we took a genetic approach to investigate the cause of genome instability in tsa1Delta cells. Strong genetic interactions of TSA1 with DNA damage checkpoint components DUN1, SML1, and CRT1 were found when mutant cells were analyzed for either sensitivity to DNA damage or rate of spontaneous base substitutions. An elevation in intracellular dNTP production was observed in tsa1Delta cells. This was associated with constitutive activation of the DNA damage checkpoint as indicated by phosphorylation of Rad9/Rad53p, reduced steady-state amount of Sml1p, and induction of RNR and HUG1 genes. In addition, defects in the DNA damage checkpoint did not modulate intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, but suppressed the mutator phenotype of tsa1Delta cells. On the contrary, overexpression of RNR1 exacerbated this phenotype by increasing dNTP levels. Taken together, our findings uncover a new role of TSA1 in preventing the overproduction of dNTPs, which is a root cause of genome instability.

  17. Rad3-Cds1 mediates coupling of initiation of meiotic recombination with DNA replication. Mei4-dependent transcription as a potential target of meiotic checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Keiko; Masai, Hisao

    2006-01-20

    Premeiotic S-phase and meiotic recombination are known to be strictly coupled in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the checkpoint pathway regulating this coupling has been largely unknown. In fission yeast, Rad3 is known to play an essential role in coordination of DNA replication and cell division during both mitotic growth and meiosis. Here we have examined whether the Rad3 pathway also regulates the coupling of DNA synthesis and recombination. Inhibition of premeiotic S-phase with hydroxyurea completely abrogates the progression of meiosis, including the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSB formation is restored in rad3 mutant even in the presence of hydroxyurea, although repair of DSBs does not take place or is significantly delayed, indicating that the subsequent recombination steps may be still inhibited. Examination of the roles of downstream checkpoint kinases reveals that Cds1, but not Chk1 or Mek1, is required for suppression of DSB in the presence of hydroxyurea. Transcriptional induction of some rec+ genes essential for DSB occurs at a normal timing and to a normal level in the absence of DNA synthesis in both the wild-type and cds1delta cells. On the other hand, the transcriptional induction of the mei4+ transcription factor and cdc25+ phosphatase, which is significantly suppressed by hydroxyurea in the wild-type cells, occurs almost to a normal level in cds1delta cells even in the presence of hydroxyurea. These results show that the Rad3-Cds1 checkpoint pathway coordinates initiation of meiotic recombination and meiotic cell divisions with premeiotic DNA synthesis. Because mei4+ is known to be required for DSB formation and cdc25+ is required for activation of meiotic cell divisions, we propose an intriguing possibility that the Rad3-Cds1 meiotic checkpoint pathway may target transcription of these factors.

  18. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the era of precision medicine: What radiologists should know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Hodi, Frank Stephan Jr; Nishno, Mizuki [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Over the past five years immune-checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced solid and hematologic malignancies. The currently approved immune-checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2). Response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is evaluated on imaging using the immune-related response criteria. Activation of immune system results in a unique toxicity profile termed immune-related adverse events. This article will review the molecular mechanism, clinical applications, imaging of immune-related response patterns and adverse events associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

  19. Mechanism-driven biomarkers to guide immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalian, Suzanne L.; Taube, Janis M.; Anders, Robert A.; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2017-01-01

    With recent approvals for multiple therapeutic antibodies that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and kidney cancer, and additional immune checkpoints being targeted clinically, many questions still remain regarding the optimal use of drugs that block these checkpoint pathways. Defining biomarkers that predict therapeutic effects and adverse events is a crucial mandate, highlighted by recent approvals for two PDL1 diagnostic tests. Here, we discuss biomarkers for anti-PD1 therapy based on immunological, genetic and virological criteria. The unique biology of the CTLA4 immune checkpoint, compared with PD1, requires a different approach to biomarker development. Mechanism-based insights from such studies may guide the design of synergistic treatment combinations based on immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:27079802

  20. An ATM-independent S-phase checkpoint response involves CHK1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiang; Hu, Baocheng; Guan, Jun; Iliakis, George; Wang, Ya

    2002-01-01

    After exposure to genotoxic stress, proliferating cells actively slow down the DNA replication through a S-phase checkpoint to provide time for repair. We report that in addition to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent pathway that controls the fast response, there is an ATM-independent pathway that controls the slow response to regulate the S-phase checkpoint after ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. The slow response of S-phase checkpoint, which is resistant to wortmannin, sensitive to caffeine and UCN-01, and related to cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation, is much stronger in CHK1 overexpressed cells, and it could be abolished by Chk1 antisense oligonucleotides. These results provide evidence that the ATM-independent slow response of S-phase checkpoint involves CHK1 pathway.

  1. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......, causes impaired S-phase progression and the persistence of abnormal DNA structures (X-shaped DNA molecules) after exposure to methylmethanesulfonate. The impaired S-phase progression is due to a persistent checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and can be overridden by addition of caffeine. Hence......, the catalytic activity of Top3 is not required for DNA damage checkpoint activation, but it is required for normal S-phase progression after DNA damage. We also present evidence that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and persistence of X-shaped DNA molecules resulting from overexpression of TOP3(Y356F...

  2. Clinical features, diagnostic challenges, and management strategies in checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzi, Sarah; Tavora, Fabio; Cruz, Marcelo; Costa, Ricardo; Chae, Young Kwang; Carneiro, Benedito A; Giles, Francis J

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors, represent an effective treatment modality for multiple malignancies. Despite the exciting clinical benefits, checkpoint inhibition is associated with a series of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), many of which can be life-threatening and result in significant treatment delays. Pneumonitis is an adverse event of special interest as it led to treatment-related deaths in early clinical trials. This review summarizes the incidence of pneumonitis during treatment with the different checkpoint inhibitors and discusses the prognostic significance of tumor type. The wide range of clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics of checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis is reviewed and followed by guidance on the different management strategies.

  3. Cambridge checkpoint English revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint English Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint English syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  4. Evidence that Aurora B is implicated in spindle checkpoint signalling independently of error correction

    OpenAIRE

    Santaguida, Stefano; Vernieri, Claudio; Villa, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Andrea; Musacchio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of chromosome segregation is ensured by a tension-dependent error correction system that prevents stabilization of incorrect chromosome–microtubule attachments. Unattached or incorrectly attached chromosomes also activate the spindle assembly checkpoint, thus delaying mitotic exit until all chromosomes are bioriented. The Aurora B kinase is widely recognized as a component of error correction. Conversely, its role in the checkpoint is controversial. Here, we report an analysis of the...

  5. The checkpoint Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad9 protein contains a tandem tudor domain that recognizes DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancelot, Nathalie; Charier, Gaëlle; Couprie, Joël; Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Quémeneur, Eric; Ma, Emilie; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Ropars, Virginie; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Miron, Simona; Craescu, Constantin,; Callebaut, Isabelle; Gilquin, Bernard; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; DNA damage checkpoints are signal transduction pathways that are activated after genotoxic insults to protect genomic integrity. At the site of DNA damage, 'mediator' proteins are in charge of recruiting 'signal transducers' to molecules 'sensing' the damage. Budding yeast Rad9, fission yeast Crb2 and metazoan 53BP1 are presented as mediators involved in the activation of checkpoint kinases. Here we show that, despite low sequence conservation, Rad9 exhibits a tandem t...

  6. Greatwall and Polo-like Kinase 1 Coordinate to Promote Checkpoint Recovery*

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Aimin; WANG Ling; Fisher, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Checkpoint recovery upon completion of DNA repair allows the cell to return to normal cell cycle progression and is thus a crucial process that determines cell fate after DNA damage. We previously studied this process in Xenopus egg extracts and established Greatwall (Gwl) as an important regulator. Here we show that preactivated Gwl kinase can promote checkpoint recovery independently of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) or Plx1 (Xenopus polo-like kinase 1), whereas depletion of Gwl from extr...

  7. Direct monitoring of the strand passage reaction of DNA topoisomerase II triggers checkpoint activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Furniss

    Full Text Available By necessity, the ancient activity of type II topoisomerases co-evolved with the double-helical structure of DNA, at least in organisms with circular genomes. In humans, the strand passage reaction of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II is the target of several major classes of cancer drugs which both poison Topo II and activate cell cycle checkpoint controls. It is important to know the cellular effects of molecules that target Topo II, but the mechanisms of checkpoint activation that respond to Topo II dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a checkpoint mechanism monitors the strand passage reaction of Topo II. In contrast, cells do not become checkpoint arrested in the presence of the aberrant DNA topologies, such as hyper-catenation, that arise in the absence of Topo II activity. An overall reduction in Topo II activity (i.e. slow strand passage cycles does not activate the checkpoint, but specific defects in the T-segment transit step of the strand passage reaction do induce a cell cycle delay. Furthermore, the cell cycle delay depends on the divergent and catalytically inert C-terminal region of Topo II, indicating that transmission of a checkpoint signal may occur via the C-terminus. Other, well characterized, mitotic checkpoints detect DNA lesions or monitor unattached kinetochores; these defects arise via failures in a variety of cell processes. In contrast, we have described the first example of a distinct category of checkpoint mechanism that monitors the catalytic cycle of a single specific enzyme in order to determine when chromosome segregation can proceed faithfully.

  8. Cambridge checkpoint maths revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Alan

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint Maths Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint Maths syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  9. Tumor Interferon Signaling Regulates a Multigenic Resistance Program to Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benci, Joseph L; Xu, Bihui; Qiu, Yu; Wu, Tony J; Dada, Hannah; Twyman-Saint Victor, Christina; Cucolo, Lisa; Lee, David S M; Pauken, Kristen E; Huang, Alexander C; Gangadhar, Tara C; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Schuchter, Lynn M; Feldman, Michael D; Ishwaran, Hemant; Vonderheide, Robert H; Maity, Amit; Wherry, E John; Minn, Andy J

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic blocking of the PD1 pathway results in significant tumor responses, but resistance is common. We demonstrate that prolonged interferon signaling orchestrates PDL1-dependent and PDL1-independent resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and to combinations such as radiation plus anti-CTLA4. Persistent type II interferon signaling allows tumors to acquire STAT1-related epigenomic changes and augments expression of interferon-stimulated genes and ligands for multiple T cell inhibitory receptors. Both type I and II interferons maintain this resistance program. Crippling the program genetically or pharmacologically interferes with multiple inhibitory pathways and expands distinct T cell populations with improved function despite expressing markers of severe exhaustion. Consequently, tumors resistant to multi-agent ICB are rendered responsive to ICB monotherapy. Finally, we observe that biomarkers for interferon-driven resistance associate with clinical progression after anti-PD1 therapy. Thus, the duration of tumor interferon signaling augments adaptive resistance and inhibition of the interferon response bypasses requirements for combinatorial ICB therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dpb11/TopBP1 contributes to genomicstability via homologous recombinationand checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, Susanne Manuela

    Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is a major pathway for repairing (DSBs). DPB11 is an essential gene conserved from yeast to human (TopBP1), which is involved in initiation of DNA replication and DNA checkpoint signaling. We found that Dpb11 forms foci...... in response to double strand breaks (DSBs) in G1, S and G2 phase in vivo. These foci are dependent on Mec3 (9-1-1 complex) as well as Rad24 (clamp loader), but independent of the HR protein Rad52. Nevertheless, these Dpb11 foci colocalize with Rad52 in S and G1 phase, and a single defined DSB is sufficient...... for recruitment. Also, the chicken homologue TopBP1 colocalizes with RPA1 as well as Rad51 when DNA damage is induced. Previously, dpb11 mutants have been shown to be sensitive to DNA-damaging agents that cause DSBs, DNA alkylation and stalled replication forks. Interestingly, we found the point mutants dpb11-PF...

  11. IL-6 contributes to an immune tolerance checkpoint in post germinal center B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi; Wang, Ying-Hua; Diamond, Betty

    2012-02-01

    The generation of a B cell repertoire involves producing and subsequently purging autoreactive B cells. Receptor editing, clonal deletion and anergy are key mechanisms of central B cell tolerance. Somatic mutation of antigen-activated B cells within the germinal center produces a second wave of autoreactivity; but the regulatory mechanisms that operate at this phase of B cell activation are poorly understood. We recently identified a post germinal center tolerance checkpoint, where receptor editing is re-induced to extinguish autoreactivity that is generated by somatic hypermutation. Re-induction of the recombinase genes RAG1 and RAG2 in antigen-activated B cells requires antigen to engage the B cell receptor and IL-7 to signal through the IL-7 receptor. We demonstrate that this process requires IL-6 to upregulate IL-7 receptor expression on post germinal center B cells. Diminishing IL-6 by blocking antibody or haplo-insufficiency leads to reduced expression of the IL-7 receptor and RAG and increased titers of anti-DNA antibodies following immunization with a peptide mimetope of DNA. The dependence on IL-6 to initiate receptor editing is B cell intrinsic. Interestingly, estradiol decreases IL-6 expression thereby increasing the anti-DNA response. Our data reveal a novel regulatory cascade to control post germinal center B cell autoreactivity.

  12. Centromere-associated protein E: a motor that puts the brakes on the mitotic checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kenneth W; Chua, Penelope; Sutton, David; Jackson, Jeffrey R

    2008-12-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints have long been recognized as important nodes for regulating cell proliferation and maintaining genomic integrity. These checkpoints are often altered in cancer and represent promising points for therapeutic intervention. Until recently, direct targeting of the mitotic checkpoint has been an untapped area for cancer drug discovery. Regulation of the mitotic checkpoint is complex, but many of the critical players have been identified and functionally characterized. A substantial number of these proteins can be localized to the kinetochore, a structure located at the centromeric region of each mitotic chromosome. The kinetochore mediates chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules and subsequent chromosome movement. The mitotic checkpoint monitors microtubule attachment and chromosome position on the mitotic spindle, inhibiting progression into anaphase until proper attachment and metaphase positioning is achieved. Centromere-associated protein E is a kinesin microtubule motor protein that plays an essential role in integrating the mechanics of microtubule-chromosome interactions with mitotic checkpoint signaling, and has emerged as a novel target for cancer therapy.

  13. Cancer cells that survive checkpoint adaptation contain micronuclei that harbor damaged DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cody W; Golsteyn, Roy M

    2016-11-16

    We have examined the relationship between checkpoint adaptation (mitosis with damaged DNA) and micronuclei. Micronuclei in cancer cells are linked to genomic change, and may induce chromothripsis (chromosome shattering). We measured the cytotoxicity of the cancer drug cisplatin in M059K (glioma fibroblasts, IC50 15 μM). Nearly 100% of M059K cells were positive for histone γH2AX staining after 48 h treatment with a cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin. The proportion of micronucleated cells, as confirmed by microscopy using DAPI and lamin A/C staining, increased from 24% to 48%, and the total micronuclei in surviving cells accumulated over time. Promoting entry into mitosis with a checkpoint inhibitor increased the number of micronuclei in cells whereas blocking checkpoint adaptation with a Cdk inhibitor reduced the number of micronuclei. Interestingly, some micronuclei underwent asynchronous DNA replication, relative to the main nuclei, as measured by deoxy-bromo-uracil (BrdU) staining. These micronuclei stained positive for histone γH2AX, which was linked to DNA replication, suggesting that micronuclei arise from checkpoint adaptation and that micronuclei may continue to damage DNA. By contrast the normal cell line WI-38 did not undergo checkpoint adaptation when treated with cisplatin and did not show changes in micronuclei number. These data reveal that the production of micronuclei by checkpoint adaptation is part of a process that contributes to genomic change.

  14. Evaluation of a DNA microarray, the check-points ESBL/KPC array, for rapid detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and KPC carbapenemases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, T; Cuzon, G; Truong, H; Bernabeu, S; Nordmann, P

    2010-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC carbepenemases) have rapidly emerged worldwide and require rapid identification. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array, a new commercial system based on genetic profiling for the direct identification of ESBL producers (SHV, TEM, and CTX-M) and of KPC producers, was evaluated. Well-characterized Gram-negative rods (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii) expressing various ss-lactamases (KPC-2, SHV, TEM, and CTX-M types) were used as well as wild-type reference strains and isolates harboring ss-lactamase genes not detected by the assay. In addition, phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers isolated in clinical samples over a 3-month period at the Bicetre hospital were analyzed using the Check-Points ESBL/KPC array and by standard PCR. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array allowed fast detection of all TEM, SHV, and CTX-M ESBL genes and of the KPC-2 gene. The assay allowed easy differentiation between non-ESBL TEM and SHV and their ESBL derivatives. None of the other tested ss-lactamase genes were detected, underlining its high specificity. The technique is suited for Enterobacteriaceae but also for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. However, for nonfermenters, especially P. aeruginosa, a 1:10 dilution of the total DNA was necessary to detect KPC-2 and SHV-2a genes reliably. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array is a powerful high-throughput tool for rapid identification of ESBLs and KPC producers in cultures. It provided definitive results within the same working day, allowing rapid implementation of isolation measures and appropriate antibiotic treatment. It showed an interesting potential for routine laboratory testing.

  15. Smurf2 as a novel mitotic regulator: From the spindle assembly checkpoint to tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Finola E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the mitotic program with high fidelity is dependent upon precise spatiotemporal regulation of posttranslational protein modifications. For example, the timely polyubiquitination of critical mitotic regulators by Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled activity of APC/C-Cdc20 in early mitosis, allowing bipolar attachment of kinetochores to mitotic spindle and facilitating equal segregation of sister chromatids. The critical effector of the spindle checkpoint, Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2, is recruited to unattached kinetochores forming a complex with other regulatory proteins to efficiently and cooperatively inhibit APC/C-Cdc20. A weakened and/or dysfunctional spindle checkpoint has been linked to the development of genomic instability in both cell culture and animal models, and evidence suggests that aberrant regulation of the spindle checkpoint plays a critical role in human carcinogenesis. Recent studies have illuminated a network of both degradative and non-degradative ubiquitination events that regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Within this context, our recent work showed that the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-terminus-family E3 ligase Smurf2 (Smad specific ubiquitin regulatory factor 2, known as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling, is required for a functional spindle checkpoint by promoting the functional localization and stability of Mad2. Here we discuss putative models explaining the role of Smurf2 as a new regulator in the spindle checkpoint. The dynamic mitotic localization of Smurf2 to the centrosome and other critical mitotic structures provides implications about mitotic checkpoint control dependent on various ubiquitination events. Finally, deregulated Smurf2 activity may contribute to carcinogenesis by

  16. Analysis of the G2/M Checkpoint in fanconi anemia cells via examinating chromosomal instability during G2-phase and mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Rica

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a genetical and phenotypical heterogenous disease, characterized through loss of one of the 15 identified genes of the Fanconi anemia pathway what causes congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure and solid tumors. In this work the G2/M checkpoint is analysed by use of the phosphatase inhibitor Calyculin A to examine the chromosomal instability, which is typical for fanconi anemia cells, not only in mitoses but also in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. It is proved that the che...

  17. Amino acids and mTOR mediate distinct metabolic checkpoints in mammalian G1 cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Saqcena

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In multicellular organisms, cell division is regulated by growth factors (GFs. In the absence of GFs, cells exit the cell cycle at a site in G1 referred to as the restriction point (R and enter a state of quiescence known as G0. Additionally, nutrient availability impacts on G1 cell cycle progression. While there is a vast literature on G1 cell cycle progression, confusion remains - especially with regard to the temporal location of R relative to nutrient-mediated checkpoints. In this report, we have investigated the relationship between R and a series of metabolic cell cycle checkpoints that regulate passage into S-phase. METHODS: We used double-block experiments to order G1 checkpoints that monitor the presence of GFs, essential amino acids (EEAs, the conditionally essential amino acid glutamine, and inhibition of mTOR. Cell cycle progression was monitored by uptake of [(3H]-thymidine and flow cytometry, and analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins was by Western-blot. RESULTS: We report here that the GF-mediated R can be temporally distinguished from a series of late G1 metabolic checkpoints mediated by EAAs, glutamine, and mTOR - the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin. R is clearly upstream from an EAA checkpoint, which is upstream from a glutamine checkpoint. mTOR is downstream from both the amino acid checkpoints, close to S-phase. Significantly, in addition to GF autonomy, we find human cancer cells also have dysregulated metabolic checkpoints. CONCLUSION: The data provided here are consistent with a GF-dependent mid-G1 R where cells determine whether it is appropriate to divide, followed by a series of late-G1 metabolic checkpoints mediated by amino acids and mTOR where cells determine whether they have sufficient nutrients to accomplish the task. Since mTOR inhibition arrests cells the latest in G1, it is likely the final arbiter for nutrient sufficiency prior to committing to replicating the genome.

  18. The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia André F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During mitosis, correct bipolar chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for the equal segregation of chromosomes. The spindle assembly checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation as long as not all chromosome pairs have obtained bipolar attachment to the spindle. The chromosomal passenger complex plays a crucial role during chromosome alignment by correcting faulty chromosome-spindle interactions (e.g. attachments that do not generate tension. In the process of doing so, the chromosomal passenger complex generates unattached chromosomes, a specific situation that is known to promote checkpoint activity. However, several studies have implicated an additional, more direct role for the chromosomal passenger complex in enforcing the mitotic arrest imposed by the spindle assembly checkpoint. In this review, we discuss the different roles played by the chromosomal passenger complex in ensuring proper mitotic checkpoint function. Additionally, we discuss the possibility that besides monitoring the presence of unattached kinetochores, the spindle assembly checkpoint may also be capable of responding to chromosome-microtubule interactions that do not generate tension and we propose experimental set-ups to study this.

  19. Constitutive Mad1 targeting to kinetochores uncouples checkpoint signalling from chromosome biorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Maria; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2011-04-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation depends on biorientation, whereby sister chromatids attach to microtubules from opposite spindle poles. The spindle-assembly checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism in eukaryotes that inhibits anaphase until all chromosomes have bioriented. In present models, the recruitment of the spindle-assembly checkpoint protein Mad2, through Mad1, to non-bioriented kinetochores is needed to stop cell-cycle progression. However, it is unknown whether Mad1-Mad2 targeting to kinetochores is sufficient to block anaphase. Furthermore, it is unclear whether regulators of biorientation (for example, Aurora kinases) have checkpoint functions downstream of Mad1-Mad2 recruitment or whether they act upstream to quench the primary error signal. Here, we engineered a Mad1 construct that localizes to bioriented kinetochores. We show that the kinetochore localization of Mad1 is sufficient for a metaphase arrest that depends on Mad1-Mad2 binding. By uncoupling the checkpoint from its primary error signal, we show that Aurora, Mps1 and BubR1 kinases, but not Polo-like kinase, are needed to maintain checkpoint arrest when Mad1 is present on kinetochores. Together, our data suggest a model in which the biorientation errors, which recruit Mad1-Mad2 to kinetochores, may be signalled not only through Mad2 template dynamics, but also through the activity of widely conserved kinases, to ensure the fidelity of cell division.

  20. The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Gerben; Maia, André F; Lens, Susanne Ma

    2008-05-28

    During mitosis, correct bipolar chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for the equal segregation of chromosomes. The spindle assembly checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation as long as not all chromosome pairs have obtained bipolar attachment to the spindle. The chromosomal passenger complex plays a crucial role during chromosome alignment by correcting faulty chromosome-spindle interactions (e.g. attachments that do not generate tension). In the process of doing so, the chromosomal passenger complex generates unattached chromosomes, a specific situation that is known to promote checkpoint activity. However, several studies have implicated an additional, more direct role for the chromosomal passenger complex in enforcing the mitotic arrest imposed by the spindle assembly checkpoint. In this review, we discuss the different roles played by the chromosomal passenger complex in ensuring proper mitotic checkpoint function. Additionally, we discuss the possibility that besides monitoring the presence of unattached kinetochores, the spindle assembly checkpoint may also be capable of responding to chromosome-microtubule interactions that do not generate tension and we propose experimental set-ups to study this.

  1. Effective intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC in primary human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; McNulty, John J; Sproul, Christopher D; Chastain, Paul D; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene; Zhou, Yingchun; Carson, Craig; Rao, Shangbang; Mitchell, David L; Simpson, Dennis A; Thomas, Nancy E; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kaufmann, William K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential functional attenuation or inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint during melanoma development. Proliferating cultures of skin melanocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma cell lines were exposed to increasing fluences of UVC and intra-S checkpoint responses were quantified. Melanocytes displayed stereotypic intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent to those previously demonstrated in skin fibroblasts. In comparison with fibroblasts, primary melanocytes displayed reduced UVC-induced inhibition of DNA strand growth and enhanced degradation of p21Waf1 after UVC, suggestive of enhanced bypass of UVC-induced DNA photoproducts. All nine melanoma cell lines examined, including those with activating mutations in BRAF or NRAS oncogenes, also displayed proficiency in activation of the intra-S checkpoint in response to UVC irradiation. The results indicate that bypass of oncogene-induced senescence during melanoma development was not associated with inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint response to UVC-induced DNA replication stress.

  2. Differential effect of schisandrin B stereoisomers on ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatewaki, Naoto; Nishida, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masaaki; Ando, Hidehiro; Kondo, Seizo; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that schisandrin B (SchB) is a specific inhibitor of ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad-3-related) protein kinase. Since SchB consists of a mixture of its diastereomers gomisin N (GN) and γ-schisandrin (γ-Sch), the inhibitory action of SchB might result from a stereospecific interaction between one of the stereoisomers of SchB and ATR. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GN and γ-Sch on UV (UVC at 254 nm)-induced activation of DNA damage checkpoint signaling in A549 cells. UV-induced cell death (25 - 75 J/m(2)) was amplified by the presence of the diastereomers, especially GN. At the same time, GN, but not γ-Sch, inhibited the phosphorylation of checkpoint proteins such as p53, structural maintenance of chromosomes 1, and checkpoint kinase 1 in UV-irradiated cells. Moreover, GN inhibited the G2/M checkpoint during UV-induced DNA damage. The in vitro kinase activity of immunoaffinity-purified ATR was dose-dependently inhibited by GN (IC50: 7.28 μM) but not by γ-Sch. These results indicate that GN is the active component of SchB and suggest that GN inhibits the DNA damage checkpoint signaling by stereospecifically interacting with ATR.

  3. Clinical features, diagnostic challenges, and management strategies in checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuzi S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Chuzi,1 Fabio Tavora,2 Marcelo Cruz,3 Ricardo Costa,3 Young Kwang Chae,3 Benedito A Carneiro,3 Francis J Giles3 1Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Argos Laboratory, Messejana Heart and Lung Hospital, Fortaleza, Brazil; 3Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 inhibitors, represent an effective treatment modality for multiple malignancies. Despite the exciting clinical benefits, checkpoint inhibition is associated with a series of immune-related adverse events (irAEs, many of which can be life-threatening and result in significant treatment delays. Pneumonitis is an adverse event of special interest as it led to treatment-related deaths in early clinical trials. This review summarizes the incidence of pneumonitis during treatment with the different checkpoint inhibitors and discusses the prognostic significance of tumor type. The wide range of clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics of checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis is reviewed and followed by guidance on the different management strategies. Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors, pneumonitis, anti-PD-1, anti-CTLA-4, immune-related adverse event

  4. Caffeine stabilizes Cdc25 independently of Rad3 in S chizosaccharomyces pombe contributing to checkpoint override

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, John P; Sjölander, Johanna J; Baar, Juliane; Özbaki-Yagan, Nejla; Kakoschky, Bianca; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Cdc25 is required for Cdc2 dephosphorylation and is thus essential for cell cycle progression. Checkpoint activation requires dual inhibition of Cdc25 and Cdc2 in a Rad3-dependent manner. Caffeine is believed to override activation of the replication and DNA damage checkpoints by inhibiting Rad3-related proteins in both S chizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian cells. In this study, we have investigated the impact of caffeine on Cdc25 stability, cell cycle progression and checkpoint override. Caffeine induced Cdc25 accumulation in S . pombe independently of Rad3. Caffeine delayed cell cycle progression under normal conditions but advanced mitosis in cells treated with replication inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents. In the absence of Cdc25, caffeine inhibited cell cycle progression even in the presence of hydroxyurea or phleomycin. Caffeine induces Cdc25 accumulation in S . pombe by suppressing its degradation independently of Rad3. The induction of Cdc25 accumulation was not associated with accelerated progression through mitosis, but rather with delayed progression through cytokinesis. Caffeine-induced Cdc25 accumulation appears to underlie its ability to override cell cycle checkpoints. The impact of Cdc25 accumulation on cell cycle progression is attenuated by Srk1 and Mad2. Together our findings suggest that caffeine overrides checkpoint enforcement by inducing the inappropriate nuclear localization of Cdc25. PMID:24666325

  5. The p53-p21-DREAM-CDE/CHR pathway regulates G2/M cell cycle genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin; Quaas, Marianne; Steiner, Lydia; Engeland, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 functions predominantly as a transcription factor by activating and downregulating gene expression, leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. p53 was shown to indirectly repress transcription of the CCNB2, KIF23 and PLK4 cell cycle genes through the recently discovered p53-p21-DREAM-CDE/CHR pathway. However, it remained unclear whether this pathway is commonly used. Here, we identify genes regulated by p53 through this pathway in a genome-wide computational approach. The bioinformatic analysis is based on genome-wide DREAM complex binding data, p53-depedent mRNA expression data and a genome-wide definition of phylogenetically conserved CHR promoter elements. We find 210 target genes that are expected to be regulated by the p53-p21-DREAM-CDE/CHR pathway. The target gene list was verified by detailed analysis of p53-dependent repression of the cell cycle genes B-MYB (MYBL2), BUB1, CCNA2, CCNB1, CHEK2, MELK, POLD1, RAD18 and RAD54L. Most of the 210 target genes are essential regulators of G2 phase and mitosis. Thus, downregulation of these genes through the p53-p21-DREAM-CDE/CHR pathway appears to be a principal mechanism for G2/M cell cycle arrest by p53.

  6. Combining targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teresa Kim; Rodabe N Amaria; Christine Spencer; Alexandre Reuben; Zachary A Cooper; Jennifer A Wargo

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and has an incidence that is rising faster than any other solid tumor. Metastatic melanoma treatment has considerably progressed in the past ifve years with the introduction of targeted therapy (BARF and MEK inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockade (anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1). However, each treatment modality has limitations. Treatment with targeted therapy has been associated with a high response rate, but with short-term responses. Conversely, treatment with immune checkpoint blockade has a lower response rate, but with long-term responses. Targeted therapy affects antitumor immunity, and synergy may exist when targeted therapy is combined with immunotherapy. hTis article presents a brief review of the rationale and evidence for the potential synergy between targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade. Challenges and directions for future studies are also proposed.

  7. CtIP-dependent DNA resection is required for DNA damage checkpoint maintenance but not initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard; Fugger, Kasper; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    by camptothecin and ionizing radiation. In contrast, we find that DNA end resection was critically required for sustained ATR-CHK1 checkpoint signaling and for maintaining both the intra-S- and G2-phase checkpoints. Consequently, resection-deficient cells entered mitosis with persistent DNA damage. In conclusion......To prevent accumulation of mutations, cells respond to DNA lesions by blocking cell cycle progression and initiating DNA repair. Homology-directed repair of DNA breaks requires CtIP-dependent resection of the DNA ends, which is thought to play a key role in activation of ATR (ataxia telangiectasia...... mutated and Rad3 related) and CHK1 kinases to induce the cell cycle checkpoint. In this paper, we show that CHK1 was rapidly and robustly activated before detectable end resection. Moreover, we show that the key resection factor CtIP was dispensable for initial ATR-CHK1 activation after DNA damage...

  8. Skp2 is required for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Huang, Yu-Fan; Zhou, Xin-Ke; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Yi-Fan; Lv, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Xiu-Rong; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Huang, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora B kinase plays a critical role in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint. Here, we showed that the ubiquitin E3-ligase protein Skp2, also as a cell-cycle regulatory protein, was required for the activation of Aurora B and its downstream protein. When we restored Skp2 knockdown Hela cells with Skp2 and Skp2-LRR E3 ligase dead mutant we found that Skp2 could rescue the defect in the activation of Aurora B, but the mutant failed to do so. Furthermore, we discovered that Skp2 could interact with Aurora B and trigger Aurora B Lysine (K) 63-linked ubiquitination. Finally, we demonstrated the essential role of Skp2 in cell mitosis progression and spindle checkpoint, which was Aurora B dependent. Our results identified a novel ubiquitinated substrate of Skp2, and also indicated that Aurora B ubiquitination might serve as an important event for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

  9. Use of Checkpoint-Restart for Complex HEP Software on Traditional Architectures and Intel MIC

    CERN Document Server

    Arya, Kapil; Dotti, Andrea; Elmer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Process checkpoint-restart is a technology with great potential for use in HEP workflows. Use cases include debugging, reducing the startup time of applications both in offline batch jobs and the High Level Trigger, permitting job preemption in environments where spare CPU cycles are being used opportunistically and efficient scheduling of a mix of multicore and single-threaded jobs. We report on tests of checkpoint-restart technology using CMS software, Geant4-MT (multi-threaded Geant4), and the DMTCP (Distributed Multithreaded Checkpointing) package. We analyze both single- and multi-threaded applications and test on both standard Intel x86 architectures and on Intel MIC. The tests with multi-threaded applications on Intel MIC are used to consider scalability and performance. These are considered an indicator of what the future may hold for many-core computing.

  10. Beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1, the Generation Z of Negative Checkpoint Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mercier, Isabelle; Lines, J Louise; Noelle, Randolph J

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Conversely, these pathways can be manipulated to achieve durable tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target multiple cell types and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the recently discovered negative checkpoint regulators, future targets for immunotherapy.

  11. Regulation of AURORA B function by mitotic checkpoint protein MAD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Medler, Kathryn F; Roberts, Stefan G E

    2016-08-17

    Cell cycle checkpoint signaling stringently regulates chromosome segregation during cell division. MAD2 is one of the key components of the spindle and mitotic checkpoint complex that regulates the fidelity of cell division along with MAD1, CDC20, BUBR1, BUB3 and MAD3. MAD2 ablation leads to erroneous attachment of kinetochore-spindle fibers and defective chromosome separation. A potential role for MAD2 in the regulation of events beyond the spindle and mitotic checkpoints is not clear. Together with active spindle assembly checkpoint signaling, AURORA B kinase activity is essential for chromosome condensation as cells enter mitosis. AURORA B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10 and serine 28 to facilitate the formation of condensed metaphase chromosomes. In the absence of functional AURORA B cells escape mitosis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes. In this study we report that silencing of MAD2 results in a drastic reduction of metaphase-specific histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 and serine 28. We demonstrate that this is due to mislocalization of AURORA B in the absence of MAD2. Conversely, overexpression of MAD2 concentrated the localization of AURORA B at the metaphase plate and caused hyper-phosphorylation of histone H3. We find that MAD1 plays a minor role in influencing the MAD2-dependent regulation of AURORA B suggesting that the effects of MAD2 on AURORA B are independent of the spindle checkpoint complex. Our findings reveal that, in addition to its role in checkpoint signaling, MAD2 ensures chromosome stability through the regulation of AURORA B.

  12. Functions of spindle check-point and its relationship to chromosome instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is generally believed that the equal distribution of genetic materials to two daughter cells during mitosis is the key to cell health and development. During the dynamic process, spindle checkpoint plays a very important role in chromosome movements and final sister chromatid separation. The equal and precise segregation of chromosomes contributes to the genomic stability while aberrant separations result in chromosome instability that causes pathogenesis of certain diseases such as Down's syndrome and cancers. Kinetochore and its regulatory proteins consist of the spindle checkpoint and determine the spatial and temporal orders of chromosome segregation.

  13. A direct role of Mad1 in the spindle assembly checkpoint beyond Mad2 kinetochore recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Sedgwick, Garry G;

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying entry into anaphase until all sister chromatids have become bi-oriented. A key component of the SAC is the Mad2 protein, which can adopt either an inactive open (O-Mad2) or active closed (C-Mad2) conformation...... in the SAC beyond recruitment of C-Mad2 to kinetochores has not yet been addressed. Here, we show that Mad1 is required for mitotic arrest even when C-Mad2 is artificially recruited to kinetochores, indicating that it has indeed an additional function in promoting the checkpoint. The C-terminal globular...

  14. Replication stress and mitotic dysfunction in cells expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Filippakis, Harilaos; Huang, Haomin; Yen, Timothy J; Gjoerup, Ole V

    2013-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) binds to the Bub1 kinase, a key regulator of the spindle checkpoint and chromosome segregation. Bub1 mutations or altered expression patterns are linked to chromosome missegregation and are considered to be a driving force in some human cancers. Here we report that LT, dependent on Bub1 binding, causes micronuclei, lagging chromatin, and anaphase bridges, which are hallmarks of chromosomal instability (CIN) and Bub1 insufficiency. Using time-lapse microscopy, we demonstrate that LT imposes a Bub1 binding-dependent delay in the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Kinetochore fibers reveal that LT, via Bub1 binding, causes aberrant kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) attachments and a shortened interkinetochore distance, consistent with a lack of tension. Previously, we showed that LT also induces the DNA damage response (DDR) via Bub1 binding. Using inducible LT cell lines, we show that an activated DDR was observed before the appearance of anaphase bridges and micronuclei. Furthermore, LT induction in serum-starved cells demonstrated γ-H2AX accumulation in cells that had not yet entered mitosis. Thus, DDR activation can occur independently of chromosome segregation defects. Replication stress pathways may be responsible, because signatures of replication stress were observed, which were attenuated by exogenous supplementation with nucleosides. Our observations allow us to propose a model that explains and integrates the diverse manifestations of genomic instability induced by LT.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 impairs G2 checkpoint in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells through defective Chk1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Deng

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common cancer in Southeast Asia, particularly in southern regions of China. EBV infection is closely associated with NPC and has long been postulated to play an etiological role in the development of NPC. However, the role of EBV in malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells remains enigmatic. The current hypothesis of NPC development is that premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells harboring genetic alterations support EBV infection and expression of EBV genes induces further genomic instability to facilitate the development of NPC. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is a well-documented EBV-encoded oncogene. The involvement of LMP1 in human epithelial malignancies has been implicated, but the mechanisms of oncogenic actions of LMP1, particularly in nasopharyngeal cells, are unclear. Here we observed that LMP1 expression in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells impaired G2 checkpoint, leading to formation of unrepaired chromatid breaks in metaphases after γ-ray irradiation. We further found that defective Chk1 activation was involved in the induction of G2 checkpoint defect in LMP1-expressing nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Impairment of G2 checkpoint could result in loss of the acentrically broken chromatids and propagation of broken centric chromatids in daughter cells exiting mitosis, which facilitates chromosome instability. Our findings suggest that LMP1 expression facilitates genomic instability in cells under genotoxic stress. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in LMP1-induced genomic instability in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will shed lights on the understanding of role of EBV infection in NPC development.

  16. Priming phosphorylation of Chk2 by polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3) mediates its full activation by ATM and a downstream checkpoint in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahassi, El Mustapha [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Myer, David L. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); McKenney, Richard J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hennigan, Robert F. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Stambrook, Peter J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)]. E-mail: peter.stambrook@uc.edu

    2006-04-11

    The tumor suppressor gene Chk2 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that signals DNA damage to cell cycle checkpoints. In response to ionizing radiation, Chk2 is phosphorylated on threonine 68 (T68) by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leading to its activation. We have previously shown that polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3), a protein involved in DNA damage checkpoint and M-phase functions, interacts with and phosphorylates Chk2. When Chk2 was immunoprecipitated from Daudi cells (Plk3-deficient), it had weak kinase activity towards Cdc25C compared with Chk2 derived from T47D cells (Plk3-expressing cells). This activity was restored by addition of recombinant Plk3 in a dose-dependent manner. Plk3 phosphorylates Chk2 at two residues, serine 62 (S62) and serine 73 (S73) in vitro, and this phosphorylation facilitates subsequent phosphorylation of Chk2 on T68 by ATM in response to DNA damage. When the Chk2 mutant construct GFP-Chk2 S73A (serine 73 mutated to alanine) is transfected into cells, it no longer associates with a large complex in vivo, and manifests a significant reduction in kinase activity. It is also inefficiently activated by ATM by phosphorylation at T68 and, in turn, is unable to phosphorylate the Cdc25C peptide 200-256, which contains the inhibitory S216 target phosphorylation residue. As a consequence, tyrosine 15 (Y15) on Cdc2 remains hypophosphorylated, and there is a loss of the G2/M checkpoint. These data describe a functional role for Plk3 in a pathway linking ATM, Plk3, Chk2, Cdc25C and Cdc2 in cellular response to DNA damage.

  17. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells harbor alterations in the major tumor suppressor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints: analyses using tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan F; Camacho, Francisca I; Morente, Manuel; Fraga, Máximo; Montalbán, Carlos; Alvaro, Tomás; Bellas, Carmen; Castaño, Angel; Díez, Ana; Flores, Teresa; Martin, Carmen; Martinez, Miguel A; Mazorra, Francisco; Menárguez, Javier; Mestre, Maria J; Mollejo, Manuela; Sáez, Ana I; Sánchez, Lydia; Piris, Miguel A

    2003-01-15

    Tumoral cells in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) display an increased growth fraction and diminished apoptosis, implying a profound disturbance of the cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. However, limitations of molecular techniques have prevented the analysis of the tumor suppressor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Tissue microarray (TMA) is a powerful tool for analyzing a large number of molecular variables in a large series of tumors, although the feasibility of this technique has not yet been demonstrated in heterogeneous tumors. The expression of 29 genes regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in 288 HL biopsies using TMA. The sensitivity of the technique was validated by comparing the results with those obtained in standard tissue sections. The results revealed multiple alterations in different pathways and checkpoints, including G1/S and G2/M transition and apoptosis. Striking findings were the overexpression of cyclin E, CDK2, CDK6, STAT3, Hdm2, Bcl2, Bcl-X(L), survivin, and NF-kappaB proteins. A multiparametric analysis identified proteins associated with increased growth fraction (Hdm2, p53, p21, Rb, cyclins A, B1, D3, and E, CDK2, CDK6, SKP2, Bcl-X(L), survivin, STAT1, and STAT3), and proteins associated with apoptosis (NF-kappaB, STAT1, and RB). The analysis also demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cases displayed a characteristic profile, confirming the pathogenic role of EBV in HL. Survival probability depends on multiple biologic factors, including overexpression of Bcl2, p53, Bax, Bcl-X(L), MIB1, and apoptotic index. In conclusion, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells harbor concurrent and overlapping alterations in the major tumor suppressor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. This appears to determine the viability of the tumoral cells and the clinical outcome.

  18. Differential genetic interactions between Sgs1, DNA-damage checkpoint components and DNA repair factors in the maintenance of chromosome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Lillian; Harris, Lorena; Viebranz, Emilie; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2011-10-31

    Genome instability is associated with human cancers and chromosome breakage syndromes, including Bloom's syndrome, caused by inactivation of BLM helicase. Numerous mutations that lead to genome instability are known, yet how they interact genetically is poorly understood. We show that spontaneous translocations that arise by nonallelic homologous recombination in DNA-damage-checkpoint-defective yeast lacking the BLM-related Sgs1 helicase (sgs1Δ mec3Δ) are inhibited if cells lack Mec1/ATR kinase. Tel1/ATM, in contrast, acts as a suppressor independently of Mec3 and Sgs1. Translocations are also inhibited in cells lacking Dun1 kinase, but not in cells defective in a parallel checkpoint branch defined by Chk1 kinase. While we had previously shown that RAD51 deletion did not inhibit translocation formation, RAD59 deletion led to inhibition comparable to the rad52Δ mutation. A candidate screen of other DNA metabolic factors identified Exo1 as a strong suppressor of chromosomal rearrangements in the sgs1Δ mutant, becoming even more important for chromosomal stability upon MEC3 deletion. We determined that the C-terminal third of Exo1, harboring mismatch repair protein binding sites and phosphorylation sites, is dispensable for Exo1's roles in chromosomal rearrangement suppression, mutation avoidance and resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Our findings suggest that translocations between related genes can form by Rad59-dependent, Rad51-independent homologous recombination, which is independently suppressed by Sgs1, Tel1, Mec3 and Exo1 but promoted by Dun1 and the telomerase-inhibitor Mec1. We propose a model for the functional interaction between mitotic recombination and the DNA-damage checkpoint in the suppression of chromosomal rearrangements in sgs1Δ cells.

  19. Polo-like kinase-1 regulates kinetochore–microtubule dynamics and spindle checkpoint silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Davydenko, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is a highly conserved kinase with multiple mitotic functions. Plk1 localizes to prometaphase kinetochores and is reduced at metaphase kinetochores, similar to many checkpoint signaling proteins, but Plk1 is not required for spindle checkpoint function. Plk1 is also implicated in stabilizing kinetochore–microtubule attachments, but these attachments are most stable when kinetochore Plk1 levels are low at metaphase. Therefore, it is unclear how Plk1 function at kinetochores can be understood in the context of its dynamic localization. In this paper, we show that Plk1 activity suppresses kinetochore–microtubule dynamics to stabilize initial attachments in prometaphase, and Plk1 removal from kinetochores is necessary to maintain dynamic microtubules in metaphase. Constitutively targeting Plk1 to kinetochores maintained high activity at metaphase, leading to reduced interkinetochore tension and intrakinetochore stretch, a checkpoint-dependent mitotic arrest, and accumulation of microtubule attachment errors. Together, our data show that Plk1 dynamics at kinetochores control two critical mitotic processes: initially establishing correct kinetochore–microtubule attachments and subsequently silencing the spindle checkpoint. PMID:22908307

  20. Studying S-phase DNA Damage Checkpoints using the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Nicholas; Rhind, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Slowing of replication in response to DNA damage is a universal response to DNA damage during S-phase. Originally discovered to be defective in checkpoint mutant cells in metazoans, this S-phase DNA damage checkpoint response has been extensively studied in yeast. Unlike other checkpoints that completely arrest cell cycle, the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint slows but does not completely halt replication in response to DNA damage. An analysis of mutants defective in the slowing response requires a sensitive assay to measure this quantitative effect. The use of centrifugal elutriation to synchronize cells and improved techniques in preparing cells for flow cytometry allow for more sensitive and accurate measurement of cells’ ability to slow replication in the presence of DNA damage. This chapter describes the use of transient cdc10-M17 temperature sensitive allele arrest and release combined with centrifugal elutriation to synchronize cells in G1. The S-phase progression of these cells is then assayed by flow cytometry of isolated nuclei, which allows sensitive determination of replication kinetics. PMID:21870281

  1. Kinetochore-microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E F; Kops, Geert J P L

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome-spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore-microtubule

  2. The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for mammalian homologous recombination repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw

    2005-01-01

    The essential checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for cell-cycle delays after DNA damage or blocked DNA replication. However, it is unclear whether Chk1 is involved in the repair of damaged DNA. Here we establish that Chk1 is a key regulator of genome maintenance by the homologous recombination...

  3. A phospho-proteomic screen identifies substrates of the checkpoint kinase Chk1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasius, Melanie; Forment, Josep V; Thakkar, Neha

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1 is essential in mammalian cells due to its roles in controlling processes such as DNA replication, mitosis and DNA-damage responses. Despite its paramount importance, how Chk1 controls these functions remains unclear, mainly because very few Chk1...

  4. Cells bearing chromosome aberrations lacking one telomere are selectively blocked at the G2/M checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Pilar [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Duran, Assumpta [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Caballin, Maria Rosa [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio de l' Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, Leonardo, E-mail: Lleonard.Barrios@uab.cat [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-11-02

    Cell cycle checkpoints are part of the cellular mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity. After ionizing radiation exposure, the cells can show delay or arrest in their progression through the cell cycle, as well as an activation of the DNA repair machinery in order to reduce the damage. The G2/M checkpoint prevents G2 cells entering mitosis until the DNA damage has been reduced. The present study evaluates which G0 radiation-induced chromosome aberrations are negatively selected in the G2/M checkpoint. For this purpose, peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 1 and 3 Gy of {gamma}-rays, and lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h. Calyculin-A and Colcemid were used to analyze, in the same slide, cells in G2 and M. Chromosome spreads were consecutively analyzed by solid stain, pancentromeric and pantelomeric FISH and mFISH. The results show that the frequency of incomplete chromosome elements, those lacking a telomeric signal at one end, decreases abruptly from G2 to M. This indicates that cells with incomplete chromosome elements can progress from G0 to G2, but at the G2/M checkpoint suffer a strong negative selection.

  5. Restarting the cell cycle when the checkpoint comes to a halt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Bràs, Alexandra; Medema, René H

    2005-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint coordinates a block in cell proliferation with the DNA repair process that follows when lesions are inflicted on the genome. However, we do not know exactly how cell division can recommence following a DNA damage-induced arrest. Recent work from our lab has identified Polo-

  6. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Shweta; Gupta, Manoj K; Khamaisi, Mogher; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A; Wagner, Bridget K; Guye, Patrick; Busskamp, Volker; Shirakawa, Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Liew, Chong Wee; Clauss, Therese R; Valdez, Ivan; El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Takatani, Tomozumi; Keenan, Hillary A; Smith, Richard D; Church, George; Weiss, Ron; Wagers, Amy J; Qian, Wei-Jun; King, George L; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2015-08-04

    The mechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D (disease duration ≥ 50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist -C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist -C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated in Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage. We propose miR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.

  7. The same, only different - DNA damage checkpoints and their reversal throughout the cell cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaltiel, Indra A.; Krenning, Lenno; Bruinsma, Wytse; Medema, René H.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are essential for the maintenance of the genomic integrity of proliferating cells. Following DNA damage, cells must detect the break and either transiently block cell cycle progression, to allow time for repair, or exit the cell cyc

  8. MAP kinase meets mitosis: A role for Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein in spindle checkpoint regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP is an evolutionarily conserved protein that functions as a modulator of signaling by the MAP kinase cascade. Implicated as a metastasis suppressor, Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein depletion correlates with poor prognosis for breast, prostate and melanoma tumors but the mechanism is unknown. Recent evidence indicates that Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein regulates the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint by controlling Aurora B Kinase activity, and the mechanism involves Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. In contrast to elevated MAP kinase signaling during the G1, S or G2 phases of the cell cycle that activates checkpoints and induces arrest or senescence, loss of RKIP during M phase leads to bypass of the spindle assembly checkpoint and the generation of chromosomal abnormalities. These results reveal a role for Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein and the MAP kinase cascade in ensuring the fidelity of chromosome segregation prior to cell division. Furthermore, these data highlight the need for precise titration of the MAP kinase signal to ensure the integrity of the spindle assembly process and provide a mechanism for generating genomic instability in tumors. Finally, these results raise the possibility that RKIP status in tumors could influence the efficacy of treatments such as poisons that stimulate the Aurora B-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint.

  9. Immune-related endocrine disorders in novel immune checkpoint inhibition therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Min

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint inhibition against advance malignancies was named breakthrough discovery by the science magazine in 2013. In numerous clinical studies, monoclonal antibodies against the immune checkpoints, CTLA4, PD1 and PD1 ligand PDL1 have shown promising tumor response in different type of metastatic malignancies. The adverse events are autoimmune-related. The endocrine disorders, hypophysitis and thyroiditis are among the most common side effects associated with immune checkpoint inhibition treatment. Hypophysitis, a very rare endocrine disorder occurs in about one tenth of the patients receiving anti-CTLA4 treatment. Thyroiditis, on the other hand, is more commonly seen in patients receiving anti-PD1 treatment. In addition, both thyroiditis and hypophysitis are common in patients receiving combination treatment with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 treatment. The time to onset of hypophysitis and thyroiditis is short. Most of the endocrine disorders occur within 12 weeks after initiation of the immune checkpoint inhibition therapy. Hypophysitis can manifest as total anterior pituitary hormone deficiency or isolated pituitary hormone deficiency. Diabetes insipidus is rare. TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies may be reversible but ACTH deficiency appears permanent. Thyroiditis can present as hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism appears irreversible. Early identifying the onset of hypophysitis and thyroiditis and proper management of these endocrine disorders will improve the quality of the life and the outcome of this novel immunotherapy.

  10. Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Furness, Andrew J S; Rosenthal, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we...

  11. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chk1 and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  12. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jiang; Jianchun Wu; Chen He; Wending Yang; Honglin Li

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdkl activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chkl and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  13. Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Corsino, Patrick E; Davis, Bradley J;

    2013-01-01

    instability. Expression of these complexes in the MCF10A cell line leads to retinoblastoma protein (Rb) hyperphosphorylation, a subsequent increase in proliferation rate, and increased expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. This results in a strengthening of the spindle assembly...

  14. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Checkpointing and Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant hard real-time systems for safety-critical applications. We use checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication for tolerating transient faults. Processes are statically scheduled and communications are performed using the time...

  15. DISTURBED ANTIGEN PRESENTATION IN CLASSICAL HODGKIN LYMPHOMA; IMPLICATIONS FOR IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR THERAPY?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.; Visser, Lydia; Veenstra, Rianne; Kushekhar, K.; van Imhoff, G.; Berg, van den Anke; Diepstra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are being tested in clinical trials and show great promise in the treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The proposed mechanism of action of these inhibitors consists of reactivating T lymphocytes that have become unresponsive as a consequence of inhibitory mecha

  16. Phosphorylation-dependent interactions between Crb2 and Chk1 are essential for DNA damage checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to DNA damage, the eukaryotic genome surveillance system activates a checkpoint kinase cascade. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, checkpoint protein Crb2 is essential for DNA damage-induced activation of downstream effector kinase Chk1. The mechanism by which Crb2 mediates Chk1 activation is unknown. Here, we show that Crb2 recruits Chk1 to double-strand breaks (DSBs through a direct physical interaction. A pair of conserved SQ/TQ motifs in Crb2, which are consensus phosphorylation sites of upstream kinase Rad3, is required for Chk1 recruitment and activation. Mutating both of these motifs renders Crb2 defective in activating Chk1. Tethering Crb2 and Chk1 together can rescue the SQ/TQ mutations, suggesting that the main function of these phosphorylation sites is promoting interactions between Crb2 and Chk1. A 19-amino-acid peptide containing these SQ/TQ motifs is sufficient for Chk1 binding in vitro when one of the motifs is phosphorylated. Remarkably, the same peptide, when tethered to DSBs by fusing with either recombination protein Rad22/Rad52 or multi-functional scaffolding protein Rad4/Cut5, can rescue the checkpoint defect of crb2Δ. The Rad22 fusion can even bypass the need for Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1 complex in checkpoint activation. These results suggest that the main role of Crb2 and 9-1-1 in DNA damage checkpoint signaling is recruiting Chk1 to sites of DNA lesions.

  17. ECRG2基因缺失导致纺锤体检测点功能缺陷%Depletion of ECRG2 disrupts the spindle assembly checkpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永萍; 成晓龙; 宋肖静; 陆士新

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of ECRG2,a novel tumor suppressor gene,in spindle assembly checkpoint. Methods Using siRNA approach to deplete the expression of ECRG2, using immunofluorescence to test the distribution of ECRG2,using Western blotting to examine the expression cell cycle proteins.Results ECRG2 localized to centrosomes during interphase and kinetochores during mitosis.Further analysis revealed that ECRG2 participates in the spindle assembly checkpoint.Depletion of ECRG2 abolished the spindle assembly checkpoint.Conclusion Our results indicated that ECRG2 is important for ensuring spindle assembly checkpoint,accurate chromosome segregation,and its depletion may contribute to chmmosome instability and aneuploidy in human cancers.%目的 观察ECRG2基因对纺锤体检测点功能的影响.方法 利用基因敲除和免疫荧光染色技术观察ECRG2基因在细胞内的定位及生物学功能.结果 ECRG2基因在有丝分裂间期分布于中心体、有丝分裂期分布于着丝粒处,可能参与中心体复制和纺锤体检测点功能.siRNA技术敲除ECBG2基因细胞导致纺锤体检测点功能丧失,在nocodazole处理时无法阻断细胞于有丝分裂期而进入下一细胞周期,最终导致染色体不稳定性和非整倍体细胞出现.结论 ECRG2在纺锤体检测点中起重要作用,对确保染色体稳定性必不可少;ECRG2基因的缺失可能是肿瘤细胞染色体不稳定性和非整倍体细胞产生的重要原因.

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans histone methyltransferase MET-2 shields the male X chromosome from checkpoint machinery and mediates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Checchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC, suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans histone methyltransferase MET-2 shields the male X chromosome from checkpoint machinery and mediates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Paula M; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2011-09-01

    Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase) MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.

  20. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes.

  1. A mitotic phosphorylation feedback network connects Cdk1, Plk1, 53BP1, and Chk2 to inactivate the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Gardino, Alexandra K; Linding, Rune;

    2010-01-01

    the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that the non-enzymatic checkpoint adaptor protein 53BP1 is an in vivo target of the cell cycle kinases Cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1). We show that Plk1 binds 53BP1 during mitosis and that this interaction is required for proper inactivation......DNA damage checkpoints arrest cell cycle progression to facilitate DNA repair. The ability to survive genotoxic insults depends not only on the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints but also on checkpoint maintenance. While activation of DNA damage checkpoints has been studied extensively, molecular...... of the DNA damage checkpoint. 53BP1 mutants that are unable to bind Plk1 fail to restart the cell cycle after ionizing radiation-mediated cell cycle arrest. Importantly, we show that Plk1 also phosphorylates the 53BP1-binding checkpoint kinase Chk2 to inactivate its FHA domain and inhibit its kinase activity...

  2. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G;

    2014-01-01

    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  3. Btk at the Pre-B Cell Receptor Checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Middendorp

    2004-01-01

    textabstractSignalling from the BCR or its immature form, the pre-BCR, was shown to be crucial for B cell development. Gene-targeted mice have defined differential roles of components of the (pre-) BCR complex or its downstream signalling pathways. One of the proteins involved in (pre-) BCR signa

  4. Premature Sister Chromatid Separation Is Poorly Detected by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint as a Result of System-Level Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailo Mirkovic; Lukas H. Hutter; Béla Novák; Raquel A. Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for faithful mitosis. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that the surveillance mechanism that governs mitotic fidelity, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is not robust enough to halt cell division when cohesion loss occurs prematurely. The mechanism behind this poor response is not properly understood. Using developing Drosophila brains, we show that full sister chromatid separation elicits a weak checkpoint response r...

  5. Premature Sister Chromatid Separation Is Poorly Detected by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint as a Result of System-Level Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkovic, Mihailo; Hutter, Lukas H.; Novák, Béla; Oliveira, Raquel A.

    2015-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for faithful mitosis. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that the surveillance mechanism that governs mitotic fidelity, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is not robust enough to halt cell division when cohesion loss occurs prematurely. The mechanism behind this poor response is not properly understood. Using developing Drosophila brains, we show that full sister chromatid separation elicits a weak checkpoint response r...

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans histone methyltransferase MET-2 shields the male X chromosome from checkpoint machinery and mediates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Paula M.; JoAnne Engebrecht

    2011-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meio...

  7. The oxidative stress responsive transcription factor Pap1 confers DNA damage resistance on checkpoint-deficient fission yeast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Belfield

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells invoke mechanisms to promote survival when confronted with cellular stress or damage to the genome. The protein kinase Chk1 is an integral and conserved component of the DNA damage response pathway. Mutation or inhibition of Chk1 results in mitotic death when cells are exposed to DNA damage. Oxidative stress activates a pathway that results in nuclear accumulation of the bZIP transcription factor Pap1. We report the novel finding that fission yeast Pap1 confers resistance to drug- and non-drug-induced DNA damage even when the DNA damage checkpoint is compromised. Multi-copy expression of Pap1 restores growth to chk1-deficient cells exposed to camptothecin or hydroxyurea. Unexpectedly, increased Pap1 expression also promotes survival of chk1-deficient cells with mutations in genes encoding DNA ligase (cdc17 or DNA polymerase δ (cdc6, but not DNA replication initiation mutants. The ability of Pap1 to confer resistance to DNA damage was not specific to chk1 mutants, as it also improved survival of rad1- and rad9-deficient cells in the presence of CPT. To confer resistance to DNA damage Pap1 must localize to the nucleus and be transcriptionally active.

  8. Toxic effect of silica nanoparticles on endothelial cells through DNA damage response via Chk1-dependent G2/M checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Duan

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles have become promising carriers for drug delivery or gene therapy. Endothelial cells could be directly exposed to silica nanoparticles by intravenous administration. However, the underlying toxic effect mechanisms of silica nanoparticles on endothelial cells are still poorly understood. In order to clarify the cytotoxicity of endothelial cells induced by silica nanoparticles and its mechanisms, cellular morphology, cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release were observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs as assessing cytotoxicity, resulted in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Silica nanoparticles-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation caused oxidative damage followed by the production of malondialdehyde (MDA as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Both necrosis and apoptosis were increased significantly after 24 h exposure. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP decreased obviously in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of DNA damage including the percentage of tail DNA, tail length and Olive tail moment (OTM were markedly aggravated. Silica nanoparticles also induced G2/M arrest through the upregulation of Chk1 and the downregulation of Cdc25C, cyclin B1/Cdc2. In summary, our data indicated that the toxic effect mechanisms of silica nanoparticles on endothelial cells was through DNA damage response (DDR via Chk1-dependent G2/M checkpoint signaling pathway, suggesting that exposure to silica nanoparticles could be a potential hazards for the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Intestinal microbiome analyses identify melanoma patients at risk for checkpoint-blockade-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Krista; Callahan, Margaret K; Ren, Boyu; Khanin, Raya; Viale, Agnes; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Littmann, Eric; Huttenhower, Curtis; Pamer, Eric G; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2016-02-02

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota influences the development of inflammatory disorders. However, associating inflammatory diseases with specific microbial members of the microbiota is challenging, because clinically detectable inflammation and its treatment can alter the microbiota's composition. Immunologic checkpoint blockade with ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) signalling, is associated with new-onset, immune-mediated colitis. Here we conduct a prospective study of patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ipilimumab treatment and correlate the pre-inflammation faecal microbiota and microbiome composition with subsequent colitis development. We demonstrate that increased representation of bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum is correlated with resistance to the development of checkpoint-blockade-induced colitis. Furthermore, a paucity of genetic pathways involved in polyamine transport and B vitamin biosynthesis is associated with an increased risk of colitis. Identification of these biomarkers may enable interventions to reduce the risk of inflammatory complications following cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A; Parke, Emily C; Tangen, Uwe; Hantsche-Tangen, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional "top-down" approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the "bottom up" by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called "protocells." In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology. Protocells have not yet been developed, but many expect this to happen within the next five to ten years. Accordingly, we identify six key checkpoints in protocell development at which particular attention should be given to specific ethical, social and regulatory issues concerning bottom-up synthetic biology, and make ten recommendations for responsible protocell science that are tied to the achievement of these checkpoints.

  11. PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade reduces pathology and improves memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; Rosenzweig, Neta; Tsitsou-Kampeli, Afroditi; Sharif, Alaa Mohammad; Matcovitch-Natan, Orit; Kertser, Alexander; David, Eyal; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-02-01

    Systemic immune suppression may curtail the ability to mount the protective, cell-mediated immune responses that are needed for brain repair. By using mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we show that immune checkpoint blockade directed against the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway evokes an interferon (IFN)-γ-dependent systemic immune response, which is followed by the recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages to the brain. When induced in mice with established pathology, this immunological response leads to clearance of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and improved cognitive performance. Repeated treatment sessions were required to maintain a long-lasting beneficial effect on disease pathology. These findings suggest that immune checkpoints may be targeted therapeutically in AD.

  12. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A New Opportunity in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mittica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the leading cause of death for gynecological cancer. The standard treatment for advanced stage is the combination of optimal debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, recurrence is frequent (around 70% and prognosis is globally poor. New therapeutic agents are needed to improve survival. Since EOC is strongly immunogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors are under evaluation for their capacity to contrast the “turn off” signals expressed by the tumor to escape the immune system and usually responsible for self-tolerance maintenance. This article reviews the literature on anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-PD-L2 antibodies in EOC and highlights their possible lines of development. Further studies are needed to better define the prognostic role of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, to identify predictors of response and the optimal clinical setting in EOC.

  13. Cloud object store for checkpoints of high performance computing applications using decoupling middleware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2016-04-19

    Cloud object storage is enabled for checkpoints of high performance computing applications using a middleware process. A plurality of files, such as checkpoint files, generated by a plurality of processes in a parallel computing system are stored by obtaining said plurality of files from said parallel computing system; converting said plurality of files to objects using a log structured file system middleware process; and providing said objects for storage in a cloud object storage system. The plurality of processes may run, for example, on a plurality of compute nodes. The log structured file system middleware process may be embodied, for example, as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS). The log structured file system middleware process optionally executes on a burst buffer node.

  14. Negative immune checkpoints on T lymphocytes and their relevance to cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śledzińska, Anna; Menger, Laurie; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Peggs, Karl S; Quezada, Sergio A

    2015-12-01

    The term 'inhibitory checkpoint' refers to the broad spectrum of co-receptors expressed by T cells that negatively regulate T cell activation thus playing a crucial role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance. Co-inhibitory receptor ligands are highly expressed by a variety of malignancies allowing evasion of anti-tumour immunity. Recent studies demonstrate that manipulation of these co-inhibitory pathways can remove the immunological brakes that impede endogenous immune responses against tumours. Antibodies that block the interactions between co-inhibitory receptors and their ligands have delivered very promising clinical responses, as has been shown by recent successful trials targeting the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action and expression pattern of co-inhibitory receptors on different T cells subsets, emphasising differences between CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. We also summarise recent clinical findings utilising immune checkpoint blockade.

  15. Overview and management of toxicities of immune checkpoint-blocking drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economopoulou Panagiota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is considered to be the most important breakthrough in cancer management in the past few years. This success was based on the scientific understanding of immune mechanisms due to improvement in preclinical science and the introduction of new methods of investigation. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs are among the most promising drugs in the field of immune-oncology; they represent monoclonal antibodies that modulate the effects of immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and Programmed Cell Death protein 1 (PD-1, which are co-inhibitory signals responsible for immune suppression. Despite clinical benefits, ICIs are immune activating agents that are associated with a number of important side effects (immune-related adverse events-irAEs, attributed to organ-specific inflammation. Herein, we review the toxicities of ICIs, highlighting the importance of early identification and management.

  16. Targeting KIT on innate immune cells to enhance the antitumor activity of checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Maximilian; Gedrich, Richard; Peck, Ronald; LaVallee, Theresa; Eder, Joseph Paul

    2016-06-01

    Innate immune cells such as mast cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Recent evidence indicates that levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in melanoma patients are associated with poor survival to checkpoint inhibitors. This suggests that targeting both the innate and adaptive suppressive components of the immune system will maximize clinical benefit and elicit more durable responses in cancer patients. Preclinical data suggest that targeting signaling by the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, particularly on mast cells, may modulate innate immune cell numbers and activity in tumors. Here, we review data highlighting the importance of the KIT signaling in regulating antitumor immune responses and the potential benefit of combining selective KIT inhibitors with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  17. An Overview of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Status in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal chromosome number, or aneuploidy, is a common feature of human solid tumors, including oral cancer. Deregulated spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC is thought as one of the mechanisms that drive aneuploidy. In normal cells, SAC prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes are correctly aligned at the metaphase plate thereby ensuring genomic stability. Significantly, the activity of this checkpoint is compromised in many cancers. While mutations are rather rare, many tumors show altered expression levels of SAC components. Genomic alterations such as aneuploidy indicate a high risk of oral cancer and cancer-related mortality, and the molecular basis of these alterations is largely unknown. Yet, our knowledge on the status of SAC components in oral cancer remains sparse. In this review, we address the state of our knowledge regarding the SAC defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in oral cancer, and discuss their therapeutic relevance, focusing our analysis on the core components of SAC and its target Cdc20.

  18. [Predictive biomarkers of efficacy of checkpoint blockade inhibitors in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruisseaux, Michaël; Lize-Dufranc, Cécile; Badoual, Céline; Bibeau, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    The remarkable efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4 immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to numerous approvals in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, kidney cancer and several other cancers. Nevertheless, a response is observed in a variable proportion of patients, emphasizing the need for predictive biomarkers of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors effectiveness. Several predictive biomarkers of efficacy are of interest: companion tests such PD-L1 immunohistochemistry, the mutational load, the immune status of the tumor and its molecular profile. They do not allow a perfect selection of the patients, but standardization procedures for certain techniques are ongoing. Moreover the emergence of new approaches, such as the multiplex in situ techniques and the microbiote analysis, may offer the opportunity to better select patients who really benefit from immunotherapy. The goal of this article is to discuss available and promising predictive biomarkers of efficacy for immunotherapy strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Differential activation of intra-S-phase checkpoint in response to tripchlorolide and its effects on DNA replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan REN; Jia Rui WU

    2004-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated during the S phase of the cell cycle, and the activation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint due to DNA damage usually results in arrest of DNA synthesis. However, the molecular details about the correlation between the checkpoint and regulation of DNA replication are still unclear. To investigate the connections between DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint, a DNA-damage reagent, tripchlorolide, was applied to CHO (Chinese ovary hamster) cells at early- or middle-stages of the S phase. The early-S-phase treatment with TC significantly delayed the progression of the S phase and caused the phosphorylation of the Chk1 checkpoint protein, whereas the middle-S-phase treatment only slightly slowed down the progression of the S phase. Furthermore, the analysis of DNA replication patterns revealed that replication pattern Ⅱ was greatly prolonged in the cells treated with the drug during the early-S phase, whereas the late-replication patterns of these cells were hardly detected, suggesting that the activation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint inhibits the late-origin firing of DNA replication. We conclude that cells at different stages of the S phase are differentially sensitive to the DNA-damage reagent, and the activation of the intra-Sphase checkpoint blocks the DNA replication progression in the late stage of S phase.

  20. A novel ATM-dependent checkpoint defect distinct from loss of function mutation promotes genomic instability in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Loredana; Brooks, Kelly; Chia, KeeMing; Grossman, Gavriel; Ellis, Jonathan J; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Škalamera, Dubravka; Pavey, Sandra; Burmeister, Bryan; Gabrielli, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Melanomas have high levels of genomic instability that can contribute to poor disease prognosis. Here, we report a novel defect of the ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint in melanoma cell lines that promotes genomic instability. In defective cells, ATM signalling to CHK2 is intact, but the cells are unable to maintain the cell cycle arrest due to elevated PLK1 driving recovery from the arrest. Reducing PLK1 activity recovered the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest, and over-expressing PLK1 was sufficient to overcome the checkpoint arrest and increase genomic instability. Loss of the ATM-dependent checkpoint did not affect sensitivity to ionizing radiation demonstrating that this defect is distinct from ATM loss of function mutations. The checkpoint defective melanoma cell lines over-express PLK1, and a significant proportion of melanomas have high levels of PLK1 over-expression suggesting this defect is a common feature of melanomas. The inability of ATM to impose a cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage increases genomic instability. This work also suggests that the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest is likely to be defective in a higher proportion of cancers than previously expected.

  1. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain 2 Facilitates the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition by Inactivating the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar P Mahale

    Full Text Available The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. However, the functional importance of LIC2 during mitosis remains elusive. Here we report prominent novel roles for the LIC2 subunit of cytoplasmic dynein in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. LIC2 depletion in mammalian cells led to prolonged metaphase arrest in the presence of an active SAC and also to stretched kinetochores, thus implicating it in SAC inactivation. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of SAC components revealed accumulation of both attachment- and tension-sensing checkpoint proteins at metaphase kinetochores upon LIC2 depletion. These observations support a stronger and more diverse role in checkpoint inactivation for LIC2 in comparison to its close homolog LIC1. Our study uncovers a novel functional hierarchy during mitotic checkpoint inactivation between the closely related but homologous LIC subunits of cytoplasmic dynein. These subtle functional distinctions between dynein subpopulations could be exploited to study specific aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which is a key mediator of fidelity in eukaryotic cell division.

  2. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori, E-mail: fukumoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto, E-mail: nyama@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  3. Handoff Based Secure Checkpointing and Log Based Rollback Recovery for Mobile Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dey and Suparna Biswas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient fault tolerant algorithm based on movement-based secure checkpointing and logging formobile computing system is proposed here. The recovery scheme proposed here combines independentcheckpointing and message logging. Here we consider mobility rate of the user in checkpointing so thatmobile host can manage recovery information such as checkpoints and logs properly so that a mobilehost takes less recovery time after failure. Mobile hosts save checkpoints when number of hand-offexceeds a predefined hand-off threshold value. Current approaches save logs in base station. But thisapproach maximizes recovery time if message passing frequency is large. If a mobile host saves log in itsown memory, recovery cost will be less because log retrieval time will be small after failure. But there isa probability of memory crash of a mobile host. In that case logs can not be retrieved if it is saved only inmobile node. If the failure is transient then logs can be retrieved from the memory of mobile node.Hence in this algorithm mobile hosts also save log in own memory and base station. In case of crashrecovery, log will be retrieved from base station and in case of transient failure recovery logs will beretrieved from mobile host. In this algorithm recovery probability is optimized and total recovery time isreduced in comparison to existing works. Logs are very small in size. Hence saving logs in mobile hostsdoes not cause much memory overhead. Hand-off threshold is a function of mobility rate, messagepassing frequency and failure rate of mobile hosts. This algorithm describes a secure check pointingtechnique as a method for providing fault tolerance while preventing information leakage through thecheckpoint data.

  4. The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Maia André F; Vader Gerben; Lens Susanne MA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract During mitosis, correct bipolar chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for the equal segregation of chromosomes. The spindle assembly checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation as long as not all chromosome pairs have obtained bipolar attachment to the spindle. The chromosomal passenger complex plays a crucial role during chromosome alignment by correcting faulty chromosome-spindle interactions (e.g. attachments that do not generate tension). In ...

  5. Glioblastoma Eradication Following Immune Checkpoint Blockade in an Orthotopic, Immunocompetent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, David A; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Klein, Sarah R; Ligon, Keith L; Rodig, Scott J; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Jones, Kristen L; Conway, Amy Saur; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jun; Wen, Patrick Y; Van Den Abbeele, Annick D; Hodi, F Stephen; Qin, Lei; Kohl, Nancy E; Sharpe, Arlene H; Dranoff, Glenn; Freeman, Gordon J

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and its ligand PD-L1, has demonstrated exciting and durable remissions across a spectrum of malignancies. Combinatorial regimens blocking complementary immune checkpoints further enhance the therapeutic benefit. The activity of these agents for patients with glioblastoma, a generally lethal primary brain tumor associated with significant systemic and microenvironmental immunosuppression, is not known. We therefore systematically evaluated the antitumor efficacy of murine antibodies targeting a broad panel of immune checkpoint molecules, including CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 when administered as single-agent therapy and in combinatorial regimens against an orthotopic, immunocompetent murine glioblastoma model. In these experiments, we observed long-term tumor-free survival following single-agent anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-CTLA-4 therapy in 50%, 20%, and 15% of treated animals, respectively. Combination therapy of anti-CTLA-4 plus anti-PD-1 cured 75% of the animals, even against advanced, later-stage tumors. In long-term survivors, tumor growth was not seen upon intracranial tumor rechallenge, suggesting that tumor-specific immune memory responses were generated. Inhibitory immune checkpoint blockade quantitatively increased activated CD8(+) and natural killer cells and decreased suppressive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and draining cervical lymph nodes. Our results support prioritizing the clinical evaluation of PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 single-agent targeted therapy as well as combination therapy of CTLA-4 plus PD-1 blockade for patients with glioblastoma.

  6. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy: The 2014 Tang prize in biopharmaceutical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shan Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first Tang Prize for Biopharmaceutical Science has been awarded to Prof. James P. Allison and Prof. Tasuku Honjo for their contributions leading to an entirely new way to treat cancer by blocking the molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 that turn off immune response. The treatment, called "immune checkpoint blockade therapy," has opened a new therapeutic era. Here the discoveries of the immune checkpoints and how they contribute to the maintenance of self-tolerance, as well as how to protect tissues from the excess immune responses causing damage are reviewed. The efforts made by Prof. Allison and Prof. Honjo for developing the most promising approaches to activate therapeutic antitumor immunity are also summarized. Since these certain immune checkpoint pathways appear to be one of the major mechanisms resulting in immune escape of tumors, the presence of anti-CTLA-4 and/or anti-PD-1 should contribute to removal of the inhibition signals for T cell activation. Subsequently, it will enhance specific T cell activation and, therefore, strengthen antitumor immunity.

  7. Immunologic checkpoints in cancer therapy: focus on the programmed death-1 (PD-1 receptor pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Momtaz,1,2 Michael A Postow1,2 1Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: T-lymphocytes have the potential to recognize cancer antigens as foreign and therefore eliminate them. However, immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death (PD-1 receptor and its ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2 suppress the activity of T-lymphocytes. Advances in the understanding of immunology and its role in cancer have led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors that block CTLA-4 and PD-1 and result in durable responses in patients with a wide range of cancers. PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are currently in many stages of clinical investigation, and the anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Many questions remain to be answered, such as the optimal administration schedule, biomarkers that associate with benefit, and potential for use of PD-1 agents in combination approaches. Nonetheless, immunotherapy with PD-1 blocking antibodies is now becoming an integral part in the management of cancer. Keyword: immune checkpoints, immunotherapy, programmed cell death protein-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4

  8. Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A.; Li, Yvonne Y.; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Buczkowski, Kevin A.; Richards, William G.; Gandhi, Leena; Redig, Amanda J.; Rodig, Scott J.; Asahina, Hajime; Jones, Robert E.; Kulkarni, Meghana M.; Kuraguchi, Mari; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Fecci, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Janne, Pasi A.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Gangadharan, Sidharta P.; Costa, Daniel B.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Bueno, Raphael; Hodi, F. Stephen; Dranoff, Glenn; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hammerman, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling antitumour activity of antibodies targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1): programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint in lung cancer, resistance to these therapies has increasingly been observed. In this study, to elucidate mechanisms of adaptive resistance, we analyse the tumour immune microenvironment in the context of anti-PD-1 therapy in two fully immunocompetent mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. In tumours progressing following response to anti-PD-1 therapy, we observe upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints, notably T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), in PD-1 antibody bound T cells and demonstrate a survival advantage with addition of a TIM-3 blocking antibody following failure of PD-1 blockade. Two patients who developed adaptive resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment also show a similar TIM-3 upregulation in blocking antibody-bound T cells at treatment failure. These data suggest that upregulation of TIM-3 and other immune checkpoints may be targetable biomarkers associated with adaptive resistance to PD-1 blockade. PMID:26883990

  9. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: the new frontier in non–small cell lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Osta HE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazem El-Osta, Kamran Shahid, Glenn M Mills, Prakash Peddi Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the major cause for cancer-related death in the US. Although advances in chemotherapy and targeted therapy have improved the outcome of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, its prognosis remains dismal. A deeper understanding of the complex interaction between the immune system and tumor microenvironment has identified immune checkpoint inhibitors as new avenue of immunotherapy. Rather than acting directly on the tumor, these therapies work by removing the inhibition exerted by tumor cell or other immune cells on the immune system, promoting antitumoral immune response. To date, two programmed death-1 inhibitors, namely nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer that failed platinum-based chemotherapy. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the pathophysiology of cancer immune evasion, summarizes pertinent data on completed and ongoing clinical trials involving checkpoint inhibitors, discusses the different strategies to optimize their function, and outlines various challenges that are faced in this promising yet evolving field. Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy, nivolumab, non-small-cell lung cancer, pembrolizumab, programmed death-1, programmed death ligand-1

  10. p53 activates G₁ checkpoint following DNA damage by doxorubicin during transient mitotic arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sun-Yi; Jang, Young-Joo

    2015-03-10

    Recovery from DNA damage is critical for cell survival. The serious damage is not able to be repaired during checkpoint and finally induces cell death to prevent abnormal cell growth. In this study, we demonstrated that 8N-DNA contents are accumulated via re-replication during prolonged recovery period containing serious DNA damage in mitotic cells. During the incubation for recovery, a mitotic delay and initiation of an abnormal interphase without cytokinesis were detected. Whereas a failure of cytokinesis occurred in cells with no relation with p53/p21, re-replication is an anomalous phenomenon in the mitotic DNA damage response in p53/p21 negative cells. Cells with wild-type p53 are accumulated just prior to the initiation of DNA replication through a G₁ checkpoint after mitotic DNA damage, even though p53 does not interrupt pre-RC assembly. Finally, these cells undergo cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that p53 activates G₁ checkpoint in response to mitotic DNA damage. Without p53, cells with mitotic DNA damage undergo re-replication leading to accumulation of damage.

  11. Dovitinib induces mitotic defects and activates the G2 DNA damage checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wing Yu; Mak, Joyce P Y; Poon, Randy Y C

    2014-01-01

    Dovitinib (TKI258; formerly CHIR-258) is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, Dovitinib triggered a G2 /M arrest in cancer cell lines from diverse origins including HeLa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Single-cell analysis revealed that Dovitinib promoted a delay in mitotic exit in a subset of cells, causing the cells to undergo mitotic slippage. Higher concentrations of Dovitinib induced a G2 arrest similar to the G2 DNA damage checkpoint. In support of this, DNA damage was triggered by Dovitinib as revealed by γ-H2AX and comet assays. The mitotic kinase CDK1 was found to be inactivated by phosphorylation in the presence of Dovitinib. Furthermore, the G2 arrest could be overcome by abrogation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint using small molecule inhibitors of CHK1 and WEE1. Finally, Dovitinib-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest and subsequent cell death could be promoted after DNA damage repair was disrupted by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. These results are consistent with the recent finding that Dovitinib can also target topoisomerases. Collectively, these results suggest additional directions for use of Dovitinib, in particular with agents that target the DNA damage checkpoint.

  12. Zfy genes are required for efficient meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) in spermatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Nadège; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Ellis, Peter J I

    2016-10-13

    During spermatogenesis, germ cells that fail to synapse their chromosomes or fail to undergo meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) are eliminated via apoptosis during mid-pachytene. Previous work showed that Y-linked genes Zfy1 and Zfy2 act as 'executioners' for this checkpoint, and that wrongful expression of either gene during pachytene triggers germ cell death. Here, we show that in mice, Zfy genes are also necessary for efficient MSCI and the sex chromosomes are not correctly silenced in Zfy-deficient spermatocytes. This unexpectedly reveals a triple role for Zfy at the mid-pachytene checkpoint in which Zfy genes first promote MSCI, then monitor its progress (since if MSCI is achieved, Zfy genes will be silenced), and finally execute cells with MSCI failure. This potentially constitutes a negative feedback loop governing this critical checkpoint mechanism.

  13. Analysis of hRad1, a Human G2 Checkpoint Control Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Phosphatase (CIP) Treatment—Cells were lysed in 1 ml of NETN lysis buffer (250 nut NaCl, 1 it« EDTA, 20 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 0.5% Nonidet P-40...smaller subunits (p36, p37, p38 and p40 , 36, 37, 38 and 40 kDa respectively) (176). RFC serves to load the homotrimeric proliferating cell nuclear anigen

  14. Proteins in the nutrient-sensing and DNA damage checkpoint pathways cooperate to restrain mitotic progression following DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Searle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint pathways regulate genomic integrity in part by blocking anaphase until all chromosomes have been completely replicated, repaired, and correctly aligned on the spindle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA damage and mono-oriented or unattached kinetochores trigger checkpoint pathways that bifurcate to regulate both the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The sensor-associated kinase, Mec1, phosphorylates two downstream kinases, Chk1 and Rad53. Activation of Chk1 and Rad53 prevents anaphase and causes inhibition of the mitotic exit network. We have previously shown that the PKA pathway plays a role in blocking securin and Clb2 destruction following DNA damage. Here we show that the Mec1 DNA damage checkpoint regulates phosphorylation of the regulatory (R subunit of PKA following DNA damage and that the phosphorylated R subunit has a role in restraining mitosis following DNA damage. In addition we found that proteins known to regulate PKA in response to nutrients and stress either by phosphorylation of the R subunit or regulating levels of cAMP are required for the role of PKA in the DNA damage checkpoint. Our data indicate that there is cross-talk between the DNA damage checkpoint and the proteins that integrate nutrient and stress signals to regulate PKA.

  15. Proteins in the Nutrient-Sensing and DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathways Cooperate to Restrain Mitotic Progression following DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jennifer S.; Wood, Matthew D.; Kaur, Mandeep; Tobin, David V.; Sanchez, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Checkpoint pathways regulate genomic integrity in part by blocking anaphase until all chromosomes have been completely replicated, repaired, and correctly aligned on the spindle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA damage and mono-oriented or unattached kinetochores trigger checkpoint pathways that bifurcate to regulate both the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The sensor-associated kinase, Mec1, phosphorylates two downstream kinases, Chk1 and Rad53. Activation of Chk1 and Rad53 prevents anaphase and causes inhibition of the mitotic exit network. We have previously shown that the PKA pathway plays a role in blocking securin and Clb2 destruction following DNA damage. Here we show that the Mec1 DNA damage checkpoint regulates phosphorylation of the regulatory (R) subunit of PKA following DNA damage and that the phosphorylated R subunit has a role in restraining mitosis following DNA damage. In addition we found that proteins known to regulate PKA in response to nutrients and stress either by phosphorylation of the R subunit or regulating levels of cAMP are required for the role of PKA in the DNA damage checkpoint. Our data indicate that there is cross-talk between the DNA damage checkpoint and the proteins that integrate nutrient and stress signals to regulate PKA. PMID:21779180

  16. A tumor suppressor C53 protein antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint (1). More recently, Wang et al (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting NF-κB signaling (2). We report here identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexrepsssion. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell cycle progression and DNA damage response. PMID:19223857

  17. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  18. Phenethyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression and the levels of protein associated with cell cycle regulation in human glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Meng-Ya; Wang, Mei-Jen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Chang, Shu-Jen; Harnod, Tomor; Hung, Chih-Huang; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a member of the isothiocyanate family, can induce apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous study disclosed that PEITC induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, dysfunction of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway in human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 8401 cells. To the best of our knowledge, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels of GBM 8401 cells in vitro. PEITC may induce G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest through affecting the proteins such as cdk2, cyclin E, and p21 in GBM 8401 cells. Many genes associated with cell-cycle regulation of GBM 8401 cells were changed after PEITC treatment: 48 genes were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. The cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 homolog beta (BUB1B), and cyclin B1 were downregulated, and clusterin was upregulated in GBM 8401 cells treated with PEITC. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels and potential biomarkers for glioblastoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 176-187, 2017.

  19. Tumor Microenvironment Metabolism: A New Checkpoint for Anti-Tumor Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharping, Nicole E.; Delgoffe, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    When a T cell infiltrates a tumor, it is subjected to a variety of immunosuppressive and regulatory signals in the microenvironment. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that due to the proliferative and energetically-deregulated nature of tumor cells, T cells also operate at a metabolic disadvantage. The nutrient dearth of the tumor microenvironment (TME) creates “metabolic checkpoints” upon infiltrating T cells, impacting their ability to survive, proliferate and function effectively. In this review, we summarize the basics of tumor cell and T cell metabolism and discuss recent advances elucidating the individual metabolic checkpoints exerted on T cells that drive their dysfunction in the TME. PMID:27929420

  20. Systemic sarcoidosis first manifesting in a tattoo in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charissa; Gao, Jianjun; Shannon, Vickie R; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene

    2016-10-26

    The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors is revolutionising the treatment of cancer. However, their unique toxicity profile is substantially different from what has been observed with traditional chemotherapy, resulting in a novel learning curve for medical oncologists. Early recognition of these toxicities can make a substantial impact in ameliorating these side effects in the oncological and medical-surgical fields. Here, we present a case of Lofgren syndrome sarcoidosis, which first manifested in a tattoo in a patient with metastatic urothelial cancer on therapy with anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and anti-PD1 (nivolumab). 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. BMI1 attenuates etoposide-induced G2/M checkpoints via reducing ATM activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Ojo, D; Lin, X; Wong, N; He, L; Yan, J; Xu, S; Major, P; Tang, D

    2015-06-04

    The BMI1 protein contributes to stem cell pluripotency and oncogenesis via multiple functions, including its newly identified role in DNA damage response (DDR). Although evidence clearly demonstrates that BMI1 facilitates the repair of double-stranded breaks via homologous recombination (HR), it remains unclear how BMI1 regulates checkpoint activation during DDR. We report here that BMI1 has a role in G2/M checkpoint activation in response to etoposide (ETOP) treatment. Ectopic expression of BMI1 in MCF7 breast cancer and DU145 prostate cancer cells significantly reduced ETOP-induced G2/M arrest. Conversely, knockdown of BMI1 in both lines enhanced the arrest. Consistent with ETOP-induced activation of the G2/M checkpoints via the ATM pathway, overexpression and knockdown of BMI1, respectively, reduced and enhanced ETOP-induced phosphorylation of ATM at serine 1981 (ATM pS1981). Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ATM targets, including γH2AX, threonine 68 (T68) on CHK2 (CHK2 pT68) and serine 15 (S15) on p53 were decreased in overexpression and increased in knockdown BMI1 cells in response to ETOP. In line with the requirement of NBS1 in ATM activation, we were able to show that BMI1 associates with NBS1 and that this interaction altered the binding of NBS1 with ATM. BMI1 consists of a ring finger (RF), helix-turn-helix-turn-helix-turn (HT), proline/serine (PS) domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLS). Although deletion of either RF or HT did not affect the association of BMI1 with NBS1, the individual deletions of PS and one NLS (KRMK) robustly reduced the interaction. Stable expression of these BMI1 mutants decreased ETOP-induced ATM pS1981 and CHK2 pT68, but not ETOP-elicited γH2AX in MCF7 cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of BMI1 in non-transformed breast epithelial MCF10A cells also compromised ETOP-initiated ATM pS1981 and γH2AX. Taken together, we provide compelling evidence that BMI1 decreases ETOP-induced G2/M checkpoint activation via

  2. An E2 enzyme Ubc11 is required for ubiquitination of Slp1/Cdc20 and spindle checkpoint silencing in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Yasunori; Habu, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2013-03-15

    For ordered mitotic progression, various proteins have to be regulated by an ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) with appropriate timing. Recent studies have implied that the activity of APC/C also contributes to release of mitotic checkpoint complexes (MCCs) from its target Cdc20 in the process of silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here we describe a temperature-sensitive mutant (ubc11-P93L) in which cell cycle progression is arrested at mitosis. The mutant grows normally at the restrictive temperature when SAC is inactivated, suggesting that the arrest is not due to abnormal spindle assembly, but rather due to prolonged activation of SAC. Supporting this notion, MCCs remain bound to APC/C even when SAC is satisfied. The ubc11 (+) gene encodes one of the two E2 enzymes required for progression through mitosis in fission yeast. Remarkably, Slp1 (a fission yeast homolog of Cdc20), which is degraded in an APC/C-dependent manner, stays stable throughout the cell cycle in the ubc11-P93L mutant lacking the functional SAC. Other APC/C substrates, in contrast, were degraded on schedule. We have also found that a loss of Ubc4, the other E2 required for progression through mitosis, does not affect the stability of Slp1. We propose that each of the two E2 enzymes is responsible for collaborating with APC/C for a specific set of substrates, and that Ubc11 is responsible for regulating Slp1 with APC/C for silencing the SAC.

  3. A minimal number of MELT repeats supports all functions of KNL1 in chromosome segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Lischetti, Tiziana; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Bub1-Bub3 and BubR1-Bub3 checkpoint complexes, or the Bubs, contribute to the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis by promoting chromosome bi-orientation and halting exit from mitosis if this fails. The complexes associate with kinetochores during mitosis, which is required...

  4. Analysis of the tolerance to DNA alkylating damage in MEC1 and RAD53 checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gallego-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Checkpoint response, tolerance and repair are three major pathways that eukaryotic cells evolved independently to maintain genome stability and integrity. Here, we studied the sensitivity to DNA damage in checkpoint-deficient budding yeast cells and found that checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 may modulate the balance between error-free and error-prone branches of the tolerance pathway. We have consistently observed that mutation of the RAD53 counterbalances error-free and error-prone branches upon exposure of cells to DNA damage induced either by MMS alkylation or by UV-radiation. We have also found that the potential Mec1/Rad53 balance modulation is independent from Rad6/Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitylation, as mec1Δ or rad53Δ mutants show no defects in the modification of the sliding clamp, therefore, we infer that it is likely exerted by acting on TLS polymerases and/or template switching targets.

  5. Arecoline arrests cells at prometaphase by deregulating mitotic spindle assembly and spindle assembly checkpoint: implication for carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chu; Tsai, Yi-Shan; Huang, Jau-Ling; Lee, Ka-Wo; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Chung-Sheng; Huang, A-Mei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Lin, Chang-Shen

    2010-04-01

    One apparent feature of cancerous cells is genomic instability, which may include various types of chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation, aneuploidy, and the presence of micronuclei inside the cells. Mutagenic factors that promote the emergence of genomic instability are recognized as risk factors for the development of human malignancies. In Asia, betel quid (BQ) chewing is one of such risk factors for oral cancer. Areca nut is an essential constitute of BQ and is declared as a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms regarding the carcinogenicity of areca nut are not fully explored. Here we reported that arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, could arrest cells at prometaphase with large amounts of misaligned chromosomes. This prometaphase arrest was evidenced by condensed chromosome pattern, increased histone H3 phosphorylation, and accumulation of mitotic proteins, including aurora A and cyclin B(1). To investigate the molecular mechanisms accounting for arecoline-induced prometaphase arrest, we found that arecoline could stabilize mitotic spindle assembly, which led to distorted organization of mitotic spindles, misalignment of chromosomes, and up-regulation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes. The SAC proteins BubR1 and Mps1 were differentially modified between the cells treated with arecoline and nocodazole. This together with aurora A overexpression suggested that SAC might be partly suppressed by arecoline. As a result, the arecoline-exposed cells might produce progeny that contained various chromosomal aberrations and exhibited genomic instability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation of self-reactive naive and memory B cell reveals sequential defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints in Sjogren's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Corsiero

    Full Text Available Sjögren's syndrome (SS is an autoimmune disease characterised by breach of self-tolerance towards nuclear antigens resulting in high affinity circulating autoantibodies. Although peripheral B cell disturbances have been described in SS, with predominance of naïve and reduction of memory B cells, the stage at which errors in B cell tolerance checkpoints accumulate in SS is unknown. Here we determined the frequency of self- and poly-reactive B cells in the circulating naïve and memory compartment of SS patients. Single CD27-IgD+ naïve, CD27+IgD+ memory unswitched and CD27+IgD- memory switched B cells were sorted by FACS from the peripheral blood of 7 SS patients. To detect the frequency of polyreactive and autoreactive clones, paired Ig VH and VL genes were amplified, cloned and expressed as recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs displaying identical specificity of the original B cells. IgVH and VL gene usage and immunoreactivity of SS rmAbs were compared with those obtained from healthy donors (HD. From a total of 353 VH and 293 VL individual sequences, we obtained 114 rmAbs from circulating naïve (n = 66 and memory (n = 48 B cells of SS patients. Analysis of the Ig V gene repertoire did not show significant differences in SS vs. HD B cells. In SS patients, circulating naïve B cells (with germline VH and VL genes displayed a significant accumulation of clones autoreactive against Hep-2 cells compared to HD (43.1% vs. 25%. Moreover, we demonstrated a progressive increase in the frequency of circulating anti-nuclear naïve (9.3%, memory unswitched (22.2% and memory switched (27.3% B cells in SS patients. Overall, these data provide novel evidence supporting the existence of both early and late defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints in patients with SS resulting in the accumulation of autoreactive naïve and memory B cells.

  7. The interplay among chromatin dynamics, cell cycle checkpoints and repair mechanisms modulates the cellular response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Federico; Giannattasio, Michele; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Plevani, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    Cells are continuously under the assault of endogenous and exogenous genotoxic stress that challenges the integrity of DNA. To cope with such a formidable task cells have evolved surveillance mechanisms, known as checkpoints, and a variety of DNA repair systems responding to different types of DNA lesions. These lesions occur in the context of the chromatin structure and, as expected for all DNA transactions, the cellular response to DNA damage is going to be influenced by the chromatin enviroment. In this review, we will discuss recent studies implicating chromatin remodelling factors and histone modifications in the response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and in checkpoint activation in response to UV lesions.

  8. A tumor suppressor C53 protein antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint (1). More recently, Wang et al (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting NF-κB signaling (2). We report here identification of C53 protein as a novel...

  9. Spindly/CCDC99 is required for efficient chromosome congression and mitotic checkpoint regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, Marin; Sohm, Bénédicte; Mikolcevic, Petra; Wandke, Cornelia; Rauch, Veronika; Ringer, Thomas; Hess, Michael; Bonn, Günther; Geley, Stephan

    2010-06-15

    Spindly recruits a fraction of cytoplasmic dynein to kinetochores for poleward movement of chromosomes and control of mitotic checkpoint signaling. Here we show that human Spindly is a cell cycle-regulated mitotic phosphoprotein that interacts with the Rod/ZW10/Zwilch (RZZ) complex. The kinetochore levels of Spindly are regulated by microtubule attachment and biorientation induced tension. Deletion mutants lacking the N-terminal half of the protein (NDelta253), or the conserved Spindly box (DeltaSB), strongly localized to kinetochores and failed to respond to attachment or tension. In addition, these mutants prevented the removal of the RZZ complex and that of MAD2 from bioriented chromosomes and caused cells to arrest at metaphase, showing that RZZ-Spindly has to be removed from kinetochores to terminate mitotic checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Spindly by RNAi, however, caused cells to arrest in prometaphase because of a delay in microtubule attachment. Surprisingly, this defect was alleviated by codepletion of ZW10. Thus, Spindly is not only required for kinetochore localization of dynein but is a functional component of a mechanism that couples dynein-dependent poleward movement of chromosomes to their efficient attachment to microtubules.

  10. DNA replication and spindle checkpoints cooperate during S phase to delay mitosis and preserve genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Maria M; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne

    2014-01-20

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and chromosome segregation must occur in ordered sequence to maintain genome integrity during cell proliferation. Checkpoint mechanisms delay mitosis when DNA is damaged or upon replication stress, but little is known on the coupling of S and M phases in unperturbed conditions. To address this issue, we postponed replication onset in budding yeast so that DNA synthesis is still underway when cells should enter mitosis. This delayed mitotic entry and progression by transient activation of the S phase, G2/M, and spindle assembly checkpoints. Disabling both Mec1/ATR- and Mad2-dependent controls caused lethality in cells with deferred S phase, accompanied by Rad52 foci and chromosome missegregation. Thus, in contrast to acute replication stress that triggers a sustained Mec1/ATR response, multiple pathways cooperate to restrain mitosis transiently when replication forks progress unhindered. We suggest that these surveillance mechanisms arose when both S and M phases were coincidently set into motion by a unique ancestral cyclin-Cdk1 complex.

  11. Choreography of the DNA damage response: spatiotemporal relationships among checkpoint and repair proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisby, Michael; Barlow, Jacqueline H; Burgess, Rebecca C; Rothstein, Rodney

    2004-09-17

    DNA repair is an essential process for preserving genome integrity in all organisms. In eukaryotes, recombinational repair is choreographed by multiprotein complexes that are organized into centers (foci). Here, we analyze the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and replication stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mre11 nuclease and the ATM-related Tel1 kinase are the first proteins detected at DSBs. Next, the Rfa1 single-strand DNA binding protein relocalizes to the break and recruits other key checkpoint proteins. Later and only in S and G2 phase, the homologous recombination machinery assembles at the site. Unlike the response to DSBs, Mre11 and recombination proteins are not recruited to hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks unless the forks collapse. The cellular response to DSBs and DNA replication stress is likely directed by the Mre11 complex detecting and processing DNA ends in conjunction with Sae2 and by RP-A recognizing single-stranded DNA and recruiting additional checkpoint and repair proteins.

  12. Checkpoint modulation--A new way to direct the immune system against renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedke, Jens; Kruck, Stephan; Gakis, Georgios; Stenzl, Arnulf; Goebell, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapies like the tyrosine kinase (TKI) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has improved patients' survival in general. Nevertheless the prognosis remains limited. Therapies with a new mode of action are urgently warranted, especially those who would provoke long-term responders or long-lasting complete remissions as observed with unspecific immunotherapy with the cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon-α. In the recent years a deeper understanding of the underlying immunology of T cell activation led to the development of checkpoint inhibitors, which are mainly monocloncal antibodies and which enhances the presence of the co-stimulatory signals needed for T cell activation or priming. This review discusses the clinical data and ongoing studies available for the inhibition of the PD-1 (CD279) and CTLA-4 (CD152) axis in mRCC. In addition, potential future immunological targets are discussed. This approach of T-cell activation or re-activation by immunological checkpoint inhibition holds the inherent promise to directly affect the tumor cell and thereby to potentially cure a subset of patients with mRCC.

  13. The effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors on lung metastases of osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Okita, Hajime; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kuroda, Tatsuo

    2017-09-04

    The prognosis of patients with metastases remains unsatisfactory in certain pediatric solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors against such metastases using a murine model of osteosarcoma. Murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells were transplanted subcutaneously into C3H mice. The primary tumor lesion was surgically resected 11 days after transplantation. Two hundred micrograms of three antibodies (anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-OX-86) or an isotype antibody were administered intraperitoneally on post-transplantation days 11, 14, 18, and 21. Survival curves were plotted by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on day 11 after tumor transplantation (pre-therapy) and on day 25 (post-therapy). For pathology, 3 mice from each group were euthanized on days 11, 22, and 33 after tumor transplantation. The antibody-treated group had a significantly longer survival time compared with the control group (p = 0.002). Both the CT scan and pathological results revealed suppression of metastatic tumor proliferation in the treatment group as compared with the control group. These results suggest that immune checkpoint inhibitors may be an innovative therapy for lung metastases of advanced pediatric solid tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote glioma cell death by G2 checkpoint abrogation leading to mitotic catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornago, M; Garcia-Alberich, C; Blasco-Angulo, N; Vall-Llaura, N; Nager, M; Herreros, J; Comella, J X; Sanchis, D; Llovera, M

    2014-10-02

    Glioblastoma multiforme is resistant to conventional anti-tumoral treatments due to its infiltrative nature and capability of relapse; therefore, research efforts focus on characterizing gliomagenesis and identifying molecular targets useful on therapy. New therapeutic strategies are being tested in patients, such as Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) either alone or in combination with other therapies. Here two HDACi included in clinical trials have been tested, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA), to characterize their effects on glioma cell growth in vitro and to determine the molecular changes that promote cancer cell death. We found that both HDACi reduce glioma cell viability, proliferation and clonogenicity. They have multiple effects, such as inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, nevertheless cell death is not prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh. Importantly, we found that HDACi alter cell cycle progression by decreasing the expression of G2 checkpoint kinases Wee1 and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). In addition, HDACi reduce the expression of proteins involved in DNA repair (Rad51), mitotic spindle formation (TPX2) and chromosome segregation (Survivin) in glioma cells and in human glioblastoma multiforme primary cultures. Therefore, HDACi treatment causes glioma cell entry into mitosis before DNA damage could be repaired and to the formation of an aberrant mitotic spindle that results in glioma cell death through mitotic catastrophe-induced apoptosis.

  15. Photothermal therapy with immune-adjuvant nanoparticles together with checkpoint blockade for effective cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xu, Ligeng; Liang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-10-01

    A therapeutic strategy that can eliminate primary tumours, inhibit metastases, and prevent tumour relapses is developed herein by combining adjuvant nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy with checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. Indocyanine green (ICG), a photothermal agent, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist, are co-encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The formed PLGA-ICG-R837 nanoparticles composed purely by three clinically approved components can be used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of primary tumours, generating tumour-associated antigens, which in the presence of R837-containing nanoparticles as the adjuvant can show vaccine-like functions. In combination with the checkpoint-blockade using anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4), the generated immunological responses will be able to attack remaining tumour cells in mice, useful in metastasis inhibition, and may potentially be applicable for various types of tumour models. Furthermore, such strategy offers a strong immunological memory effect, which can provide protection against tumour rechallenging post elimination of their initial tumours.

  16. Error-prone mammalian female meiosis from silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint without normal interkinetochore tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Agnieszka; Brunet, Stéphane; Silk, Alain D; Cleveland, Don W; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2012-07-03

    It is well established that chromosome segregation in female meiosis I (MI) is error-prone. The acentrosomal meiotic spindle poles do not have centrioles and are not anchored to the cortex via astral microtubules. By Cre recombinase-mediated removal in oocytes of the microtubule binding site of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), which is implicated in anchoring microtubules at poles, we determine that without functional NuMA, microtubules lose connection to MI spindle poles, resulting in highly disorganized early spindle assembly. Subsequently, very long spindles form with hyperfocused poles. The kinetochores of homologs make attachments to microtubules in these spindles but with reduced tension between them and accompanied by alignment defects. Despite this, the spindle assembly checkpoint is normally silenced and the advance to anaphase I and first polar body extrusion takes place without delay. Females without functional NuMA in oocytes are sterile, producing aneuploid eggs with altered chromosome number. These findings establish that in mammalian MI, the spindle assembly checkpoint is unable to sustain meiotic arrest in the presence of one or few misaligned and/or misattached kinetochores with reduced interkinetochore tension, thereby offering an explanation for why MI in mammals is so error-prone.

  17. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proekt, Irina; Miller, Corey N; Jeanne, Marion; Fasano, Kayla J; Moon, James J; Lowell, Clifford A; Gould, Douglas B; Anderson, Mark S; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2016-10-03

    Studies of the genetic factors associated with human autoimmune disease suggest a multigenic origin of susceptibility; however, how these factors interact and through which tolerance pathways they operate generally remain to be defined. One key checkpoint occurs through the activity of the autoimmune regulator AIRE, which promotes central T cell tolerance. Recent reports have described a variety of dominant-negative AIRE mutations that likely contribute to human autoimmunity to a greater extent than previously thought. In families with these mutations, the penetrance of autoimmunity is incomplete, suggesting that other checkpoints play a role in preventing autoimmunity. Here, we tested whether a defect in LYN, an inhibitory protein tyrosine kinase that is implicated in systemic autoimmunity, could combine with an Aire mutation to provoke organ-specific autoimmunity. Indeed, mice with a dominant-negative allele of Aire and deficiency in LYN spontaneously developed organ-specific autoimmunity in the eye. We further determined that a small pool of retinal protein-specific T cells escaped thymic deletion as a result of the hypomorphic Aire function and that these cells also escaped peripheral tolerance in the presence of LYN-deficient dendritic cells, leading to highly destructive autoimmune attack. These findings demonstrate how 2 distinct tolerance pathways can synergize to unleash autoimmunity and have implications for the genetic susceptibility of autoimmune disease.

  18. Differences in spindle association of the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2 in mammalian spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M; Eriksson, J E; Gorbsky, G J

    2000-09-01

    We have investigated expression and subcellular localization of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 during rat and mouse spermatogenesis and in superovulated mouse oocytes. Our immunofluorescence studies demonstrate substantial differences in the localization patterns of kinetochore-associated Mad2 in these meiotic systems compared with previous studies of mitosis. In addition, the association of Mad2 with second-division-metaphase kinetochores differed significantly in male versus female meiosis. In spermatogenesis, Mad2 remained at most kinetochores throughout the entire first meiotic division and was lost only at metaphase of the second meiotic division. This result indicates that loss of kinetochore-associated Mad2 is not essential for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during the first meiotic division. Disruption of the male meiotic spindles with the microtubule depolymerizing agent nocodazole resulted in the appearance of Mad2 at nearly all kinetochores. In contrast, the microtubule stabilizer taxol induced the loss of Mad2 from the majority of the first-division-metaphase kinetochores in which it was normally present in untreated cells. In contrast to the situation in spermatogenesis, Mad2 persisted at the kinetochores of normal, second-division oocytes at metaphase. These findings suggest that the role of the kinetochore in signaling in the spindle checkpoint may differ markedly between mammalian mitosis and meiosis, between the two meiotic divisions, and between male and female meiosis.

  19. Host-Pathogen Checkpoints and Population Bottlenecks in Persistent and Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Bladder Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Thomas J.; Totsika, Makrina; Mansfield, Kylie J.; Moore, Kate H.; Schembri, Mark A.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder infections affect millions of people yearly, and recurrent symptomatic infections (cystitis) are very common. The rapid increase in infections caused by multi-drug resistant uropathogens threatens to make recurrent cystitis an increasingly troubling public health concern. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of bladder infections. Upon entry into the lower urinary tract, UPEC face obstacles to colonization that constitute population bottlenecks, reducing diversity and selecting for fit clones. A critical mucosal barrier to bladder infection is the epithelium (urothelium). UPEC bypass this barrier when they invade urothelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a process which requires type 1 pili. IBCs are transient in nature, occurring primarily during acute infection. Chronic bladder infection is common and can be either latent, in the form of the Quiescent Intracellular Reservoir (QIR), or active, in the form of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB/ABU) or chronic cystitis. In mice, the fate of bladder infection: QIR, ASB, or chronic cystitis, is determined within the first 24 hours of infection and constitutes a putative host-pathogen mucosal checkpoint that contributes to susceptibility to recurrent cystitis. Knowledge of these checkpoints and bottlenecks is critical for our understanding of bladder infection and efforts to devise novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22404313

  20. A novel role of farnesylation in targeting a mitotic checkpoint protein, human Spindly, to kinetochores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgil, Devinderjit K.; Westcott, Nathan; Famulski, Jakub K.; Patel, Kinjal; Macdonald, Dawn; Hang, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Kinetochore (KT) localization of mitotic checkpoint proteins is essential for their function during mitosis. hSpindly KT localization is dependent on the RZZ complex and hSpindly recruits the dynein–dynactin complex to KTs during mitosis, but the mechanism of hSpindly KT recruitment is unknown. Through domain-mapping studies we characterized the KT localization domain of hSpindly and discovered it undergoes farnesylation at the C-terminal cysteine residue. The N-terminal 293 residues of hSpindly are dispensable for its KT localization. Inhibition of farnesylation using a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) abrogated hSpindly KT localization without affecting RZZ complex, CENP-E, and CENP-F KT localization. We showed that hSpindly is farnesylated in vivo and farnesylation is essential for its interaction with the RZZ complex and hence KT localization. FTI treatment and hSpindly knockdown displayed the same mitotic phenotypes, indicating that hSpindly is a key FTI target in mitosis. Our data show a novel role of lipidation in targeting a checkpoint protein to KTs through protein–protein interaction. PMID:25825516

  1. An Adaptive Checkpointing Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Based Volunteer Computing Work Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Volunteer Computing, sometimes called Public Resource Computing, is an emerging computational model that is very suitable for work-pooled parallel processing. As more complex grid applications make use of work flows in their design and deployment it is reasonable to consider the impact of work flow deployment over a Volunteer Computing infrastructure. In this case, the inter work flow I/O can lead to a significant increase in I/O demands at the work pool server. A possible solution is the use of a Peer-to- Peer based parallel computing architecture to off-load this I/O demand to the workers; where the workers can fulfill some aspects of work flow coordination and I/O checking, etc. However, achieving robustness in such a large scale system is a challenging hurdle towards the decentralized execution of work flows and general parallel processes. To increase robustness, we propose and show the merits of using an adaptive checkpoint scheme that efficiently checkpoints the status of the parallel processes accordin...

  2. Dermatologic complications of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaud, Vincent; Meyer, Nicolas; Lamant, Laurence; Vigarios, Emmanuelle; Mazieres, Julien; Delord, Jean Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) is rapidly increasing. Given their mechanism of action that triggers T-cell activation, these immune checkpoint inhibitors induce specific adverse events that are mostly of immunologic origin. In this way, cutaneous toxicities represent the most frequent immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The purpose of this review is to summarize the most prevalent dermatologic complications induced by PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies and to compare their dermatologic safety profile with anti-CTLA-4 ipilimumab. More than 40% of melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy are faced with dermatologic irAEs. However, these cutaneous complications usually remain self-limiting and readily manageable. Nonspecific macular papular rash and pruritus represent the most common manifestations. More characteristic lichenoid dermatitis or psoriasis may also develop. Vitiligo is also frequent in patients with melanoma but has not been reported in other types of solid cancers. Mucosal involvement may also occur, including xerostomia and lichenoid reactions. Although available data remain scarce, anti-PD-L1 antibodies present a similar dermatologic safety profile. Dermatologic irAEs induced by PD-1 or PD-L1 blockade therapy rarely result in significant morbidity or permanent discontinuation of treatment. However, early recognition and appropriate management are crucial for restricting dose-limiting toxicities.

  3. Checkpoint for DNA integrity at the first mitosis after oocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Trimarchi, James R; Smith, Peter J S; Keefe, David L

    2002-06-01

    Activation of oocytes, arrested at the meiosis II (MII) in mammals, initiates meiotic release, mitotic divisions, and development. Unlike most somatic cell types, MII arrested female germ cells lack an efficient DNA integrity checkpoint control. Here we present evidence showing a unique checkpoint for DNA integrity at first mitosis after oocyte activation. Mouse oocytes carrying intact DNA cleaved normally after meiotic release, whereas 50% of oocytes harboring damaged DNA manifested cytofragmentation, a morphological hallmark of apoptosis. If not activated, DNA-damaged MII oocytes did not show apoptotic fragmentation. Further, activated, enucleated oocytes or enucleated fertilized oocytes also underwent cytofragmentation, implicating cytoplasmic coordination of the fragmentation process, independent of the nucleus. Depolymerization of either actin filaments or microtubules induced no cytofragmentation, but inhibited fragmentation upon oocyte activation. During the process of fragmentation, microtubule networks formed, then microtubule asters congregated at discrete locations, around which fragmented cellular bodies formed. Mitotic spindles, however, were not formed inactivated oocytes with damaged or absent DNA; in contrast, normal mitotic spindles were formed in activated oocytes with intact DNA. These results demonstrate that damaged DNA or absence of DNA leads to cytofragmentation after oocyte activation. Further, we found a mechanism of cytoskeletal involvement in the process of cytofragmentation. In addition, possible implication of the present findings in somatic cell cloning and human clinical embryology is discussed.

  4. Probing the Mec1ATR Checkpoint Activation Mechanism with Small Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanrooij, Paulina H; Tannous, Elias; Kumar, Sandeep; Navadgi-Patil, Vasundhara M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Yeast Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the apical protein kinase that initiates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and replication stress. The basal activity of Mec1 kinase is activated by cell cycle phase-specific activators. Three distinct activators stimulate Mec1 kinase using an intrinsically disordered domain of the protein. These are the Ddc1 subunit of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp (ortholog of human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad9), the replication initiator Dpb11 (ortholog of human TopBP1 and S. pombe Cut5), and the multifunctional nuclease/helicase Dna2. Here, we use small peptides to determine the requirements for Mec1 activation. For Ddc1, we identify two essential aromatic amino acids in a hydrophobic environment that when fused together are proficient activators. Using this increased insight, we have been able to identify homologous motifs in S. pombe Rad9 that can activate Mec1. Furthermore, we show that a 9-amino acid Dna2-based peptide is sufficient for Mec1 activation. Studies with mutant activators suggest that binding of an activator to Mec1 is a two-step process, the first step involving the obligatory binding of essential aromatic amino acids to Mec1, followed by an enhancement in binding energy through interactions with neighboring sequences.

  5. Estimated Interval-Based Checkpointing (EIC on Spot Instances in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cloud computing, users can rent computing resources from service providers according to their demand. Spot instances are unreliable resources provided by cloud computing services at low monetary cost. When users perform tasks on spot instances, there is an inevitable risk of failures that causes the delay of task execution time, resulting in a serious deterioration of quality of service (QoS. To deal with the problem on spot instances, we propose an estimated interval-based checkpointing (EIC using weighted moving average. Our scheme sets the thresholds of price and execution time based on history. Whenever the actual price and the execution time cross over the thresholds, the system saves the state of spot instances. The Bollinger Bands is adopted to inform the ranges of estimated cost and execution time for user's discretion. The simulation results reveal that, compared to the HBC and REC, the EIC reduces the number of checkpoints and the rollback time. Consequently, the task execution time is decreased with EIC by HBC and REC. The EIC also provides the benefit of the cost reduction by HBC and REC, on average. We also found that the actual cost and execution time fall within the estimated ranges suggested by the Bollinger Bands.

  6. Photothermal therapy with immune-adjuvant nanoparticles together with checkpoint blockade for effective cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xu, Ligeng; Liang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutic strategy that can eliminate primary tumours, inhibit metastases, and prevent tumour relapses is developed herein by combining adjuvant nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy with checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. Indocyanine green (ICG), a photothermal agent, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist, are co-encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The formed PLGA-ICG-R837 nanoparticles composed purely by three clinically approved components can be used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of primary tumours, generating tumour-associated antigens, which in the presence of R837-containing nanoparticles as the adjuvant can show vaccine-like functions. In combination with the checkpoint-blockade using anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4), the generated immunological responses will be able to attack remaining tumour cells in mice, useful in metastasis inhibition, and may potentially be applicable for various types of tumour models. Furthermore, such strategy offers a strong immunological memory effect, which can provide protection against tumour rechallenging post elimination of their initial tumours. PMID:27767031

  7. The vigorous immune microenvironment of microsatellite instable colon cancer is balanced by multiple counter-inhibitory checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosa, Nicolas J; Cruise, Michael; Tam, Ada; Wicks, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Taube, Janis M; Blosser, Richard L; Fan, Hongni; Wang, Hao; Luber, Brandon S; Zhang, Ming; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Sears, Cynthia L; Anders, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; Housseau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    We examined the immune microenvironment of primary colorectal cancer using immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection/qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. A subset of colorectal cancer displayed high infiltration with activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) as well as activated Th1 cells characterized by IFNγ production and the Th1 transcription factor TBET. Parallel analysis of tumor genotypes revealed that virtually all of the tumors with this active Th1/CTL microenvironment had defects in mismatch repair, as evidenced by microsatellite instability (MSI). Counterbalancing this active Th1/CTL microenvironment, MSI tumors selectively demonstrated highly upregulated expression of multiple immune checkpoints, including five-PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, and IDO-currently being targeted clinically with inhibitors. These findings link tumor genotype with the immune microenvironment, and explain why MSI tumors are not naturally eliminated despite a hostile Th1/CTL microenvironment. They further suggest that blockade of specific checkpoints may be selectively efficacious in the MSI subset of colorectal cancer. The findings reported in this article are the first to demonstrate a link between a genetically defined subtype of cancer and its corresponding expression of immune checkpoints in the tumor microenvironment. The mismatch repair-defective subset of colorectal cancer selectively upregulates at least five checkpoint molecules that are targets of inhibitors currently being clinically tested. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Design Optimization of Time- and Cost-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Checkpointing and Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Eles, Petru;

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant hard real-time systems for safety-critical applications. We use checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication for tolerating transient faults. Processes and communications are statically scheduled. Our synthesis approach deci...

  9. DNA Damage Activates a Spatially Distinct Late Cytoplasmic Cell-Cycle Checkpoint Network Controlled by MK2-Mediated RNA Stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, H. Christian; Hasskamp, Pia; Schmedding, Ingolf; Morandell, Sandra; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Wang, XiaoZhe; Linding, Rune; Ong, Shao-En; Weaver, David; Carr, Steven A.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex kinase-based signaling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair. p53-defective tumor cells rewire their checkpoint response and become dependent on the p38/MK2 pathway for survival after DNA damage, despite a functional ATR-Chk1 pa

  10. Drosophila brca2 is required for mitotic and meiotic DNA repair and efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Klovstad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in the tumor suppressor BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast and other cancers in humans. BRCA2 maintains genome stability in part through the regulation of Rad51-dependent homologous recombination. Much about its precise function in the DNA damage responses is, however, not yet known. We have made null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of BRCA2 and measured the levels of homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining, and single-strand annealing in the pre-meiotic germline of Drosophila males. We show that repair by homologous recombination is dramatically decreased in Drosophila brca2 mutants. Instead, large flanking deletions are formed, and repair by the non-conservative single-strand annealing pathway predominates. We further show that during meiosis, Drosophila Brca2 has a dual role in the repair of meiotic double-stranded breaks and the efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint. The eggshell patterning defects that result from activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint in other meiotic DNA repair mutants can be strongly suppressed by mutations in brca2. In addition, Brca2 co-immunoprecipitates with the checkpoint protein Rad9, suggesting a direct role for Brca2 in the transduction of the meiotic recombination checkpoint signal.

  11. Structural Biology of the Immune Checkpoint Receptor PD-1 and Its Ligands PD-L1/PD-L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Krzysztof M.; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Magiera, Katarzyna; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells can avoid and suppress immune responses through activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Blocking the activities of these proteins with monoclonal antibodies, and thus restoring T cell function, has delivered breakthrough therapies against

  12. Two independent S-phase checkpoints regulate appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés-Ruiz, Míriam; Sakulkoo, Wasin; Littlejohn, George R.; Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M. oryzae requires two independent S-phase cell-cycle checkpoints. Initial formation of appressoria on the rice leaf surface requires an S-phase checkpoint that acts through the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, involving the Cds1 kinase. By contrast, appressorium repolarization involves a novel, DDR-independent S-phase checkpoint, triggered by appressorium turgor generation and melanization. This second checkpoint specifically regulates septin-dependent, NADPH oxidase-regulated F-actin dynamics to organize the appressorium pore and facilitate entry of the fungus into host tissue. PMID:28028232

  13. Dissecting the role of MPS1 in chromosome biorientation and the spindle checkpoint through the small molecule inhibitor reversine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Stefano; Tighe, Anthony; D'Alise, Anna Morena; Taylor, Stephen S; Musacchio, Andrea

    2010-07-12

    The catalytic activity of the MPS1 kinase is crucial for the spindle assembly checkpoint and for chromosome biorientation on the mitotic spindle. We report that the small molecule reversine is a potent mitotic inhibitor of MPS1. Reversine inhibits the spindle assembly checkpoint in a dose-dependent manner. Its addition to mitotic HeLa cells causes the ejection of Mad1 and the ROD-ZWILCH-ZW10 complex, both of which are important for the spindle checkpoint, from unattached kinetochores. By using reversine, we also demonstrate that MPS1 is required for the correction of improper chromosome-microtubule attachments. We provide evidence that MPS1 acts downstream from the AURORA B kinase, another crucial component of the error correction pathway. Our experiments describe a very useful tool to interfere with MPS1 activity in human cells. They also shed light on the relationship between the error correction pathway and the spindle checkpoint and suggest that these processes are coregulated and are likely to share at least a subset of their catalytic machinery.

  14. DNA topoisomerase II is a determinant of the tensile properties of yeast centromeric chromatin and the tension checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi, Tariq H; Navarro, Michelle S; Bachant, Jeff

    2008-10-01

    Centromeric (CEN) chromatin is placed under mechanical tension and stretches as kinetochores biorient on the mitotic spindle. This deformation could conceivably provide a readout of biorientation to error correction mechanisms that monitor kinetochore-spindle interactions, but whether CEN chromatin acts in a tensiometer capacity is unresolved. Here, we report observations linking yeast Topoisomerase II (Top2) to both CEN mechanics and assessment of interkinetochore tension. First, in top2-4 and sumoylation-resistant top2-SNM mutants CEN chromatin stretches extensively during biorientation, resulting in increased sister kinetochore separation and preanaphase spindle extension. Our data indicate increased CEN stretching corresponds with alterations to CEN topology induced in response to tension. Second, Top2 potentiates aspects of the tension checkpoint. Mutations affecting the Mtw1 kinetochore protein activate Ipl1 kinase to detach kinetochores and induce spindle checkpoint arrest. In mtw1top2-4 and mtw1top2-SNM mutants, however, kinetochores are resistant to detachment and checkpoint arrest is attenuated. For top2-SNM cells, CEN stretching and checkpoint attenuation occur even in the absence of catenation linking sister chromatids. In sum, Top2 seems to play a novel role in CEN compaction that is distinct from decatenation. Perturbations to this function may allow weakened kinetochores to stretch CENs in a manner that mimics tension or evades Ipl1 surveillance.

  15. Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather than oligomerization, is required for the spindle checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sironi, L; Melixetian, M; Faretta, M

    2001-01-01

    Mad2 is a key component of the spindle checkpoint, a device that controls the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. The ability of Mad2 to form oligomers in vitro has been correlated with its ability to block the cell cycle upon injection into Xenopus embryos. Here we show that Mad2 forms...

  16. Cell cycle re-entry mechanisms after DNA damage checkpoints Giving it some gas to shut off the breaks!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to maintain genetic integrity, cells are equipped with cell cycle checkpoints that detect DNA damage, orchestrate repair, and if necessary, eliminate severely damaged cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. The mitotic machinery is now emerging as an important determinant of the cellular re

  17. Autoimmune dermatologic toxicities from immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 antibody therapy: a report on bullous skin eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jour, George; Glitza, Isabella C; Ellis, Rachel M; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Li, Janet Y; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Huen, Auris; Aung, Phyu P; Ivan, Doina; Drucker, Carol R; Prieto, Victor G; Rapini, Ronald P; Patel, Anisha; Curry, Jonathan L

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against the immune checkpoint programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) improve the hosts' antitumor immune response and have showed tremendous promise in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Reports of serious autoimmune dermatologic toxicities from immune checkpoint blockade therapy, however, are emerging. We report our experience with five patients who presented with pruritic vesicles and blisters on the skin while treated with anti-PD-1 antibody immunotherapy with either nivolumab or pembrolizumab. Four of the patients' skin biopsies revealed subepidermal bullae with immunohistochemical study for type IV collagen labeling the floor of the blister cavity and direct immunofluorescence studies (in three of the four patients tested) decorated linear IgG and C3 immune deposits on the blister roof, diagnostic of bullous pemphigoid. One patient developed bullous erythema multiforme. All patients had partial or complete resolution of skin lesions following treatment with systemic corticosteroid and cessation of checkpoint blockade. Recognition and treatment of rare immune-related bullous dermatologic toxicities will become increasingly important as more patients are treated with effective and newer immune checkpoint blockade therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. DNA damage activates a spatially distinct late cytoplasmic cell-cycle checkpoint network controlled by MK2-mediated RNA stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, H Christian; Hasskamp, Pia; Schmedding, Ingolf

    2010-01-01

    Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex kinase-based signaling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair. p53-defective tumor cells rewire their checkpoint response and become dependent on the p38/MK2 pathway for survival after DNA damage, despite a functional ATR-Chk1...

  19. Pleiohomeotic interacts with the core transcription elongation factor Spt5 to regulate gene expression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harvey

    Full Text Available The early elongation checkpoint regulated by Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb is a critical control point for the expression of many genes. Spt5 interacts directly with RNA polymerase II and has an essential role in establishing this checkpoint, and also for further transcript elongation. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Spt5 interacts both physically and genetically with the Polycomb Group (PcG protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho, and the majority of Pho binding sites overlap with Spt5 binding sites across the genome in S2 cells. Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner.

  20. Expanded CAG/CTG repeat DNA induces a checkpoint response that impacts cell proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangapriya Sundararajan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive DNA elements are mutational hotspots in the genome, and their instability is linked to various neurological disorders and cancers. Although it is known that expanded trinucleotide repeats can interfere with DNA replication and repair, the cellular response to these events has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that an expanded CAG/CTG repeat elicits a DNA damage checkpoint response in budding yeast. Using microcolony and single cell pedigree analysis, we found that cells carrying an expanded CAG repeat frequently experience protracted cell division cycles, persistent arrests, and morphological abnormalities. These phenotypes were further exacerbated by mutations in DSB repair pathways, including homologous recombination and end joining, implicating a DNA damage response. Cell cycle analysis confirmed repeat-dependent S phase delays and G2/M arrests. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the above phenotypes are due to the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, since expanded CAG repeats induced the phosphorylation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase in a rad52Δ recombination deficient mutant. Interestingly, cells mutated for the MRX complex (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2, a central component of DSB repair which is required to repair breaks at CAG repeats, failed to elicit repeat-specific arrests, morphological defects, or Rad53 phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that damage at expanded CAG/CTG repeats is likely sensed by the MRX complex, leading to a checkpoint response. Finally, we show that repeat expansions preferentially occur in cells experiencing growth delays. Activation of DNA damage checkpoints in repeat-containing cells could contribute to the tissue degeneration observed in trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases.

  1. Expanded CAG/CTG repeat DNA induces a checkpoint response that impacts cell proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Rangapriya; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2011-03-01

    Repetitive DNA elements are mutational hotspots in the genome, and their instability is linked to various neurological disorders and cancers. Although it is known that expanded trinucleotide repeats can interfere with DNA replication and repair, the cellular response to these events has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that an expanded CAG/CTG repeat elicits a DNA damage checkpoint response in budding yeast. Using microcolony and single cell pedigree analysis, we found that cells carrying an expanded CAG repeat frequently experience protracted cell division cycles, persistent arrests, and morphological abnormalities. These phenotypes were further exacerbated by mutations in DSB repair pathways, including homologous recombination and end joining, implicating a DNA damage response. Cell cycle analysis confirmed repeat-dependent S phase delays and G2/M arrests. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the above phenotypes are due to the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, since expanded CAG repeats induced the phosphorylation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase in a rad52Δ recombination deficient mutant. Interestingly, cells mutated for the MRX complex (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2), a central component of DSB repair which is required to repair breaks at CAG repeats, failed to elicit repeat-specific arrests, morphological defects, or Rad53 phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that damage at expanded CAG/CTG repeats is likely sensed by the MRX complex, leading to a checkpoint response. Finally, we show that repeat expansions preferentially occur in cells experiencing growth delays. Activation of DNA damage checkpoints in repeat-containing cells could contribute to the tissue degeneration observed in trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases.

  2. The checkpoint for agonist selection precedes conventional selection in human thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstichel, Greet; Vermijlen, David; Martens, Liesbet; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Brouwer, Margreet; Thiault, Nicolas; Van Caeneghem, Yasmine; De Munter, Stijn; Weening, Karin; Bonte, Sarah; Leclercq, Georges; Taghon, Tom; Kerre, Tessa; Saeys, Yvan; Van Dorpe, Jo; Cheroutre, Hilde; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2017-02-24

    The thymus plays a central role in self-tolerance, partly by eliminating precursors with a T cell receptor (TCR) that binds strongly to self-antigens. However, the generation of self-agonist-selected lineages also relies on strong TCR signaling. How thymocytes discriminate between these opposite outcomes remains elusive. Here, we identified a human agonist-selected PD-1(+) CD8αα(+) subset of mature CD8αβ(+) T cells that displays an effector phenotype associated with agonist selection. TCR stimulation of immature post-β-selection thymocyte blasts specifically gives rise to this innate subset and fixes early T cell receptor alpha variable (TRAV) and T cell receptor alpha joining (TRAJ) rearrangements in the TCR repertoire. These findings suggest that the checkpoint for agonist selection precedes conventional selection in the human thymus. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes is not error-prone despite lacking spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Shao, Hua; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, X Johné

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint, SAC, is a surveillance mechanism to control the onset of anaphase during cell division. SAC prevents anaphase initiation until all chromosome pairs have achieved bipolar attachment and aligned at the metaphase plate of the spindle. In doing so, SAC is thought to be the key mechanism to prevent chromosome nondisjunction in mitosis and meiosis. We have recently demonstrated that Xenopus oocyte meiosis lacks SAC control. This prompted the question of whether Xenopus oocyte meiosis is particularly error-prone. In this study, we have karyotyped a total of 313 Xenopus eggs following in vitro oocyte maturation. We found no hyperploid egg, out of 204 metaphase II eggs with countable chromosome spreads. Therefore, chromosome nondisjunction is very rare during Xenopus oocyte meiosis I, despite the lack of SAC.

  4. Adapt or die: how eukaryotic cells respond to prolonged activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossio, Valentina; Galati, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2010-12-01

    Many cancer-treating compounds used in chemotherapies, the so-called antimitotics, target the mitotic spindle. Spindle defects in turn trigger activation of the SAC (spindle assembly checkpoint), a surveillance mechanism that transiently arrests cells in mitosis to provide the time for error correction. When the SAC is satisfied, it is silenced. However, after a variable amount of time, cells escape from the mitotic arrest, even if the SAC is not satisfied, through a process called adaptation or mitotic slippage. Adaptation weakens the killing properties of antimitotics, ultimately giving rise to resistant cancer cells. We summarize here the mechanisms underlying this process and propose a strategy to identify the factors involved using budding yeast as a model system. Inhibition of factors involved in SAC adaptation could have important therapeutic applications by potentiating the ability of antimitotics to cause cell death.

  5. Joined at the hip: kinetochores, microtubules, and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristan, Carlos; Kops, Geert J P L

    2015-01-01

    Error-free chromosome segregation relies on stable connections between kinetochores and spindle microtubules. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors such connections and relays their absence to the cell cycle machinery to delay cell division. The molecular network at kinetochores that is responsible for microtubule binding is integrated with the core components of the SAC signaling system. Molecular-mechanistic understanding of how the SAC is coupled to the kinetochore-microtubule interface has advanced significantly in recent years. The latest insights not only provide a striking view of the dynamics and regulation of SAC signaling events at the outer kinetochore but also create a framework for understanding how that signaling may be terminated when kinetochores and microtubules connect.

  6. Checkpoint and Replication Oriented Fault Tolerant Mechanism for MapReduce Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available MapReduce is an emerging programming paradigm and an associated implementation for processing and generating big data which has been widely applied in data-intensive systems. In cloud environment, node and task failure is no longer accidental but a common feature of large-scale systems. In MapReduce framework, although the rescheduling based fault-tolerant method is simple to implement, it failed to fully consider the location of distributed data, the computation and storage overhead. Thus, a single node failure will increase the completion time dramatically. In this paper, a Checkpoint and Replication Oriented Fault Tolerant scheduling algorithm (CROFT is proposed, which takes both task and node failure into consideration. Preliminary experiments show that with less storage and network overhead. CROFT will significantly reduce the completion time at failure time, and the overall performance of MapReduce can be improved at least over 30% than original mechanism in Hadoop.  

  7. Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of PML at T409 regulates spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Liu, J

    2016-08-31

    During mitosis, Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) change dramatically in morphology and composition, but little is known about function of PML in mitosis. Here, we show that PML is phosphorylated at T409 (PML p409) in a mitosis-specific manner. More importantly, PML p409 contributes to maintain the duration of pro-metaphase and regulates spindle checkpoint. Deficient PML p409 caused a shortening of pro-metaphase and challenged the nocodazole-triggered mitotic arrest. T409A mutation led to a higher frequency of misaligned chromosomes on metaphase plate, and subsequently death in late mitosis. In addition, inhibition of PML p409 repressed growth of tumor cells, suggesting that PML p409 is a potential target for cancer therapy. Collectively, our study demonstrated an important phosphorylated site of PML, which contributed to explore the role of PML in mitosis.

  8. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  9. Dermatologic adverse events of checkpoint inhibitors: what an oncologist should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habre, Maya; Habre, Samer Bassilios; Kourie, Hampig R

    2016-12-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) represent a new revolutionary weapon in the armamentarium of anti-cancer therapies. The side effects of these new agents represent a new challenge for oncologists; they are usually unpredictable and sometimes life threatening, if not managed rapidly and adequately. The most frequent side effects are the dermatologic, but they are usually low grade side effects and consequently easily manageable. Rash, pruritus and vitiligo are the most frequent dermatologic side effects. We aimed in this review to describe first all the dermatologic side effects of ICI according to the subtype of ICI and combination therapies in the clinical trials, then to report all the rare case reports dermatologic side effects, and finally to present the management algorithm of these side effects.

  10. Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Furness, Andrew J. S.; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ramskov, Sofie; Lyngaa, Rikke; Saini, Sunil Kumar; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Hiley, Crispin T.; Watkins, Thomas B. K.; Shafi, Seema; Murugaesu, Nirupa; Mitter, Richard; Akarca, Ayse U.; Linares, Joseph; Marafioti, Teresa; Henry, Jake Y.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Miao, Diana; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Garraway, Levi A.; Makarov, Vladimir; Rizvi, Naiyer A.; Snyder, Alexandra; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Shukla, Sachet A.; Wu, Catherine J.; Peggs, Karl S.; Chan, Timothy A.; Hadrup, Sine R.; Quezada, Sergio A.; Swanton, Charles

    2016-01-01

    As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clinical benefit. Cytotoxic chemotherapy–induced subclonal neoantigens, contributing to an increased mutational load, were enriched in certain poor responders. These data suggest that neoantigen heterogeneity may influence immune surveillance and support therapeutic developments targeting clonal neoantigens. PMID:26940869

  11. Prospect of the use of checkpoint inhibitors in hepatocellular cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufi, Ali; Tirona, Maria Tria

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a very fatal disease due to limited therapeutic options as well as due to its association with underlying chronic liver disease in the majority of cases. The immune evasion in HCC signifies a major barrier to the delivery of effective immunotherapy. Sorafenib is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved drug available with an overall response rate of 2%–3% and overall survival of 2.8 months. Chemotherapy has not been used routinely because of the relative refractoriness of advanced HCC. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, programmed death 1, and programmed death-ligand 1) has opened a new horizon for cancer immunotherapy. Future direction in immunotherapy for HCC is to rationally combine it with other treatment modalities, including surgery, radiofrequency ablation, and cytotoxic agents, to maximize its therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma of the Orbit and Ocular Adnexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joshua; Thuro, Bradley A; Thakar, Sudip; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Richani, Karina; Esmaeli, Bita

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors are members of a new class of drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors and have proven efficacy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Herein, the authors report the use of nivolumab and pembrolizumab, 2 recently Food and Drug Administration-approved PD-1 inhibitors, in 3 patients: 1 with metastatic conjunctival melanoma and 2 with metastatic cutaneous melanoma and orbital involvement. The patients' metastatic disease responded well to drug treatment. As of this writing, 2 patients have completed therapy and remain disease free at least 1 year after treatment completion; the other patient is still receiving treatment, and his orbital disease is responding. The authors herein describe the use of PD-1 inhibitors as a new alternative in the treatment of metastatic melanoma to the orbit or metastatic ocular adnexal melanomas in these clinical settings.

  13. A positive feedback loop links opposing functions of P-TEFb/Cdk9 and histone H2B ubiquitylation to regulate transcript elongation in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Sansó

    Full Text Available Transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII is accompanied by conserved patterns of histone modification. Whereas histone modifications have established roles in transcription initiation, their functions during elongation are not understood. Mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1 plays a key role in coordinating co-transcriptional histone modification by promoting site-specific methylation of histone H3. H2Bub1 also regulates gene expression through an unidentified, methylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal bidirectional communication between H2Bub1 and Cdk9, the ortholog of metazoan positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical and classical genetic analyses indicate that lowering Cdk9 activity or preventing phosphorylation of its substrate, the transcription processivity factor Spt5, reduces H2Bub1 in vivo. Conversely, mutations in the H2Bub1 pathway impair Cdk9 recruitment to chromatin and decrease Spt5 phosphorylation. Moreover, an Spt5 phosphorylation-site mutation, combined with deletion of the histone H3 Lys4 methyltransferase Set1, phenocopies morphologic and growth defects due to H2Bub1 loss, suggesting independent, partially redundant roles for Cdk9 and Set1 downstream of H2Bub1. Surprisingly, mutation of the histone H2B ubiquitin-acceptor residue relaxes the Cdk9 activity requirement in vivo, and cdk9 mutations suppress cell-morphology defects in H2Bub1-deficient strains. Genome-wide analyses by chromatin immunoprecipitation also demonstrate opposing effects of Cdk9 and H2Bub1 on distribution of transcribing RNAPII. Therefore, whereas mutual dependence of H2Bub1 and Spt5 phosphorylation indicates positive feedback, mutual suppression by cdk9 and H2Bub1-pathway mutations suggests antagonistic functions that must be kept in balance to regulate elongation. Loss of H2Bub1 disrupts that balance and leads to deranged gene expression and aberrant cell

  14. Immune-checkpoint status in penile squamous cell carcinoma: a North American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Margaret; Taheri, Diana; Ball, Mark W; Bezerra, Stephania M; Del Carmen Rodriguez, Maria; Ricardo, Bernardo F P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Sharma, Rajni B; Meeker, Alan; Chaux, Alcides; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2017-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is primarily treated by surgical resection. Locally advanced and metastatic diseases require a multidisciplinary treatment approach. However, mortality and morbidity remain high, and novel molecular and immunotherapeutic targets are actively being sought. We investigated the expression of immune-checkpoint markers in penile cancers. Fifty-three invasive penile SCCs diagnosed between 1985 and 2013 were retrieved from our surgical pathology archives. Representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival blocks were used for the construction of 2 high-density tissue microarrays. Tissue microarrays were stained with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, FOXP3, CD8, and Ki-67. PD-L1 was investigated using rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (Cell Signaling, Boston, MA; E1L3N, 1:100). Overall, 21 (40%) of 53 penile SCCs had positive PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 was expressed by a significant proportion of advanced penile SCC. Forty-four percent (15/34) of stage pT2 or more SCC and 38% (6/16) of tumors with lymph node metastasis were positive for PD-L1. PD-L1 expression did not correlate with patient age, tumor location, histologic subtype, tumor stage, anatomic depth of invasion, or tumor grade. FOXP3 expression in tumoral immune cells was found in 26 (49%) of 53 cases. FOXP3 expression in stromal immune cells correlated with tumor thickness (P = .0086). The ratio of CD8/FOXP3 was greater than 1 in 62% of cases in tumor-infiltrating immune cells and 34% of cases in stromal immune cells. Our current study is the largest to assess expression of PD-L1 in a clinically well-annotated North American cohort of penile SCC. Our findings support a rationale for targeting immune-checkpoint inhibitor pathways in advanced penile SCC.

  15. Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, E; Kirsch-Volders, M; Parry, J; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U

    2008-03-12

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors attachment to microtubules and tension on chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. It represents a surveillance mechanism that halts cells in M-phase in the presence of unattached chromosomes, associated with accumulation of checkpoint components, in particular, Mad2, at the kinetochores. A complex between the anaphase promoting factor/cylosome (APC/C), its accessory protein Cdc20 and proteins of the SAC renders APC/C inactive, usually until all chromosomes are properly assembled at the spindle equator (chromosome congression) and under tension from spindle fibres. Upon release from the SAC the APC/C can target proteins like cyclin B and securin for degradation by the proteasome. Securin degradation causes activation of separase proteolytic enzyme, and in mitosis cleavage of cohesin proteins at the centromeres and arms of sister chromatids. In meiosis I only the cohesin proteins at the sister chromatid arms are cleaved. This requires meiosis specific components and tight regulation by kinase and phosphatase activities. There is no S-phase between meiotic divisions. Second meiosis resembles mitosis. Mammalian oocytes arrest constitutively at metaphase II in presence of aligned chromosomes, which is due to the activity of the cytostatic factor (CSF). The SAC has been identified in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, but gender-differences may contribute to sex-specific differential responses to aneugens. The age-related reduction in expression of components of the SAC in mammalian oocytes may act synergistically with spindle and other cell organelles' dysfunction, and a partial loss of cohesion between sister chromatids to predispose oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation. This might affect dose-response to aneugens. In view of the tendency to have children at advanced maternal ages it appears relevant to pursue studies on consequences of ageing on the susceptibility of human oocytes to the induction of meiotic error by

  16. Response to BRAF inhibition in melanoma is enhanced when combined with immune checkpoint blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zachary A; Juneja, Vikram R; Sage, Peter T; Frederick, Dennie T; Piris, Adriano; Mitra, Devarati; Lo, Jennifer A; Hodi, F Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J; Bosenberg, Marcus W; McMahon, Martin; Flaherty, Keith T; Fisher, David E; Sharpe, Arlene H; Wargo, Jennifer A

    2014-07-01

    BRAF-targeted therapy results in objective responses in the majority of patients; however, the responses are short lived (∼6 months). In contrast, treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors results in a lower response rate, but the responses tend to be more durable. BRAF inhibition results in a more favorable tumor microenvironment in patients, with an increase in CD8(+) T-cell infiltrate and a decrease in immunosuppressive cytokines. There is also increased expression of the immunomodulatory molecule PDL1, which may contribute to the resistance. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that BRAF-targeted therapy may synergize with the PD1 pathway blockade to enhance antitumor immunity. To test this hypothesis, we developed a BRAF(V600E)/Pten(-/-) syngeneic tumor graft immunocompetent mouse model in which BRAF inhibition leads to a significant increase in the intratumoral CD8(+) T-cell density and cytokine production, similar to the effects of BRAF inhibition in patients. In this model, CD8(+) T cells were found to play a critical role in the therapeutic effect of BRAF inhibition. Administration of anti-PD1 or anti-PDL1 together with a BRAF inhibitor led to an enhanced response, significantly prolonging survival and slowing tumor growth, as well as significantly increasing the number and activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These results demonstrate synergy between combined BRAF-targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade. Although clinical trials combining these two strategies are ongoing, important questions still remain unanswered. Further studies using this new melanoma mouse model may provide therapeutic insights, including optimal timing and sequence of therapy.

  17. Lichenoid Dermatologic Toxicity From Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy: A Detailed Examination of the Clinicopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, Michael T; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Chon, Susan; Huen, Auris; Diab, Adi; Omar, Pacha; Aung, Phyu P; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Mays, Steven R; Prieto, Victor G; Curry, Jonathan L

    2017-02-01

    Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor has demonstrated tremendous promise in the treatment of advanced solid tumors. Dermatologic toxicities, however, are an emerging consequence of this therapy and have been clearly associated with immune checkpoint blockade antibodies. Distinctive clinical and histologic subtypes of dermatologic toxicity secondary to immunotherapy are emerging and include rare autoimmune bullous reactions (eg, bullous pemphigoid) and lichenoid eruptions. We report three patients who developed lichenoid dermatitis while receiving anti-PD-1 antibody therapy. The mean time to onset of lichenoid dermatologic toxicity was 42 days (range: 1-75 days) from initiation of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy. Lesions most frequently presented on the extremities and trunk as pustules, papules, and plaques. The face was not commonly involved. Of the five skin biopsies examined, all demonstrated dense band-like lymphocytic infiltrate, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, saw-tooth rete ridge pattern, and dyskeratosis. Acanthosis was a feature in all of the skin biopsies, and in one, epidermal hyperplasia was prominent. In several skin biopsies, histologic features supporting a lichenoid drug eruption were present, including parakeratosis, spongiosis, periadnexal/perivascular inflammation, and eosinophils. Furthermore, the histologic features varied in skin biopsy specimens taken from the same patient at different sites, supporting a drug reaction. All patients' skin lesions improved with use of steroids: two were treated with topical steroids and one with systemic steroids. Recognition of the histopathologic patterns of dermatologic toxicities resulting from immune checkpoint blockade therapy will become increasingly important for ensuring appropriate management of dermatologic toxicities and optimal patient care.

  18. Yeast Dam1p is required to maintain spindle integrity during mitosis and interacts with the Mps1p kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M H; Bachant, J B; Castillo, A R; Giddings, T H; Winey, M

    1999-07-01

    We have identified a mutant allele of the DAM1 gene in a screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with the mps1-1 mutation. MPS1 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for duplication of the spindle pole body and for the spindle assembly checkpoint. Mutations in six different genes were found to be lethal in combination with mps1-1, of which only DAM1 was novel. The remaining genes encode a checkpoint protein, Bub1p, and four chaperone proteins, Sti1p, Hsc82p, Cdc37p, and Ydj1p. DAM1 is an essential gene that encodes a protein recently described as a member of a microtubule binding complex. We report here that cells harboring the dam1-1 mutation fail to maintain spindle integrity during anaphase at the restrictive temperature. Consistent with this phenotype, DAM1 displays genetic interactions with STU1, CIN8, and KAR3, genes encoding proteins involved in spindle function. We have observed that a Dam1p-Myc fusion protein expressed at endogenous levels and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy, appears to be evenly distributed along short mitotic spindles but is found at the spindle poles at later times in mitosis.

  19. A Phase I Trial of an Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Plus Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Karen Kelly, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California...Checkpoint Inhibitor Plus Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...checkpoint inhibitor MPDL3280A (atezolizumab) in early stage inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. The trial is comprised of a traditional 3 + 3 phase I

  20. Mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1 contributes to high NaCl-induced activation of the osmoprotective transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP.

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    Margarita Kunin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertonicity, such as induced by high NaCl, increases the activity of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP whose target genes increase osmoprotective organic osmolytes and heat shock proteins. METHODOLOGY: We used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with TonEBP/OREBP in order to identify ones that might contribute to its high NaCl-induced activation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 20 unique peptides from Mediator of DNA Damage Checkpoint 1 (MDC1 with high probability. The identification was confirmed by Western analysis. We used small interfering RNA knockdown of MDC1 to characterize its osmotic function. Knocking down MDC1 reduces high NaCl-induced increases in TonEBP/OREBP transcriptional and transactivating activity, but has no significant effect on its nuclear localization. We confirm six previously known phosphorylation sites in MDC1, but do not find evidence that high NaCl increases phosphorylation of MDC1. It is suggestive that MDC1 acts as a DNA damage response protein since hypertonicity reversibly increases DNA breaks, and other DNA damage response proteins, like ATM, also associate with TonEBP/OREBP and contribute to its activation by hypertonicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MDC1 associates with TonEBP/OREBP and contributes to high NaCl-induced increase of that factor's transcriptional activity.

  1. FOXM1 allows human keratinocytes to bypass the oncogene-induced differentiation checkpoint in response to gain of MYC or loss of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo, R; Freije, A; de Pedro, I; Stoll, S W; Elder, J T; Gandarillas, A

    2017-01-01

    Tumour suppressor p53 or proto-oncogene MYC is frequently altered in squamous carcinomas, but this is insufficient to drive carcinogenesis. We have shown that overactivation of MYC or loss of p53 via DNA damage triggers an anti-oncogenic differentiation-mitosis checkpoint in human epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in impaired cell division and squamous differentiation. Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a transcription factor recently proposed to govern the expression of a set of mitotic genes. Deregulation of FOXM1 occurs in a wide variety of epithelial malignancies. We have ectopically expressed FOXM1 in keratinocytes of the skin after overexpression of MYC or inactivation of endogenous p53. Ectopic FOXM1 rescues the proliferative capacity of MYC- or p53-mutant cells in spite of higher genetic damage and a larger cell size typical of differentiation. As a consequence, differentiation induced by loss of p53 or MYC is converted into increased proliferation and keratinocytes displaying genomic instability are maintained within the proliferative compartment. The results demonstrate that keratinocyte oncogene-induced differentiation is caused by mitosis control and provide new insight into the mechanisms driving malignant progression in squamous cancer. PMID:27452522

  2. Premature Sister Chromatid Separation Is Poorly Detected by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint as a Result of System-Level Feedback

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    Mihailo Mirkovic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for faithful mitosis. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that the surveillance mechanism that governs mitotic fidelity, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, is not robust enough to halt cell division when cohesion loss occurs prematurely. The mechanism behind this poor response is not properly understood. Using developing Drosophila brains, we show that full sister chromatid separation elicits a weak checkpoint response resulting in abnormal mitotic exit after a short delay. Quantitative live-cell imaging approaches combined with mathematical modeling indicate that weak SAC activation upon cohesion loss is caused by weak signal generation. This is further attenuated by several feedback loops in the mitotic signaling network. We propose that multiple feedback loops involving cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1 gradually impair error-correction efficiency and accelerate mitotic exit upon premature loss of cohesion. Our findings explain how cohesion defects may escape SAC surveillance.

  3. Using ergonomics checkpoints to support a participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz

    2009-01-01

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country.

  4. A conserved Polϵ binding module in Ctf18-RFC is required for S-phase checkpoint activation downstream of Mec1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Luis J; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Marchesi, Vanessa; Jones, Richard C; Edmondson, Ricky D; Labib, Karim

    2015-10-15

    Defects during chromosome replication in eukaryotes activate a signaling pathway called the S-phase checkpoint, which produces a multifaceted response that preserves genome integrity at stalled DNA replication forks. Work with budding yeast showed that the 'alternative clamp loader' known as Ctf18-RFC acts by an unknown mechanism to activate the checkpoint kinase Rad53, which then mediates much of the checkpoint response. Here we show that budding yeast Ctf18-RFC associates with DNA polymerase epsilon, via an evolutionarily conserved 'Pol ϵ binding module' in Ctf18-RFC that is produced by interaction of the carboxyl terminus of Ctf18 with the Ctf8 and Dcc1 subunits. Mutations at the end of Ctf18 disrupt the integrity of the Pol ϵ binding module and block the S-phase checkpoint pathway, downstream of the Mec1 kinase that is the budding yeast orthologue of mammalian ATR. Similar defects in checkpoint activation are produced by mutations that displace Pol ϵ from the replisome. These findings indicate that the association of Ctf18-RFC with Pol ϵ at defective replication forks is a key step in activation of the S-phase checkpoint.

  5. Phospho-Bcl-x(L)(Ser62) plays a key role at DNA damage-induced G(2) checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfang; Beauchemin, Myriam; Bertrand, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, also functions in cell cycle progression and cell cycle checkpoints. Analysis of a series of phosphorylation site mutants reveals that cells expressing Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) mutant are less stable at the G 2 checkpoint and enter mitosis more rapidly than cells expressing wild-type Bcl-xL or Bcl-xL phosphorylation site mutants, including Thr41Ala, Ser43Ala, Thr47Ala, Ser56Ala and Thr115Ala. Analysis of the dynamic phosphorylation and location of phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) in unperturbed, synchronized cells and during DNA damage-induced G 2 arrest discloses that a pool of phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) accumulates into nucleolar structures in etoposide-exposed cells during G 2 arrest. In a series of in vitro kinase assays, pharmacological inhibitors and specific siRNAs experiments, we found that Polo kinase 1 and MAPK9/JNK2 are major protein kinases involved in Bcl-xL(Ser62) phosphorylation and accumulation into nucleolar structures during the G 2 checkpoint. In nucleoli, phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) binds to and co-localizes with Cdk1(cdc2), the key cyclin-dependent kinase required for entry into mitosis. These data indicate that during G 2 checkpoint, phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) stabilizes G 2 arrest by timely trapping of Cdk1(cdc2) in nucleolar structures to slow mitotic entry. It also highlights that DNA damage affects the dynamic composition of the nucleolus, which now emerges as a piece of the DNA damage response.

  6. Direct and indirect control of the initiation of meiotic recombination by DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in budding yeast.

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    Bilge Argunhan

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination plays an essential role in the proper segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I in many sexually reproducing organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by the scheduled formation of genome-wide DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. The timing of DSB formation is strictly controlled because unscheduled DSB formation is detrimental to genome integrity. Here, we investigated the role of DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in the control of meiotic DSB formation using budding yeast. By using recombination defective mutants in which meiotic DSBs are not repaired, the effect of DNA damage checkpoint mutations on DSB formation was evaluated. The Tel1 (ATM pathway mainly responds to unresected DSB ends, thus the sae2 mutant background in which DSB ends remain intact was employed. On the other hand, the Mec1 (ATR pathway is primarily used when DSB ends are resected, thus the rad51 dmc1 double mutant background was employed in which highly resected DSBs accumulate. In order to separate the effect caused by unscheduled cell cycle progression, which is often associated with DNA damage checkpoint defects, we also employed the ndt80 mutation which permanently arrests the meiotic cell cycle at prophase I. In the absence of Tel1, DSB formation was reduced in larger chromosomes (IV, VII, II and XI whereas no significant reduction was found in smaller chromosomes (III and VI. On the other hand, the absence of Rad17 (a critical component of the ATR pathway lead to an increase in DSB formation (chromosomes VII and II were tested. We propose that, within prophase I, the Tel1 pathway facilitates DSB formation, especially in bigger chromosomes, while the Mec1 pathway negatively regulates DSB formation. We also identified prophase I exit, which is under the control of the DNA damage checkpoint machinery, to be a critical event associated with down-regulating meiotic DSB formation.

  7. Current status and perspectives in translational biomarker research for PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy

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    Weijie Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modulating immune inhibitory pathways has been a major recent breakthrough in cancer treatment. Checkpoint blockade antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1 have demonstrated acceptable toxicity, promising clinical responses, durable disease control, and improved survival in some patients with advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and other tumor types. About 20 % of advanced NSCLC patients and 30 % of advanced melanoma patients experience tumor responses from checkpoint blockade monotherapy, with better clinical responses seen with the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Given the power of these new therapies, it is important to understand the complex and dynamic nature of host immune responses and the regulation of additional molecules in the tumor microenvironment and normal organs in response to the checkpoint blockade therapies. In this era of precision oncology, there remains a largely unmet need to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from immunotherapy, to optimize the monitoring assays for tumor-specific immune responses, to develop strategies to improve clinical efficacy, and to identify biomarkers so that immune-related adverse events can be avoided. At this time, PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC staining using 22C3 antibody is the only FDA-approved companion diagnostic for patients with NSCLC-treated pembrolizumab, but more are expected to come to market. We here summarize the current knowledge, clinical efficacy, potential immune biomarkers, and associated assays for immune checkpoint blockade therapies in advanced solid tumors.

  8. Combined Immunohistochemistry of PLK1, p21, and p53 for Predicting TP53 Status: An Independent Prognostic Factor of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishida, Takanori; Furuta, Akihiko; Takahashi, Shin; Watanabe, Mika; Nakata, Hideaki; Kato, Shunsuke; Ishioka, Chikashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2015-08-01

    It is difficult to predict the TP53 status by p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). We aimed to improve the accuracy of p53 IHC with p53-regulated proteins for predicting the TP53 mutation status. TP53 mutations were detected in 19 of 38 breast cancer patients (50%). Five of 7 cases of protein-truncating mutation of TP53 were completely negative for p53 IHC, whereas 11 of 12 cases of TP53 point mutation were strongly positive for p53 IHC. Therefore, to avoid false negatives, we extracted p53-dependent universally downregulated genes using microarray analysis from 38 breast cancer patients and 2 p53-inducible cell lines. From 9 commonly repressed genes, we evaluated 3 genes, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase (BUB1), which were previously identified as p53-dependent repressed genes. PLK1≥Allred total score (TS) 5 showed the highest correlation with TP53 mutation. To decrease false positivity, we evaluated p21 IHC. Although strong staining of p21 was observed in 4 cases (10.5%), all 4 were wild-type TP53. Thus, p53 mutation-like (p53mt-like) IHC was identified by p53 TS7,8 with PLK1≥TS 5 and p21 TS≤6. p53 mt-like IHC correlated with TP53 mutation (predictive value=0.94). In other 157 breast cancer cases, p53 mt-like was an independent prognostic marker in multivariate analysis and a strong prognostic factor. Stratification with p53 mt-like IHC identified patients with a poorer prognosis. In conclusion, we identified reliable IHC conditions to predict the TP53 status of breast cancer patients.

  9. JavaGenes and Condor: Cycle-Scavenging Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Langhirt, Eric; Livny, Miron; Ramamurthy, Ravishankar; Soloman, Marvin; Traugott, Steve

    2000-01-01

    A genetic algorithm code, JavaGenes, was written in Java and used to evolve pharmaceutical drug molecules and digital circuits. JavaGenes was run under the Condor cycle-scavenging batch system managing 100-170 desktop SGI workstations. Genetic algorithms mimic biological evolution by evolving solutions to problems using crossover and mutation. While most genetic algorithms evolve strings or trees, JavaGenes evolves graphs representing (currently) molecules and circuits. Java was chosen as the implementation language because the genetic algorithm requires random splitting and recombining of graphs, a complex data structure manipulation with ample opportunities for memory leaks, loose pointers, out-of-bound indices, and other hard to find bugs. Java garbage-collection memory management, lack of pointer arithmetic, and array-bounds index checking prevents these bugs from occurring, substantially reducing development time. While a run-time performance penalty must be paid, the only unacceptable performance we encountered was using standard Java serialization to checkpoint and restart the code. This was fixed by a two-day implementation of custom checkpointing. JavaGenes is minimally integrated with Condor; in other words, JavaGenes must do its own checkpointing and I/O redirection. A prototype Java-aware version of Condor was developed using standard Java serialization for checkpointing. For the prototype to be useful, standard Java serialization must be significantly optimized. JavaGenes is approximately 8700 lines of code and a few thousand JavaGenes jobs have been run. Most jobs ran for a few days. Results include proof that genetic algorithms can evolve directed and undirected graphs, development of a novel crossover operator for graphs, a paper in the journal Nanotechnology, and another paper in preparation.

  10. Dynamic Regulation and Function of Histone Monoubiquitination in Plants

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    Jing eFeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyubiquitin chain deposition on a target protein frequently leads to proteasome-mediated degradation whereas monoubiquitination modifies target protein property and function independent of proteolysis. Histone monoubiquitination occurs in chromatin and is in nowadays recognized as one critical type of epigenetic marks in eukaryotes. While H2A monoubiquitination (H2Aub1 is generally associated with transcription repression mediated by the Polycomb pathway, H2Bub1 is involved in transcription activation. H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 levels are dynamically regulated via deposition and removal by specific enzymes. We review knows and unknowns of dynamic regulation of H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 deposition and removal in plants and highlight the underlying crucial functions in gene transcription, cell proliferation/differentiation, and plant growth and development. We also discuss crosstalks existing between H2Aub1 or H2Bub1 and different histone methylations for an ample mechanistic understanding.

  11. DNA replication checkpoint signaling depends on a Rad53-Dbf4 N-terminal interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chou; Kenworthy, Jessica; Gabrielse, Carrie; Hänni, Christine; Zegerman, Philip; Weinreich, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are essential to initiate DNA replication at individual origins. During replication stress, the S-phase checkpoint inhibits the DDK- and CDK-dependent activation of late replication origins. Rad53 kinase is a central effector of the replication checkpoint and both binds to and phosphorylates Dbf4 to prevent late-origin firing. The molecular basis for the Rad53-Dbf4 physical interaction is not clear but occurs through the Dbf4 N terminus. Here we found that both Rad53 FHA1 and FHA2 domains, which specifically recognize phospho-threonine (pT), interacted with Dbf4 through an N-terminal sequence and an adjacent BRCT domain. Purified Rad53 FHA1 domain (but not FHA2) bound to a pT Dbf4 peptide in vitro, suggesting a possible phospho-threonine-dependent interaction between FHA1 and Dbf4. The Dbf4-Rad53 interaction is governed by multiple contacts that are separable from the Cdc5- and Msa1-binding sites in the Dbf4 N terminus. Importantly, abrogation of the Rad53-Dbf4 physical interaction blocked Dbf4 phosphorylation and allowed late-origin firing during replication checkpoint activation. This indicated that Rad53 must stably bind to Dbf4 to regulate its activity.

  12. A conserved physical and functional interaction between the cell cycle checkpoint clamp loader and DNA ligase I of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Levin, David S; Varkey, Johnson; Post, Sean; Bermudez, Vladimir P; Hurwitz, Jerard; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2007-08-03

    DNA ligase I joins Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and completes certain excision repair pathways. The participation of DNA ligase I in these transactions is directed by physical and functional interactions with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA sliding clamp, and, replication factor C (RFC), the clamp loader. Here we show that DNA ligase I also interacts with the hRad17 subunit of the hRad17-RFC cell cycle checkpoint clamp loader, and with each of the subunits of its DNA sliding clamp, the heterotrimeric hRad9-hRad1-hHus1 complex. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of RFC, hRad17-RFC stimulates joining by DNA ligase I. Similar results were obtained with the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins indicating that the interaction between the replicative DNA ligase and checkpoint clamp is conserved in eukaryotes. Notably, we show that hRad17 preferentially interacts with and specifically stimulates dephosphorylated DNA ligase I. Moreover, there is an increased association between DNA ligase I and hRad17 in S phase following DNA damage and replication blockage that occurs concomitantly with DNA damage-induced dephosphorylation of chromatin-associated DNA ligase I. Thus, our results suggest that the in vivo interaction between DNA ligase I and the checkpoint clamp loader is regulated by post-translational modification of DNA ligase I.

  13. Silencing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation through the abrogation of DNA damage checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadate, Yusuke [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuo; Kitamura, Yuka [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Tachibana, Taro [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Tamura, Tomohide [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Koizumi, Fumiaki, E-mail: fkoizumi@ncc.go.jp [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Radiosensitization by PARG silencing was observed in multiple lung cancer cells. •PAR accumulation was enhanced by PARG silencing after DNA damage. •Radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation were impaired by PARG siRNA. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a major enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARG deficiency reportedly sensitizes cells to the effects of radiation. In lung cancer, however, it has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether PARG siRNA contributes to an increased radiosensitivity using 8 lung cancer cell lines. Among them, the silencing of PARG induced a radiosensitizing effect in 5 cell lines. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was largely suppressed by PARG siRNA in PC-14 and A427 cells, which exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity in response to PARG knockdown. On the other hand, a similar effect was not observed in H520 cells, which did not exhibit a radiosensitizing effect. Consistent with a cell cycle analysis, radiation-induced checkpoint signals were not well activated in the PC-14 and A427 cells when treated with PARG siRNA. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity to radiation induced by PARG knockdown occurs through the abrogation of radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation in lung cancer cells. Our findings indicate that PARG could be a potential target for lung cancer treatments when used in combination with radiotherapy.

  14. Structure-based design, discovery and development of checkpoint kinase inhibitors as potential anti-cancer therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P; Jones, Alan M; Collins, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Checkpoint kinase inhibitors offer the promise of enhancing the effectiveness of widely prescribed cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy by inhibiting the DNA damage response, as well as the potential for single agent efficacy. Areas covered This article surveys structural insights into the checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 that have been exploited to enhance the selectivity and potency of small molecule inhibitors. The use of mechanistic cellular assays to guide the optimisation of inhibitors is reviewed. The status of the current clinical candidates and emerging new clinical contexts for CHK1 and CHK2 inhibitors are discussed, including the prospects for single agent efficacy. Expert opinion Protein bound water molecules play key roles in structural features that can be targeted to gain high selectivity for either enzyme. The results of early phase clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors have been mixed, but significant progress has been made in testing the combination of CHK1 inhibitors with genotoxic chemotherapy. Second generation CHK1 inhibitors are likely to benefit from increased selectivity and oral bioavailability. While the optimum therapeutic context for CHK2 inhibition remains unclear, the emergence of single agent preclinical efficacy for CHK1 inhibitors in specific tumour types exhibiting constitutive replication stress represents exciting progress in exploring the therapeutic potential of these agents. PMID:23594139

  15. p38γ regulates UV-induced checkpoint signaling and repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Cheng; Wu, Xiaohua; Han, Jiahuai; Sun, Peiqing

    2010-06-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA damage triggers activation of checkpoint signaling pathways that coordinate cell cycle arrest and repair of damaged DNA. These DNA damage responses serve to maintain genome stability and prevent accumulation of genetic mutations and development of cancer. The p38 MAPK was previously implicated in cellular responses to several types of DNA damage. However, the role of each of the four p38 isoforms and the mechanism for their involvement in DNA damage responses remained poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that p38γ, but not the other p38 isoforms, contributes to the survival of UV-treated cells. Deletion of p38γ sensitizes cells to UV exposure, accompanied by prolonged S phase cell cycle arrest and increased rate of apoptosis. Further investigation reveal that p38γ is essential for the optimal activation of the checkpoint signaling caused by UV, and for the efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage. These findings have established a novel role of p38γ in UV-induced DNA damage responses, and suggested that p38γ contributes to the ability of cells to cope with UV exposure by regulating the checkpoint signaling pathways and the repair of damaged DNA.

  16. Immunosuppressive networks and checkpoints controlling antitumor immunity and their blockade in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A Q; Mills, K H G

    2014-09-18

    Vaccines that promote protective adaptive immune responses have been successfully developed against a range of infectious diseases, and these are normally administered prior to exposure with the relevant virus or bacteria. Adaptive immunity also plays a critical role in the control of tumors. Immunotherapeutics and vaccines that promote effector T cell responses have the potential to eliminate tumors when used in a therapeutic setting. However, the induction of protective antitumor immunity is compromised by innate immunosuppressive mechanisms and regulatory cells that often dominate the tumor microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that blocking these suppressor cells and immune checkpoints to allow induction of antitumor immunity is a successful immunotherapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, stimulation of innate and consequently adaptive immune responses with concomitant inhibition of immune suppression, especially that mediated by regulatory T (Treg) cells, is emerging as a promising approach to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines against cancer. This review describes the immunosuppressive mechanisms controlling antitumor immunity and the novel strategies being employed to design effective immunotherapeutics against tumors based on inhibition of suppressor cells or blockade of immune checkpoints to allow induction of more potent effector T cell responses. This review also discusses the potential of using a combination of adjuvants with inhibition of immune checkpoint or suppressor cells for therapeutic vaccines and the translation of pre-clinical studies to the next-generation vaccines against cancer in humans.

  17. Spindle assembly checkpoint robustness requires Tpr-mediated regulation of Mad1/Mad2 proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Nina; Ferrás, Cristina; Kern, David M; Logarinho, Elsa; Cheeseman, Iain M; Maiato, Helder

    2013-12-23

    Tpr is a conserved nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that Tpr is required for normal SAC response by stabilizing Mad1 and Mad2 before mitosis. Tpr coimmunoprecipitated with Mad1 and Mad2 (hereafter designated as Tpr/Mad1/Mad2 or TM2 complex) during interphase and mitosis, and is required for Mad1–c-Mad2 recruitment to NPCs. Interestingly, Tpr was normally undetectable at kinetochores and dispensable for Mad1, but not for Mad2, kinetochore localization, which suggests that SAC robustness depends on Mad2 levels at kinetochores. Protein half-life measurements demonstrate that Tpr stabilizes Mad1 and Mad2, ensuring normal Mad1–c-Mad2 production in an mRNA- and kinetochore-independent manner. Overexpression of GFP-Mad2 restored normal SAC response and Mad2 kinetochore levels in Tpr-depleted cells. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that Tpr might spatially regulate SAC proteostasis through the SUMO-isopeptidases SENP1 and SENP2 at NPCs. Thus, Tpr is a kinetochore-independent, rate-limiting factor required to mount and sustain a robust SAC response.

  18. Protein Phosphatase 1 inactivates Mps1 to ensure efficient Spindle Assembly Checkpoint silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Margarida; Osswald, Mariana; Leça, Nelson; Barbosa, João; Pereira, António J; Maiato, Helder; Sunkel, Claudio E; Conde, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Faithfull genome partitioning during cell division relies on the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC), a conserved signaling pathway that delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules. Mps1 kinase is an upstream SAC regulator that promotes the assembly of an anaphase inhibitor through a sequential multi-target phosphorylation cascade. Thus, the SAC is highly responsive to Mps1, whose activity peaks in early mitosis as a result of its T-loop autophosphorylation. However, the mechanism controlling Mps1 inactivation once kinetochores attach to microtubules and the SAC is satisfied remains unknown. Here we show in vitro and in Drosophila that Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) inactivates Mps1 by dephosphorylating its T-loop. PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of Mps1 occurs at kinetochores and in the cytosol, and inactivation of both pools of Mps1 during metaphase is essential to ensure prompt and efficient SAC silencing. Overall, our findings uncover a mechanism of SAC inactivation required for timely mitotic exit. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25366.001 PMID:28463114

  19. Regulation of mitotic spindle asymmetry by SUMO and the spindle-assembly checkpoint in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Christian; Kammerer, Daniel; Denoth, Annina; Britschi, Mirjam; Barral, Yves; Liakopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-08-26

    During mitosis, the kinetochore microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes, and the astral microtubules position the spindle within the cell. Although the spindle is symmetric, proper positioning of the spindle in asymmetrically dividing cells generally correlates with the formation of morphologically and structurally distinct asters [1]. In budding yeast, the spindle-orientation proteins Kar9 and dynein decorate only one aster of the metaphase spindle and direct it toward the bud [2, 3]. The mechanisms controlling the distribution of Kar9 and dynein remain unclear. Here, we show that SUMO regulates astral-microtubule function in at least two ways. First, Kar9 was sumoylated in vivo. Sumoylation and Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Kar9 independently promoted Kar9 asymmetry on the spindle. Second, proper regulation of kinetochore function by SUMO was also required for Kar9 asymmetry. Indeed, activation of the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) due to SUMO and kinetochore defects promoted symmetric redistribution of Kar9 in a Mad2-dependent manner. The control of Kar9 distribution by the SAC was independent of Kar9 sumoylation and phosphorylation. Together, our data reveal that three independent mechanisms contribute to Kar9 asymmetry: Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation, sumoylation, and SAC signaling. Hence, the two seemingly independent spindle domains, kinetochores and astral microtubules, function in a tightly coordinated fashion.

  20. Spindle alignment regulates the dynamic association of checkpoint proteins with yeast spindle pole bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Pereira, Gislene

    2009-01-01

    In many polarized cells, the accuracy of chromosome segregation depends on the correct positioning of the mitotic spindle. In budding yeast, the spindle positioning checkpoint (SPOC) delays mitotic exit when the anaphase spindle fails to extend toward the mother-daughter axis. However it remains to be established how spindle orientation is translated to SPOC components at the yeast spindle pole bodies (SPB). Here, we used photobleaching techniques to show that the dynamics with which Bub2-Bfa1 turned over at SPBs significantly increased upon SPOC activation. A version of Bfa1 that was stably associated with SPBs rendered the cells SPOC deficient without affecting other Bub2-Bfa1 functions, demonstrating the functional importance of regulating the dynamics of Bfa1 SPB association. In addition, we established that the SPOC kinase Kin4 is the major regulator of Bfa1 residence time at SPBs. We suggest that upon SPOC activation Bfa1-Bub2 spreads throughout the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting mitotic exit.

  1. Kinetochore-microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E F; Kops, Geert J P L

    2015-12-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome-spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore-microtubule attachment or the force generated by dynamic microtubules that signals stable biorientation of chromosomes? To answer this, we uncoupled these two processes by expressing a non-phosphorylatable version of the main microtubule-binding protein at kinetochores (HEC1-9A), causing stabilization of incorrect kinetochore-microtubule attachments despite persistent activity of the error-correction machinery. The SAC is fully functional in HEC1-9A-expressing cells, yet cells in which chromosomes cannot biorient but are stably attached to microtubules satisfy the SAC and exit mitosis. SAC satisfaction requires neither intra-kinetochore stretching nor dynamic microtubules. Our findings support the hypothesis that in human cells the end-on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores are sufficient to satisfy the SAC without the need for microtubule-based pulling forces.

  2. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR2F6 Is a Central Checkpoint for Cancer Immune Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Hermann-Kleiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6 is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Nr2f6 significantly improves survival in the murine transgenic TRAMP prostate cancer model. Furthermore, Nr2f6−/− mice spontaneously reject implanted tumors and develop host-protective immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. This is paralleled by increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher expression levels of interleukin 2 and interferon γ at the tumor site. Mechanistically, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-intrinsic NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of the NFAT/AP-1 complex on both the interleukin 2 and the interferon γ cytokine promoters, attenuating their transcriptional thresholds. Adoptive transfer of Nr2f6-deficient T cells into tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice is sufficient to delay tumor outgrowth. Altogether, this defines NR2F6 as an intracellular immune checkpoint in effector T cells, governing the amplitude of anti-cancer immunity.

  3. Separating the spindle, checkpoint, and timer functions of BubR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Zohra; Gagou, Mary E; Lefebvre, Christophe; Emre, Doruk; Karess, Roger E

    2009-11-30

    BubR1 performs several roles during mitosis, affecting the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic timing, and spindle function, but the interdependence of these functions is unclear. We have analyzed in Drosophila melanogaster the mitotic phenotypes of kinase-dead (KD) BubR1 and BubR1 lacking the N-terminal KEN box. bubR1-KD individuals have a robust SAC but abnormal spindles with thin kinetochore fibers, suggesting that the kinase activity modulates microtubule capture and/or dynamics but is relatively dispensable for SAC function. In contrast, bubR1-KEN flies have normal spindles but no SAC. Nevertheless, mitotic timing is normal as long as Mad2 is present. Thus, the SAC, timer, and spindle functions of BubR1 are substantially separable. Timing is shorter in bubR1-KEN mad2 double mutants, yet in these flies, lacking both critical SAC components, chromosomes still segregate accurately, reconfirming that in Drosophila, reliable mitosis does not need the SAC.

  4. Compact modeling of allosteric multisite proteins: application to a cell size checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Enciso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We explore a framework to model the dose response of allosteric multisite phosphorylation proteins using a single auxiliary variable. This reduction can closely replicate the steady state behavior of detailed multisite systems such as the Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model or rule-based models. Optimal ultrasensitivity is obtained when the activation of an allosteric protein by its individual sites is concerted and redundant. The reduction makes this framework useful for modeling and analyzing biochemical systems in practical applications, where several multisite proteins may interact simultaneously. As an application we analyze a newly discovered checkpoint signaling pathway in budding yeast, which has been proposed to measure cell growth by monitoring signals generated at sites of plasma membrane growth. We show that the known components of this pathway can form a robust hysteretic switch. In particular, this system incorporates a signal proportional to bud growth or size, a mechanism to read the signal, and an all-or-none response triggered only when the signal reaches a threshold indicating that sufficient growth has occurred.

  5. The flavonoid eupatorin inactivates the mitotic checkpoint leading to polyploidy and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmela, Anna-Leena [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Turku (Finland); Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Pouwels, Jeroen; Kukkonen-Macchi, Anu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Waris, Sinikka; Toivonen, Pauliina [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Jaakkola, Kimmo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Maeki-Jouppila, Jenni [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Drug Discovery Graduate School, University of Turku (Finland); Kallio, Lila, E-mail: lila.kallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Kallio, Marko J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Centre of Excellence for Translational Genome-Scale Biology, P.O. Box 106, Academy of Finland (Finland)

    2012-03-10

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome distribution in mitosis by preventing anaphase onset until the correct bipolar microtubule-kinetochore attachments are formed. Errors in SAC function may contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing numerical chromosome anomalies (aneuploidy). On the other hand, total disruption of SAC can lead to massive genomic imbalance followed by cell death, a phenomena that has therapeutic potency. We performed a cell-based high-throughput screen with a compound library of 2000 bioactives for novel SAC inhibitors and discovered a plant-derived phenolic compound eupatorin (3 Prime ,5-dihydroxy-4 Prime ,6,7-trimethoxyflavone) as an anti-mitotic flavonoid. The premature override of the microtubule drug-imposed mitotic arrest by eupatorin is dependent on microtubule-kinetochore attachments but not interkinetochore tension. Aurora B kinase activity, which is essential for maintenance of normal SAC signaling, is diminished by eupatorin in cells and in vitro providing a mechanistic explanation for the observed forced mitotic exit. Eupatorin likely has additional targets since eupatorin treatment of pre-mitotic cells causes spindle anomalies triggering a transient M phase delay followed by impaired cytokinesis and polyploidy. Finally, eupatorin potently induces apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines and suppresses cancer cell proliferation in organotypic 3D cell culture model.

  6. Prussian blue nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy combined with checkpoint inhibition for photothermal immunotherapy of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Burga, Rachel A; Sweeney, Elizabeth E; Fisher, John P; Bollard, Catherine M; Sandler, Anthony D; Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Fernandes, Rohan

    2017-02-01

    We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model. We observe 55.5% survival in photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice at 100days compared to 12.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0% survival in mice receiving: anti-CTLA-4 alone, PBNPs alone, PTT alone, and no treatment, respectively. Additionally, long-term surviving, photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice exhibit protection against neuroblastoma rechallenge, suggesting the development of immunity against these tumors. Our findings suggest the potential of photothermal immunotherapy in improving treatments for neuroblastoma.

  7. Absence of a conventional spindle mitotic checkpoint in the binucleated single-celled parasite Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Kristyna; Uzlikova, Magdalena; Tumova, Pavla; Jirakova, Klara; Hagen, Guy; Kulda, Jaroslav; Nohynkova, Eva

    2016-10-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) joins the machinery of chromosome-to-spindle microtubule attachment with that of the cell cycle to prevent missegregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Although a functioning SAC has been verified in a limited number of organisms, it is regarded as an evolutionarily conserved safeguard mechanism. In this report, we focus on the existence of the SAC in a single-celled parasitic eukaryote, Giardia intestinalis. Giardia belongs to Excavata, a large and diverse supergroup of unicellular eukaryotes in which SAC control has been nearly unexplored. We show that Giardia cells with absent or defective mitotic spindles due to the inhibitory effects of microtubule poisons do not arrest in mitosis; instead, they divide without any delay, enter the subsequent cell cycle and even reduplicate DNA before dying. We identified a limited repertoire of kinetochore and SAC components in the Giardia genome, indicating that this parasite is ill equipped to halt mitosis before the onset of anaphase via SAC control of chromosome-spindle microtubule attachment. Finally, based on overexpression, we show that Giardia Mad2, a core SAC protein in other eukaryotes, localizes along intracytoplasmic portions of caudal flagellar axonemes, but never within nuclei, even in mitotic cells with blocked spindles, where the SAC should be active. These findings are consistent with the absence of a conventional SAC, known from yeast and metazoans, in the parasitic protist Giardia.

  8. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Kollu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21CIP1 is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy’s correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21CIP1-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis.

  9. Management of adverse events related to new cancer immunotherapy (immune checkpoint inhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jack M; O'Sullivan, Michael; Khattak, Muhammad A

    2016-11-07

    New immunotherapies have significantly improved survival in certain advanced cancers in recent years, particularly metastatic melanoma and lung cancer. The most effective of these therapies are the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) such as ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab. The use of ICIs will continue to increase in the coming years as evidence of their benefit in a range of other cancers builds. ICIs are associated with novel immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can involve a wide range of organs. The most common irAEs involve the skin (rash, pruritus), gastrointestinal tract (diarrhoea, colitis) and endocrine system (thyroid, pituitary). While severity is generally mild, life-threatening complications can occur if not recognised and treated promptly. Due to the diverse manifestations of irAEs, patients may present to doctors who are not familiar with these drugs, which creates the potential for delays in management. Management of irAEs depends on severity and the organ affected. Systemic steroids are often required and ICI therapy may be withheld or discontinued. Additional immunosuppressive medications may be necessary in steroid-refractory cases. This review provides an overview of the potential toxicities and their management for general clinicians. Broader awareness of these issues among medical professionals will hopefully reduce unnecessary delays in diagnosis and treatment. Patient and carer education regarding irAEs is extremely important; patients and carers should be advised to seek urgent medical attention if required.

  10. Neurological adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzubbo, S; Javeri, F; Tissier, M; Roumi, A; Barlog, C; Doridam, J; Lebbe, C; Belin, C; Ursu, R; Carpentier, A F

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting CTLA4 and PD1 constitute a promising class of cancer treatment but are associated with several immune-related disorders. We here review the literature reporting neurological adverse events (nAEs) associated with ICIs. A systematic search of literature, up to February 2016, mentioning nAEs in patients treated with ICIs was conducted. Eligible studies included case reports and prospective trials. One case seen in our ward was also added. Within the 59 clinical trials (totalling 9208 patients) analysed, the overall incidence of nAEs was 3.8% with anti-CTLA4 antibodies, 6.1% with anti-PD1 antibodies, and 12.0% with the combination of both. The clinical spectrum of neurological disorders was highly heterogeneous. Most of these nAEs were grade 1-2 and consisted of non-specific symptoms such as headache (55%). The incidence of high grade nAEs was below 1% for all types of treatment. Headaches, encephalopathies and meningitis were the most commonly reported (21%, 19% and 15%, respectively). Among the 27 case reports, the most common nAEs were encephalopathies, meningoradiculoneuritis, Guillain-Barré like syndromes and myasthenic syndromes. The median time of nAEs onset was 6 weeks. In most cases, drug interruption and steroids led to neurological recovery, even in conditions where steroids are not usually recommended such as Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  11. The flavonoid eupatorin inactivates the mitotic checkpoint leading to polyploidy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Pouwels, Jeroen; Kukkonen-Macchi, Anu; Waris, Sinikka; Toivonen, Pauliina; Jaakkola, Kimmo; Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Kallio, Lila; Kallio, Marko J

    2012-03-10

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome distribution in mitosis by preventing anaphase onset until the correct bipolar microtubule-kinetochore attachments are formed. Errors in SAC function may contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing numerical chromosome anomalies (aneuploidy). On the other hand, total disruption of SAC can lead to massive genomic imbalance followed by cell death, a phenomena that has therapeutic potency. We performed a cell-based high-throughput screen with a compound library of 2000 bioactives for novel SAC inhibitors and discovered a plant-derived phenolic compound eupatorin (3',5-dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavone) as an anti-mitotic flavonoid. The premature override of the microtubule drug-imposed mitotic arrest by eupatorin is dependent on microtubule-kinetochore attachments but not interkinetochore tension. Aurora B kinase activity, which is essential for maintenance of normal SAC signaling, is diminished by eupatorin in cells and in vitro providing a mechanistic explanation for the observed forced mitotic exit. Eupatorin likely has additional targets since eupatorin treatment of pre-mitotic cells causes spindle anomalies triggering a transient M phase delay followed by impaired cytokinesis and polyploidy. Finally, eupatorin potently induces apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines and suppresses cancer cell proliferation in organotypic 3D cell culture model.

  12. Spindle checkpoint-independent inhibition of mitotic chromosome segregation by Drosophila Mps1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Friederike; Karess, Roger E; Lehner, Christian F

    2012-06-01

    Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) is essential for the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which prevents anaphase onset in the presence of misaligned chromosomes. Moreover, Mps1 kinase contributes in a SAC-independent manner to the correction of erroneous initial attachments of chromosomes to the spindle. Our characterization of the Drosophila homologue reveals yet another SAC-independent role. As in yeast, modest overexpression of Drosophila Mps1 is sufficient to delay progression through mitosis during metaphase, even though chromosome congression and metaphase alignment do not appear to be affected. This delay in metaphase depends on the SAC component Mad2. Although Mps1 overexpression in mad2 mutants no longer causes a metaphase delay, it perturbs anaphase. Sister kinetochores barely move apart toward spindle poles. However, kinetochore movements can be restored experimentally by separase-independent resolution of sister chromatid cohesion. We propose therefore that Mps1 inhibits sister chromatid separation in a SAC-independent manner. Moreover, we report unexpected results concerning the requirement of Mps1 dimerization and kinase activity for its kinetochore localization in Drosophila. These findings further expand Mps1's significance for faithful mitotic chromosome segregation and emphasize the importance of its careful regulation.

  13. Gradual implementation of the meiotic recombination program via checkpoint pathways controlled by global DSB levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neeraj; Brown, M Scott; Bishop, Douglas K; Börner, G Valentin

    2015-03-05

    During meiosis, Spo11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into crossovers, ensuring segregation of homologous chromosomes (homologs). Meiotic DSB processing entails 5' end resection and preferred strand exchange with the homolog rather than the sister chromatid (homolog bias). In many organisms, DSBs appear gradually along the genome. Here we report unexpected effects of global DSB levels on local recombination events. Early-occurring, low-abundance "scout" DSBs lack homolog bias. Their resection and interhomolog processing are controlled by the conserved checkpoint proteins Tel1(ATM) kinase and Pch2(TRIP13) ATPase. Processing pathways controlled by Mec1(ATR) kinase take over these functions only above a distinct DSB threshold, resulting in progressive strengthening of the homolog bias. We conclude that Tel1(ATM)/Pch2 and Mec1(ATR) DNA damage response pathways are sequentially activated during wild-type meiosis because of their distinct sensitivities to global DSB levels. Moreover, relative DSB order controls the DSB repair pathway choice and, ultimately, recombination outcome.

  14. Inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 sensitizes lung cancer brain metastases to radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Heekyoung [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Stem Cell Research Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Su Jin [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Juyoun [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Stem Cell Research Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Ho [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. {yields} Radiosensitivity of cancer cells was enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor. {yields} Depletion of Chk1 in cancer cells showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation. {yields} Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. However, resistance to radiation is a possible cause of recurrence or treatment failure. Recently, signal pathways about DNA damage checkpoints after irradiation have been noticed. We investigated the radiosensitivity can be enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor, AZD7762 in lung cancer cell lines and xenograft models of lung cancer brain metastasis. Clonogenic survival assays showed enhancement of radiosensitivity with AZD7762 after irradiation of various doses. AZD7762 increased ATR/ATM-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation and stabilized Cdc25A, suppressed cyclin A expression in lung cancer cell lines. In xenograft models of lung cancer (PC14PE6) brain metastasis, AZD7762 significantly prolonged the median survival time in response to radiation. Depletion of Chk1 using shRNA also showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation in PC14PE6 cells. The results of this study support that Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity.

  15. Salmonella Typhimurium disrupts Sirt1/AMPK checkpoint control of mTOR to impair autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Raja; Hos, Nina Judith; Gutierrez, Saray; Fischer, Julia; Stepek, Joanna Magdalena; Daglidu, Evmorphia; Krönke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    During intracellular infections, autophagy significantly contributes to the elimination of pathogens, regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling, secretion of immune mediators and in coordinating the adaptive immune system. Intracellular pathogens such as S. Typhimurium have evolved mechanisms to circumvent autophagy. However, the regulatory mechanisms targeted by S. Typhimurium to modulate autophagy have not been fully resolved. Here we report that cytosolic energy loss during S. Typhimurium infection triggers transient activation of AMPK, an important checkpoint of mTOR activity and autophagy. The activation of AMPK is regulated by LKB1 in a cytosolic complex containing Sirt1 and LKB1, where Sirt1 is required for deacetylation and subsequent activation of LKB1. S. Typhimurium infection targets Sirt1, LKB1 and AMPK to lysosomes for rapid degradation resulting in the disruption of the AMPK-mediated regulation of mTOR and autophagy. The degradation of cytosolic Sirt1/LKB1/AMPK complex was not observed with two mutant strains of S. Typhimurium, ΔssrB and ΔssaV, both compromising the pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2). The results highlight virulence factor-dependent degradation of host cell proteins as a previously unrecognized strategy of S. Typhimurium to evade autophagy. PMID:28192515

  16. ATP-driven Rad50 conformations regulate DNA tethering, end resection, and ATM checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Rajashree A; Williams, Gareth J; Limbo, Oliver; Williams, R Scott; Kuhnlein, Jeff; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Classen, Scott; Guenther, Grant; Russell, Paul; Tainer, John A; Paull, Tanya T

    2014-03-03

    The Mre11-Rad50 complex is highly conserved, yet the mechanisms by which Rad50 ATP-driven states regulate the sensing, processing and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks are largely unknown. Here we design structure-based mutations in Pyrococcus furiosus Rad50 to alter protein core plasticity and residues undergoing ATP-driven movements within the catalytic domains. With this strategy we identify Rad50 separation-of-function mutants that either promote or destabilize the ATP-bound state. Crystal structures, X-ray scattering, biochemical assays, and functional analyses of mutant PfRad50 complexes show that the ATP-induced 'closed' conformation promotes DNA end binding and end tethering, while hydrolysis-induced opening is essential for DNA resection. Reducing the stability of the ATP-bound state impairs DNA repair and Tel1 (ATM) checkpoint signaling in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, double-strand break resection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and ATM activation by human Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 in vitro, supporting the generality of the P. furiosus Rad50 structure-based mutational analyses. These collective results suggest that ATP-dependent Rad50 conformations switch the Mre11-Rad50 complex between DNA tethering, ATM signaling, and 5' strand resection, revealing molecular mechanisms regulating responses to DNA double-strand breaks.

  17. cGAS is essential for the antitumor effect of immune checkpoint blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Hu, Shuiqing; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Heping; Chen, Chuo; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2017-01-01

    cGMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immune responses. cGAS catalyzes the synthesis of cGAMP, which functions as a second messenger that binds and activates the adaptor protein STING to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other immune modulatory molecules. Here we show that cGAS is indispensable for the antitumor effect of immune checkpoint blockade in mice. Wild-type, but not cGAS-deficient, mice exhibited slower growth of B16 melanomas in response to a PD-L1 antibody treatment. Consistently, intramuscular delivery of cGAMP inhibited melanoma growth and prolonged the survival of the tumor-bearing mice. The combination of cGAMP and PD-L1 antibody exerted stronger antitumor effects than did either treatment alone. cGAMP treatment activated dendritic cells and enhanced cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens to CD8 T cells. These results indicate that activation of the cGAS pathway is important for intrinsic antitumor immunity and that cGAMP may be used directly for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28137885

  18. Akt and SHP-1 are DC-intrinsic checkpoints for tumor immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwood, Tyler R.; Spitzer, Matthew H.; Linde, Ian L.; Chabon, Jonathan; Reticker-Flynn, Nathan E.; Bhattacharya, Nupur; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Xiangyue; Basto, Pamela A.; Burt, Bryan M.; Alonso, Michael N.; Engleman, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    BM-derived DC (BMDC) are powerful antigen-presenting cells. When loaded with immune complexes (IC), consisting of tumor antigens bound to antitumor antibody, BMDC induce powerful antitumor immunity in mice. However, attempts to employ this strategy clinically with either tumor-associated DC (TADC) or monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) have been disappointing. To investigate the basis for this phenomenon, we compared the response of BMDC, TADC, and MoDC to tumor IgG-IC. Our findings revealed, in both mice and humans, that upon exposure to IgG-IC, BMDC internalized the IC, increased costimulatory molecule expression, and stimulated autologous T cells. In contrast, TADC and, surprisingly, MoDC remained inert upon contact with IC due to dysfunctional signaling following engagement of Fcγ receptors. Such dysfunction is associated with elevated levels of the Src homology region 2 domain–containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and phosphatases regulating Akt activation. Indeed, concomitant inhibition of both SHP-1 and phosphatases that regulate Akt activation conferred upon TADC and MoDC the capacity to take up and process IC and induce antitumor immunity in vivo. This work identifies the molecular checkpoints that govern activation of MoDC and TADC and their capacity to elicit T cell immunity. PMID:27812544

  19. BRCA1 and its phosphorylation involved in caffeine-inhibitable event upstream of G2 checkpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine,which specifically inhibits ATM/ATR kinases,efficiently abrogates the ionizing radiation(IR)-induced G2 arrest and increases the sensitivity of various tumor cells to IR.Mechanisms for the effect of caffeine remain to be elucidated.As a target of ATM/ATR kinases,BRCA1 becomes activated and phosphorylated in response to IR.Thus,in this work,we investigated the possible role of BRCA1 in the effect of caffeine on G2 checkpoint and observed how BRCA1 phosphorylation was regulated in this process.For these purposes,the BRCA1 protein level and the phosphorylation states were analyzed by Western blotting by using an antibody against BRCA1 and phospho-specific antibodies against Ser-1423 and Ser-1524 residues in cells exposed to a combination of IR and caffeine.The results showed that caffeine down-regulated IR-induced BRCA1 expression and specifically abolished BRCA1 phosphorylation of Ser-1524,which was followed by an override of G2 arrest by caffeine.In addition,the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate p21 may be required for MCF-7 but not necessary for Hela response to caffeine.These data suggest that BRCA1 may be a potential target of caffeine.BRCA1 and its phosphorylation are most likely to be involved in the caffeine-inhibitable event upstream of G2 arrest.

  20. The bacterial cell cycle checkpoint protein Obg and its role in programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselot Dewachter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of programmed cell death (PCD, in which cells initiate their own demise, is not restricted to multicellular organisms. Unicellular organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, also possess pathways that mediate PCD. We recently identified a PCD mechanism in Escherichia coli that is triggered by a mutant isoform of the essential GTPase ObgE (Obg of E. coli. Importantly, the PCD pathway mediated by mutant Obg (Obg* differs fundamentally from other previously described bacterial PCD pathways and thus constitutes a new mode of PCD. ObgE was previously proposed to act as a cell cycle checkpoint protein able to halt cell division. The implication of ObgE in the regulation of PCD further increases the similarity between this protein and eukaryotic cell cycle regulators that are capable of doing both. Moreover, since Obg is conserved in eukaryotes, the elucidation of this cell death mechanism might contribute to the understanding of PCD in higher organisms. Additionally, if Obg*-mediated PCD is conserved among different bacterial species, it will be a prime target for the development of innovative antibacterials that artificially induce this pathway.

  1. Five quantitative trait loci control radiation-induced adenoma multiplicity in Mom1R Apc Min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiram Elahi

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is a carcinogen capable of inducing tumours, including colorectal cancer, in both humans and animals. By backcrossing a recombinant line of Apc(Min/+ mice to the inbred BALB/c mouse strain, which is unusually sensitive to radiation-induced tumour development, we obtained panels of 2Gy-irradiated and sham-irradiated N2 Apc(Min/+ mice for genotyping with a genome-wide panel of microsatellites at approximately 15 cM density and phenotyping by counting adenomas in the small intestine. Interval and composite interval mapping along with permutation testing identified five significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs responsible for radiation induced tumour multiplicity in the small intestine. These were defined as Mom (Modifier of Min radiation-induced polyposis (Mrip1-5 on chromosome 2 (log of odds, LOD 2.8, p = 0.0003, two regions within chromosome 5 (LOD 5.2, p<0.00001, 6.2, p<0.00001 and two regions within chromosome 16 respectively (LOD 4.1, p = 4x10(-5, 4.8, p<0.00001. Suggestive QTLs were found for sham-irradiated mice on chromosomes 3, 6 and 13 (LOD 1.7, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively; p<0.005. Genes containing BALB/c specific non-synonymous polymorphisms were identified within Mrip regions and prediction programming used to locate potentially functional polymorphisms. Our study locates the QTL regions responsible for increased radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice and identifies candidate genes with predicted functional polymorphisms that are involved in spindle checkpoint and chromosomal stability (Bub1b, Casc5, and Bub1, DNA repair (Recc1 and Prkdc or inflammation (Duox2, Itgb2l and Cxcl5. Our study demonstrates use of in silico analysis in candidate gene identification as a way of reducing large-scale backcross breeding programmes.

  2. Antitumor immunity is defective in T cell-specific microRNA-155-deficient mice and is rescued by immune checkpoint blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Thomas B; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Tang, William W; Wallace, Jared A; Alexander, Margaret; Runtsch, Marah C; Larsen, Dane K; Thompson, Jacob; Ramstead, Andrew G; Voth, Warren P; Hu, Ruozhen; Round, June L; Williams, Matthew A; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2017-09-14

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates antitumor immune responses. However, its specific functions within distinct immune cell types have not been delineated in conditional knockout (KO) mouse models. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-155 specifically within T cells during the immune response to syngeneic tumors. We found that miR-155 expression within T cells is required to limit syngeneic tumor growth and promote interferon gamma (IFNγ) production by T cells within the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, we found that miR-155 expression by T cells is necessary for proper tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) expression of IFNγ-inducible genes. We also found that immune checkpoint-blocking (ICB) antibodies against programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) restored antitumor immunity in miR-155 T cell-conditional KO (TCKO) mice. We noted that these ICB antibodies rescued the levels of IFNγ; expressing T cells, expression of multiple activation and effector genes expressed by tumor-infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, and TAM activation. Moreover, the ICB approach partially restored expression of several de-repressed miR-155 targets in tumor-infiltrating, miR-155 deficient CD8+ T cells, suggesting that miR-155 and the ICB regulate overlapping pathways to promote antitumor immunity. Taken together, our findings highlight miR-155s multifaceted role in T cells in which it promotes antitumor immunity. These results suggest that the augmentation of miR-155 expression could be used to improve anticancer immunotherapies. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. An association between low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity and the early G2-phase checkpoint in normal fibroblasts of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słonina, Dorota; Gasińska, Anna; Biesaga, Beata; Janecka, Anna; Kabat, Damian

    2016-03-01

    In our previous study, low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) effect was demonstrated for normal fibroblasts (asynchronous and G2-phase enriched) of 4 of the 25 cancer patients investigated. For the rest of patients, HRS was not defined in either of the 2 fibroblast populations. Thus, the study indicated that G2-phase enrichment had no influence on HRS identification. The conclusion contradicts that reported for human tumor cells, and suggests different mechanism of HRS in normal human cells. In the present paper we report, for the first time, the activity of early G2-phase checkpoint after low-dose irradiation in normal fibroblasts of these 4 HRS-positive patients and 4 HRS-negative patients and answer the question regarding the role of this checkpoint in normal human cells. The response of the early G2-phase checkpoint was determined by assessment of the progression of irradiated cells into mitosis using the mitotic marker, phosphorylated histone H3. We found evident differences in the activity of the early G2-phase checkpoint between HRS-positive and HRS-negative fibroblasts. In HRS-positive fibroblasts the checkpoint was not triggered and DNA damage was not recognized after doses lower than 0.2Gy resulting in HRS response. On the contrary, in HRS-negative fibroblasts the early G2-phase checkpoint was activated regardless of the dose in the range 0.1-2Gy. In conclusion, although cell cycle phase has no effect on the presence of HRS effect in normal human fibroblasts, the data reported here indicate that HRS response in these cells is associated with the functioning of early G2-phase checkpoint in a threshold-dose dependent manner, similarly as it takes place in most of human tumor and other cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MYSM1-dependent checkpoints in B cell lineage differentiation and B cell-mediated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Farrington, Kyo; Petrov, Jessica C; Belle, Jad I; Mindt, Barbara C; Witalis, Mariko; Duerr, Claudia U; Fritz, Jörg H; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2017-03-01

    MYSM1 is a chromatin-binding histone deubiquitinase. MYSM1 mutations in humans result in lymphopenia whereas loss of Mysm1 in mice causes severe hematopoietic abnormalities, including an early arrest in B cell development. However, it remains unknown whether MYSM1 is required at later checkpoints in B cell development or for B cell-mediated immune responses. We analyzed conditional mouse models Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre, Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD19-cre, and Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD21-cre with inactivation of Mysm1 at prepro-B, pre-B, and follicular B cell stages of development. We show that loss of Mysm1 at the prepro-B cell stage in Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre mice results in impaired B cell differentiation, with an ∼2-fold reduction in B cell numbers in the lymphoid organs. Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre B cells also showed increased expression of activation markers and impaired survival and proliferation. In contrast, Mysm1 was largely dispensable from the pre-B cell stage onward, with Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD19-cre and Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD21-cre mice showing no alterations in B cell numbers and largely normal responses to stimulation. MYSM1, therefore, has an essential role in B cell lineage specification but is dispensable at later stages of development. Importantly, MYSM1 activity at the prepro-B cell stage of development is important for the normal programming of B cell responses to stimulation once they complete their maturation process.

  5. Spindle assembly checkpoint signalling is uncoupled from chromosomal position in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Liming; Homer, Hayden

    2012-06-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) averts aneuploidy by coordinating proper bipolar chromosomal attachment with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-mediated securin and cyclin B1 destruction required for anaphase onset. The generation of a Mad2-based signal at kinetochores is central to current models of SAC-based APC/C inhibition. During mitosis, kinetochores of polar-displaced chromosomes, which are at greatest risk of mis-segregating, recruit the highest levels of Mad2, thereby ensuring that SAC activation is proportionate to aneuploidy risk. Paradoxically, although an SAC operates in mammalian oocytes, meiosis I (MI) is notoriously error prone and polar-displaced chromosomes do not prevent anaphase onset. Here we find that Mad2 is not preferentially recruited to the kinetochores of polar chromosomes of wild-type mouse oocytes, in which polar chromosomes are rare, or of oocytes depleted of the kinesin-7 motor CENP-E, in which polar chromosomes are more abundant. Furthermore, in CENP-E-depleted oocytes, although polar chromosomal displacement intensified during MI and the capacity to form stable end-on attachments was severely compromised, all kinetochores nevertheless became devoid of Mad2. Thus, it is possible that the ability of the SAC to robustly discriminate chromosomal position might be compromised by the propensity of oocyte kinetochores to become saturated with unproductive attachments, thereby predisposing to aneuploidy. Our data also reveal novel functions for CENP-E in oocytes: first, CENP-E stabilises BubR1, thereby impacting MI progression; and second, CENP-E mediates bi-orientation by promoting kinetochore reorientation and preventing chromosomal drift towards the poles.

  6. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production.

  7. How oocytes try to get it right: spindle checkpoint control in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sandra A; Wassmann, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The generation of a viable, diploid organism depends on the formation of haploid gametes, oocytes, and spermatocytes, with the correct number of chromosomes. Halving the genome requires the execution of two consecutive specialized cell divisions named meiosis I and II. Unfortunately, and in contrast to male meiosis, chromosome segregation in oocytes is error prone, with human oocytes being extraordinarily "meiotically challenged". Aneuploid oocytes, that are with the wrong number of chromosomes, give rise to aneuploid embryos when fertilized. In humans, most aneuploidies are lethal and result in spontaneous abortions. However, some trisomies survive to birth or even adulthood, such as the well-known trisomy 21, which gives rise to Down syndrome (Nagaoka et al. in Nat Rev Genet 13:493-504, 2012). A staggering 20-25 % of oocytes ready to be fertilized are aneuploid in humans. If this were not bad enough, there is an additional increase in meiotic missegregations as women get closer to menopause. A woman above 40 has a risk of more than 30 % of getting pregnant with a trisomic child. Worse still, in industrialized western societies, child birth is delayed, with women getting their first child later in life than ever. This trend has led to an increase of trisomic pregnancies by 70 % in the last 30 years (Nagaoka et al. in Nat Rev Genet 13:493-504, 2012; Schmidt et al. in Hum Reprod Update 18:29-43, 2012). To understand why errors occur so frequently during the meiotic divisions in oocytes, we review here the molecular mechanisms at works to control chromosome segregation during meiosis. An important mitotic control mechanism, namely the spindle assembly checkpoint or SAC, has been adapted to the special requirements of the meiotic divisions, and this review will focus on our current knowledge of SAC control in mammalian oocytes. Knowledge on how chromosome segregation is controlled in mammalian oocytes may help to identify risk factors important for questions

  8. INDOOR SMARTPHONE NAVIGATION USING A COMBINATION OF WI-FI AND INERTIAL NAVIGATION WITH INTELLIGENT CHECKPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hofer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For Wi-Fi positioning location fingerprinting is one of the most commonly employed localization technique. To achieve an acceptable level of positioning accuracy on the few meter level, i.e., to provide at least room resolution in buildings, such an approach is very labour consuming as it requires a high density of reference points. Thus, the novel approach developed aims at a significant reduction of workload for the training phase. The basic idea is to intelligently choose waypoints along possible users’ trajectories in the indoor environment. These waypoints are termed intelligent checkpoints (iCPs and serve as reference points for the fingerprinting localization approach. They are selected along the trajectories in such a way that they define a logical sequence with their ascending order. Thereby, the iCPs are located, for instance, at doors at entrances to buildings, rooms, along corridors, etc., or in low density along the trajectory to provide a suitable absolute user localization. Continuous positioning between these iCPs is obtained with the help of the smartphones’ inertial sensors. While walking along a selected trajectory to the destination a dynamic recognition of the iCPs is performed and the drift of the inertial sensors is reduced as the iCP recognition serves as absolute position update. Conducted experiments in a multi-storey office building have shown that positioning accuracy of around 2.0 m are achievable which goes along with a reduction of workload by three quarter using this novel approach. The iCP concept and performance are presented and demonstrated in this paper.

  9. Overcoming resistance to checkpoint blockade therapy by targeting PI3Kγ in myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henau, Olivier; Rausch, Matthew; Winkler, David; Campesato, Luis Felipe; Liu, Cailian; Cymerman, Daniel Hirschhorn; Budhu, Sadna; Ghosh, Arnab; Pink, Melissa; Tchaicha, Jeremy; Douglas, Mark; Tibbitts, Thomas; Sharma, Sujata; Proctor, Jennifer; Kosmider, Nicole; White, Kerry; Stern, Howard; Soglia, John; Adams, Julian; Palombella, Vito J; McGovern, Karen; Kutok, Jeffery L; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merghoub, Taha

    2016-11-17

    Recent clinical trials using immunotherapy have demonstrated its potential to control cancer by disinhibiting the immune system. Immune checkpoint blocking (ICB) antibodies against cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 or programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 have displayed durable clinical responses in various cancers. Although these new immunotherapies have had a notable effect on cancer treatment, multiple mechanisms of immune resistance exist in tumours. Among the key mechanisms, myeloid cells have a major role in limiting effective tumour immunity. Growing evidence suggests that high infiltration of immune-suppressive myeloid cells correlates with poor prognosis and ICB resistance. These observations suggest a need for a precision medicine approach in which the design of the immunotherapeutic combination is modified on the basis of the tumour immune landscape to overcome such resistance mechanisms. Here we employ a pre-clinical mouse model system and show that resistance to ICB is directly mediated by the suppressive activity of infiltrating myeloid cells in various tumours. Furthermore, selective pharmacologic targeting of the gamma isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kγ), highly expressed in myeloid cells, restores sensitivity to ICB. We demonstrate that targeting PI3Kγ with a selective inhibitor, currently being evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial (NCT02637531), can reshape the tumour immune microenvironment and promote cytotoxic-T-cell-mediated tumour regression without targeting cancer cells directly. Our results introduce opportunities for new combination strategies using a selective small molecule PI3Kγ inhibitor, such as IPI-549, to overcome resistance to ICB in patients with high levels of suppressive myeloid cell infiltration in tumours.

  10. DNA damage response and spindle assembly checkpoint function throughout the cell cycle to ensure genomic integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Errors in replication or segregation lead to DNA damage, mutations, and aneuploidies. Consequently, cells monitor these events and delay progression through the cell cycle so repair precedes division. The DNA damage response (DDR, which monitors DNA integrity, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, which responds to defects in spindle attachment/tension during metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, are critical for preventing genome instability. Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. Metaphase defects result in enrichment of SAC and DDR components to chromatin, and both SAC and DDR are required for metaphase delays. During persistent metaphase arrest following establishment of bi-oriented chromosomes, stability of the metaphase plate is compromised in the absence of DDR kinases ATR or CHK1 or SAC components, MAD1/MAD2, suggesting SAC functions in metaphase beyond its interactions with APC activator CDC20. In response to DNA damage, MAD2 and the histone variant CENPA become enriched at the nuclear periphery in a DDR-dependent manner. Further, depletion of either MAD1 or CENPA results in loss of peripherally associated damaged DNA. In contrast to a SAC-insensitive CDC20 mutant, germ cells deficient for SAC or CENPA cannot efficiently repair DNA damage, suggesting that SAC mediates DNA repair through CENPA interactions with the nuclear periphery. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved.

  11. Clinicopathological features of acute kidney injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Frank B; Marrone, Kristen A; Troxell, Megan L; Ralto, Kenneth M; Hoenig, Melanie P; Brahmer, Julie R; Le, Dung T; Lipson, Evan J; Glezerman, Ilya G; Wolchok, Jedd; Cornell, Lynn D; Feldman, Paul; Stokes, Michael B; Zapata, Sarah A; Hodi, F Stephen; Ott, Patrick A; Yamashita, Michifumi; Leaf, David E

    2016-09-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), monoclonal antibodies that target inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells, represent an emerging class of immunotherapy used in treating solid organ and hematologic malignancies. We describe the clinical and histologic features of 13 patients with CPI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) who underwent kidney biopsy. Median time from initiation of a CPI to AKI was 91 (range, 21 to 245) days. Pyuria was present in 8 patients, and the median urine protein to creatinine ratio was 0.48 (range, 0.12 to 0.98) g/g. An extrarenal immune-related adverse event occurred prior to the onset of AKI in 7 patients. Median peak serum creatinine was 4.5 (interquartile range, 3.6-7.3) mg/dl with 4 patients requiring hemodialysis. The prevalent pathologic lesion was acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in 12 patients, with 3 having granulomatous features, and 1 thrombotic microangiopathy. Among the 12 patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 10 received treatment with glucocorticoids, resulting in complete or partial improvement in renal function in 2 and 7 patients, respectively. However, the 2 patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis not given glucocorticoids had no improvement in renal function. Thus, CPI-induced AKI is a new entity that presents with clinical and histologic features similar to other causes of drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, though with a longer latency period. Glucocorticoids appear to be a potentially effective treatment strategy. Hence, AKI due to CPIs may be caused by a unique mechanism of action linked to reprogramming of the immune system, leading to loss of tolerance. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indoor Smartphone Navigation Using a Combination of Wi-Fi and Inertial Navigation with Intelligent Checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, H.; Retscher, G.

    2017-09-01

    For Wi-Fi positioning location fingerprinting is one of the most commonly employed localization technique. To achieve an acceptable level of positioning accuracy on the few meter level, i.e., to provide at least room resolution in buildings, such an approach is very labour consuming as it requires a high density of reference points. Thus, the novel approach developed aims at a significant reduction of workload for the training phase. The basic idea is to intelligently choose waypoints along possible users' trajectories in the indoor environment. These waypoints are termed intelligent checkpoints (iCPs) and serve as reference points for the fingerprinting localization approach. They are selected along the trajectories in such a way that they define a logical sequence with their ascending order. Thereby, the iCPs are located, for instance, at doors at entrances to buildings, rooms, along corridors, etc., or in low density along the trajectory to provide a suitable absolute user localization. Continuous positioning between these iCPs is obtained with the help of the smartphones' inertial sensors. While walking along a selected trajectory to the destination a dynamic recognition of the iCPs is performed and the drift of the inertial sensors is reduced as the iCP recognition serves as absolute position update. Conducted experiments in a multi-storey office building have shown that positioning accuracy of around 2.0 m are achievable which goes along with a reduction of workload by three quarter using this novel approach. The iCP concept and performance are presented and demonstrated in this paper.

  13. Cache-style Parallel Checkpointing for Large-scale Computing System%面向大规模计算系统的Cache式并行检查点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇燕; 刘勇鹏; 冯华; 迟万庆

    2011-01-01

    Checkpointing is a typical technique for fault tolerance, whereas its scalability is limited by the overhead of file access. According to the multi-level file system architecture, the cache-style parallel checkpointing was introduced,which translates global coordinated checkpointing into local file operation by out-of-order pipelining of checkpoint flushing opportunity. The overhead of write-back is hidden effectively to increase the performance and the scalability of parallel checkpointing.%检查点机制是高性能并行计算系统中重要的容错手段,随着系统规模的增大,并行检查点的可扩展性受文件访问的制约.针对大规模并行计算系统的多级文件系统结构,提出了cache式并行检查点技术.它将全局同步并行检查点转化为局部文件操作,并利用多处理器结构进行乱序流水线式写回调度,将检查点的写回时机合理分布,从而有效地隐藏了检查点的写回开销,保证了并行检查点文件访问的高性能和高可扩展性.

  14. A whole genome RNAi screen identifies replication stress response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Gina; Ye, Fei; Mohni, Kareem N; Luzwick, Jessica W; Glick, Gloria; Cortez, David

    2015-11-01

    Proper DNA replication is critical to maintain genome stability. When the DNA replication machinery encounters obstacles to replication, replication forks stall and the replication stress response is activated. This response includes activation of cell cycle checkpoints, stabilization of the replication fork, and DNA damage repair and tolerance mechanisms. Defects in the replication stress response can result in alterations to the DNA sequence causing changes in protein function and expression, ultimately leading to disease states such as cancer. To identify additional genes that control the replication stress response, we performed a three-parameter, high content, whole genome siRNA screen measuring DNA replication before and after a challenge with replication stress as well as a marker of checkpoint kinase signalling. We identified over 200 replication stress response genes and subsequently analyzed how they influence cellular viability in response to replication stress. These data will serve as a useful resource for understanding the replication stress response.

  15. Immunotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer: checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and future directions in combination immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Heather L; Page, David B

    2016-11-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both of these approaches currently are being explored as potential strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy is poised to change the therapeutic landscape for some breast cancers. Specifically, overall response rates of 19% with PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies have been reported in 2 small studies of women with PD-L1-positive, heavily pretreated advanced triple-negative breast cancer. In combination with nab-paclitaxel, confirmed response rates were 46% in a PD-L1-unselected population in the first-line metastatic triple-negative breast cancer setting. Checkpoint-blocking antibodies also have been evaluated in small studies of women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, and in women whose breast cancers lack PD-L1 expression, with more modest response rates. It has been hypothesized that some breast cancers are not inherently recognized by the immune system; however, preclinical and preliminary clinical data suggest that inherently modest immunogenicity may be overcome with novel vaccination strategies, as well as strategies that combine immune checkpoint blockade with methods of optimizing antigen presentation, such as tumor ablation, radiation, chemotherapy, or other approaches. If ongoing registrational trials support the use of immunotherapy, it could revolutionize the care of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer, and ideally improve cure rates.

  16. Pch2 acts through Xrs2 and Tel1/ATM to modulate interhomolog bias and checkpoint function during meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires the formation and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs to form crossovers. Repair is biased toward using the homolog as a substrate rather than the sister chromatid. Pch2 is a conserved member of the AAA(+-ATPase family of proteins and is implicated in a wide range of meiosis-specific processes including the recombination checkpoint, maturation of the chromosome axis, crossover control, and synapsis. We demonstrate a role for Pch2 in promoting and regulating interhomolog bias and the meiotic recombination checkpoint in response to unprocessed DSBs through the activation of axial proteins Hop1 and Mek1 in budding yeast. We show that Pch2 physically interacts with the putative BRCT repeats in the N-terminal region of Xrs2, a member of the MRX complex that acts at sites of unprocessed DSBs. Pch2, Xrs2, and the ATM ortholog Tel1 function in the same pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Hop1, independent of Rad17 and the ATR ortholog Mec1, which respond to the presence of single-stranded DNA. An N-terminal deletion of Xrs2 recapitulates the pch2Δ phenotypes for signaling unresected breaks. We propose that interaction with Xrs2 may enable Pch2 to remodel chromosome structure adjacent to the site of a DSB and thereby promote accessibility of Hop1 to the Tel1 kinase. In addition, Xrs2, like Pch2, is required for checkpoint-mediated delay conferred by the failure to synapse chromosomes.

  17. Prime-boost using Separate Oncolytic Viruses in Combination with Checkpoint Blockade Improves Anti-tumor Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilett, Elizabeth; Kottke, Timothy; Thompson, Jill; Rajani, Karishma; Zaidi, Shane; Evgin, Laura; Coffey, Matt; Ralph, Christy; Diaz, Rosa; Pandha, Hardev; Harrington, Kevin; Selby, Peter; Bram, Richard; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms which depends both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we show that intra-tumoral (i.t.) oncolysis by Reovirus induced the priming of a CD8+, Th1-type anti-tumor response. In contrast, systemically delivered VSV expressing a cDNA library of melanoma antigens (VSV-ASMEL) promoted a potent anti-tumor CD4+ Th17 response. Therefore, we hypothesised that combining the Reovirus-induced CD8+ T cell response, with the VSV-ASMEL CD4+ Th17 helper response, would produce enhanced anti-tumor activity. Consistent with this, priming with i.t. Reovirus, followed by an intra-venous VSV-ASMEL Th17 boost, significantly improved survival of mice bearing established subcutaneous (s.c.) B16 melanoma tumors. We also show that combination of either therapy alone with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade augmented both the Th1 response induced by systemically delivered Reovirus in combination with GM-CSF, and also the Th17 response induced by VSV-ASMEL. Significantly, anti-PD-1 also uncovered an anti-tumor Th1 response following VSV-ASMEL treatment that was not seen in the absence of checkpoint blockade. Finally, the combination of all three treatments (priming with systemically delivered Reovirus, followed by double boosting with systemic VSV-ASMEL and anti-PD-1) significantly enhanced survival, with long-term cures, compared to any individual, or double, combination therapies, associated with strong Th1 and Th17 responses to tumor antigens. Our data show that it is possible to generate fully systemic, highly effective anti-tumor immunovirotherapy by combining oncolytic viruses, along with immune checkpoint blockade, to induce complimentary mechanisms of anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:27779616

  18. An RNA Polymerase II-coupled function for histone H3K36 methylation in checkpoint activation and DSB repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Brian D Strahl

    2014-01-01

    Histone modifications are major determinants of DNA double-strand break (DSB) response and repair. Here we elucidate a DSB repair function for transcription-coupled Set2 methylation at H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me). Cells devoid of Set2/H3K36me are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents and site-specific DSBs, fail to properly activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, and show genetic interactions with DSB-sensing and repair machinery. Set2/H3K36me3 is enriched at DSBs, and loss of Set2 results in altered ...

  19. Checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy: Cross reactivity of a CTLA-4 antibody and IDO-inhibitor L-1MT in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shatrawi, Zina Adil; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jungersen, Gregers

    a non-specific activation of porcine T cells. This will be further investigated to provide the basis for in vivo studies investigating checkpoint inhibitor blockade in combination with other cancer immunotherapies. Eventually our goal is to establish pigs as an alternative large animal model......Blockade of checkpoint inhibitors has recently shown very convincing results in the treatment of cancer. One key target is CTLA-4, which has been demonstrated to be a potent negative regulator of lymphocyte activation. The treatment with the FDA-approved fully human CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody...... Ipilimumab increases anticancer T-cell reactivity and overall survival of metastatic cancer patients. Indole-amine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is another checkpoint inhibitor which suppresses T-cell immunity by the depletion of tryptophan in the T-cell microenvironment, and also inhibition of IDO by L-1...

  20. Is activation of the intra-S checkpoint in human fibroblasts an important factor in protection against UV-induced mutagenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Christopher D; Rao, Shangbang; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kaufmann, William K; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila

    2013-11-15

    The ATR/CHK1-dependent intra-S checkpoint inhibits replicon initiation and replication fork progression in response to DNA damage caused by UV (UV) radiation. It has been proposed that this signaling cascade protects against UV-induced mutations by reducing the probability that damaged DNA will be replicated before it can be repaired. Normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were depleted of ATR or CHK1, or treated with the CHK1 kinase inhibitor TCS2312, and the UV-induced mutation frequency at the HPRT locus was measured. Despite clear evidence of S-phase checkpoint abrogation, neither ATR/CHK1 depletion nor CHK1 inhibition caused an increase in the UV-induced HPRT mutation frequency. These results question the premise that the UV-induced intra-S checkpoint plays a prominent role in protecting against UV-induced mutagenesis.

  1. Tetrandrine: A Potent Abrogator of G2 Checkpoint Function in Tumor Cells and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    (M phase). Endosomatic experiment showed that tetrandrine caused tumor growth delay in irradiated mice. Conclusion Tetrandrine boosts the cell killing activity of irradiation both in vitro and in vivo. Tetrandrine is a potent abrogator for G2 checkpoint control and can sensitize the cells to radiation.

  2. Upregulated Op18/stathmin activity causes chromosomal instability through a mechanism that evades the spindle assembly checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmfeldt, Per; Sellin, Mikael E. [Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Gullberg, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Gullberg@molbiol.umu.se [Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    Op18/stathmin (Op18) is a microtubule-destabilizing protein that is phosphorylation-inactivated during mitosis and its normal function is to govern tubulin subunit partitioning during interphase. Human tumors frequently overexpress Op18 and a tumor-associated Q18{yields}E mutation has been identified that confers hyperactivity, destabilizes spindle microtubules, and causes mitotic aberrancies, polyploidization, and chromosome loss in K562 leukemia cells. Here we determined whether wild-type and mutant Op18 have the potential to cause chromosomal instability by some means other than interference with spindle assembly, and thereby bypassing the spindle assembly checkpoint. Our approach was based on Op18 derivatives with distinct temporal order of activity during mitosis, conferred either by differential phosphorylation inactivation or by anaphase-specific degradation through fusion with the destruction box of cyclin B1. We present evidence that excessive Op18 activity generates chromosomal instability through interference occurring subsequent to the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, which reduces the fidelity of chromosome segregation to spindle poles during anaphase. Similar to uncorrected merotelic attachment, this mechanism evades detection by the spindle assembly checkpoint and thus provides an additional route to chromosomal instability.

  3. Lte1 promotes mitotic exit by controlling the localization of the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jill E; Chan, Leon Y; Amon, Angelika

    2011-08-02

    For a daughter cell to receive a complete genomic complement, it is essential that the mitotic spindle be positioned accurately within the cell. In budding yeast, a signaling system known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) monitors spindle position and regulates the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a GTPase signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. The protein kinase Kin4 is a central component of the spindle position checkpoint. Kin4 primarily localizes to the mother cell and associates with spindle pole bodies (SPBs) located in the mother cell to inhibit MEN signaling. In contrast, the kinase does not associate with the SPB in the bud. Thus, only when a MEN bearing SPB leaves the mother cell and the spindle is accurately positioned along the mother-bud axis can MEN signaling occur and cell division proceed. Here, we describe a mechanism ensuring that Kin4 only associates with mother cell-located SPBs. The bud-localized MEN regulator Lte1, whose molecular function has long been unclear, prevents Kin4 that escapes into the bud from associating with SPBs in the daughter cell.

  4. Moving towards a customized approach for drug development: lessons from clinical trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Sara; Carbognin, Luisa; Karachaliou, Niki; Garassino, Marina; Cuppone, Federica; Petraglia, Sandra; Rosell, Rafael; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has recently been discovered to be an immunological targetable disease, on the basis of the exciting results of the randomized trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, the survival benefit appears to not be entirely captured by the usual outcome measures, thus requiring a deep reflection about the appropriateness of the traditional statistical methodologies in this context. The intrinsic biological differences existing both in terms of mechanism of action and kinetic between immunotherapy and chemotherapy or targeted therapy, impact on patients’ outcome, requiring a global revolution in the way to design clinical studies with the ideal aim to evolve towards trials carefully ‘customized’ on the basis of the investigational drug, the specific disease and the biological background. The exciting data recently obtained with immune checkpoint inhibitors, offer an ideal context and background to explore the major questions and future perspectives about the development of immunotherapeutic agents. In this regard, the choice of adequate endpoints, the use of modified statistical methods and the potential introduction of predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy clinical trials, will be discuss in this review in order to provide practical and rationale suggestions aimed to improve the existing model for cancer immunotherapy investigation. PMID:26798579

  5. The mismatch repair system modulates curcumin sensitivity through induction of DNA strand breaks and activation of G2-M checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihua; Jin, ShunQian; Yalowich, Jack C; Brown, Kevin D; Rajasekaran, Baskaran

    2010-03-01

    The highly conserved mismatch (MMR) repair system corrects postreplicative errors and modulates cellular responses to genotoxic agents. Here, we show that the MMR system strongly influences cellular sensitivity to curcumin. Compared with MMR-proficient cells, isogenically matched MMR-deficient cells displayed enhanced sensitivity to curcumin. Similarly, cells suppressed for MLH1 or MSH2 expression by RNA interference displayed increased curcumin sensitivity. Curcumin treatment generated comparable levels of reactive oxygen species and the mutagenic adduct 8-oxo-guanine in MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells; however, accumulation of gammaH2AX foci, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), occurred only in MMR-positive cells in response to curcumin treatment. Additionally, MMR-positive cells showed activation of Chk1 and induction of G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoint following curcumin treatment and inhibition of Chk1 by UCN-01 abrogated Chk1 activation and heightened apoptosis in MMR-proficient cells. These results indicate that curcumin triggers the accumulation of DNA DSB and induction of a checkpoint response through a MMR-dependent mechanism. Conversely, in MMR-compromised cells, curcumin-induced DSB is significantly blunted, and as a result, cells fail to undergo cell cycle arrest, enter mitosis, and die through mitotic catastrophe. The results have potential therapeutic value, especially in the treatment of tumors with compromised MMR function.

  6. Genotoxic Anti-Cancer Agents and Their Relationship to DNA Damage, Mitosis, and Checkpoint Adaptation in Proliferating Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy H. Swift

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When a human cell detects damaged DNA, it initiates the DNA damage response (DDR that permits it to repair the damage and avoid transmitting it to daughter cells. Despite this response, changes to the genome occur and some cells, such as proliferating cancer cells, are prone to genome instability. The cellular processes that lead to genomic changes after a genotoxic event are not well understood. Our research focuses on the relationship between genotoxic cancer drugs and checkpoint adaptation, which is the process of mitosis with damaged DNA. We examine the types of DNA damage induced by widely used cancer drugs and describe their effects upon proliferating cancer cells. There is evidence that cell death caused by genotoxic cancer drugs in some cases includes exiting a DNA damage cell cycle arrest and entry into mitosis. Furthermore, some cells are able to survive this process at a time when the genome is most susceptible to change or rearrangement. Checkpoint adaptation is poorly characterised in human cells; we predict that increasing our understanding of this pathway may help to understand genomic instability in cancer cells and provide insight into methods to improve the efficacy of current cancer therapies.

  7. Rheumatic immune-related adverse events of checkpoint therapy for cancer: case series of a new nosological entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, C; Kirchner, E; Kontzias, K; Velcheti, V; Calabrese, L H

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer with checkpoint inhibitors has been associated with a spectrum of autoimmune and systemic inflammatory reactions known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Rheumatic irAEs are infrequently reported and extensively described. Here, we report our experience over an 18-month period with 15 patients evaluated in the rheumatology department for rheumatic irAEs. We identified 13 patients without pre-existing autoimmune disease (AID) who subsequently developed rheumatic irAEs, and two with established AID referred pre-emptively. irAEs encountered included: inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica-like symptoms and myositis. All cases required glucocorticoids, and three required a biological agent. Rheumatic irAEs led to temporary or permanent cessation of immunotherapy in all but five patients. One patient with pre-existing AID experienced a flare after starting immunotherapy. Our findings underscore that rheumatic irAEs are complex, at times require additional immunosuppressive therapy, and may influence ongoing immunotherapy regimens for the primary disease. Similar irAEs will be increasingly seen as checkpoint inhibitors adopted as standard of care in the community.

  8. Inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint kinase Mps-1 as a novel therapeutic strategy in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymiczek, A; Carbone, M; Pastorino, S; Napolitano, A; Tanji, M; Minaai, M; Pagano, I; Mason, J M; Pass, H I; Bray, M R; Mak, T W; Yang, H

    2017-07-31

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive malignancy, highly resistant to current medical and surgical therapies, whose tumor cells characteristically show a high level of aneuploidy and genomic instability. We tested our hypothesis that targeting chromosomal instability in MM would improve response to therapy. Thr/Tyr kinase (TTK)/monopolar spindle 1 kinase (Mps-1) is a kinase of the spindle assembly checkpoint that controls cell division and cell fate. CFI-402257 is a novel, selective inhibitor of Mps-1 with antineoplastic activity. We found that CFI-402257 suppresses MM growth. We found that Mps-1 is overexpressed in MM and that its expression correlates with poor patients' outcome. In vitro, CFI-402257-mediated inhibition of Mps-1 resulted in abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint, premature progression through mitosis, marked aneuploidy and mitotic catastrophe. In vivo, CFI-402257 reduced MM growth in an orthotopic, syngeneic model, when used as a single agent, and more so when used in combination with cisplatin+pemetrexed, the current standard of care. Our preclinical findings indicate that CFI-402257 is a promising novel therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of the current chemotherapeutic regimens for MM patients.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 July 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.266.

  9. DNA injury induced by 5-aminouracil and caffeine in G2 checkpoints path of higher plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, A; Bracho, M; Marcano, L; Guíñez, J; De la Torre, C

    2005-08-01

    This work evaluated the qualitative and quantitative cellular changes induced by treatment with 5-aminouracil (5-AU) and a combination of 5-AU and caffeine in plant cells in relation to DNA damage, repaired damage, and residual damage. As biological material, Allium cepa L. root tips were used, grown in filtered water, in darkness, with aeration at constant temperature of 25 degrees C +/- 0.5. Cell populations were synchronized using 5 mM caffeine in order to study the effects of 5-AU and caffeine/5-AU combined treatment on the DNA content and their incidence in the entrance to mitosis. The results showed a delay in the G2 period due to induced DNA damage by the 5-AU and caffeine/5-AU combined treatment, shown by aberrant metaphases, anaphases and telophases. The effect of caffeine in the combined treatment was heightened in spite of lengthening the checkpoints route that retains the cells in G2. The existence of G2 checkpoints was shown in the cell population studied, inducing lesions in the DNA, chromosomic aberrations and cellular instability.

  10. Withaferin A modulates the Spindle assembly checkpoint by degradation of Mad2-Cdc20 complex in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tania; Roy, Kumar Singha; Chakrabarti, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2014-09-01

    Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Ashwagandha) is used over centuries in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin A, a withanolide, is the major compound present in leaf extract of the plant which shows anticancer activity against leukemia, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. It arrests the ovarian cancer cells in the G2/M phase in dose dependent manner. In the current study we show the effect of Withaferin A on cell cycle regulation of colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480 and its effect on cell fate. Treatment of these cells with this compound leads to apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. It causes the G2/M arrest in both the cell lines. We show that Withaferin A (WA) causes mitotic delay by blocking Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function. Apoptosis induced by Withaferin A is associated with proteasomal degradation of Mad2 and Cdc20, an important constituent of the Spindle Checkpoint Complex. Further overexpression of Mad2 partially rescues the deleterious effect of WA by restoring proper anaphase initiation and keeping more number of cells viable. We hypothesize that Withaferin A kills cancer cells by delaying the mitotic exit followed by inducing chromosome instability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PD-1 and PD-L1 Checkpoint Signaling Inhibition for Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanism, Combinations, and Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem O. Alsaab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cancers are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy. The survival of tumors in several cases is assisted by checkpoint immunomodulation to maintain the imbalance between immune surveillance and cancer cell proliferation. Check point antibody inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1/PD-L1, are a novel class of inhibitors that function as a tumor suppressing factor via modulation of immune cell-tumor cell interaction. These checkpoint blockers are rapidly becoming a highly promising cancer therapeutic approach that yields remarkable antitumor responses with limited side effects. In recent times, more than four check point antibody inhibitors have been commercialized for targeting PD-1, PDL-1, and CTLA-4. Despite the huge success and efficacy of the anti-PD therapy response, it is limited to specific types of cancers, which attributes to the insufficient and heterogeneous expression of PD-1 in the tumor microenvironment. Herein, we review the current landscape of the PD-1/PD-L1 mechanistic role in tumor immune evasion and therapeutic outcome for cancer treatment. We also review the current progress in clinical trials, combination of drug therapy with immunotherapy, safety, and future of check point inhibitors for multiple types of cancer.

  12. NDR1 modulates the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Choi, Ji Ye [Department of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Joo Mi [Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Woong; Leem, Sun-Hee; Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae-Hong, E-mail: thkang@dau.ac.kr [Department of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the sole mechanism of UV-induced DNA lesion repair in mammals. A single round of NER requires multiple components including seven core NER factors, xeroderma pigmentosum A–G (XPA–XPG), and many auxiliary effector proteins including ATR serine/threonine kinase. The XPA protein helps to verify DNA damage and thus plays a rate-limiting role in NER. Hence, the regulation of XPA is important for the entire NER kinetic. We found that NDR1, a novel XPA-interacting protein, modulates NER by modulating the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint. In quiescent cells, NDR1 localized mainly in the cytoplasm. After UV irradiation, NDR1 accumulated in the nucleus. The siRNA knockdown of NDR1 delayed the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in both normal cells and cancer cells. It did not, however, alter the expression levels or the chromatin association levels of the core NER factors following UV irradiation. Instead, the NDR1-depleted cells displayed reduced activity of ATR for some set of its substrates including CHK1 and p53, suggesting that NDR1 modulates NER indirectly via the ATR pathway. - Highlights: • NDR1 is a novel XPA-interacting protein. • NDR1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV irradiation. • NDR1 modulates NER (nucleotide excision repair) by modulating the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint response.

  13. Radiosensitization of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells via abrogating the G2 checkpoint and inhibiting DNA damage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Lai, Song-Tao; Ma, Ning-Yi; Deng, Yun; Liu, Yong; Wei, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidences have demonstrated the potential of metformin as a novel agent for cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we investigated its ability of radiosensitization and the underlying mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, we found that metformin at 5 mM concentration enhanced the radiosensitivity of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.39 and 1.27, respectively. Mechanistically, metformin caused abrogation of the G2 checkpoint and increase of mitotic catastrophe, associated with suppression of Wee1 kinase and in turn CDK1 Tyr15 phosphorylation. Furthermore, metformin inhibited both expression and irradiation-induced foci formation of Rad51, a key player in homologous recombination repair, ultimately leading to persistent DNA damage, as reflected by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 signaling. Finally, metformin-mediated AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K was identified as a possible upstream pathway controlling translational regulation of Wee1 and Rad51. Our data suggest that metformin radiosensitizes pancreatic cancer cells in vitro via abrogation of the G2 checkpoint and inhibition of DNA damage repair. However, the in vivo study is needed to further confirm the findings from the in vitro study.

  14. 'Hide-then-hit' to explain the importance of genotypic polymorphism of DNA repair genes in determining susceptibility to cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Ei Wu; Chen-Yang Shen

    2011-01-01

    Interindividual variations in DNA repair capacity/efficiency linked to the presence of polymorphisms in DNA repair-related genes have been suggested to account for different risk of developing cancers. In this review article, on the basis of breast cancer formation as a model, we propose a 'hide-then-hit' hypothesis indicating the importance of escaping checkpoint surveillance for sub-optimal DNA repair variants to cause cancer. Therefore, only cells with subtle defects in repair capacity arising from low-penetrance variants of DNA repair genes would have the opportunity to grow and accumulate the genetic changes needed for cancer formation, without triggering cell-cycle checkpoint surveillance. Furthermore, distinct from high-penetrance alleles, these polymorphic alleles of DNA repair genes would predispose carriers to a higher risk of developing cancer but would not necessarily cause cancer. To examine this,we simultaneously genotyped multiple SNPs of cell-cycle checkpoint genes and the DNA repair genes. Support for the hypothesis came from observations that breast cancer risk associated with variant genotypes of DNA repair genes became more significant in be confirmed by biological evidence in which a cause-effect relationship has to be established. However, based on this, possible gene-gene interaction is considered to play an important role in modifying the cancer risk associated with genotypic polymorphism of DNA repair gene in different study populations.

  15. Ermenilerin Kontrol Noktası: İskenderun Limanı Alexandretta Port - Checkpoint For Armenians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim ÜRKMEZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The period of Yavuz Sultan Selim and the Ottoman Empire’s entering Alexandretta until the first half of the 19th century had identity of a very small village. Right to the end of the century, the industry revolution’s impact and trading goods’ large amount of transport means gained importance starting especially in the city of Aleppo and then in one of South Anatolia’s natural ports as of the day the preliminary plan came out. After the 1890’s the increase of Armenian activities in Anatolia and the outbreak of revolts in many other places parallel the Ottoman government’s large forces’ involvement to prevent and be able to keep Armenian rebels under control, taking various measures. Abdul Hamid II started under this negative initiative; the Sultan tried to resist in various ways. From these measures in any of the provinces of Aleppo, Mamuretülaziz, Adana, Kayseri, Bitlis, Van, Diyarbekir, or Erzurum, Armenians living in the diaspora and connecting supplier port, as in Alexandretta, have a checkpoint facility. Sultan Abdul Hamid II’s direction of the facility is seen at the checkpoint from the dock outside rising or Anatolia geography’s various residential areas incoming Armenian travelers often reserved monthly lists. In addition to this, England in the grip of Cyprus was able to check Armenians’ entries into Anatolia set by a weapons and bombs training field. It is understood that this matter is elaborated on further in books prepared from lists. These books will come to light with the acceleration of the classification of records. Yavuz Sultan Selim döneminde Osmanlı hâkimiyetine giren İskenderun, 19. yüzyılın ilk yarısına kadar çok küçük bir köy hüviyetinde kalmıştır. Yüzyılın sonuna doğru sanayi devriminin etkisi ve ticari emtianın çokça taşınması vesilesi ile önem kazanmaya başlayan şehir özellikle Halep ve ardı ile Güney Anadolu’nun doğal bir limanı olarak gün geçtikçe ön plana

  16. Obtusilactone A and (-)-sesamin induce apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by inhibiting mitochondrial Lon protease and activating DNA damage checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Jung; Hsu, Shu-Wei; Fang, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Tai-Feng; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen

    2010-12-01

    Several compounds from Cinnamomum kotoense show anticancer activities. However, the detailed mechanisms of most compounds from C. kotoense remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of obtusilactone A (OA) and (-)-sesamin in lung cancer. Our results show that human Lon is upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and downregulation of Lon triggers caspase-3 mediated apoptosis. Through enzyme-based screening, we identified two small-molecule compounds, obtusilactone A (OA) and (-)-sesamin from C. kotoense, as potent Lon protease inhibitors. Obtusilactone A and (-)-sesamin interact with Ser855 and Lys898 residues in the active site of the Lon protease according to molecular docking analysis. Thus, we suggest that cancer cytotoxicity of the compounds is partly due to the inhibitory effects on Lon protease. In addition, the compounds are able to cause DNA double-strand breaks and activate checkpoints. Treatment with OA and (-)-sesamin induced p53-independent DNA damage responses in NSCLC cells, including G(1) /S checkpoint activation and apoptosis, as evidenced by phosphorylation of checkpoint proteins (H2AX, Nbs1, and Chk2), caspase-3 cleavage, and sub-G(1) accumulation. In conclusion, OA and (-)-sesamin act as both inhibitors of human mitochondrial Lon protease and DNA damage agents to activate the DNA damage checkpoints as well induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells. These dual functions open a bright avenue to develop more selective chemotherapy agents to overcome chemoresistance and sensitize cancer cells to other chemotherapeutics.

  17. Abrogation of Chk1-mediated S/G2 checkpoint by UCN-01 enhances ara-C-induced cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-guang SHAO; Chun-Xia CAO; Yves POMMIER

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) affects cell cycle progression in arabinosylcytosine (ara-C) treated human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis, cell cycle distribution,protein level, and kinase activity were determined by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, DNA synthesis assay,immunoblotting, and kinase assays, respectively. RESULTS: UCN-01 abrogated an S/G2-phase checkpoint in HT29 cells treated with ara-C. When UCN-01 was added after treatment with ara-C, the rate of recovery of DNA synthesis was enhanced and colony-forming ability diminished. Thus, premature recovery of DNA synthesis was associated with increased cytotoxicity. Measurements of cyclin A and B protein levels, Cdk2 and Cdc2 kinase activities, Cdc25C phosphorylation, and Chkl kinase activity were consistent with UCN-01-induced abrogation of the S/G2-phase checkpoint in ara-C treated cells. CONCLUSION: The abrogation of the S/G2 checkpoint may be due to inhibition of Chkl kinase by UCN-01. The enhanced cytotoxicity produced when UCN-01 was combined with ara-C suggested a rationale for the use of this drug combination for tumors that might be susceptible to cell cycle checkpoint abrogation.

  18. SCIB2, an antibody DNA vaccine encoding NY-ESO-1 epitopes, induces potent antitumor immunity which is further enhanced by checkpoint blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Metheringham, Rachael L; Brentville, Victoria A; Gunn, Barbara; Symonds, Peter; Yagita, Hideo; Ramage, Judith M; Durrant, Lindy G

    2016-06-01

    Checkpoint blockade has demonstrated promising antitumor responses in approximately 10-40% of patients. However, the majority of patients do not make a productive immune response to their tumors and do not respond to checkpoint blockade. These patients may benefit from an effective vaccine that stimulates high-avidity T cell responses in combination with checkpoint blockade. We have previously shown that incorporating TRP-2 and gp100 epitopes into the CDR regions of a human IgG1 DNA (ImmunoBody®: IB) results in significant tumor regression both in animal models and patients. This vaccination strategy is superior to others as it targets antigen to antigen-presenting cells and stimulates high-avidity T cell responses. To broaden the application of this vaccination strategy, 16 NY-ESO-1 epitopes, covering over 80% of HLA phenotypes, were incorporated into the IB (SCIB2). They produced higher frequency and avidity T cell responses than peptide vaccination. These T cells were of sufficient avidity to kill NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, and in vivo controlled the growth of established B16-NY-ESO-1 tumors, resulting in long-term survival (35%). When SCIB2 was given in combination with Treg depletion, CTLA-4 blockade or PD-1 blockade, long-term survival from established tumors was significantly enhanced to 56, 67 and 100%, respectively. Translating these responses into the clinic by using a combination of SCIB2 vaccination and checkpoint blockade can only further improve clinical responses.

  19. The architecture of the BubR1 tetratricopeptide tandem repeat defines a protein motif underlying mitotic checkpoint-kinetochore communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Nilsson, Jakob; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-01-01

    as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may...

  20. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  1. Fault-Tolerance through Message-logging and Check-pointing: Disaster Recovery for CORBA-based Distributed Bank Servers

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil; Kuang, Heng

    2009-01-01

    This report presents results of our endeavor towards developing a failure-recovery variant of a CORBA-based bank server that provides fault tolerance features through message logging and checkpoint logging. In this group of projects, three components were developed to satisfy the requirements: 1) a message-logging protocol for the branch servers of the distributed banking system to log required information; 2) a recovery module that restarts the bank server using the message log to help the restarted bank server process subsequent requests for various operations; 3) a monitor module that periodically checks whether the bank server is down and helps the recovery module restart the bank server if the latter has crashed.

  2. Targeting the mitotic checkpoint for cancer therapy with NMS-P715, an inhibitor of MPS1 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Riccardo; Caldarelli, Marina; Mennecozzi, Milena; Giorgini, Maria Laura; Sola, Francesco; Cappella, Paolo; Perrera, Claudia; Depaolini, Stefania Re; Rusconi, Luisa; Cucchi, Ulisse; Avanzi, Nilla; Bertrand, Jay Aaron; Bossi, Roberto Tiberio; Pesenti, Enrico; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Colotta, Francesco; Donati, Daniele; Moll, Jürgen

    2010-12-15

    MPS1 kinase is a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a mitotic mechanism specifically required for proper chromosomal alignment and segregation. It has been found aberrantly overexpressed in a wide range of human tumors and is necessary for tumoral cell proliferation. Here we report the identification and characterization of NMS-P715, a selective and orally bioavailable MPS1 small-molecule inhibitor, which selectively reduces cancer cell proliferation, leaving normal cells almost unaffected. NMS-P715 accelerates mitosis and affects kinetochore components localization causing massive aneuploidy and cell death in a variety of tumoral cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in preclinical cancer models. Inhibiting the SAC could represent a promising new approach to selectively target cancer cells.

  3. Reduced ability to recover from spindle disruption and loss of kinetochore spindle assembly checkpoint proteins in oocytes from aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yan; Holt, Janet E; Lane, Simon I R; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Merriman, Julie A; Jones, Keith T

    2014-01-01

    Currently, maternal aging in women, based on mouse models, is thought to raise oocyte aneuploidy rates, because chromosome cohesion deteriorates during prophase arrest, and Sgo2, a protector of centromeric cohesion, is lost. Here we show that the most common mouse strain, C57Bl6/J, is resistant to maternal aging, showing little increase in aneuploidy or Sgo2 loss. Instead it demonstrates significant kinetochore-associated loss in the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2 and phosphorylated Aurora C, which is involved in microtubule-kinetochore error correction. Their loss affects the fidelity of bivalent segregation but only when spindle organization is impaired during oocyte maturation. These findings have an impact clinically regarding the handling of human oocytes ex vivo during assisted reproductive techniques and suggest there is a genetic basis to aneuploidy susceptibility.

  4. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein engages but does not abrogate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yueyang [Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Munger, Karl, E-mail: kmunger@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as well as sequences previously implicated in binding the nuclear and mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.

  5. Are immune checkpoint blockade monoclonal antibodies active against CNS metastases from NSCLC?-current evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Grainne M; Leighl, Natasha B

    2016-12-01

    Brain metastases occur in approximately half of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are associated with a poor prognosis and an inferior quality of life. Historically systemic therapy has had a limited role in CNS disease with a reliance placed on local treatments. The emergence of targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in recent years has dramatically changed the treatment landscape of NSCLC. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in three randomized trials and now represent standard second line therapy after platinum failure. Trials have largely excluded patients with symptomatic or untreated CNS disease as the brain has been considered an 'immune-privileged' organ. We review the evidence and future prospects of ICIs in treating brain metastases in NSCLC.

  6. Leveraging the checkpoint-restart technique for optimizing CPU efficiency of ATLAS production applications on opportunistic platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Data processing applications of the ATLAS experiment, such as event simulation and reconstruction, spend considerable amount of time in the initialization phase. This phase includes loading a large number of shared libraries, reading detector geometry and condition data from external databases, building a transient representation of the detector geometry and initializing various algorithms and services. In some cases the initialization step can take as long as 10-15 minutes. Such slow initialization, being inherently serial, has a significant negative impact on overall CPU efficiency of the production job, especially when the job is executed on opportunistic, often short-lived, resources such as commercial clouds or volunteer computing. In order to improve this situation, we can take advantage of the fact that ATLAS runs large numbers of production jobs with similar configuration parameters (e.g. jobs within the same production task). This allows us to checkpoint one job at the end of its configuration step a...

  7. RPA mediates recombination repair during replication stress and is displaced from DNA by checkpoint signalling in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleeth, Kate M; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Issaeva, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The replication protein A (RPA) is involved in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA. Here, we show that RPA is involved in genome maintenance at stalled replication forks by the homologous recombination repair system in humans. Depletion of the RPA protein inhibited...... the formation of RAD51 nuclear foci after hydroxyurea-induced replication stalling leading to persistent unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate a direct role of RPA in homology directed recombination repair. We find that RPA is dispensable for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation...... and that RPA directly binds RAD52 upon replication stress, suggesting a direct role in recombination repair. In addition we show that inhibition of Chk1 with UCN-01 decreases dissociation of RPA from the chromatin and inhibits association of RAD51 and RAD52 with DNA. Altogether, our data suggest a direct role...

  8. Combination of Id2 Knockdown Whole Tumor Cells and Checkpoint Blockade: A Potent Vaccine Strategy in a Mouse Neuroblastoma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Tumor vaccines have held much promise, but to date have demonstrated little clinical success. This lack of success is conceivably due to poor tumor antigen presentation combined with immuno-suppressive mechanisms exploited by the tumor itself. Knock down of Inhibitor of differentiation protein 2 (Id2-kd in mouse neuroblastoma whole tumor cells rendered these cells immunogenic. Id2-kd neuroblastoma (Neuro2a cells (Id2-kd N2a failed to grow in most immune competent mice and these mice subsequently developed immunity against further wild-type Neuro2a tumor cell challenge. Id2-kd N2a cells grew aggressively in immune-compromised hosts, thereby establishing the immunogenicity of these cells. Therapeutic vaccination with Id2-kd N2a cells alone suppressed tumor growth even in established neuroblastoma tumors and when used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade eradicated large established tumors. Mechanistically, immune cell depletion studies demonstrated that while CD8+ T cells are critical for antitumor immunity, CD4+ T cells are also required to induce a sustained long-lasting helper effect. An increase in number of CD8+ T-cells and enhanced production of interferon gamma (IFNγ was observed in tumor antigen stimulated splenocytes of vaccinated mice. More importantly, a massive influx of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells infiltrated the shrinking tumor following combined immunotherapy. These findings show that down regulation of Id2 induced tumor cell immunity and in combination with checkpoint blockade produced a novel, potent, T-cell mediated tumor vaccine strategy.

  9. A molecular switch in the scaffold NHERF1 enables misfolded CFTR to evade the peripheral quality control checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Cláudia A; Matos, Ana Margarida; Dias-Alves, Ângela; Pereira, Joana F; Uliyakina, Inna; Barros, Patrícia; Amaral, Margarida D; Matos, Paulo

    2015-05-19

    The peripheral protein quality control (PPQC) checkpoint removes improperly folded proteins from the plasma membrane through a mechanism involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein). PPQC limits the efficacy of some cystic fibrosis (CF) drugs, such as VX-809, that improve trafficking to the plasma membrane of misfolded mutants of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), including F508del-CFTR, which retains partial functionality. We investigated the PPQC checkpoint in lung epithelial cells with F508del-CFTR that were exposed to VX-809. The conformation of the scaffold protein NHERF1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor 1) determined whether the PPQC recognized "rescued" F508del-CFTR (the portion that reached the cell surface in VX-809-treated cells). Activation of the cytoskeletal regulator Rac1 promoted an interaction between the actin-binding adaptor protein ezrin and NHERF1, triggering exposure of the second PDZ domain of NHERF1, which interacted with rescued F508del-CFTR. Because binding of F508del-CFTR to the second PDZ of NHERF1 precluded the recruitment of CHIP, the coexposure of airway cells to Rac1 activator nearly tripled the efficacy of VX-809. Interference with the NHERF1-ezrin interaction prevented the increase of efficacy of VX-809 by Rac1 activation, but the actin-binding domain of ezrin was not required for the increase in efficacy. Thus, rather than mainly directing anchoring of F508del-CFTR to the actin cytoskeleton, induction of ezrin activation by Rac1 signaling triggered a conformational change in NHERF1, which was then able to bind and stabilize misfolded CFTR at the plasma membrane. These insights into the cell surface stabilization of CFTR provide new targets to improve treatment of CF.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of autoreactive B cells--checkpoints of B cell tolerance in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett M Jacobi

    Full Text Available DNA-reactive B cells play a central role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; DNA antibodies precede clinical disease and in established disease correlate with renal inflammation and contribute to dendritic cell activation and high levels of type 1 interferon. A number of central and peripheral B cell tolerance mechanisms designed to control the survival, differentiation and activation of autoreactive B cells are thought to be disturbed in patients with SLE. The characterization of DNA-reactive B cells has, however, been limited by their low frequency in peripheral blood. Using a tetrameric configuration of a peptide mimetope of DNA bound by pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies, we can identify B cells producing potentially pathogenic DNA-reactive antibodies. We, therefore, characterized the maturation and differentiation states of peptide, (ds double stranded DNA cross-reactive B cells in the peripheral blood of lupus patients and correlated these with clinical disease activity. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tetramer-binding B cells in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. We demonstrated the existence of a novel tolerance checkpoint at the transition of antigen-naïve to antigen-experienced. We further demonstrate that patients with moderately active disease have more autoreactive B cells in both the antigen-naïve and antigen-experienced compartments consistent with greater impairment in B cell tolerance in both early and late checkpoints in these patients than in patients with quiescent disease. This methodology enables us to gain insight into the development and fate of DNA-reactive B cells in individual patients with SLE and paves the way ultimately to permit better and more customized therapies.

  11. Checkpoint kinase1 (CHK1) is an important biomarker in breast cancer having a role in chemotherapy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-kaabi, M M; Alshareeda, A T; Jerjees, D A; Muftah, A A; Green, A R; Alsubhi, N H; Nolan, C C; Chan, S; Cornford, E; Madhusudan, S; Ellis, I O; Rakha, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Checkpoint kinase1 (CHK1), which is a key component of DNA-damage-activated checkpoint signalling response, may have a role in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and influence response to chemotherapy. This study investigated the clinicopathological significance of phosphorylated CHK1 (pCHK1) protein in BC. Method: pCHK1 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in a large, well-characterized annotated series of early-stage primary operable invasive BC prepared as tissue microarray (n=1200). Result: pCHK1 showed nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Tumours with nuclear expression showed positive associations with favourable prognostic features such as lower grade, lower mitotic activity, expression of hormone receptor and lack of expression of KI67 and PI3K (P<0.001). On the other hand, cytoplasmic expression was associated with features of poor prognosis such as higher grade, triple-negative phenotype and expression of KI67, p53, AKT and PI3K. pCHK1 expression showed an association with DNA damage response (ATM, RAD51, BRCA1, KU70/KU80, DNA-PKCα and BARD1) and sumoylation (UBC9 and PIASγ) biomarkers. Subcellular localisation of pCHK1 was associated with the expression of the nuclear transport protein KPNA2. Positive nuclear expression predicted better survival outcome in patients who did not receive chemotherapy in the whole series and in ER-positive tumours. In ER-negative and triple-negative subgroups, nuclear pCHK1 predicted shorter survival in patients who received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-florouracil chemotherapy. Conclusions: Our data suggest that pCHK1 may have prognostic and predictive significance in BC. Subcellular localisation of pCHK1 protein is related to its function. PMID:25688741

  12. Loss of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Control in Drosophila Rfc4 Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, S A; Loupart, M L; Vass, S.; Schoenfelder, S; Harrison, S; Heck, M M S

    2001-01-01

    Two alleles of the Drosophila melanogaster Rfc4 (DmRfc4) gene, which encodes subunit 4 of the replication factor C (RFC) complex, cause striking defects in mitotic chromosome cohesion and condensation. These mutations produce larval phenotypes consistent with a role in DNA replication but also result in mitotic chromosomal defects appearing either as premature chromosome condensation-like or precocious sister chromatid separation figures. Though the DmRFC4 protein localizes to all replicating...

  13. Rett syndrome: genes, synapses, circuits and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek eBanerjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of the nervous system proceeds through a set of complex checkpoints which arise from a combination of sequential gene expression and early neural activity sculpted by the environment. Genetic and environmental insults lead to neurodevelopmental disorders which encompass a large group of diseases that result from anatomical and physiological abnormalities during maturation and development of brain circuits. Rett syndrome (RTT is a postnatal neurological disorder of genetic origin, caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. It features neuropsychiatric abnormalities like motor dysfunctions and mild to severe cognitive impairment. This review discusses several key questions and attempts to evaluate recently developed animal models, cell-type specific function of MeCP2, defects in neural circuit plasticity and possible therapeutic strategies. Finally, we also discuss how genes, proteins and overlapping signaling pathways affect the molecular etiology of apparently unrelated neuropsychiatric disorders, an understanding of which can offer novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. Targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients: a guide and update for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakavand, Hojabr; Wilmott, James S; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The previously dismal prospects for patients with advanced stage metastatic melanoma have greatly improved in recent years. Enhanced understanding of both the pathogenesis of melanoma and its molecular drivers, as well as the importance and regulation of anti-tumour immune responses, have provided new therapeutic opportunities for melanoma patients. There are two major distinct categories of systemic treatments with activity for patients with metastatic melanoma: (1) targeted therapies, which act to inhibit the oncogenes that drive the aberrant growth and dissemination of the tumour; and (2) immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies, which act to enhance anti-tumour immune responses by blocking negative regulators of immunity. Pathologists play a critical and expanding role in the selection of the most appropriate treatment for individual metastatic melanoma patients in the modern era of personalised/precision medicine. The molecular pathology testing of melanoma tumour tissue for the presence of targetable oncogenic mutations is already part of routine practice in many institutions. In addition, other potential oncogenic therapeutic targets continue to be identified and pathology testing techniques must readily adapt to this rapidly changing field. Recent research findings suggest that pathological assessment of tumour associated immune cells and immunosuppressive ligand expression of the tumour are likely to be important in identifying patients most likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Similarly, pathological and molecular observations of on-treatment tumour tissue biopsies taken from patients on targeted therapies have provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of targeted molecular therapies, have contributed to the identification of resistance mechanisms to these novel therapies and may be of higher value for selecting patients most likely to benefit from therapies. These data have already provided a rational biological basis for the

  15. Automatic Fault-Tolerance Support in Resource Management System Based on Job Checkpoint/Restart%资源管理系统中基于作业检查点的自动容错

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏嘉; 卢宇彤; 谢旻

    2009-01-01

    An automatic fault-tolerance method based on job checkpoint/restart in resource management systems is pro-posed The key technologies are presented, including the separation of job checkpoint and task checkpoint, management of checkpoint image files, and automatic job restart.Automatic job checkpoint/restart with BLCR is implemented in SLURM and the challenges are discussed. Analysis and experiments show that the checkpoint and restart works correctly, and the time to complete large-scale jobs is reduced effectively.%本文提出了在资源管理系统中基于作业检查点实现自动容错支持,深入分析了作业与任务检查点分离、映像文件管理、自动恢复执行等关键技术.基于BLCR在SLURM中实现了作业的自动检查点/恢复,详细介绍了实现中的关键技术难题.分析与测试表明,检查点与恢复执行功能正确,并能有效缩短大规模作业成功运行所需的时间.

  16. Evaluation of the Dynamicity of Mitotic Exit Network and Spindle Position Checkpoint Components on Spindle Pole Bodies by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Pereira, Gislene

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a powerful technique to study in vivo binding and diffusion dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins. In this chapter, we describe how to determine spindle pole body (SPB) binding dynamics of mitotic exit network (MEN) and spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) proteins using FRAP microscopy. Procedures presented here include the growth of the yeast cultures, sample preparation, image acquisition and analysis.

  17. Phosphorylation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by checkpoint kinase Chk1: identification of the in vitro CK2beta phosphorylation site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter;

    2004-01-01

    The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 mediates the formation of the CK2 tetrameric form and it has functions independent of CK2 catalytic subunit through interaction with several intracellular proteins. Recently, we have shown that CK2beta associates with the human checkpoint kinase Chk...... by the modification of Thr213 but it does require the presence of an active Chk1 kinase....

  18. ALDH1A1 maintains ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. METHODS: Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780 and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70 as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. RESULTS: ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01. ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1 were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. CONCLUSION: This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

  19. A Novel Antagonist of the Immune Checkpoint Protein Adenosine A2a Receptor Restores Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Activity in the Context of the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Mediavilla-Varela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic strategies targeting immune checkpoint proteins have led to significant responses in patients with various tumor types. The success of these studies has led to the development of various antibodies/inhibitors for the different checkpoint proteins involved in immune evasion of the tumor. Adenosine present in high concentrations in the tumor microenvironment activates the immune checkpoint adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR, leading to the suppression of antitumor responses. Inhibition of this checkpoint has the potential to enhance antitumor T-cell responsiveness. METHODS: We developed a novel A2aR antagonist (PBF-509 and tested its antitumor response in vitro, in a mouse model, and in non-small cell lung cancer patient samples. RESULTS: Our studies showed that PBF-509 is highly specific to the A2aR as well as inhibitory of A2aR function in an in vitro model. In a mouse model, we found that lung metastasis was decreased after treatment with PBF-509 compared with its control. Furthermore, freshly resected tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from lung cancer patients showed increased A2aR expression in CD4+ cells and variable expression in CD8+ cells. Ex vivo studies showed an increased responsiveness of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes when PBF-509 was combined with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that inhibition of the A2aR using the novel inhibitor PBF-509 could lead to novel immunotherapeutic strategies in non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. The Role of Replication in Activation of the DNA Damage Checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    sulfonate (MMS) ( Tercero et al. 2003). Taken together, 1040 GENES & DEVELOPMENT 19:1040-1052 © 2005 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ISSN 0890...were present on an equal molar basis (Fig. 5A). Interest- hibited both RPA hyperloading and Chkl phosphoryla- ingly, we also found that the amount of...al. 1 0.5 0.1 Molar Equivalents 2002). Consistent with this, CHIP studies show also that 1 5.6 1 1.1i i Mass Equivalents uncoupling of Cdc45 and RPA

  1. ATM/ATR-related checkpoint signals mediate arsenite-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest in primary aortic endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Chang, Louis W. [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Miaoli County (Taiwan)

    2006-12-15

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a high association of inorganic arsenic exposure with vascular disease. Our recent in vitro studies have linked this vascular damage to vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by arsenic exposure. However, cell-cycle arrest induced by arsenic and its involvement in vascular dysfunction remain to be clarified. In this study, we employed primary porcine aortic endothelial cells to investigate regulatory mechanisms of G{sub 2}/M phase arrest induced by arsenite. Our study revealed that lower concentrations of arsenite (1 and 3 {mu}M) increased cell proliferation, whereas higher concentrations of arsenite (10, 20, and 30 {mu}M) inhibited cell proliferation together with correlated increases in G{sub 2}/M phase arrest. We found that this arsenite-induced G{sub 2}/M phase arrest was accompanied by accumulation and/or phosphorylation of checkpoint-related molecules, including p53, Cdc25B, Cdc25C, and securin. Inhibition of activations of these checkpoint-related molecules by caffeine significantly attenuated the 30-{mu}M arsenite-induced G{sub 2}/M phase arrest by 93%. Our data suggest that the DNA damage responsive kinases ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) play critical roles in arsenite-induced G{sub 2}/M phase arrest in aortic endothelial cells possibly via regulation of checkpoint-related signaling molecules including p53, Cdc25B, Cdc25C, and securin. (orig.)

  2. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is not subject to the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geley, S; Kramer, E; Gieffers, C; Gannon, J; Peters, J M; Hunt, T

    2001-04-02

    Cyclin A is a stable protein in S and G2 phases, but is destabilized when cells enter mitosis and is almost completely degraded before the metaphase to anaphase transition. Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) arrested cells at metaphase and stabilized both cyclins A and B1. Cyclin A was efficiently polyubiquitylated by Cdc20 or Cdh1-activated APC/C in vitro, but in contrast to cyclin B1, the proteolysis of cyclin A was not delayed by the spindle assembly checkpoint. The degradation of cyclin B1 was accelerated by inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint. These data suggest that the APC/C is activated as cells enter mitosis and immediately targets cyclin A for degradation, whereas the spindle assembly checkpoint delays the degradation of cyclin B1 until the metaphase to anaphase transition. The "destruction box" (D-box) of cyclin A is 10-20 residues longer than that of cyclin B. Overexpression of wild-type cyclin A delayed the metaphase to anaphase transition, whereas expression of cyclin A mutants lacking a D-box arrested cells in anaphase.

  3. p21 Inhibits Cdk1 in the absence of Cdk2 to maintain the G1/S phase DNA damage checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Ande; Hilton, Mary Beth; Kaldis, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Cdk1 was proposed to compensate for the loss of Cdk2. Here we present evidence that this is possible due to premature translocation of Cdk1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the absence of Cdk2. We also investigated the consequence of loss of Cdk2 on the maintenance of the G1/S DNA damage checkpoint. Cdk2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro as well as regenerating liver cells after partial hepatectomy (PH) in Cdk2(-/-) mice, arrest promptly at the G1/S checkpoint in response to gamma-irradiation due to activation of p53 and p21 inhibiting Cdk1. Furthermore re-entry into S phase after irradiation was delayed in Cdk2(-/-) cells due to prolonged and impaired DNA repair activity. In addition, Cdk2(-/-) mice were more sensitive to lethal irradiation compared to wild-type and displayed delayed resumption of DNA replication in regenerating liver cells. Our results suggest that the G1/S DNA damage checkpoint is intact in the absence of Cdk2, but Cdk2 is important for proper repair of the damaged DNA.

  4. A computational platform for robotized fluorescence microscopy (II): DNA damage, replication, checkpoint activation, and cell cycle progression by high-content high-resolution multiparameter image-cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, Laura; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Dissection of complex molecular-networks in rare cell populations is limited by current technologies that do not allow simultaneous quantification, high-resolution localization, and statistically robust analysis of multiple parameters. We have developed a novel computational platform (Automated Microscopy for Image CytOmetry, A.M.I.CO) for quantitative image-analysis of data from confocal or widefield robotized microscopes. We have applied this image-cytometry technology to the study of checkpoint activation in response to spontaneous DNA damage in nontransformed mammary cells. Cell-cycle profile and active DNA-replication were correlated to (i) Ki67, to monitor proliferation; (ii) phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and 53BP1, as markers of DNA-damage response (DDR); and (iii) p53 and p21, as checkpoint-activation markers. Our data suggest the existence of cell-cycle modulated mechanisms involving different functions of γH2AX and 53BP1 in DDR, and of p53 and p21 in checkpoint activation and quiescence regulation during the cell-cycle. Quantitative analysis, event selection, and physical relocalization have been then employed to correlate protein expression at the population level with interactions between molecules, measured with Proximity Ligation Analysis, with unprecedented statistical relevance. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Treatment: A Double-Edged Sword Cross-Targeting the Host as an “Innocent Bystander”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gelao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Targeted immune checkpoint blockade augments anti-tumor immunity and induces durable responses in patients with melanoma and other solid tumors. It also induces specific “immune-related adverse events” (irAEs. IrAEs mainly include gastrointestinal, dermatological, hepatic and endocrinological toxicities. Off-target effects that arise appear to account for much of the toxicity of the immune checkpoint blockade. These unique “innocent bystander” effects are likely a direct result of breaking immune tolerance upon immune check point blockade and require specific treatment guidelines that include symptomatic therapies or systemic corticosteroids. What do we need going forward to limit immune checkpoint blockade-induced toxicity? Most importantly, we need a better understanding of the roles played by these agents in normal tissues, so that we can begin to predict potentially problematic side effects on the basis of their selectivity profile. Second, we need to focus on the predictive factors of the response and toxicity of the host rather than serially focusing on individual agents. Third, rigorous biomarker-driven clinical trials are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of both the benefit and toxicity. We will summarize the double-edged sword effect of immunotherapeutics in cancer treatment.

  6. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulagna Banerjee; Suchismita Das; Anuradha Lohia

    2002-11-01

    Fidelity in transmission of genetic characters is ensured by the faithful duplication of the genome, followed by equal segregation of the genetic material in the progeny. Thus, alternation of DNA duplication (S-phase) and chromosome segregation during the M-phase are hallmarks of most well studied eukaryotes. Several rounds of genome reduplication before chromosome segregation upsets this cycle and leads to polyploidy. Polyploidy is often witnessed in cells prior to differentiation, in embryonic cells or in diseases such as cancer. Studies on the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica suggest that in its proliferative phase, this organism may accumulate polyploid cells. It has also been shown that although this organism contains sequence homologs of genes which are known to control the cell cycle of most eukaryotes, these genes may be structurally altered and their equivalent function yet to be demonstrated in amoeba. The available information suggests that surveillance mechanisms or ‘checkpoints’ which are known to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle may be absent or altered in E. histolytica.

  7. Multiple motifs regulate the trafficking of GABA(B) receptors at distinct checkpoints within the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restituito, Sophie; Couve, Andrés; Bawagan, Hinayana; Jourdain, Sabine; Pangalos, Menelas N; Calver, Andrew R; Freeman, Katie B; Moss, Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B receptors (GABA(B)) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate GABAergic inhibition in the brain. Their functional expression is dependent upon the formation of heterodimers between GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits, a process that occurs within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the mechanisms that regulate receptor surface expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that access to the cell surface for GABA(B)R1 is sequentially controlled by an RSR(R) motif and a LL motif within its cytoplasmic domain. In addition, we reveal that msec7-1, a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of GTPases, critical regulators of vesicular membrane trafficking, interacts with GABA(B)R1 via the LL motif in this subunit. Finally, we establish that msec7-1 modulates the cell surface expression of GABA(B) receptors, a process that is dependent upon the integrity of the LL motif in GABA(B)R1. Together, our results demonstrate that the cell surface expression of the GABA(B)R1 subunit is regulated by multiple motifs, which act at distinct checkpoints in the secretory pathway, and also suggest a novel role for msec7-1 in regulating the membrane trafficking of GABA(B)R1 subunits.

  8. A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznova, Yuliya; Koca Caydasi, Ayse; Malengo, Gabriele; Sourjik, Victor; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-05-09

    The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a spindle pole body (SPB, equivalent of mammalian centrosome) associated surveillance mechanism that halts mitotic exit upon spindle mis-orientation. Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the γ-tubulin receptor Spc72. Spindle misalignment specifically disrupts Bfa1-Spc72 interaction by a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3-family protein Bmh1 and the MARK/PAR-kinase Kin4. Dissociation of Bfa1 from Spc72 prevents the inhibitory phosphorylation of Bfa1 by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. We propose Spc72 as a regulatory hub that coordinates the activity of Kin4 and Cdc5 towards Bfa1. In addition, analysis of spc72∆ cells shows that a mitotic-exit-promoting dominant signal, which is triggered upon elongation of the spindle into the bud, overrides the SPOC. Our data reinforce the importance of daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulations in mitotic exit and SPOC control.

  9. Opportunistic autoimmune disorders potentiated by immune-checkpoint inhibitors anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chi eKong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for cancer and autoimmune diseases, recent ongoing and completed clinical trials have focused on specific targets to redirect the immune network toward eradicating a variety of tumors and ameliorating the self-destructive process. In a previous review (Kong et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1183:222-236, 2010, both systemic immunomodulators and monoclonal antibodies, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-CD52, were discussed regarding therapeutics and autoimmune sequelae, as well as predisposing factors known to exacerbate immune-related adverse events. This review will focus on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, and the data from most clinical trials involve blockade with anti-CTLA-4 such as ipilimumab. However, despite the mild to severe immune-related adverse events observed with ipilimumab in ~60% of patients, overall survival averaged ~22-25% at 3-5 years. To boost overall survival, other monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death-1 and its ligand are undergoing clinical trials as monotherapy or dual therapy with anti-CTLA-4. Therapeutic combinations may generate different spectrum of opportunistic autoimmune disorders. To simulate clinical scenarios, we have applied regulatory T cell perturbation to murine models combined to examine the balance between thyroid autoimmunity and tumor-specific immunity.

  10. CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV-infected patients express multiple negative immune checkpoints following stimulation with HCV peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathan, Muttiah; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chang, Li Yen; Vignesh, Ramachandran; Krishnan, Jayalakshmi; Sigamani, Panneer; Saeidi, Alireza; Ram, M Ravishankar; Velu, Vijayakumar; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence.

  11. A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Hopkins, Alexander C; Laub, Michael T

    2011-06-15

    Following DNA damage, cells typically delay cell cycle progression and inhibit cell division until their chromosomes have been repaired. The bacterial checkpoint systems responsible for these DNA damage responses are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus responds to DNA damage by coordinately inducing an SOS regulon and inhibiting the master regulator CtrA. Included in the SOS regulon is sidA (SOS-induced inhibitor of cell division A), a membrane protein of only 29 amino acids that helps to delay cell division following DNA damage, but is dispensable in undamaged cells. SidA is sufficient, when overproduced, to block cell division. However, unlike many other regulators of bacterial cell division, SidA does not directly disrupt the assembly or stability of the cytokinetic ring protein FtsZ, nor does it affect the recruitment of other components of the cell division machinery. Instead, we provide evidence that SidA inhibits division by binding directly to FtsW to prevent the final constriction of the cytokinetic ring.

  12. Current Diagnosis and Management of Immune Related Adverse Events (irAEs) Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Chaudhary, Neha; Garg, Mohit; Floudas, Charalampos S.; Soni, Parita; Chandra, Abhinav B.

    2017-01-01

    The indications of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are set to rise further with the approval of newer agents like tremelimumab and atezolimumab for use in patients with advanced stage mesothelioma and urothelial carcinoma respectively. More frequent use of ICIs has improved our understanding of their unique side effects, which are known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The spectrum of irAEs has expanded beyond more common manifestations such as dermatological, gastrointestinal and endocrine effects to rarer presentations involving nervous, hematopoietic and urinary systems. There are new safety data accumulating on ICIs in patients with previously diagnosed autoimmune conditions. It is challenging for clinicians to continuously update their working knowledge to diagnose and manage these events successfully. If diagnosed timely, the majority of events are completely reversible, and temporary immunosuppression with glucocorticoids, infliximab or other agents is warranted only in the most severe grade illnesses. The same principles of management will possibly apply as newer anti- cytotoxic T lymphocytes-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) antibodies are introduced. The current focus of research is for prophylaxis and for biomarkers to predict the onset of these toxicities. In this review we summarize the irAEs of ICIs and emphasize their growing spectrum and their management algorithms, to update oncology practitioners. PMID:28228726

  13. Circulating T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with bipolar II or major depression: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zheng, Ya-li; Tian, Li-ping; Lai, Jian-bo; Hu, Chan-chan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jing-kai; Hu, Jian-bo; Huang, Man-li; Wei, Ning; Xu, Wei-juan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Lu, Shao-jia; Lu, Jing; Qi, Hong-li; Wang, Dan-dan; Zhou, Xiao-yi; Duan, Jin-feng; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the less known activation pattern of T lymphocyte populations and immune checkpoint inhibitors on immunocytes in patients with bipolar II disorder depression (BD) or major depression (MD). A total of 23 patients with BD, 22 patients with MD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The blood cell count of T lymphocyte subsets and the plasma level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were selectively investigated. The expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on T lymphocytes and monocytes, was detected. In results, blood proportion of cytotoxic T cells significantly decreased in BD patients than in either MD patients or HCs. The plasma level of IL-6 increased in patients with BD and MD. The expression of TIM-3 on cytotoxic T cells significantly increased, whereas the expression of PD-L2 on monocytes significantly decreased in patients with BD than in HCs. These findings extended our knowledge of the immune dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. PMID:28074937

  14. Zwint-1 is required for spindle assembly checkpoint function and kinetochore-microtubule attachment during oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Seo, Dong; Yeop You, Seung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Su Oh, Jeong

    2015-10-21

    The key step for faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis is kinetochore assembly. Defects in this process result in aneuploidy, leading to miscarriages, infertility and various birth defects. However, the roles of kinetochores in homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis are ill-defined. Here we found that Zwint-1 is required for homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis. Knockdown of Zwint-1 accelerated the first meiosis by abrogating the kinetochore recruitment of Mad2, leading to chromosome misalignment and a high incidence of aneuploidy. Although Zwint-1 knockdown did not affect Aurora C kinase activity, the meiotic defects following Zwint-1 knockdown were similar to those observed with ZM447439 treatment. Importantly, the chromosome misalignment following Aurora C kinase inhibition was not restored after removing the inhibitor in Zwint-1-knockdown oocytes, whereas the defect was rescued after the inhibitor washout in the control oocytes. These results suggest that Aurora C kinase-mediated correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachment is primarily regulated by Zwint-1. Our results provide the first evidence that Zwint-1 is required to correct erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachment and regulate spindle checkpoint function during meiosis.

  15. Novel DNA damage checkpoint in mitosis: Mitotic DNA damage induces re-replication without cell division in various cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sun-Yi; Rosen, Eliot M; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-07-06

    DNA damage induces multiple checkpoint pathways to arrest cell cycle progression until damage is repaired. In our previous reports, when DNA damage occurred in prometaphase, cells were accumulated in 4 N-DNA G1 phase, and mitosis-specific kinases were inactivated in dependent on ATM/Chk1 after a short incubation for repair. We investigated whether or not mitotic DNA damage causes cells to skip-over late mitotic periods under prolonged incubation in a time-lapse study. 4 N-DNA-damaged cells re-replicated without cell division and accumulated in 8 N-DNA content, and the activities of apoptotic factors were increased. The inhibition of DNA replication reduced the 8 N-DNA cell population dramatically. Induction of replication without cell division was not observed upon depletion of Chk1 or ATM. Finally, mitotic DNA damage induces mitotic slippage and that cells enter G1 phase with 4 N-DNA content and then DNA replication is occurred to 8 N-DNA content before completion of mitosis in the ATM/Chk1-dependent manner, followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis during long-term repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Core-shell nanoscale coordination polymers combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to potentiate checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunbai; Duan, Xiaopin; Guo, Nining; Chan, Christina; Poon, Christopher; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of only 12% for patients with the metastatic disease. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as the antibodies inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, are among the most promising immunotherapies for patients with advanced colon cancer, but their durable response rate remains low. We herein report the use of immunogenic nanoparticles to augment the antitumour efficacy of PD-L1 antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy. Nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) core-shell nanoparticles carry oxaliplatin in the core and the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-lipid conjugate (pyrolipid) in the shell (NCP@pyrolipid) for effective chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Synergy between oxaliplatin and pyrolipid-induced PDT kills tumour cells and provokes an immune response, resulting in calreticulin exposure on the cell surface, antitumour vaccination and an abscopal effect. When combined with anti-PD-L1 therapy, NCP@pyrolipid mediates regression of both light-irradiated primary tumours and non-irradiated distant tumours by inducing a strong tumour-specific immune response.

  17. PD-L1/PD-1 check-point in gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma case report with immunochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, Anna; Taffon, Chiara; Donati, Michele; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Valeri, Sergio; Coppola, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma is an unusual type of gastric tumor associated with a better prognosis than typical gastric carcinomas. The hallmark of this cancer is a prominent lymphoid infiltration of the stroma that represents an intense host lymphocytic response. The programmed death 1-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis has recently emerged as a master immune checkpoint that controls antitumor immune responses against many neoplasms. We report the case of a male patient with gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma with a large mass infiltrating the gastric wall without nodal metastasis. He is alive without disease 10 months after surgery. We focused the study on factors that potentially modulate the prognosis. In this setting we demonstrate, for the first time in this type of tumor, by immunohistochemistry a strong PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cell and the presence of PD-1 positive infiltrating lymphocytes. The applied approach may contribute to the knowledge about host reaction in such tumor and it may also be used for tumor precise identification on the endoscopic biopsy time before excision surgery.

  18. Current Diagnosis and Management of Immune Related Adverse Events (irAEs) Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Chaudhary, Neha; Garg, Mohit; Floudas, Charalampos S; Soni, Parita; Chandra, Abhinav B

    2017-01-01

    The indications of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are set to rise further with the approval of newer agents like tremelimumab and atezolimumab for use in patients with advanced stage mesothelioma and urothelial carcinoma respectively. More frequent use of ICIs has improved our understanding of their unique side effects, which are known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The spectrum of irAEs has expanded beyond more common manifestations such as dermatological, gastrointestinal and endocrine effects to rarer presentations involving nervous, hematopoietic and urinary systems. There are new safety data accumulating on ICIs in patients with previously diagnosed autoimmune conditions. It is challenging for clinicians to continuously update their working knowledge to diagnose and manage these events successfully. If diagnosed timely, the majority of events are completely reversible, and temporary immunosuppression with glucocorticoids, infliximab or other agents is warranted only in the most severe grade illnesses. The same principles of management will possibly apply as newer anti- cytotoxic T lymphocytes-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) antibodies are introduced. The current focus of research is for prophylaxis and for biomarkers to predict the onset of these toxicities. In this review we summarize the irAEs of ICIs and emphasize their growing spectrum and their management algorithms, to update oncology practitioners.

  19. An RNA polymerase II-coupled function for histone H3K36 methylation in checkpoint activation and DSB repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Strahl, Brian D

    2014-06-09

    Histone modifications are major determinants of DNA double-strand break (DSB) response and repair. Here we elucidate a DSB repair function for transcription-coupled Set2 methylation at H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me). Cells devoid of Set2/H3K36me are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents and site-specific DSBs, fail to properly activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, and show genetic interactions with DSB-sensing and repair machinery. Set2/H3K36me3 is enriched at DSBs, and loss of Set2 results in altered chromatin architecture and inappropriate resection during G1 near break sites. Surprisingly, Set2 and RNA polymerase II are programmed for destruction after DSBs in a temporal manner--resulting in H3K36me3 to H3K36me2 transition that may be linked to DSB repair. Finally, we show a requirement of Set2 in DSB repair in transcription units--thus underscoring the importance of transcription-dependent H3K36me in DSB repair.

  20. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Is Not Essential for Viability of Human Cells with Genetically Lowered APC/C Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Narita, Takeo;

    2016-01-01

    -conjugating enzymes-UBE2C and UBE2S. We show that APC/C activity in human cells is tuned by the combinatorial use of three E2s, namely UBE2C, UBE2S, and UBE2D. Genetic deletion of UBE2C and UBE2S, individually or in combination, leads to discriminative reduction in APC/C function and sensitizes cells to UBE2D......The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which inhibits the APC/C, are essential determinants of mitotic timing and faithful division of genetic material. Activation of the APC/C is known to depend on two APC/C-interacting E2 ubiquitin...... depletion. Reduction of APC/C activity results in loss of switch-like metaphase-to-anaphase transition and, strikingly, renders cells insensitive to chemical inhibition of MPS1 and genetic ablation of MAD2, both of which are essential for the SAC. These results provide insights into the regulation of APC...