WorldWideScience

Sample records for checking alternating timed

  1. On the Complexity of Model-Checking Branching and Alternating-Time Temporal Logics in One-Counter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We study the complexity of the model-checking problem for the branching-time logic CTL ∗  and the alternating-time temporal logics ATL/ATL ∗  in one-counter processes and one-counter games respectively. The complexity is determined for all three logics when integer weights are input in unary (non...

  2. Efficient on-the-fly Algorithm for Checking Alternating Timed Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. We define timed weak alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata, which preserves controllability. We define the rules of buil...

  3. Model-Checking an Alternating-time Temporal Logic with Knowledge, Imperfect Information, Perfect Recall and Communicating Coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Dima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a variant of ATL with distributed knowledge operators based on a synchronous and perfect recall semantics. The coalition modalities in this logic are based on partial observation of the full history, and incorporate a form of cooperation between members of the coalition in which agents issue their actions based on the distributed knowledge, for that coalition, of the system history. We show that model-checking is decidable for this logic. The technique utilizes two variants of games with imperfect information and partially observable objectives, as well as a subset construction for identifying states whose histories are indistinguishable to the considered coalition.

  4. Timing analysis by model checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydich, Dimitri; Guaspari, David

    2000-01-01

    The safety of modern avionics relies on high integrity software that can be verified to meet hard real-time requirements. The limits of verification technology therefore determine acceptable engineering practice. To simplify verification problems, safety-critical systems are commonly implemented under the severe constraints of a cyclic executive, which make design an expensive trial-and-error process highly intolerant of change. Important advances in analysis techniques, such as rate monotonic analysis (RMA), have provided a theoretical and practical basis for easing these onerous restrictions. But RMA and its kindred have two limitations: they apply only to verifying the requirement of schedulability (that tasks meet their deadlines) and they cannot be applied to many common programming paradigms. We address both these limitations by applying model checking, a technique with successful industrial applications in hardware design. Model checking algorithms analyze finite state machines, either by explicit state enumeration or by symbolic manipulation. Since quantitative timing properties involve a potentially unbounded state variable (a clock), our first problem is to construct a finite approximation that is conservative for the properties being analyzed-if the approximation satisfies the properties of interest, so does the infinite model. To reduce the potential for state space explosion we must further optimize this finite model. Experiments with some simple optimizations have yielded a hundred-fold efficiency improvement over published techniques.

  5. Checking Timed Automata for Linear Duration Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2000-01-01

    It is proved in this paper that checking a timed automaton M with respect to a linear duration property D can be done by investigating only the integral timed states of M. An equivalence relation is introduced in this paper to divide the infinite number of integral timed states into finite number of equivalence classes. Based on this, a method is proposed for checking whether M satisfies D. In some cases, the number of equivalence classes is too large for a computer to manipulate. A technique for reducing the search-space for checking linear duration property is also described. This technique is more suitable for the case in this paper than those in the literature because most of those techniques are designed for reachability analysis.

  6. Checking MSC Specifications for Timing Inconsistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuandong(李宣东); TAN Wenkai(谭文凯); ZHENG Guoliang(郑国梁)

    2002-01-01

    Message sequence chart (MSC) is a graphical and textual language for the description and specification of the interactions between system components. MSC specifica tions allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and offer an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Like any other aspect of the specification and design process, MSCs are amenable to errors, and their analysis is important. In this paper, the verification problem of MSC specification for timing inconsistency is studied, which means that no execu tion scenario described by an MSC specification is timing consistent. An algorithm is developed to check MSC specifications for timing inconsistency.

  7. The Dynamic Checking of Complex Real Time System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao; HUANG Benwen; WU Guoqing

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an dynamic execution model of complex real-time software based on requirement description model RTRSM, and then propose a checking method based on configuration covering and its corresponding algorithm. This checking method can check the execution situations between parallel elements in a dynamic execution step of real-time software systems. It also can check all the states and transitions which assure the completeness of checking. In the end, related theorem is proofed.

  8. Requirements Specifications Checking of Embedded Real-Time Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoqing(毋国庆); SHU Fengdi(舒风笛); WANG Min(王敏); CHEN Weiqing(陈伟清)

    2002-01-01

    After introducing the overview of our requirements description model HRFSM,the paper presents a dynamic software execution model (DERTS) of embedded real-time software, which can integrate control flow, data flow and time. Based on DERTS, a checking method is also presented. It consists of three kinds of checking and can check the consistency and completeness of the requirement specifications of embedded real-time software. Besides providing information helpful to improve the efficiency of analyzing and checking specifications,the checking method is flexible, and easy to understand and to use for the analyst.

  9. Dark Matter Reality Check: Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory challenges an alternative theory of gravity that eliminates the need for dark matter. The observation also narrows the field for competing forms of dark matter, the elusive material thought to be the dominant form of matter in the universe. An observation of the galaxy NGC 720 shows it is enveloped in a slightly flattened, or ellipsoidal cloud of hot gas that has an orientation different from that of the optical image of the galaxy. The flattening is too large to be explained by theories in which stars and gas are assumed to contain most of the mass in the galaxy. "The shape and orientation of the hot gas cloud require it to be confined by an egg-shaped dark matter halo," said David Buote of the University of California, Irvine, and lead author of a report on this research in the 2002 September 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "This means that dark matter is not just an illusion due to a shortcoming of the standard theory of gravity - it is real." According to the generally accepted standard theory of gravity, the hot X-ray cloud would need an additional source of gravity - a halo of dark matter - to keep the hot gas from expanding away. The mass of dark matter required would be about five to ten times the mass of the stars in the galaxy. If the dark matter tracked the optical light from the stars in the galaxy, the hot X-ray cloud would be more round than it is. The flattened shape of the hot gas cloud requires a flattened dark matter halo. An alternative theory of gravity called MOND, for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, was proposed in 1983 by Mordecai Milgrom of the Weizmann Institute in Israel, and has remained viable over the years. MOND does away with the need for dark matter by modifying the theory where the acceleration produced by gravity is very small, such as the outskirts of galaxies. However, MOND cannot explain the Chandra observation of NGC 720. This is apparently the first dynamical evidence that

  10. Model Checking Timed Automata with Priorities using DBM Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, Paul;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe an extension of timed automata with priorities, and efficient algorithms to compute subtraction on DBMs (difference bounded matrices), needed in symbolic model-checking of timed automata with priorities. The subtraction is one of the few operations on DBMs that result in...

  11. Combining monitoring with run-time assertion checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, Stijn de

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new technique for Run-time Checking for two object-oriented languages: Java and the Abstract Behavioral Specification language ABS. In object-oriented languages, objects communicate by sending each other messages. Assuming encapsulation, the behavior of objects is completely determine

  12. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the model-checking problem of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with respect to conditional logic. To the end, we extend Continuous Stochastic Logic introduced in Aziz et al. (2000) [1] to Conditional Continuous Stochastic Logic (CCSL) by introducing a conditional...

  13. Model Checking Real-Time Value-Passing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen; Zio-Ning Cao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,to model check real-time value-passing systems,a formal language Timed Symbolic Transition Graph and a logic system named Timed Predicate μ-Calculus are proposed.An algorithm is presented which is local in that it generates and investigates the reachable state space in top-down fashion and maintains the partition for time evaluations as coarse as possible while on-the-fly instantiating data variables.It can deal with not only data variables with finite value domain,but also the so called data independent variables with infinite value domain.To authors knowledge,this is the first algorithm for model checking timed systems containing value-passing features.

  14. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  15. Verifying Real-time Commit Protocols Using Dense-time Model Checking Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bataineh, Omar I; French, Tim; Woodings, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The timed-based automata model, introduced by Alur and Dill, provides a useful formalism for describing real-time systems. Over the last two decades, several dense-time model checking tools have been developed based on that model. The paper considers the verification of real-time distributed commit protocols using dense-time model checking technology. More precisely, we model and verify the well-known timed two phase commit protocol in three different state-of-the-art real-time model checkers: UPPAAL, Rabbit, and RED, and compare the results.

  16. Alternating-time temporal logic with finite-memory strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Model-checking the alternating-time temporal logics ATL and ATL* with incomplete information is undecidable for perfect recall semantics. However, when restricting to memoryless strategies the model-checking problem becomes decidable. In this paper we consider two other types of semantics based...... on finite-memory strategies. One where the memory size allowed is bounded and one where the memory size is unbounded (but must be finite). This is motivated by the high complexity of model-checking with perfect recall semantics and the severe limitations of memoryless strategies. We show that both types...... of semantics introduced are different from perfect recall and memoryless semantics and next focus on the decidability and complexity of model-checking in both complete and incomplete information games for ATL/ATL*. In particular, we show that the complexity of model-checking with bounded-memory semantics...

  17. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. An Efficient Explicit-time Description Method for Timed Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao; 10.4204/EPTCS.14.6

    2009-01-01

    Timed model checking, the method to formally verify real-time systems, is attracting increasing attention from both the model checking community and the real-time community. Explicit-time description methods verify real-time systems using general model constructs found in standard un-timed model checkers. Lamport proposed an explicit-time description method using a clock-ticking process (Tick) to simulate the passage of time together with a group of global variables to model time requirements. Two methods, the Sync-based Explicit-time Description Method using rendezvous synchronization steps and the Semaphore-based Explicit-time Description Method using only one global variable were proposed; they both achieve better modularity than Lamport's method in modeling the real-time systems. In contrast to timed automata based model checkers like UPPAAL, explicit-time description methods can access and store the current time instant for future calculations necessary for many real-time systems, especially those with p...

  19. Alternating-time temporal logic with finite-memory strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Vester

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Model-checking the alternating-time temporal logics ATL and ATL* with incomplete information is undecidable for perfect recall semantics. However, when restricting to memoryless strategies the model-checking problem becomes decidable. In this paper we consider two other types of semantics based on finite-memory strategies. One where the memory size allowed is bounded and one where the memory size is unbounded (but must be finite. This is motivated by the high complexity of model-checking with perfect recall semantics and the severe limitations of memoryless strategies. We show that both types of semantics introduced are different from perfect recall and memoryless semantics and next focus on the decidability and complexity of model-checking in both complete and incomplete information games for ATL/ATL*. In particular, we show that the complexity of model-checking with bounded-memory semantics is Delta_2p-complete for ATL and PSPACE-complete for ATL* in incomplete information games just as in the memoryless case. We also present a proof that ATL and ATL* model-checking is undecidable for n >= 3 players with finite-memory semantics in incomplete information games.

  20. Time for a reality check on global climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Keefe, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    Right now no one knows enough about global warming to advocate with certainty the kinds of actions that could jeopardize our economic well being -- and the economic aspirations of developing countries. That doesn`t mean no action, which is usually described perjoratively and erroneously as business as usual. It does mean actions must be based on facts, not misperceptions and myths. It does mean a mindset that reexamines, rethinks and changes course based on new knowledge. In short, I am advocating a reality check on the process based on the political, scientific and economic realities. Each of these realities has an important role in determining how we respond to the global warming threat. Our goal should be to identify actions that do the least damage to material well-being and that preserve the path to a better way of life, especially for the developing nations. What we have instead is a process driven by political gamesmanship that will devolve into beggar the neighbor policies reminiscent of 18th century mercantilism.

  1. UPPAAL-SMC: Statistical Model Checking for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a survey of U PPAAL - SMC, a major extension of the real-time verification tool U PPAAL. U PPAAL - SMC allows for the efficient analysis of performance properties of networks of priced timed automata under a natural stochastic semantics. In particular, U PPAAL - SMC relies on a ...

  2. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...

  3. Run-time assertion checking of JML annotations in multithreaded applications with e-OpenJML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandziora, Jorne; Huisman, Marieke; Bockisch, Christoph; Zaharieva-Stojanovski, Marina; Monahan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Run-time assertion checking of multithreaded programs is challenging, as assertion evaluation should not interfere with the execution of other threads. This paper describes the prototype implementation of a run-time assertion checker that achieves this by evaluating assertions over snapshots of the

  4. Efficient model checking for duration calculus based on branching-time approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2008-01-01

    Duration Calculus (abbreviated to DC) is an interval-based, metric-time temporal logic designed for reasoning about embedded real-time systems at a high level of abstraction. But the complexity of model checking any decidable fragment featuring both negation and chop, DC's only modality, is non...

  5. Assessing Fit of Alternative Unidimensional Polytomous IRT Models Using Posterior Predictive Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyun; Xie, Chao; Jiao, Hong

    2016-05-30

    This article explored the application of the posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) method in assessing fit for unidimensional polytomous item response theory (IRT) models, specifically the divide-by-total models (e.g., the generalized partial credit model). Previous research has primarily focused on using PPMC in model checking for unidimensional and multidimensional IRT models for dichotomous data, and has paid little attention to polytomous models. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate the performance of PPMC in detecting different sources of misfit for the partial credit model family. Results showed that the PPMC method, in combination with appropriate discrepancy measures, had adequate power in detecting different sources of misfit for the partial credit model family. Global odds ratio and item total correlation exhibited specific patterns in detecting the absence of the slope parameter, whereas Yen's Q1 was found to be promising in the detection of misfit caused by the constant category intersection parameter constraint across items. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Model Checking Process Algebra of Communicating Resources for Real-time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    and resource usage over a dense-time model. The semantic interpretation of PACOR is defined in the form of a timed transition system expressing the timed behavior and dynamic creation of processes. We define a translation of PACOR systems to Parameterized Stopwatch Automata (PSA). The translation preserves......This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACOR, for real-time systems which deals with resource constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACOR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to express preemptiveness, urgent ness...... the original semantics of PACOR and enables the verification of PACOR systems using symbolic model checking in UPPAAL and statistical model checking UPPAAL SMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACOR, translation and verification....

  7. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    , urgentness and resource usage over a dense-time model. The semantic interpretation of PACoR is defined in the form of a timed transition system expressing the timed behavior and dynamic creation of processes. We define a translation of PACoR systems to Parameterized Stopwatch Automata (PSA). The translation......This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  8. Model Checking Games for a Fair Branching-Time Temporal Epistemic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; van der Meyden, Ron

    Model checking games are instances of Hintikka's game semantics for logic used for purposes of debugging systems verification models. Previous work in the area has developed these games for branching time logic. The paper develops an extension to a logic that adds epistemic operators, and interprets the branching time operators with respect to fairness constraints. The implementation of the extended games in the epistemic model checker MCK is described.

  9. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  10. Run-Time Assertion Checking of Data- and Protocol-Oriented Properties of Java Programs: An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, C.P.T. de; Boer, F.S. de; Johnsen, E.B.; Kohn, A.; Wong, P.Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Run-time assertion checking is one of the useful techniques for detecting faults, and can be applied during any program execution context, including debugging, testing, and production. In general, however, it is limited to checking state-based properties. We introduce SAGA, a general framework that

  11. Model Checking Probabilistic Real-Time Properties for Service-Oriented Systems with Service Level Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krause

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of quality of service properties is an important aspect of service-oriented software engineering. Notations for so-called service level agreements (SLAs, such as the Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA language, provide a formal syntax to specify such assurances in terms of (legally binding contracts between a service provider and a customer. On the other hand, formal methods for verification of probabilistic real-time behavior have reached a level of expressiveness and efficiency which allows to apply them in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we suggest to employ the recently introduced model of Interval Probabilistic Timed Automata (IPTA for formal verification of QoS properties of service-oriented systems. Specifically, we show that IPTA in contrast to Probabilistic Timed Automata (PTA are able to capture the guarantees specified in SLAs directly. A particular challenge in the analysis of IPTA is the fact that their naive semantics usually yields an infinite set of states and infinitely-branching transitions. However, using symbolic representations, IPTA can be analyzed rather efficiently. We have developed the first implementation of an IPTA model checker by extending the PRISM tool and show that model checking IPTA is only slightly more expensive than model checking comparable PTA.

  12. Model checking of time Petri nets using the state class timed automaton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lime, Didier; Roux, Olivier H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for building the state class graph of a bounded time Petri net (TPN) as a timed automaton (TA), which we call the state class timed automaton. We consider bounded TPN, whose underlying net is not necessarily bounded. We prove that our translation preserves...

  13. Alternative time representation in dopamine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, François; Kalaska, John F; Bengio, Yoshua

    2010-02-01

    Dopaminergic neuron activity has been modeled during learning and appetitive behavior, most commonly using the temporal-difference (TD) algorithm. However, a proper representation of elapsed time and of the exact task is usually required for the model to work. Most models use timing elements such as delay-line representations of time that are not biologically realistic for intervals in the range of seconds. The interval-timing literature provides several alternatives. One of them is that timing could emerge from general network dynamics, instead of coming from a dedicated circuit. Here, we present a general rate-based learning model based on long short-term memory (LSTM) networks that learns a time representation when needed. Using a naïve network learning its environment in conjunction with TD, we reproduce dopamine activity in appetitive trace conditioning with a constant CS-US interval, including probe trials with unexpected delays. The proposed model learns a representation of the environment dynamics in an adaptive biologically plausible framework, without recourse to delay lines or other special-purpose circuits. Instead, the model predicts that the task-dependent representation of time is learned by experience, is encoded in ramp-like changes in single-neuron activity distributed across small neural networks, and reflects a temporal integration mechanism resulting from the inherent dynamics of recurrent loops within the network. The model also reproduces the known finding that trace conditioning is more difficult than delay conditioning and that the learned representation of the task can be highly dependent on the types of trials experienced during training. Finally, it suggests that the phasic dopaminergic signal could facilitate learning in the cortex.

  14. Enabling model checking for collaborative process analysis: from BPMN to `Network of Timed Automata'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek, Sihem; Daclin, Nicolas; Chapurlat, Vincent; Vallespir, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Interoperability is a prerequisite for partners involved in performing collaboration. As a consequence, the lack of interoperability is now considered a major obstacle. The research work presented in this paper aims to develop an approach that allows specifying and verifying a set of interoperability requirements to be satisfied by each partner in the collaborative process prior to process implementation. To enable the verification of these interoperability requirements, it is necessary first and foremost to generate a model of the targeted collaborative process; for this research effort, the standardised language BPMN 2.0 is used. Afterwards, a verification technique must be introduced, and model checking is the preferred option herein. This paper focuses on application of the model checker UPPAAL in order to verify interoperability requirements for the given collaborative process model. At first, this step entails translating the collaborative process model from BPMN into a UPPAAL modelling language called 'Network of Timed Automata'. Second, it becomes necessary to formalise interoperability requirements into properties with the dedicated UPPAAL language, i.e. the temporal logic TCTL.

  15. Interval Abstraction Refinement for Model Checking of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viesmose, Sine Lyhne; Jacobsen, Thomas Stig; Jensen, Jacob Jon

    2014-01-01

    State-space explosion is a major obstacle in verification of time-critical distributed systems. An important factor with a negative influence on the tractability of the analysis is the size of constants that clocks are compared to. This problem is particularly accented in explicit state-space exp......State-space explosion is a major obstacle in verification of time-critical distributed systems. An important factor with a negative influence on the tractability of the analysis is the size of constants that clocks are compared to. This problem is particularly accented in explicit state...

  16. Model Checking Probabilistic Real-Time Properties for Service-Oriented Systems with Service Level Agreements

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Christian; 10.4204/EPTCS.73.8

    2011-01-01

    The assurance of quality of service properties is an important aspect of service-oriented software engineering. Notations for so-called service level agreements (SLAs), such as the Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA) language, provide a formal syntax to specify such assurances in terms of (legally binding) contracts between a service provider and a customer. On the other hand, formal methods for verification of probabilistic real-time behavior have reached a level of expressiveness and efficiency which allows to apply them in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we suggest to employ the recently introduced model of Interval Probabilistic Timed Automata (IPTA) for formal verification of QoS properties of service-oriented systems. Specifically, we show that IPTA in contrast to Probabilistic Timed Automata (PTA) are able to capture the guarantees specified in SLAs directly. A particular challenge in the analysis of IPTA is the fact that their naive semantics usually yields an infinite set of states and infinitely...

  17. Distributed consensus on minimum time rendezvous via cyclic alternating projection

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunhe; Chen, Zongji

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed algorithm to solve planar minimum time multi-vehicle rendezvous problem with non-identical velocity constraints on cyclic digraph (topology). Motivated by the cyclic alternating projection method that can compute a point's projection on the intersection of some convex sets, we transform the minimum time rendezvous problem into finding the distance between the position plane and the intersection of several second-order cones in position-time space. The d...

  18. New approximate solutions per unit of time for periodically checked systems with different lifetime distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodrigues Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems with different lifetime distributions, associated with increasing, decreasing, constant, and bathtub-shaped hazard rates, are examined in this paper. It is assumed that a failure is only detected if systems are inspected. New approximate solutions for the inspection period and for the expected duration of hidden faults are presented, on the basis of the assumption that only periodic and perfect inspections are carried out. By minimizing total expected cost per unit of time, on the basis of numerical results and a range of comparisons, the conclusion is drawn that these new approximate solutions are extremely useful and simple to put into practice.

  19. [Evaluation of a new portable device for measuring prothrombin time-internatinal normalized ratio; comparison between the conventional method and the new CoagCheck XS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Hashimoto, K; Sakamoto, Y; Okuyama, H; Kawada, N; Inoue, T

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated a new portable device (CoaguCheck XS) for measuring the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) in 63 patients after cardiac surgery, and compared the results with those of the conventional method. There was a good correlation between the PT-INR values measured conventionally and those obtained with the CoaguCheck XS. This new device was easy to use, data were obtained rapidly, and the results were reliable. The CoaguCheck XS will be particularly useful for outpatients. PT-INR self-management is expected to be introduced as soon as health insurance coverage is obtained.

  20. Stochastic Model Checking Continuous Time Markov Process%随机模型检测连续时间Markov过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮俊; 曾国荪; 吕新荣; 徐畅

    2011-01-01

    The trustworthiness of a dynamic system includes the correctness of function and the satisfiability of per formance mainly. This paper proposed an approach to verify the function and performance of a system under considera tion integratedly. Continuous-time Markov decision process (CTMDP) is a model that contains some aspects such as probabilistic choice;stochastic timing and nondeterminacy; and it is the model by which we verify function properties and analyze performance properties uniformly. We can verify the functional and performance specifications by computing the reachability probabilities in the product CTMDP. We proved the correctness of our approach; and obtained our veri fication results by using model checker MRMC(Markov Reward Model Checker). The theoretical results show that model checking CTMDP model is necessary and the model checking approach is feasible.%功能正确和性能可满足是复杂系统可信要求非常重要的两个方面.从定性验证和定量分析相结合的角度,对复杂并发系统进行功能验证和性能分析,统一地评估系统是否可信.连续时间Markov决策过程CTMDP(Continuous-time Markov decision process)能够统一刻画复杂系统的概率选择、随机时间及不确定性等重要特征.提出用CTMDP作为系统定性验证和定量分析模型,将复杂系统的功能验证和性能分析转化为CTMDP中的可达概率求解,并证明验证过程的正确性,最终借助模型检测器MRMC(Markov Reward Model Checker)实现模型检测.理论分析表明,提出的针对CTMDP模型的验证需求是必要的,验证思路和方法具有可行性.

  1. Variable time flow as an alternative to dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Magain, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modelling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the Universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which cosmological time flows depends on the global geometric curvature the Universe. Using a simple one-parameter model for the relation between proper time and curvature, we build a cosmological model that fits the Type Ia Supernovae data (the best cosmological standard candles) without the need for dark energy nor probably exotic dark matter.

  2. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks.

  3. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  4. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  5. Reality Check

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A powerful influx of capital saw China post its second largest trade surplus of $15.3 billion this September. "For the first time in nine months, China's trade surplus reached $110 billion, exceeding last year's total," reported Bloomberg News, citing the latest China's customs statistics. The soaring trade surplus not only further strains economic ties with the United States, but also threatens China's economic security. As the Chinese Government is working to curb the trade surplus through encouraging ...

  6. Intelligent Data Visualization for Cross-Checking Spacecraft System Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James C.; Remolina, Emilio; Breeden, David; Stroozas, Brett A.; Mohammed, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Any reasoning system is fallible, so crew members and flight controllers must be able to cross-check automated diagnoses of spacecraft or habitat problems by considering alternate diagnoses and analyzing related evidence. Cross-checking improves diagnostic accuracy because people can apply information processing heuristics, pattern recognition techniques, and reasoning methods that the automated diagnostic system may not possess. Over time, cross-checking also enables crew members to become comfortable with how the diagnostic reasoning system performs, so the system can earn the crew s trust. We developed intelligent data visualization software that helps users cross-check automated diagnoses of system faults more effectively. The user interface displays scrollable arrays of timelines and time-series graphs, which are tightly integrated with an interactive, color-coded system schematic to show important spatial-temporal data patterns. Signal processing and rule-based diagnostic reasoning automatically identify alternate hypotheses and data patterns that support or rebut the original and alternate diagnoses. A color-coded matrix display summarizes the supporting or rebutting evidence for each diagnosis, and a drill-down capability enables crew members to quickly view graphs and timelines of the underlying data. This system demonstrates that modest amounts of diagnostic reasoning, combined with interactive, information-dense data visualizations, can accelerate system diagnosis and cross-checking.

  7. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  8. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  9. The Complexity of Model Checking Higher-Order Fixpoint Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Roland; Lange, Martin; Somla, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    of solving rather large parity games of small index. As a consequence of this we obtain an ExpTime upper bound on the expression complexity of each HFLk,m. The lower bound is established by a reduction from the word problem for alternating (k-1)-fold exponential space bounded Turing Machines. As a corollary...... provides complexity results for its model checking problem. In particular we consider its fragments HFLk,m which are formed using types of bounded order k and arity m only. We establish k-ExpTime-completeness for model checking each HFLk,m fragment. For the upper bound we reduce the problem to the problem...

  10. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  11. Regular health checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....

  12. Transaction management with integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    , which are difficult to maintain and error prone. Two important aspects must be taken care of. 1.~It is too time consuming to check integrity constraints from scratch after each update, so simplified checks before each update should be used relying on the assumption that the current state is consistent....... 2.~In concurrent database systems, besides the traditional correctness criterion, the execution schedule must ensure that the different transactions can overlap in time without destroying the consistency requirements tested by other, concurrent transactions....

  13. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  14. Symbolic Models for Nonlinear Time-Varying Time-Delay Systems via Alternating Approximate Bisimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pola, Giordano; Di Benedetto, Maria Domenica

    2010-01-01

    Time-delay systems are an important class of dynamical systems that provide a solid mathematical framework to deal with many application domains of interest. In this paper we focus on nonlinear control systems with unknown and time-varying delay signals and we propose one approach to the control design of such systems, which is based on the construction of symbolic models. Symbolic models are abstract descriptions of dynamical systems in which one symbolic state and one symbolic input correspond to an aggregate of states and an aggregate of inputs. We first introduce the notion of incremental input-delay-to-state stability and characterize it by means of Liapunov-Krasovskii functionals. We then derive sufficient conditions for the existence of symbolic models that are shown to be alternating approximately bisimilar to the original system. Further results are also derived which prove the computability of the proposed symbolic models in a finite number of steps.

  15. Time for action: science education for an alternative future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2003-06-01

    Following a brief historical survey of the popular 'slogans' that have influenced science education during the past quarter century and a review of current international debate on scientific literacy and science pedagogy, the author takes the view that while much of value has been achieved, there is still considerable cause for concern and that it is time for action in two senses. First, it is time to take action on the school science curriculum because it no longer meets the needs, interests and aspirations of young citizens. Second, it is time for a science curriculum oriented toward sociopolitical action. The author argues that if current social and environmental problems are to be solved, we need a generation of scientifically and politically literate citizens who are not content with the role of 'armchair critic'. A particular concern in North America is the link between science education, economic globalization, increasing production and unlimited expansion - a link that threatens the freedom of individuals, the spiritual well-being of particular societies and the very future of the planet. The author's response is to advocate a politicized, issues-based curriculum focused on seven areas of concern (human health; food and agriculture; land, water and mineral resources; energy resources and consumption; industry; information transfer and transportation; ethics and social responsibility) and addressed at four levels of sophistication, culminating in preparation for sociopolitical action. The curriculum proposal outlined in the article is intended to produce activists: people who will fight for what is right, good and just; people who will work to re-fashion society along more socially-just lines; people who will work vigorously in the best interests of the biosphere. At the heart of this curriculum is a commitment to pursue a fundamental realignment of the values underpinning Western industrialized society. Achieving that goal is a formidable task - one that

  16. An alternative technique for timing the double pulsar system

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhu-Xing

    2012-01-01

    Freire et al. (2009, MNRAS, 396, 1764) have put forward a technique for timing the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B (hereafter A and B, respectively). Their technique can be used to determine the sense of rotation of A relative to its orbital plane. In this paper, we present another technique with the same purpose. Two well-known periods, the sidereal day and solar day, are often used to define the spin period of the earth. Their difference is caused by a kinematic effect which correlated with earth's rotation and revolution. We think that this kinematic effect should exist in the double pulsar system and can be used to determine the sense of rotation of the pulsars. Commonly, B's modulation frequency is considered to be equal to A's rotation frequency, because B's signal is modulated by A's energy flux. When the kinematic effect is considered, B's modulation frequency will be, similar to the solar day and sidereal day, a little higher or lower than A's rotation frequency. If this frequency offset can b...

  17. GEM*STAR: Time for an Alternative Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2011-10-01

    The presumption that nuclear reactors will retain their role in global energy production is constantly being challenged - even more so following recent events at Fukushima. Nuclear energy, despite being ``green,'' has inexorably been coupled in the public mind with three paramount concerns: safety, weapons proliferation, and waste (and then ultimately cost). Over the past four decades, the safety of deployed fleets has greatly improved, yet the capital and political costs of a ``nuclear energy option'' appear insurmountable in several countries. The US approach to civilian nuclear energy has become deeply entrenched, first through choices made by the military, and then by the deployed nuclear reactor fleet. This extends to the research agencies as well, to the point where basic sciences and nuclear energy operate in separate spheres. But technologies and priorities have changed, and the time has arrived where a transformative re-think of nuclear energy is not only possible, but urgent. And nuclear physicists are uniquely positioned to accomplish this. This talk will show that by asking, and answering,``what would an accelerator-driven civilian nuclear energy program look like,'' ADNA Corporation's GEM*STAR design directly addresses all three fundamental concerns: safety, proliferation, and waste - and also the final hurdle: cost. GEM*STAR is not an ``add-on'' (to either Project-X, or GEN III+), but rather a base-line energy production capacity, for either electricity or transport fuel production. It integrates and advances the molten-salt reactor technology developed at ORNL, the MW beam accelerator technologies developed by basic sciences, and a reactor/target design optimized for accelerator driven-systems. The results include: the ability to use LWR spent fuel without reprocessing or additional waste; the ability to use natural uranium; no critical mass ever present; orders-of-magnitude less volatile radioactivity in the core; more efficient use of, and deeper

  18. Schedulability of Herschel revisited using statistical model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Schedulability analysis is a main concern for several embedded applications due to their safety-critical nature. The classical method of response time analysis provides an efficient technique used in industrial practice. However, the method is based on conservative assumptions related to execution...... to obtain some guarantee on the (un)schedulability of the model even in the presence of undecidability. Two methods are considered: symbolic model checking and statistical model checking. Since the model uses stop-watches, the reachability problem becomes undecidable so we are using an over......-approximation technique. We can safely conclude that the system is schedulable for varying values of BCET. For the cases where deadlines are violated, we use polyhedra to try to confirm the witnesses. Our alternative method to confirm non-schedulability uses statistical model-checking (SMC) to generate counter...

  19. Conditional Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Dirk; Keremoglu, M Erkan; Wendler, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Software model checking, as an undecidable problem, has three possible outcomes: (1) the program satisfies the specification, (2) the program does not satisfy the specification, and (3) the model checker fails. The third outcome usually manifests itself in a space-out, time-out, or one component of the verification tool giving up; in all of these failing cases, significant computation is performed by the verification tool before the failure, but no result is reported. We propose to reformulate the model-checking problem as follows, in order to have the verification tool report a summary of the performed work even in case of failure: given a program and a specification, the model checker returns a condition P ---usually a state predicate--- such that the program satisfies the specification under the condition P ---that is, as long as the program does not leave states in which P is satisfied. We are of course interested in model checkers that return conditions P that are as weak as possible. Instead of outcome ...

  20. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    and abstract interpretation. Model checking views the program as a finite automaton and tries to prove logical properties over the automaton model, or present a counter-example if not possible — with a focus on precision. Abstract interpretation translates the program semantics into abstract semantics...... problems as the other by a reformulation. This thesis argues that there is even a convergence on the practical level, and that a generalisation of the formalism of timed automata into lattice automata captures key aspects of both methods; indeed model checking timed automata can be formulated in terms...... of an abstract interpretation. For the generalisation to lattice automata to have benefit it is important that efficient tools exist. This thesis presents multi-core tools for efficient and scalable reachability and Büchi emptiness checking of timed/lattice automata. Finally, a number of case studies...

  1. Model check of continue time Markov reward process with impulse reward%带动作回报的连续时间Markov回报过程验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄镇谨; 陆阳; 杨娟; 王智文

    2015-01-01

    为了能够更准确的表达不确定性复杂系统的时空验证,针对当前连续时间Markov回报过程( continue time markov reward decision process,CMRDP)验证中只考虑状态回报的问题,提出带动作回报的验证方法. 考虑添加了动作回报的空间性能约束,扩展现有的基于状态回报的连续时间Markov回报过程,用正则表达式表示验证属性的路径规范,扩展已有路径算子的表达能力. 给出带动作回报 CMRDP和路径规范的积模型,求解积模型在确定性策略下的诱导Markov回报模型( markov reward model,MRM) ,将CMRDP上的时空性能验证转换为MRM模型上的时空可达概率分析,并提出MRM中求解可达概率的算法. 实例分析表明,提出的验证思路和验证算法是可行的.%In order to express the verification of the uncertainty temporal and spatial properties of the complex sys-tems more accurately which include nondeterministic choices, continuous time Markov reward decision process based on state reward is extended by considering spatial properties with impulse reward and is adopted as verifica-tion model.The path formulas expressed by traditional path operator is replaced by regular expressions, which can express more comprehensive verification properties.Under deterministic schedulers, the induced Markov reward model of product model which is the product of continuous time Markov reward decision process with impulse reward and path formula is proposed.After that we reduce the problem of model checking for product model to the problem of computing the maximum time-and space-bound reachability probabilities of induced MRM and put forward a algo-rithm to solve this problem.The experiment results show that the model checking approach for CMRDP with im-pulse reward is feasible.

  2. Alternate Data Acquisition and Real-time Monitoring System on HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Peijie; Luo Jiarong; Wang Hua; Li Guiming

    2005-01-01

    A new system called alternate data acquisition and real-time monitoring system has been developed for long-time discharge in tokamak operation. It can support continuous on-line data acquisition at a high sampling rate and a graphic display of the plasma parameters during the discharge. Thus operators can monitor and control the plasma state in real time. An application of this system has been demonstrated on the HT-7 tokamak.

  3. Symbolic model checking APSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanwei LIU; Ji WANG; Huowang CHEN; Xiaodong MA; Zhaofei WANG

    2009-01-01

    Property specification language (PSL) is a specification language which has been accepted as an industrial standard. In PSL, SEREs are used as additional formula constructs. In this paper, we present a variant of PSL, namely APSL, which replaces SEREs with finite automata. APSL and PSL are of the exactly same expressiveness. Then, we extend the LTL symbolic model checking algorithm to that of APSL, and then present a tableau based APSL verification technique, which can be easily implemented via the BDD based symbolic approach. Moreover, we implement an extension of NuSMV, and this adapted version supports symbolic model checking of APSL. Experimental results show that this variant of PSL can be efficiently verified. Henceforth, symbolic model checking PSL can be carried out by a transformation from PSL to APSL and symbolic model checking APSL.

  4. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  5. Parallel Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parallel Software Model Checking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...3: ∧ ≥ 10 ∧ ≠ 10 ⇒ : Parallel Software Model Checking Team Members Sagar Chaki, Arie Gurfinkel

  6. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Zybtsev, Y.; I. Marmut

    2011-01-01

    The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed) as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  7. Application of Six Sigma management on shortening the waiting time of patients accepting CT check%应用六西格玛管理法缩短CT检查等候时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 曲路; 钟惠玲; 吴清香; 丁小容

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨应用六西格玛管理法缩短CT检查等候时间,以提高患者对医疗护理服务的满意度.方法 根据六西格玛5步法(即定义、测量、分析、改进、控制)对CT检查流程进行改进管理,包括成立六西格玛管理小组,测量CT检查等候时间,分析影响CT检查等候时间的因素,改进影响CT检查等候时间的措施,制订控制措施.结果 患者CT检查等候时间缩短(P<0.01),患者及医生满意度提高(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 应用六西格玛管理方法能有效提高CT检查的工作质量与效率.%Objective To explore the application of the six sigma management in shorting the waiting time of patients accepting CT check, and to improve patients'satisfaction of medical care service. Methods According to the five - step methods of Six Sigma( define, measure, analyz, improve, and control) ,the following measures were undertaken. The methods included establishing Six Sigma management team, measuring the waiting time of CT check, analyzing the influencing factors of the waiting time during CT check, improving measures of influencing CT check waiting time and making control measures. Results The waiting time of patients accepting CT check was shorten ( P < 0. 01 ) , the patient's and doctor's satisfaction were significantly increased ( P< 0. 01 or P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The application of Six Sigma management can effectively enhance the working quality and efficiency.

  8. Direct Model Checking Matrix Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Hans Kleine Büning; Li-Fu Wang

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, Model Checking has proven its efficacy and power in circuit design, network protocol analysis and bug hunting. Recent research on automatic verification has shown that no single model-checking technique has the edge over all others in all application areas. So, it is very difficult to determine which technique is the most suitable for a given model. It is thus sensible to apply different techniques to the same model. However, this is a very tedious and time-consuming task, for each algorithm uses its own description language. Applying Model Checking in software design and verification has been proved very difficult. Software architectures (SA) are engineering artifacts that provide high-level and abstract descriptions of complex software systems. In this paper a Direct Model Checking (DMC) method based on Kripke Structure and Matrix Algorithm is provided. Combined and integrated with domain specific software architecture description languages (ADLs), DMC can be used for computing consistency and other critical properties.

  9. An Alternative Bayesian Approach to Structural Breaks in Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Hauwe (Sjoerd); R. Paap (Richard); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new approach to deal with structural breaks in time series models. The key contribution is an alternative dynamic stochastic specification for the model parameters which describes potential breaks. After a break new parameter values are generated from a so-called baseline pr

  10. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  11. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...

  12. An evaluation of conventional culture, invA PCR, and the real-time PCR iQ-Check kit as detection tools for Salmonella in naturally contaminated premarket and retail turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, Chantal W; Fakhr, Mohamed K; Doetkott, Curt; Logue, Catherine M

    2008-02-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the ability of conventional culture, the iQ-Check real-time PCR kit, and invA PCR to detect Salmonella in naturally contaminated premarket and retail turkey parts. Premarket (n = 120) turkey parts collected from a commercial turkey processing plant, and retail turkey parts (n = 138) were examined. Both PCR methods detected a significantly greater (P invA PCR for Salmonella detection in the premarket and retail parts, the indices of total agreement were 75.8% (95% CI: 67.2, 83.2) and 84.1% (95% CI: 76.9, 89.7), respectively. The rates of false positives (premarket: 31.9%, retail: 9.7%) and false negatives (premarket: 5.9%, retail: 9.7%) were determined between the culture method and the iQ-Check kit. When invA PCR was compared with the culture method, the rates of false positives (premarket: 37.7%, retail: 11.1%) and false negatives (premarket: 5.9%, retail: 18.3%) were obtained. The higher total agreement and the lower rates of both false positives and false negatives for the iQ-Check kit compared with invA PCR for both premarket and retail turkey parts corroborates the use of the iQ-Check kit as a screening tool for Salmonella in poultry meat.

  13. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  14. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  15. Holographic Space-time and Black Holes: Mirages As Alternate Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom; Kundu, Sandipan; Pedraza, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We revisit our investigation of the claim of [1] that old black holes contain a firewall, i.e. an in-falling observer encounters highly excited states at a time much shorter than the light crossing time of the Schwarzschild radius. We used the formalism of Holographic Space-time (HST) where there is no dramatic change in particle physics inside the horizon until a time of order the Schwarzschild radius. We correct our description of the interior of the black hole . HST provides a complete description of the quantum mechanics along any time-like trajectory, even those which fall through the black hole horizon. The latter are described as alternative factorizations of the description of an external observer, turning the mirage of the interior provided by that observer's membrane paradigm on the stretched horizon, into reality.

  16. Enriched MU-Calculi Module Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, Alessandro; Parente, Mimmo

    2008-01-01

    The model checking problem for open systems has been intensively studied in the literature, for both finite-state (module checking) and infinite-state (pushdown module checking) systems, with respect to Ctl and Ctl*. In this paper, we further investigate this problem with respect to the Mu-calculus enriched with nominals and graded modalities (hybrid graded Mu-calculus), in both the finite-state and infinite-state settings. Using an automata-theoretic approach, we show that hybrid graded Mu-calculus module checking is solvable in exponential time, while hybrid graded Mu-calculus pushdown module checking is solvable in double-exponential time. These results are also tight since they match the known lower bounds for Ctl. We also investigate the module checking problem with respect to the hybrid graded Mu-calculus enriched with inverse programs (Fully enriched Mu-calculus): by showing a reduction from the domino problem, we show its undecidability. We conclude with a short overview of the model checking problem ...

  17. Partial model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1995-01-01

    A major obstacle in applying finite-state model checking to the verification of large systems is the combinatorial explosion of the state space arising when many loosely coupled parallel processes are considered. The problem also known as the state-explosion problem has been attacked from various...... sides. This paper presents a new approach based on partial model checking where parts of the concurrent system are gradually removed while transforming the specification accordingly. When the intermediate specifications constructed in this manner can be kept small, the state-explosion problem is avoided....... Experimental results with a prototype implemented in Standard ML, shows that for Milner's Scheduler-an often used benchmark-this approach improves on the published results on binary decision diagrams and is comparable to results obtained using generalized decision diagrams. Specifications are expressed...

  18. Check Verbraucherpolitik und Verbraucherbeteiligung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Kornelia; Micklitz, Hans-W.; Oehler, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunities for an empirically grounded decision support system as an instrument for independent and scientifically based consumer policy consulting. To date, consumer policy is dominated by the information paradigm and the leitbild of the rational, sovereign...... and information-seeking consumer. Yet, both everyday practice and research in behavioural economics show that this view lacks empirical ground. In fact, there are different consumer types and different forms of rationalities at work. Effective consumer policy making should be based on the empirically revealed...... an empirically based “Check Consumer Policy and Consumer Participation” as a systematic decision and evaluation tool for policy makers. This check should be independent from the government and should be grounded on an empirical view of the consumer. Consumer policy tools should be tested with real consumers...

  19. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  20. True-time delay by slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating amplifying and absorbing sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Modeling of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating gain and absorption sections demonstrate an increase in time delay by concatenating segments. A true-time delay is predicted over a large bandwidth at high frequency.......Modeling of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating gain and absorption sections demonstrate an increase in time delay by concatenating segments. A true-time delay is predicted over a large bandwidth at high frequency....

  1. Improved Safety for Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Viruses by Use of a TaqMan Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR "Double Check" Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B.; Freuling, C. M.; Wakeley, P. R.;

    2010-01-01

    by a combined assay that detected all samples as positive. In addition, the introduction of labeled positive controls (LPC) increased the diagnostic safety of the single as well as the combined assay. Based on the newly developed, alternative assay for the detection of rabies virus and the application of LPCs...

  2. Impact of Initial Time Delay of Check on Primary Frequency Modulation of Hydropower Generating Unit%水电机组一次调频考核起始时刻延迟的影响与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广文; 张海丽

    2015-01-01

    In allusion to problem of initial time delay in check on primary frequency modulation of hydropower generating u-nit,this paper analyzes effect of initial time in check on primary frequency modulation.According to check method,assess-ment software for action characteristic of primary frequency modulation was developed,primary frequency modulation re-sponse of the prime motor in over primary frequency modulation dead area of gentle slope disturbance of power grid fre-quency simulated by common prime motor and its governing system model of the hydropower generating unit for power sys-tem analysis in PSD-BPA transient stability program was calculated and judged.Thus,theoretical action electric quantity and practical action electric quantity of primary frequency modulation under different delay of initial time was obtained.It was considered that correct primary frequency modulation action might be judged as disqualified when the initial time delayed a certain time which indicated that initial time delay might cause wrong check on the primary frequency modulation.In order to improve veracity of check on primary frequency modulation,reasons for erroneous judgement caused by initial time delay were analyzed.Based on examples,several situations of initial time delay in check on primary frequency modulation were pointed out and corresponding suggestions were provided.%针对水电机组一次调频被考核申述中普遍存在考核起始时刻延迟的情况,分析了一次调频考核中起始时刻的作用,根据考核方法开发出一次调频动作特性评价软件,对利用 PSD-BPA 暂态稳定程序内电力系统分析常用的水电机组原动机及其调节系统模型仿真的电网频率缓坡扰动过一次调频死区的原动机一次调频响应进行了计算和判断,得到考核起始时刻不同延迟下的一次调频理论动作电量与实际动作电量,当该时刻延迟过一定时间会造成正确的一次调频动作被误判为

  3. Check, check, double check: checking the autopilot causes distrust : Experimental studies on the effects of compulsive perseveration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent doubt. The majority of patients with OCD engage in repeated checking to reduce these feelings of uncertainty. However, numerous studies demonstrated that repetitive behavior ironically increases uncertainty: perseverative checking in

  4. Applications of an alternative formulation for one-layer real time optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiavon Júnior A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two applications of an alternative formulation for one-layer real time structure for control and optimization. This new formulation have arisen from predictive controller QDMC (Quadratic Dynamic Matrix Control, a type of predictive control (Model Predictive Control - MPC. At each sampling time, the values of the outputs of process are fed into the optimization-control structure which supplies the new values of the manipulated variables already considering the best conditions of process. The variables of optimization are both set-point changes and control actions. The future stationary outputs and the future stationary control actions have both a different formulation of conventional one-layer structure and they are calculated from the inverse gain matrix of the process. This alternative formulation generates a convex problem, which can be solved by less sophisticated optimization algorithms. Linear and nonlinear economic objective functions were considered. The proposed approach was applied to two linear models, one SISO (single-input/single output and the other MIMO (multiple-input/multiple-output. The results showed an excellent performance.

  5. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking (MC is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control (PC problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired properties are verified and determine a winning strategy.

  6. Bounded Model Checking of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang

    2007-01-01

    Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.

  7. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  8. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUPeng

    2005-01-01

    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  9. Revisiting the returns-volume relationship: Time variation, alternative measures and the financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steve; Watson, Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Following its introduction in the seminal study of Osborne (1959), a voluminous literature has emerged examining the returns-volume relationship for financial assets. The present paper revisits this relationship in an examination of the FTSE100 which extends the existing literature in two ways. First, alternative daily measures of the FTSE100 index are used to create differing returns and absolute returns series to employ in an examination of returns-volume causality. Second, rolling regression analysis is utilised to explore potential time variation in the returns-volume relationship. The findings obtained depict a hitherto unconsidered complexity in this relationship with the type of returns series considered and financial crisis found to be significant underlying factors. The implications of the newly derived results for both the understanding of the nature of the returns-volume relationship and the development of theories in connection to it are discussed.

  10. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  11. Efficient CSL Model Checking Using Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996 [ 1, 2]. Their proof can be turned into an approximation algorithm with worse than expone...

  12. Automata-Based CSL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...

  13. Model-checking ATL under Imperfect Information and Perfect Recall Semantics is Undecidable

    CERN Document Server

    Dima, Catalin

    2011-01-01

    We propose a formal proof of the undecidability of the model checking problem for alternating- time temporal logic under imperfect information and perfect recall semantics. This problem was announced to be undecidable according to a personal communication on multi-player games with imperfect information, but no formal proof was ever published. Our proof is based on a direct reduction from the non-halting problem for Turing machines.

  14. Baby unplugged: a novel, market-based approach to reducing screen time and promoting healthy alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, John S

    2013-01-01

    The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood. Written by a pediatrician who also owns a children's bookstore, the books were inspired and informed by advocacy projects in the areas of media use and early literacy as a pediatric resident. They reinforce AAP Electronic Media Guidelines, notably discouraging screen-based media under 2 years old, largely by encouraging healthy, fun alternatives. Examples include Pets, Book, and Yard. Multi-sensorial exploration and parent-child engagement are emphasized in a non-prescriptive way, featuring gender and ethnic diversity and activities that are accessible and inexpensive. The author describes challenges faced by pediatricians providing anticipatory guidance for media use, given limited time and resources and the perception that we are out of touch. This is heightened by oft-deceptive marketing of screen-based products more likely to be perceived as "cool." Reach Out and Read is cited as an example of a successful, "cool" intervention, though limited to select populations. Baby Unplugged takes advocacy to the marketplace, where the screen time battle is being lost.

  15. Model checking coalitional games in shortage resource scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Della Monica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification of multi-agents systems (MAS has been recently studied taking into account the need of expressing resource bounds. Several logics for specifying properties of MAS have been presented in quite a variety of scenarios with bounded resources. In this paper, we study a different formalism, called Priced Resource-Bounded Alternating-time Temporal Logic (PRBATL, whose main novelty consists in moving the notion of resources from a syntactic level (part of the formula to a semantic one (part of the model. This allows us to track the evolution of the resource availability along the computations and provides us with a formalisms capable to model a number of real-world scenarios. Two relevant aspects are the notion of global availability of the resources on the market, that are shared by the agents, and the notion of price of resources, depending on their availability. In a previous work of ours, an initial step towards this new formalism was introduced, along with an EXPTIME algorithm for the model checking problem. In this paper we better analyze the features of the proposed formalism, also in comparison with previous approaches. The main technical contribution is the proof of the EXPTIME-hardness of the the model checking problem for PRBATL, based on a reduction from the acceptance problem for Linearly-Bounded Alternating Turing Machines. In particular, since the problem has multiple parameters, we show two fixed-parameter reductions.

  16. Adaptable Assertion Checking for Scientific Software Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, T L; Devanbu, P T

    2004-03-12

    We present a proposal for lowering the overhead of interface contract checking for science and engineering applications. Run-time enforcement of assertions is a well-known technique for improving the quality of software; however, the performance penalty is often too high for their retention during deployment, especially for long-running applications that depend upon iterative operations. With an efficient adaptive approach the benefits of run-time checking can continue to accrue with minimal overhead. Examples from scientific software interfaces being developed in the high performance computing research community will be used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach.

  17. Alternative Conditions to Time Inconsistency Equilibrium of an International Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Bastanifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy rule is an approach to avoid time inconsistency problem as regarded by new classical economist to choose a time plan for policy making in order to maximize households’ well-being. The foundation of time inconsistency problem is not coincidence of expectations as an ex-ante variable, which is expected variable, with actual variable as an ex-post variable. Expectations in Finn Kydland and Edward Prescott as the 2004 laureates of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, is rational and formed only by a representative agent because of the discretionary policy of benevolent planner. However the benevolent planner may be as an international planner. In this paper, we develop the model of Kydland and Prescott, by substituting the assumption of heterogeneous households (a domestic household and foreign household instead of a representative agent and using heterogeneous beliefs. The recent assumption helps us to have an alternative time inconsistency equilibrium with at least two different sources of expectations, which is called Dichotomy Sources of Expectations (DSE as the main contribution of this paper .We then use expectations-adjusted Phillips curve to see the conditions of time inconsistency of k percent monetary rule of Friedman in a framework of DSE’s Model. The results show that expectations-adjusted Phillips curve in a society with DSE is not vertical and Friedman's k-percent rule may not be optimal. We find out that, not only an international benevolent planner but also a foreign household must set a rule to maximize the well-being of the world. Indeed, we need a multi-dimensional rule for any international monetary policy.

  18. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis......-calculus can be encoded as the intended model of SFP. Our research results have strengthened the link between model checking and static analysis. This provides a theoretical foundation for developing a unied tool for both model checking and static analysis techniques....

  19. 77 FR 63872 - Alternative Management Resources, Inc., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    .... Time Staffing, Inc., Personnel Management Group, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... workers of Alternative Management Resources, Inc., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc...., Doepker Group, Inc., D.B.A. Time Staffing, Inc., Personnel Management Group, Inc., including workers...

  20. A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao

    2012-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language (IEEE-1850) describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.

  1. 30 CFR 75.902-1 - Maximum voltage ground check circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum voltage ground check circuits. 75.902-1... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.902-1 Maximum voltage ground check circuits. The maximum voltage used for such ground check circuits shall not exceed 40 volts....

  2. "Tectonic Petrameter," An Alternative Method to Teaching the Geologic Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    I have over a decade of experience as a performance poet and am now a graduate student in the geosciences. I have created a performance poem / play script, "Tectonic Petrameter," as an alternative method of teaching the geologic time scale. "The Archean came next and it was a blast. Tectonic plates were smaller and they moved pretty fast. In an enthusiastic flash of ash, volcanic islands smashed together." The use of rhyme and rhythm presents a different and interdisciplinary approach to teaching Earth history that appeals to a wide range of learning styles and makes science fun, while clearly describing important concepts in geology and events in Earth history. "Now it's time to get down with the Coal Swamp Stomp! Tap your feet to the beat of the formation of peat like a plant plantation soaking up the bright heat." "Tectonic Petrameter" by itself is an illustrated spoken-word poem that leads audiences from all levels of scientific background on an excitingly educational journey through geologic time. I will perform my 10-minute memorized poem and present results from my ongoing study to assess the effectiveness of "Tectonic Petrameter" as a teaching tool in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classroom curricula. I propose that using "Tectonic Petrameter" as a performance piece and theatrical play script in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classrooms, as well as in broader community venues, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching about Earth's long and complex history. Digital copies of "Tectonic Petrameter" will be made available to interested parties.

  3. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  4. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  5. Graded CTL Model Checking for Test Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Napoli, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a great attention from the scientific community towards the use of the model-checking technique as a tool for test generation in the simulation field. This paper aims to provide a useful mean to get more insights along these lines. By applying recent results in the field of graded temporal logics, we present a new efficient model-checking algorithm for Hierarchical Finite State Machines (HSM), a well established symbolism long and widely used for representing hierarchical models of discrete systems. Performing model-checking against specifications expressed using graded temporal logics has the peculiarity of returning more counterexamples within a unique run. We think that this can greatly improve the efficacy of automatically getting test cases. In particular we verify two different models of HSM against branching time temporal properties.

  6. Statistical Model Checking for Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Model Checking (SMC) is a highly scalable simulation-based verification approach for testing and estimating the probability that a stochastic system satisfies a given linear temporal property. The technique has been applied to (discrete and continuous time) Markov chains, stochastic t...

  7. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  8. Counterexample representation for probabilistic timed automata model checking%基于概率时间自动机的模型检测反例表示研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 张广泉

    2011-01-01

    近年来,概率系统在实际中应用越来越广泛,其中模型检测基于概率系统的反例生成问题,已引起人们的广泛关注,现有的工作主要围绕模型检测Markov链反例生成展开.概率时间自动机(PTA)是Markov链的不确定性和系统时钟的扩展,针对模型检测PTA的反例表示问题,首先将PTA的语义表示为Markov决策过程(MDP),通过策略解决MDP不确定性,将MDP转换为离散时间Markov链(DTMC);然后将DTMC转换为带权有向图,则PTA中最小反例问题转化为带权有向图中最短路径问题;最后采用正则表达式表示求得的反例.%Recently, probabilistic systems have been widely used, people have drawn attention to counterexample generation for probabilistic system model checking. Current works are mainly focusing on the counterexample generation for Markov chains. Probabilistic timed automata ( PTA) is the extension of Markov chain with non-determinism and system clocks. This paper focuses on counterexample representation while model checking PTA. Firstly, the semantic of PTA can be regarded as Markov decision process ( MDP) ; secondly, we use adversary to convert MDP into discrete-time Markov chain ( DTMC) ; thirdly, we convert DTMC into weighted graph, counterexample generation for PTA can be converted into shortest path problem for weighted digraph ; finally , we use regular expressions to represent the counterexample.

  9. Energy reduction through voltage scaling and lightweight checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadric, Edin

    As the semiconductor roadmap reaches smaller feature sizes and the end of Dennard Scaling, design goals change, and managing the power envelope often dominates delay minimization. Voltage scaling remains a powerful tool to reduce energy. We find that it results in about 60% geomean energy reduction on top of other common low-energy optimizations with 22nm CMOS technology. However, when voltage is reduced, it becomes easier for noise and particle strikes to upset a node, potentially causing Silent Data Corruption (SDC). The 60% energy reduction, therefore, comes with a significant drop in reliability. Duplication with checking and triple-modular redundancy are traditional approaches used to combat transient errors, but spending 2--3x the energy for redundant computation can diminish or reverse the benefits of voltage scaling. As an alternative, we explore the opportunity to use checking operations that are cheaper than the base computation they are guarding. We devise a classification system for applications and their lightweight checking characteristics. In particular, we identify and evaluate the effectiveness of lightweight checks in a broad set of common tasks in scientific computing and signal processing. We find that the lightweight checks cost only a fraction of the base computation (0-25%) and allow us to recover the reliability losses from voltage scaling. Overall, we show about 50% net energy reduction without compromising reliability compared to operation at the nominal voltage. We use FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays) in our work, although the same ideas can be applied to different systems. On top of voltage scaling, we explore other common low-energy techniques for FPGAs: transmission gates, gate boosting, power gating, low-leakage (high-Vth) processes, and dual-V dd architectures. We do not scale voltage for memories, so lower voltages help us reduce logic and interconnect energy, but not memory energy. At lower voltages, memories become dominant

  10. Differential effects of uninostril and alternate nostril pranayamas on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have reported the differential physiological and psychological effects of yogic uninostril breathing (UNB and alternate nostril breathing (ANB techniques. This study aims to determine differential effects of these techniques on reaction time (RT, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP. Materials and Methods: Twenty yoga-trained subjects came to the lab on six different days and RT, HR, and BP were recorded randomly before and after nine rounds of right UNB (surya nadi [SN], left UNB (chandra nadi [CN], right initiated ANB (surya bhedana [SB], left initiated ANB (chandra bhedana [CB], nadi shuddhi (NS, and normal breathing (NB. Results: Overall comparison of ∆ % changes showed statistically significant differences between groups for all parameters. There was an overall reduction in HR- and BP-based parameters following CB, CN, and NS with concurrent increases following SB and SN. The differential effects of right nostril initiated (SB and SN and left nostril initiated (CB, CN, and NS UNB and ANB techniques were clearly evidenced. Changes following NB were insignificant in all respects. The overall comparison of ∆ % changes for RT showed statistically significant differences between groups that were significantly lowered following both SB and SN. Discussion and Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of sympathomimetic effects of right nostril initiated pranayamas with sympatholytic/parasympathomimetic effect following left nostril initiated pranayamas. We suggest that the main effect of UNB and ANB techniques is determined by the nostril used for inspiration rather than that used for expiration. We conclude that right and left yogic UNB and ANB techniques have differential physiological effects that are in tune with the traditional swara yoga concept that air flow through right nostril (SN and pingala swara is activatory in nature, whereas the flow through left nostril (CN and ida swara is relaxatory.

  11. Greek Civil Society’s Online Alternative Networks as Emergent Resilience Strategies in Time of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zafiropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of new communications technologies and social media, in Greece, during the time of crisis, has led to the development of numerous online informal Civil Society Networks (CSNs (i.e. networking-building platforms, self - organized groups in Facebook, forums, exchange platforms proposing a rethinking of the status quo of formal civil organizations. This research, utilizing the methodology of discourse analysis, aims at summarizing the rise of these networks in Greece that incorporates both solidarity initiatives and autonomous political/economic spaces and identify the indicative predictive factors of their survival and growth. Some basic conclusions that have been drawn through this research is that alternative online networks can be proven as indicative sign of the social dynamism of a given period but in order to be resilient and sustainable they should develop focal points of physical reference, pursue national representation, focus mainly on monothematic goods/services and cultivate, in several cases, links with relevant social movements and local or national NGOs. A general induction through this research is that a CSN, during this current crisis, stands between two classical models of reference in a society seeking modernity and flexibility and can be considered as a proposed type of effective experimentation and mobilization that can pursue common social goals and serve needs of deprived people. Some issues that still remain underexplored and need further elaboration are social and political identity of participants, the potential links with local, national and international communities, the functional balance between structure and flexibility as well as the efficient distribution of energy between solidarity and protest.

  12. Environmentally Benign Energetic Time Delay Compositions: Alternatives for the U.S. Army Hand-Held Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-13

    2014, pp 305-314 305 Environmentally Benign Energetic Time Delay Compositions: Alternatives for the U.S. Army Hand- Held Signal Jay C. Poret...munitions such as hand grenades and signaling devices. For example, U.S. Army hand- held signals (HHS) use a pyrotechnic delay element to properly time...compositions for use in the U.S. Army hand- held signal. The large thermal mass of the HHS delay housing, combined with the long burning time requirement

  13. New methods of concurrent checking

    CERN Document Server

    Goessel, Michael; Sogomonyan, Egor; Marienfeld, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Written by a team of two leading experts and two very successful young former PhD students, New Methods of Concurrent Checking describes new methods of concurrent checking, such as partial duplication, use of output dependencies, complementary circuits, self-dual parity, self-dual duplication and others. A special chapter demonstrates how the new general methods of concurrent checking can be more specifically applied to regular structures to obtain optimum results. This is exemplified for all types of adders up to 64 bits with a level of detail never before presented in the literature. The cle

  14. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategie...

  15. Treasury Check Verification Query (TCVQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The TCVQ system determines the SSN of an individual whose check has been returned to a local field office. The FO is able to request this information via the TCVQ...

  16. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  17. Check-up Measurement (update). Deliverable D5.22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer, A.C.G.; Giessen, A.M.D. van der; Djurica, M.

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable D5.22 presents the GEN6 check-up measurement. It describes the most prominent outcomes of the GEN6 project up to this point in time. The check-up measurement helps to focus the monitoring towards the most relevant achievements of the project, such that an efficient and well-targeted

  18. Quick-low-density parity check and dynamic threshold voltage optimization in 1X nm triple-level cell NAND flash memory with comprehensive analysis of endurance, retention-time, and temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masafumi; Tokutomi, Tsukasa; Hachiya, Shogo; Kobayashi, Atsuro; Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Ning, Sheyang; Ogura Iwasaki, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-08-01

    NAND flash memory’s reliability degrades with increasing endurance, retention-time and/or temperature. After a comprehensive evaluation of 1X nm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash, two highly reliable techniques are proposed. The first proposal, quick low-density parity check (Quick-LDPC), requires only one cell read in order to accurately estimate a bit-error rate (BER) that includes the effects of temperature, write and erase (W/E) cycles and retention-time. As a result, 83% read latency reduction is achieved compared to conventional AEP-LDPC. Also, W/E cycling is extended by 100% compared with conventional Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) error-correcting code (ECC). The second proposal, dynamic threshold voltage optimization (DVO) has two parts, adaptive V Ref shift (AVS) and V TH space control (VSC). AVS reduces read error and latency by adaptively optimizing the reference voltage (V Ref) based on temperature, W/E cycles and retention-time. AVS stores the optimal V Ref’s in a table in order to enable one cell read. VSC further improves AVS by optimizing the voltage margins between V TH states. DVO reduces BER by 80%.

  19. Time-Darts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Yrke; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic data structures for model checking timed systems have been subject to a significant research, with Difference Bound Matrices (DBMs) still being the preferred data structure in several mature verification tools. In comparison, discretization offers an easy alternative, with all operations...

  20. Alternative Route Techniques and their Applications to the Stochastics on-time Arrival Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This thesis takes a close look at a wide range of different techniques for the computation of alternative routes on the two most popular speed-up techniques currently in use. From the standpoint of an algorithm engineer, we explore how to exploit the different techniques for their full potential.

  1. 12 CFR 344.6 - Notification by agreement; alternative forms and times of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the custody or possession of the bank at the end of such period and all debits, credits and... management sweep accounts. A bank effecting a securities transaction for a cash management sweep account... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification by agreement; alternative...

  2. Inkjet 3D printed check microvalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof; Lizanets, Danylo

    2017-04-01

    3D printing enables fast and relatively easy fabrication of various microfluidic structures including microvalves. A check microvalve is the simplest valve enabling control of the fluid flow in microchannels. Proper operation of the check valve is ensured by a movable element that tightens the valve seat during backward flow and enables free flow for forward pressure. Thus, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the movable element is crucial for optimal design and operation of the valve. In this paper, we present for the first time the results of investigations on basic mechanical properties of the building material used in multijet 3D printing. Specified mechanical properties were used in the design and fabrication of two types of check microvalve—with deflecting or hinge-fixed microflap—with 200 µm and 300 µm thickness. Results of numerical simulation and experimental data of the microflap deflection were obtained and compared. The valves were successfully 3D printed and characterised. Opening/closing characteristics of the microvalve for forward and backward pressures were determined. Thus, proper operation of the check microvalve so developed was confirmed.

  3. Improved Integrity Constraints Checking in Distributed Databases by Exploiting Local Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A.Alwan; Hamidah Ibrahim; Nur Izura Udzir

    2009-01-01

    Most of the previous studies concerning checking the integrity constraints in distributed database derive simplified forms of the initial integrity constraints with the sufficiency property, since the sufficient test is known to be cheaper than the complete test and its initial integrity constraint as it involves less data to be transferred across the network and can always be evaluated at the target site (single site). Their studies are limited as they depend strictly on the assumption that an update operation will be executed at a site where the relation specified in the update operation is located, which is not always true. Hence, the sufficient test, which is proven to be local test by previous study, is no longer appropriate. This paper proposes an approach to checking integrity constraints in a distributed database by utilizing as much as possible the local information stored at the target site. The proposed approach derives support tests as an alternative to the existing complete and sufficient tests proposed by previous researchers with the intention to increase the number of local checking regardless the location of the submitted update operation. Several analyses have been performed to evaluate the proposed approach, and the results show that support tests can benefit the distributed database, where local constraint checking can be achieved.

  4. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  5. Quantitative evaluation of alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms by label-free real-time plasmonic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, César S; Carrascosa, L G; Bonnal, S; Valcárcel, J; Lechuga, L M

    2016-04-15

    Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors enables cells to generate different protein outputs from the same gene depending on their developmental or homeostatic status. Its deregulation is strongly linked to disease onset and progression. Current methodologies for monitoring alternative splicing demand elaborate procedures and often present difficulties in discerning between closely related isoforms, e.g. due to cross-hybridization during their detection. Herein, we report a general methodology using a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor for label-free monitoring of alternative splicing events in real-time, without any cDNA synthesis or PCR amplification requirements. We applied this methodology to RNA isolated from HeLa cells for the quantification of alternatively spliced isoforms of the Fas gene, involved in cancer progression through regulation of programmed cell death. We demonstrate that our methodology is isoform-specific, with virtually no cross-hybridization, achieving limits of detection (LODs) in the picoMolar (pM) range. Similar results were obtained for the detection of the BCL-X gene mRNA isoforms. The results were independently validated by RT-qPCR, with excellent concordance in the determination of isoform ratios. The simplicity and robustness of this biosensor technology can greatly facilitate the exploration of alternative splicing biomarkers in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Model Checking Linearizability via Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yanhong A.; Sun, Jun

    Linearizability is an important correctness criterion for implementations of concurrent objects. Automatic checking of linearizability is challenging because it requires checking that 1) all executions of concurrent operations be serializable, and 2) the serialized executions be correct with respect to the sequential semantics. This paper describes a new method to automatically check linearizability based on refinement relations from abstract specifications to concrete implementations. Our method avoids the often difficult task of determining linearization points in implementations, but can also take advantage of linearization points if they are given. The method exploits model checking of finite state systems specified as concurrent processes with shared variables. Partial order reduction is used to effectively reduce the search space. The approach is built into a toolset that supports a rich set of concurrent operators. The tool has been used to automatically check a variety of implementations of concurrent objects, including the first algorithms for the mailbox problem and scalable NonZero indicators. Our system was able to find all known and injected bugs in these implementations.

  7. Check dam and polyacrylamide performance under simulated stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McCaleb, Melanie M; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2013-11-15

    High levels of turbidity and fine suspended sediments are often found in stormwater discharges from construction sites even when best management practices (BMPs) for sediment control are in place. This study evaluated turbidity reduction by three check dam types: 1) rock check dam representing a standard BMP, 2) excelsior wattle representing a fiber check dam (FCD), and 3) rock check dam wrapped with excelsior erosion control blanket (rock + excelsior ECB) representing an alternative FCD. Three check dams (all same type) were installed in a lined, 24-m ditch on a 5-7% slope and three consecutive simulated stormwater flows were run in the ditch. Additional tests were performed by adding granular polyacrylamide (PAM) on the check dams in the same manner using two sediment sources differing in clay content. Without PAM treatment, significantly higher effluent turbidity (>900 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) exited the ditch with rock check dams than with excelsior wattles or rock + excelsior ECBs (dam types was in the order of excelsior wattle > rock + excelsior ECB > rock check dam, indicating better water pooling behind the wattle. The PAM treatment reduced turbidity substantially (>75% relative to no PAM treatment) for all check dam types and it was very effective in excelsior wattles (<57 NTU) and rock + excelsior ECBs (<90 NTU) even during the third storm event. This study demonstrates that the passive treatment of runoff with PAM on FCDs (or rock + excelsior ECB) in construction site ditches can be very effective for sediment retention and turbidity reduction.

  8. Performance of the BD MAX™ instrument with Check-Direct CPE real-time PCR for the detection of carbapenemase genes from rectal swabs, in a setting with endemic dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Alberto; Arena, Fabio; Giani, Tommaso; Colavecchio, Olga Lorenza; Valeva, Stoyanka Valentinova; Paule, Suzanne; Boleij, Peter; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represent an increasing public health issue and the early detection of colonization by CPE can help the implementation of infection control measures among inpatients. In this study, BD MAX Check-Direct CPE screen, with two different Master Mixes (BDMix and CPMix), using the automatic BD MAX(™) instrument, was evaluated for the detection of blaKPC, blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaNDM genes, in comparison to selective broth enrichment and direct culture from rectal swabs. Among a total of 557 rectal swabs samples, 29 (5.2%) tested positive for CPE (23 for blaKPC, 5 for blaVIM and one for blaOXA-48). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios values were 93.1%, 97.3%, 34.5 and 0.07, for BMix, and 100%, 97.1 %, 34.5 and 0 for CPMix, respectively. Five samples were positive with molecular methods only. The turn-around time was reduced from 18-24 hours (direct culture), or 48 h (broth enrichment) to only 3 h.

  9. Production mask composition checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Wang, Alice; Lin, Roger; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The mask composition checking flow is an evolution of the traditional mask rule check (MRC). In order to differentiate the flow from MRC, we call it Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC). The mask house does MRC only to identify process limitations including writing, etching, metrology, etc. There still exist many potential errors that could occur when the frame, main circuit and dummies all together form a whole reticle. The MDCC flow combines the design rule check (DRC) and MRC concepts to adapt to the complex patterns in today's wafer production technologies. Although photomask data has unique characteristics, the MRC tool in Calibre® MDP can easily achieve mask composition by using the Extended MEBES job deck (EJB) format. In EJB format, we can customize the combination of any input layers in an IC design layout format, such as OASIS. Calibre MDP provides section-based processing for many standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands that support DRC-like checks on mask data. Integrating DRC-like checking with EJB for layer composition, we actually perform reticle-level DRC, which is the essence of MDCC. The flow also provides an early review environment before the photomask pattern files are available. Furthermore, to incorporate the MDCC in our production flow, runtime is one of the most important indexes we consider. When the MDCC is included in the tape-out flow, the runtime impact is very limited. Calibre, with its multi-threaded processes and good scalability, is the key to achieving acceptable runtime. In this paper, we present real case runtime data for 28nm and 14nm technology nodes, and prove the practicability of placing MDCC into mass production.

  10. Perseveration causes automatization of checking behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Giele, Catharina L; Cath, Danielle C

    2015-08-01

    Repeated checking leads to reductions in meta-memory (i.e., memory confidence, vividness and detail), and automatization of checking behavior (Dek, van den Hout, Giele, & Engelhard, 2014, 2015). Dek et al. (2014) suggested that this is caused by increased familiarity with the checked stimuli. They predicted that defamiliarization of checking by modifying the perceptual characteristics of stimuli would cause de-automatization and attenuate the negative meta-memory effects of re-checking. However, their results were inconclusive. The present study investigated whether repeated checking leads to automatization of checking behavior, and if defamiliarization indeed leads to de-automatization and attenuation of meta-memory effects in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Participants performed a checking task, in which they activated, deactivated and checked threat-irrelevant stimuli. During a pre- and post-test checking trial, check duration was recorded and a reaction time task was simultaneously administered as dual-task to assess automatization. After the pre- and post-test checking trial, meta-memory was rated. Results showed that relevant checking led to automatization of checking behavior on the RT measure, and negative meta-memory effects for patients and controls. Defamiliarization led to de-automatization measured with the RT task, but did not attenuate the negative meta-memory effects of repeated checking. Clinical implications are discussed.

  11. 概率实时时态认知逻辑模型检测中抽象技术的研究%Abstraction in Model Checking Probabilistic Real-Time Temporal Logic of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志锋; 孙博; 周从华

    2013-01-01

    The same challengs facing model checkings in probabilistic real-time temporal logic of knowledge PTACTLK is the same as traditional model one .That is the state space explosion problem .Abstraction is one of the most effective methods to al-leviate the state space explosion problem .In order to alleviate the problem of the state space explosion in model checking probabilis-tic real-time temporal logic of knowledge ,an abstraction technique is presented .For the real time part of PTACTLK ,that is PTACTL ,we adopt the abstract discrete clock valuations ,and the infinite state space of a probabilistic real time was interpreted into a finite form .For the epistemic operator K in PTACTLK ,the definition of epistemic equivalent to an agent between abstract states is given .We define the abstract model of the interpreted system in a probabilistic real time and present the semantics of PTACTLK on the abstract model .We prove that the abstract model obtained by using the abstraction techniques is the upper approximation of the original model .At last ,a simple communication protocol is adopted to illustrate the effectiveness of our abstraction techniques .%概率实时时态认知逻辑PTACTLK模型检测面临着与传统模型检测同样的挑战,即状态空间爆炸问题。抽象是缓解状态空间爆炸问题的最为有效的方法之一。为了缓解概率实时时态认知逻辑模型检测中的状态空间爆炸问题,我们给出了一种抽象技术:对于PTACTLK中的实时部分PTACTL ,采用抽象离散时钟赋值,把概率实时解释系统的无限状态空间转化成有限形式;对于PTACTLK中的认知算子K ,给出了抽象状态关于智体认知等价的定义。定义了概率实时解释系统的抽象模型,给出了抽象模型上概率实时时态认知逻辑的语义,并证明了由抽象技术演绎得到的抽象模型是原始模型的上近似。最后通过一个通信协议来说明抽象技术的有效性。

  12. Time to tweak the TTO: results from a comparison of alternative specifications of the TTO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Versteegh (Matthijs); A.E. Attema (Arthur); M. Oppe (Mark); N. Devlin (Nancy); E.A. Stolk (Elly)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article examines the effect that different specifications of the time trade-off (TTO) valuation task may have on values for EQ-5D-5L health states. The new variants of the TTO, namely lead-time TTO and lag-time TTO, along with the classic approach to TTO were compared using

  13. Model Checking the Remote Agent Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Lina; Muscettola, Nicola; Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work tackles the problem of using Model Checking for the purpose of verifying the HSTS (Scheduling Testbed System) planning system. HSTS is the planner and scheduler of the remote agent autonomous control system deployed in Deep Space One (DS1). Model Checking allows for the verification of domain models as well as planning entries. We have chosen the real-time model checker UPPAAL for this work. We start by motivating our work in the introduction. Then we give a brief description of HSTS and UPPAAL. After that, we give a sketch for the mapping of HSTS models into UPPAAL and we present samples of plan model properties one may want to verify.

  14. Losses of Humanity in Times of War: The Actions of Alternative Subjects of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Monárrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses loss of humanity due to violence in Ciudad Juarez (2008–2014 and the actions of alternative subjects of justice – the organized civil society – seeking to address it. This paper resonates with theoretical currents of feminism and humanism, both of which have created a critical apparatus for thinking about social inequality in the context of life, death, and injustice. The discussion draws on the theoretical concepts of discourse societies, necropolitics, private government and actions. With this theoretical structure, the paper seeks to understand the political actions of eight civil society organizations aiming to recover the right to the body, to space and to be a political subject for a community shattered by violence. The paper argues that, through these actions, they helped to prevent crime, enhance public safety and stabilise a society suffering from continued violence due in large part to the war on drugs.

  15. Model checking of component connectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for automata theoretic model checking of coordination systems specified in Reo coordination language. To this goal, we introduce Buchi automata of records (BAR) and their augmented version (ABAR) as an operational modeling formalism that covers several intended forms of behavi

  16. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just;

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is sti...

  17. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable...

  18. Algebraic synthesis of time-optimal unitaries in SU(2) with alternating controls

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Clarice D.; Allegra, Michele; Hemmerling, Boerge; Wang, Xiaoting; Cappellaro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present an algebraic framework to study the time-optimal synthesis of arbitrary unitaries in SU(2), when the control set is restricted to rotations around two non-parallel axes in the Bloch sphere. Our method bypasses commonly used control-theoretical techniques, and easily imposes necessary conditions on time-optimal sequences. In a straightforward fashion, we prove that time-optimal sequences are solely parametrized by three rotation angles and derive general bounds on those angles as a ...

  19. Roe v. Wade. Reality check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, M C

    1998-01-01

    For US Catholics, abortion, as predicted in 1968 by Robert Drinan, has become a public policy question that places the church in the position of "sinning by the use of its prestige and power against the sincerely held convictions of non-Catholics and non-believers, or as a group which failed by silence to speak up when misguided men and women changed the law to permit the extermination of undesirable and unwanted human beings." During the 25 years since the Roe vs. Wade decision, Catholics for a Free Choice has made a sustained effort to respond to this dilemma by providing an alternative view within the church and larger society. Abortion should remain legal to protect the desperate women who would otherwise resort to unsafe abortion. Also, the tradition of Catholic legal realism dating from Thomas Aquinas notes that good lawmaking requires the possibility of compliance and enforceability. If antiabortion laws are not enforced, are not obeyed, and are subject to widespread noncompliance, they are not sound law. Because the morality of abortion remains questionable, society should use noncoercive measures to reduce its incidence. Catholic moral teaching and Catholic views on social justice could make a positive contribution in this regard. Abortion has been a central issue for Roman Catholic political participation in the past 25 years as the National Conference of Catholic Bishops has attempted to reverse the Roe decision. During this time, Catholics for a Free Choice has provided an important alternative forum.

  20. Time to tweak the TTO: results from a comparison of alternative specifications of the TTO

    OpenAIRE

    Versteegh, Matthijs; Attema, Arthur; Oppe, Mark; Devlin, Nancy; Stolk, Elly

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article examines the effect that different specifications of the time trade-off (TTO) valuation task may have on values for EQ-5D-5L health states. The new variants of the TTO, namely lead-time TTO and lag-time TTO, along with the classic approach to TTO were compared using two durations for the health states (15 and 20 years). The study tested whether these methods yield comparable health-state values. TTO tasks were administered online. It was found that lag-time T...

  1. Time to tweak the TTO: results from a comparison of alternative specifications of the TTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, Matthijs M; Attema, Arthur E; Oppe, Mark; Devlin, Nancy J; Stolk, Elly A

    2013-07-01

    This article examines the effect that different specifications of the time trade-off (TTO) valuation task may have on values for EQ-5D-5L health states. The new variants of the TTO, namely lead-time TTO and lag-time TTO, along with the classic approach to TTO were compared using two durations for the health states (15 and 20 years). The study tested whether these methods yield comparable health-state values. TTO tasks were administered online. It was found that lag-time TTO produced lower values than lead-time TTO and that the difference was larger in the longer time frame. Classic TTO values most resembled those of the lag-time TTO in a 20-year time frame in terms of mean absolute difference. The relative importance of different domains of health was systematically affected by the duration of the health state. In the tasks with a 10-year health-state duration, anxiety/depression had the largest negative impact on health-state values; in the tasks with a 5-year duration, the pain/discomfort domain had the largest negative impact.

  2. A comparison of alternative variants of the lead and lag time TTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Nancy; Buckingham, Ken; Shah, Koonal; Tsuchiya, Aki; Tilling, Carl; Wilkinson, Grahame; van Hout, Ben

    2013-05-01

    'Lead Time' TTO improves upon conventional TTO by providing a uniform method for eliciting positive and negative values. This research investigates (i) the values generated from different combinations of time in poor health and in full health; and the order in which these appear (lead vs. lag); (ii) whether values concur with participants' views about states; (iii) methods for handling extreme preferences. n = 208 participants valued five EQ-5D states, using two of four variants. Combinations of lead time and health state duration were: 10 years and 20 years; 5 years and 1 year; 5 years and 10 years; and a health state duration of 5 years with a lag time of 10 years. Longer lead times capture more preferences, but may involve a framing effect. Lag time results in less non-trading for mild states, and less time being traded for severe states. Negative values broadly agree with participants' stated opinion that the state is worse than dead. The values are sensitive to the ratio of lead time to duration of poor health, and the order in which these appear (lead vs. lag). It is feasible to handle extreme preferences though challenges remain.

  3. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

  4. An EOQ model for time-dependent deteriorating items with alternating demand rates allowing shortages by considering time value of money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Antara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with an economic order quantity (EOQ model of an inventory problem with alternating demand rate: (i For a certain period, the demand rate is a non linear function of the instantaneous inventory level. (ii For the rest of the cycle, the demand rate is time dependent. The time at which demand rate changes, may be deterministic or uncertain. The deterioration rate of the item is time dependent. The holding cost and shortage cost are taken as a linear function of time. The total cost function per unit time is obtained. Finally, the model is solved using a gradient based non-linear optimization technique (LINGO and is illustrated by a numerical example.

  5. Minkowski's Road to Space-Time, and its Consequences and an Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2014-03-01

    The road from Maxwell's equations to early relativity and then to Minkowski's space-time is traced through his Göttingen lecture in 1907 and his paper in 1908 that introduced the 4-dimensional tensor form of electrodynamics. This led to a puzzle: What is the reason for the time dependence in its position space geometry shown in the metric sum ds2 = dx12 + dx22 + dx32 -c2 dt2 ? Having no physical explanation for this, Minkowski made the drastic move of enlarging 3-space into 4-dimensional space-time, advocating it powerfully in his paper ``Space and Time'' (1909). I will discuss the circumstances that led to its rapid acceptance (but not by Poincaré), and its consequences that emerged much later in the partial disconnect between relativity and the other domains of modern physics. Much later still, the Hubble expansion of our cosmos can now be shown to imply that the term -c2 dt2 is a direct concomitant of an expanding, negatively curved 3-space and does not require either a 4-dimensional space-time or multiple time dimensions for multiple particles.

  6. Probabilistic Model--Checking of Quantum Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, S; Papanikolaou, N; Gay, Simon; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    We establish fundamental and general techniques for formal verification of quantum protocols. Quantum protocols are novel communication schemes involving the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena for representation, storage and transmission of data. As opposed to quantum computers, quantum communication systems can and have been implemented using present-day technology; therefore, the ability to model and analyse such systems rigorously is of primary importance. While current analyses of quantum protocols use a traditional mathematical approach and require considerable understanding of the underlying physics, we argue that automated verification techniques provide an elegant alternative. We demonstrate these techniques through the use of PRISM, a probabilistic model-checking tool. Our approach is conceptually simpler than existing proofs, and allows us to disambiguate protocol definitions and assess their properties. It also facilitates detailed analyses of actual implemented systems. We illustrate our techniqu...

  7. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis: an alternative to recommended regimens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  8. Space-time curvature due to quantum vacuum fluctuations: An alternative to dark energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilio, E-mail: santose@unican.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2010-01-18

    It is pointed out that quantum vacuum fluctuations may give rise to a curvature of space-time equivalent to the curvature currently attributed to dark energy. A simple calculation is made, involving plausible assumptions within the framework of quantized gravity, which suggests that the value of the dark energy density is roughly given by the product of Newton's constant times the quantity m{sup 6}c{sup 4}h{sup -4}, m being a typical mass of elementary particles. The estimate is compatible with observations.

  9. 30 CFR 77.902-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.902-1 Section 77.902-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under §...

  10. Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Melo, V T O; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; Pinseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols.

  11. Comparable Educational Benefits in Half the Time: An Alternating Organic Chemistry Laboratory Sequence Targeting Prehealth Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sherri C.; Colabroy, Keri L.; Baar, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory is a mainstay in STEM education, promoting the development of critical thinking skills, dexterity, and scientific curiosity. The goals in the laboratory for nonchemistry, prehealth majors, though, could be distinguished from those for chemistry majors. In service courses such as organic chemistry, much laboratory time is often spent…

  12. Real-time PCR in infectious uveitis as an alternative diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Felipe dos Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Uveitis is a major visual impairment disease affecting parts or the entire uveal tract and occasionally the sclera, the cornea or the optic nerve. The disease is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In this work we analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR to detect the etiological agent from blood, plasma, vitreous and aqueous humor and compared with the diagnostic hypothesis. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (13 male were studied and Real-time PCR method was used for the detection of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB and Toxoplasma gondii (Toxo in the aqueous humor as well as in the vitreous, blood and plasma. RESULTS: Our results showed the presence of Toxo, CMV, VZV or HSV-2 in 19.2% of aqueous humor samples, and in 30% of vitreous humor samples. In plasma and blood samples, only CMV was detected (11.1% and 3.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR was able to detect and to confirm diagnostic hypothesis in uveitis. Our data also confirms that vitreous humor is the best source for molecular diagnosis of infectious uveitis but indicates aqueous humor samples that are easier to obtain may also be appropriate to be tested by Real-time PCR.

  13. The Street Vendors of Bangkok: Alternatives to Indoor Retailers at a Time of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During an economic crisis, consumers will use different techniques to make their money go as far as possible: More carefully comparing prices at point of sale locations, bringing out the coins they previously left unused in saving banks, switching to lower cost options and choosing to shop in less convenient locations in order to find discounts. One such option is to use street vendors rather than regular indoor retailers. Street vendors can provide cheaper goods because, in many cases, they do not need to pay for electricity or water bills and their rental costs can be much lower. Further, vendors themselves may be more willing to enter into haggling negotiations and offer cash discounts to well-known or regular customers. However, it would be wrong to assume that all street vendors are the same in terms of character or that they operate according to the same business model. Approach: This is a case study based principally on secondary sources and recapitulating primary research reported previously. Results: Research among street vendors in several locations reveal a wide variety of experiences, ability to provide value added goods and services and intentions and ambitions for the business concerned. While the majority of vendors have quite low levels of ambition, earn minimum wages or less and have little concept of marketing or adding value to products, there are other vendors who have organized their own international supply chains, contract manufactured their own branded goods and franchise stalls throughout the city of Bangkok. In some cases, therefore, street vending should be encouraged because it can offer a route out of the informal economy and into the formal economy for people who might not otherwise be able to achieve regular employment. Vendors also offer, in some cases, good quality alternatives to indoor retailers and help keep prices as a whole down. Conclusion/Recommendations: This case study addressed the

  14. An alternative approach to characterize time series data: Case study on Malaysian rainfall data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, P. [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka 75450 (Malaysia)] e-mail: radha.krishnan@mmu.edu.my; Dinesh, S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka 75450 (Malaysia)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of time series rainfall data to understand the behavior in the Malaysian rainfall data. An analysis of the rainfall behavior of different time periods is also conducted. The rainfall data is rounded. A bar with a width of 12 pixels is drawn for each day in the data. The length of the bars drawn is equal to the corresponding rainfall value. Each bar is separated by a space of 2 pixels. Bars for data from different year are stored in different rows. Morphological opening is performed on the barcode image obtained, using line kernels of increasing length. Connected component-labeling algorithm is implemented on the resulting images to identify the individual bar codes and to compute the number of bars remaining after the opening process. A daily rainfall record for the duration of 30 years, obtained from the Melaka Meteorological Station, is analyzed. The results provide characterization of behavior in daily rainfall data.

  15. Long-Time Dynamical Behaviour of Alternative-Current Stark Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-Guo; CHEN Jing-Biao

    2007-01-01

    We report the long time dynamical behaviour of ac Stark effect in a simple quantum model in which two level atoms interact with quantized coherent radiation field. A new phenomenon of periodic quantum collapse and revival of the ac Stark shift of energy level due to ac Stark effect is expressed accurately by analysing the phase of transition probability amplitude. The analytic prediction is confirmed by the numerical results.

  16. Differentiation of Alternate Harvesting Practices Using Annual Time Series of Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas R. Jarron

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management practices allow for a range of harvest prescriptions, including clearcut, clearcut with residual, and partial or selective cutting, which are largely distinguished by the amount of canopy cover removed. The different prescriptions are aimed to emulate natural disturbance, encourage regeneration (seed trees, or offer other ecosystem services, such as the maintenance of local biodiversity or habitat features. Using remotely sensed data, stand-replacing disturbance associated with clearcutting is commonly accurately detected. Novel time series-based change detection products offer an opportunity to determine the capacity to detect and label a wider range of harvest practices. In this research, we demonstrate the capacity of time series imagery, spectral metrics, and related attributed change products, to distinguish between different harvesting practices over a study area in central British Columbia, Canada. Producer’s accuracy of harvest attribution was 79%, with 93% of harvest blocks >5 ha accurately identified. In relation to the amount of canopy cover removed, clearcut harvesting was the most accurately classified (84%, followed by clearcut with residual (79%, and partial cut (64%. Applying detailed spectral metrics derived from Landsat data revealed clearcut and partial cuts to be spectrally distinct. The annual nature of the Landsat time series also offers spatial harvest information within typical, often decadal, forest inventory update cycles. The statistically significant (p < 0.05 relationship between harvest practices and Landsat spectral information indicates a capacity to add increased attribution richness to remote sensing depictions of forest harvest.

  17. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement. A data envelopment analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuosmanen, Timo [Economic Research Unit, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Luutnantintie 13, 00410 Helsinki (Finland); Bijsterbosch, Neil [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); MWH B.V., Rijnsburgstraat 9-11, 1059 AT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dellink, Rob [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternative timing strategies, taking into account the ancillary benefits. We apply the approach by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen [Valuing Environmental Factors in Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Ecological Economics 62 (2007), 56-65], which does not require prior valuation of the environmental impacts. The assessment is based on synthetic data from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model calibrated to The Netherlands. Our assessment shows that if one is only interested in GHG abatement at the lowest economic cost, then equal reduction of GHGs over time is preferred. If society is willing to pay a premium for higher ancillary benefits, an early mid-intensive reduction strategy is optimal. (author)

  18. Feasibility Checking for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue...

  19. Optimal Tableaux-Based Decision Procedure for Testing Satisfiability in the Alternating-Time Temporal Logic ATL+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerrito, Serenella; David, Amelie; Goranko, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    We develop a sound, complete and practically implementable tableaux-based decision method for constructive satisfiability testing and model synthesis in the fragment ATL+ of the full Alternating time temporal logic ATL∗. The method extends in an essential way a previously developed tableaux......-based decision method for ATL and works in 2EXPTIME, which is the optimal worst case complexity of the satisfiability problem for ATL+. We also discuss how suitable parameterizations and syntactic restrictions on the class of input ATL+ formulae can reduce the complexity of the satisfiability problem....

  20. Alternative real-time and historical visualization of cementing operations data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.R. [Anadarko Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Olesen, L. [Pason Systems Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Marriott, T.; Slight, C. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a new and efficient way to transmit drilling data via the Internet to optimize operations and eliminate the rising cost of delivering data to the office of engineers. Monitoring data from drilling rigs is recorded and transmitted through a rig's satellite system to reveal performance history, current state, and how future improvements can be made. Although existing infrastructures can be used to send data from most services to head offices, very few services actually use the process. This paper used the example of cementing as the newest service to use this integration. Electronic drilling recorders (EDR) are installed on most rigs in North America to record parameters from drilling operations and to disseminate the information via a local area network. The parameters are sent off location via satellite and typically stored on a secure Internet site where operators with appropriate security can access the information about wells currently being drilled as well as historical well information. The interface connecting the cementing data to the operator is a valuable asset. Real-time data can be transmitted to an operator's office on every cementing job conducted. This paper demonstrated that the operator's requirement to view cementing data in real time at minimal cost was achieved by requesting that the cementing companies add their specific data parameters to the general set collected by the EDR. This was done using a wellsite information transfer standard (WITS), a common interface protocol. The new use of existing technology opens communication and provides operators with the ability to make real-time decisions during the cementing job. In addition to real-time visualization, other benefits include reduced cost of acquiring and transmitting data. The typical parameters recorded by gauges on a cementing truck include pumping pressure, pumping rate, recirculating density, pumping density and mix water rate. Additional gauges can

  1. Time-series prediction of shellfish farm closure: A comparison of alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish farms are closed for harvest when microbial pollutants are present. Such pollutants are typically present in rainfall runoff from various land uses in catchments. Experts currently use a number of observable parameters (river flow, rainfall, salinity as proxies to determine when to close farms. We have proposed using the short term historical rainfall data as a time-series prediction problem where we aim to predict the closure of shellfish farms based only on rainfall. Time-series event prediction consists of two steps: (i feature extraction, and (ii prediction. A number of data mining challenges exist for these scenarios: (i which feature extraction method best captures the rainfall pattern over successive days that leads to opening or closure of the farms?, (ii The farm closure events occur infrequently and this leads to a class imbalance problem; the question is what is the best way to deal with this problem? In this paper we have analysed and compared different combinations of balancing methods (under-sampling and over-sampling, feature extraction methods (cluster profile, curve fitting, Fourier Transform, Piecewise Aggregate Approximation, and Wavelet Transform and learning algorithms (neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbour, decision tree, and Bayesian Network to predict closure events accurately considering the above data mining challenges. We have identified the best combination of techniques to accurately predict shellfish farm closure from rainfall, given the above data mining challenges.

  2. Strategy optimization for mask rule check in wafer fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuen Huei; Lin, Shaina; Lin, Roger; Wang, Alice; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin

    2015-07-01

    Photolithography process is getting more and more sophisticated for wafer production following Moore's law. Therefore, for wafer fab, consolidated and close cooperation with mask house is a key to achieve silicon wafer success. However, generally speaking, it is not easy to preserve such partnership because many engineering efforts and frequent communication are indispensable. The inattentive connection is obvious in mask rule check (MRC). Mask houses will do their own MRC at job deck stage, but the checking is only for identification of mask process limitation including writing, etching, inspection, metrology, etc. No further checking in terms of wafer process concerned mask data errors will be implemented after data files of whole mask are composed in mask house. There are still many potential data errors even post-OPC verification has been done for main circuits. What mentioned here are the kinds of errors which will only occur as main circuits combined with frame and dummy patterns to form whole reticle. Therefore, strategy optimization is on-going in UMC to evaluate MRC especially for wafer fab concerned errors. The prerequisite is that no impact on mask delivery cycle time even adding this extra checking. A full-mask checking based on job deck in gds or oasis format is necessary in order to secure acceptable run time. Form of the summarized error report generated by this checking is also crucial because user friendly interface will shorten engineers' judgment time to release mask for writing. This paper will survey the key factors of MRC in wafer fab.

  3. 31 CFR 103.29 - Purchases of bank checks and drafts, cashier's checks, money orders and traveler's checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN..., cashier's check, money order or traveler's check for $3,000 or more in currency unless it maintains... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchases of bank checks and...

  4. Diagnostic checking for conditional heteroscedasticity models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We suggest the score type tests for goodness-of-fit of conditional heteroscedasticity models in both univariate and multivariate time series.The tests can detect the alternatives converging to the null at a parametric rate.Weight functions are involved in the construction of the tests,which provides us with the flexibility to choose scores,especially under directional alternatives,for enhancing power performance.Furthermore,when the alternatives are not directional,we construct asymptotically distribution-free maximin tests for a large class of alternatives.A possibility to construct score-based omnibus tests is discussed when the alternative is saturated.The power performance is also investigated.A simulation study is carried out and a real data is analyzed.

  5. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  6. The effect of pause time upon the communicative interactions of young people who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Hilary; Sutherland, Dean; McAuliffe, Megan

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of variation in partner-initiated pause time on the expressive communication of young people who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Eight participants aged 8;11-20;08 years (mean 16;02 years) participated in the study. Three pause time conditions (2, 10, and 45 seconds) were trialled during a scripted shared storybook reading task. A total of 27 turn opportunities were provided for participants during the task. Participant interactions were analysed for the percentage of responses made to a turn opportunity, mean length of utterance in words (MLU), percentage of assertive conversational acts made, and the modes of communication used. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to respond to a turn opportunity when their communication partner provided a longer pause time. Additionally, a longer pause time resulted in longer MLUs. Participants did not use more assertive conversational acts and continued to use a variety of communication modes when provided with a longer pause time. Results indicate that increasing pause time is an effective strategy to support the development of expressive communication for young people who use AAC. This suggests the need for professionals providing AAC services to encourage communication partners to provide extended pauses during interactions.

  7. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  8. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  9. Trellis-Based Check Node Processing for Low-Complexity Nonbinary LP Decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Punekar, Mayur

    2011-01-01

    Linear Programming (LP) decoding is emerging as an attractive alternative to decode Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. However, the earliest LP decoders proposed for binary and nonbinary LDPC codes are not suitable for use at moderate and large code lengths. To overcome this problem, Vontobel et al. developed an iterative Low-Complexity LP (LCLP) decoding algorithm for binary LDPC codes. The variable and check node calculations of binary LCLP decoding algorithm are related to those of binary Belief Propagation (BP). The present authors generalized this work to derive an iterative LCLP decoding algorithm for nonbinary linear codes. Contrary to binary LCLP, the variable and check node calculations of this algorithm are in general different from that of nonbinary BP. The overall complexity of nonbinary LCLP decoding is linear in block length; however the complexity of its check node calculations is exponential in the check node degree. In this paper, we propose a modified BCJR algorithm for efficient check n...

  10. Experimental and Analytical Study on the Lift Check Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Song, C. S.; Kim, H. S.; Hong, S. C. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. H. [Samshin Limited Co., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In general, the check valve mounted on the flow line is used for the purpose of protecting the pump and the related facility, making the flow path, and maintaining the pressure boundary during the operation mode change in steam power plant and nuclear power plant. Fig. 1 shows the example of check valve in nuclear power plant. Especially, the check valve mounted on safety feed system and nuclear safety system is operated to open state and has a role of acquiring enough fluid such as safety feed and auxiliary feed water in the Design Basis Accident. And the check valve is operated with enough sealing and with protecting steam hammer in normal operational mode. For this purpose, the check valve can be open easily and be maintained in the open state in case of small flow velocity. In this research, the experimental and analytical study on the check vale was performed. The flow coefficient and closure time were compared between the experimental and the analytical result by numerical simulation. The validation of the analytical method was performed.

  11. IC50-based approaches as an alternative method for assessment of time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Howard J; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2010-05-01

    The predictive utility of two in vitro methods (empirical IC(50)-based and mechanistic k(inact)/K(I)) for the assessment of time-dependent cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition has been compared. IC(50) values were determined at multiple pre-incubation time points over 30 min for five CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibitors (verapamil, diltiazem, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin). The ability of IC(50) data obtained following pre-incubation to predict k(inact)/K(I) parameters was investigated and its utility was assessed relative to the conventional k(inact)/K(I) model using 50 reported clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Models with either hepatic or hepatic with intestinal components were explored. For low/medium potency time-dependent inhibitors, 81% of the predicted k(inact)/K(I(unbound)) from IC(50) data were within an order of magnitude of the actual values, in contrast to 50% of potent inhibitors. An underprediction trend and > 50% of false-negatives were observed when IC(50) data were used in the DDI hepatic prediction model; incorporation of the intestine improved the prediction accuracy. On the contrary, 86% of the DDI studies were predicted within twofold using k(inact)/K(I) mechanistic approach and the combined hepatic and intestinal model. Use of the empirical IC(50) approach as an alternative to the mechanistic k(inact)/K(I) model for in vivo DDI prediction is limited and is best restricted to preliminary investigations.

  12. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  13. Practical Type Checking of Functions Defined on Context-Free Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Chen; Yun-Mei Dong

    2004-01-01

    A type checking method for the functional language LFC is presented. A distinct feature of LFC is that it uses Context-Free (CF) languages as data types to represent compound data structures. This makes LFC a dynamically typed language. To improve efficiency, a practical type checking method is presented, which consists of both static and dynamic type checking. Although the inclusion relation of CF languages is not decidable, a special subset of the relation is decidable, i.e., the sentential form relation, which can be statically checked. Moreover, most of the expressions in actual LFC programs appear to satisfy this relation according to the statistic data of experiments. So, despite that the static type checking is not complete, it undertakes most of the type checking task. Consequently the run-time efficiency is effectively improved. Another feature of the type checking is that it converts the expressions with implicit structures to structured representation. Structure reconstruction technique is presented.

  14. Loess Plateau check dams can potentially sequester eroded soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Liu, Shuguang; Yuan, Wenping; Dong, Wenjie; Xia, Jiangzhou; Cao, Yaojun; Jia, Yanwei

    2016-06-01

    Check dams are special soil and water conservation structures in the Loess Plateau, China. They play an important role in intercepting sediments and soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the decomposition of intercepted SOC and the environmental regulations at check dams have not been investigated. We conducted several paired field experiments at both check dams and slope lands in the Yanhe Watershed of the Loess Plateau to examine the characteristics of SOC decomposition at check dams. On average, the SOC mineralization rate in slope lands was approximately three times higher than in check dams. Increased soil moisture and compaction in check dams can constrain carbon mineralization by limiting the oxygen availability of SOC and can isolate substrate carbon from heterotrophic microorganisms. Our results indicate that check dams display a considerable potential for eroded SOC sequestration via reducing the soil respiration rate and highlight the important implications of lateral carbon redistribution and human engineering projects when estimating regional or global ecosystem carbon cycles.

  15. Compositional encoding for bounded model checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun SUN; Yang LIU; Jin Song DONG; Jing SUN

    2008-01-01

    Verification techniques like SAT-based bounded model checking have been successfully applied to a variety of system models. Applying bounded model checking to compositional process algebras is, however, a highly non-trivial task. One challenge is that the number of system states for process algebra models is not statically known, whereas exploring the full state space is computa-tionally expensive. This paper presents a compositional encoding of hierarchical processes as SAT problems and then applies state-of-the-art SAT solvers for bounded model checking. The encoding avoids exploring the full state space for complex systems so as to deal with state space explosion. We developed an automated analyzer which combines complementing model checking tech-niques (I.e., bounded model checking and explicit on-the-fly model checking) to validate system models against event-based temporal properties. The experiment results show the analyzer handles large systems.

  16. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.; Dokoupil, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  17. Heteroscedasticity checks for regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For checking on heteroscedasticity in regression models, a unified approach is proposed to constructing test statistics in parametric and nonparametric regression models. For nonparametric regression, the test is not affected sensitively by the choice of smoothing parameters which are involved in estimation of the nonparametric regression function. The limiting null distribution of the test statistic remains the same in a wide range of the smoothing parameters. When the covariate is one-dimensional, the tests are, under some conditions, asymptotically distribution-free. In the high-dimensional cases, the validity of bootstrap approximations is investigated. It is shown that a variant of the wild bootstrap is consistent while the classical bootstrap is not in the general case, but is applicable if some extra assumption on conditional variance of the squared error is imposed. A simulation study is performed to provide evidence of how the tests work and compare with tests that have appeared in the literature. The approach may readily be extended to handle partial linear, and linear autoregressive models.

  18. Advanced microbial check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A flight certified assembly identified as a Microbial Check Valve (MCV) was developed and tested. The MCV is a canister packed with an iodinated anionic exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through the device. The device is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of organism removal is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was successfully developed for the space shuttle to: disinfect fuel cell water; and prevent back contamination of the stored potable water supply. One version of the device consists of a high residual iodinated resin bed that imparts approximately 2 ppm of iodine to the fuel cell water as it flows to the potable water tanks. A second version of the device consists of a low residual iodinated resin bed. One of these low residual beds is located at each use port in the potable water system for the dual purpose of removing some iodine from the potable water as it is dispensed and also to prevent back contamination of the potable supply.

  19. 14 CFR 91.1093 - Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91... preceding 24 months, that person satisfactorily conducts a proficiency or competency check under the..., and emergency procedures to ensure competence to conduct the pilot flight checks required by...

  20. Heteroscedasticity checks for regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Lixing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Carroll, R. J., Ruppert, D., Transformation and Weighting in Regression, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1988.[2]Cook, R. D., Weisberg, S., Diagnostics for heteroscedasticity in regression, Biometrika, 1988, 70: 1—10.[3]Davidian, M., Carroll, R. J., Variance function estimation, J. Amer. Statist. Assoc., 1987, 82: 1079—1091.[4]Bickel, P., Using residuals robustly I: Tests for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1978, 6: 266—291.[5]Carroll, R. J., Ruppert, D., On robust tests for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1981, 9: 205—209.[6]Eubank, R. L., Thomas, W., Detecting heteroscedasticity in nonparametric regression, J. Roy. Statist. Soc., Ser. B, 1993, 55: 145—155.[7]Diblasi, A., Bowman, A., Testing for constant variance in a linear model, Statist. and Probab. Letters, 1997, 33: 95—103.[8]Dette, H., Munk, A., Testing heteoscedasticity in nonparametric regression, J. R. Statist. Soc. B, 1998, 60: 693—708.[9]Müller, H. G., Zhao, P. L., On a semi-parametric variance function model and a test for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1995, 23: 946—967.[10]Stute, W., Manteiga, G., Quindimil, M. P., Bootstrap approximations in model checks for regression, J. Amer. Statist. Asso., 1998, 93: 141—149.[11]Stute, W., Thies, G., Zhu, L. X., Model checks for regression: An innovation approach, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 1916—1939.[12]Shorack, G. R., Wellner, J. A., Empirical Processes with Applications to Statistics, New York: Wiley, 1986.[13]Efron, B., Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife, Ann. Statist., 1979, 7: 1—26.[14]Wu, C. F. J., Jackknife, bootstrap and other re-sampling methods in regression analysis, Ann. Statist., 1986, 14: 1261—1295.[15]H rdle, W., Mammen, E., Comparing non-parametric versus parametric regression fits, Ann. Statist., 1993, 21: 1926—1947.[16]Liu, R. Y., Bootstrap procedures under some non-i.i.d. models, Ann. Statist., 1988, 16: 1696—1708.[17

  1. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; SU Guanghui; WANG Gaopeng; QIU Suizheng; XIAO Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach.

  2. Error Checking for Chinese Query by Mining Web Log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the search engine, error-input query is a common phenomenon. This paper uses web log as the training set for the query error checking. Through the n-gram language model that is trained by web log, the queries are analyzed and checked. Some features including query words and their number are introduced into the model. At the same time data smoothing algorithm is used to solve data sparseness problem. It will improve the overall accuracy of the n-gram model. The experimental results show that it is effective.

  3. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  4. Operational workforce planning for check-in counters at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolletz, Raik

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses operation models for workforce planning for check-in systems at airports. We characterize different tasks of the hierarchical workforce planning problem with time-dependent demand. A binary linear programming formulation is developed for the fortnightly tour scheduling problem...

  5. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brihaye, Thomas; Jungers, Marc; Lasaulce, Samson

    2010-01-01

    Model checking (MC) is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control ( PC) problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors...

  6. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  7. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... military police records may be released under the provisions of AR 340-21 to authorized personnel for valid... with AR 340-21. (b) Checks will be accomplished by a review of the COPS MPRS. Information will be... police reports filed worldwide. Authorized users of COPS MPRS can conduct name checks for...

  8. 7 CFR 58.243 - Checking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.243 Checking quality. All milk, milk products and dry milk products shall be subject to... aid to quality control in addition to the regular routine analysis made on the finished products. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking quality. 58.243 Section 58.243...

  9. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den Ho

  10. 30 CFR 77.902-3 - Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate connections. 77.902-3 Section 77.902-3 Mineral...-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-3 Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check...

  12. An intra-species demonstration of the independence of distance and time in turn alternation of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N

    2008-05-01

    In a study of turn alternation in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (woodlouse), smaller individuals (11 mm long). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in their probability of alternating, or in the magnitude of alternating turns as reflected in the size of the free-turn angles they turned on emerging from the runway. Nor was there a significant relationship for either group between the time taken to traverse the runway and either the probability of alternating or the size of a free-turn angle. In a second experiment, significant alternation occurred after woodlice emerged from runways that were 30 and 60 mm long, but not when they were 100 or 145 mm long. Their free-turn angles also became smaller as the runway length increased. Overall, the results of the three experiments supported the long-held view that, for reasons not yet understood, distance and time cannot necessarily be equated in the determination of invertebrate turn alternation.

  13. Alternative Calculations of Individual Patient Time in Therapeutic Range While Taking Warfarin: Results From the ROCKET AF Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Daniel E.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Yuan, Zhong; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Becker, Richard C.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban–Once‐daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, marked regional differences in control of warfarin anticoagulation, measured as the average individual patient time in the therapeutic range (iTTR) of the international normalized ratio (INR), were associated with longer inter‐INR test intervals. The standard Rosendaal approach can produce biased low estimates of TTR after an appropriate dose change if the follow‐up INR test interval is prolonged. We explored the effect of alternative calculations of TTR that more immediately account for dose changes on regional differences in mean iTTR in the ROCKET AF trial. Methods and Results We used an INR imputation method that accounts for dose change. We compared group mean iTTR values between our dose change–based method with the standard Rosendaal method and determined that the differences between approaches depended on the balance of dose changes that produced in‐range INRs (“corrections”) versus INRs that were out of range in the opposite direction (“overshoots”). In ROCKET AF, the overall mean iTTR of 55.2% (Rosendaal) increased up to 3.1% by using the dose change–based approach, depending on assumptions. However, large inter‐regional differences in anticoagulation control persisted. Conclusions TTR, the standard measure of control of warfarin anticoagulation, depends on imputing daily INR values for the vast majority of follow‐up days. Our TTR calculation method may better reflect the impact of warfarin dose changes than the Rosendaal approach. In the ROCKET AF trial, this dose change–based approach led to a modest increase in overall mean iTTR but did not materially affect the large inter‐regional differences previously reported. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. PMID:25736441

  14. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  15. The sun goes up in Times Square. American builders increasingly harness alternative energies; Am Times Square geht die Sonne auf. Die amerikanische Bauindustrie setzt immer haeufiger auf alternative Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, B.

    1999-07-01

    Ever more frequently the American building industry is using alternative energies. A case in point is a 'green' skyscraper built from ecological materials and fitted with solar cells that is standing in the middle of New York. The new trend in the country of unlimited possibilities is briefly portrayed. (orig.) [German] Die amerikanische Bauindustrie setzt immer haeufiger auf alternative Energien. Bestes Beispiel: Mitten in New York steht ein 'gruener' Wolkenkratzer, gebaut aus oekologischen Baumaterialien und mit Solarzellen bestueckt. Der neue Trend im Land der unbegrenzten Moeglichkeiten wird im kurzen Beitrag praesentiert. (orig.)

  16. CFD analysis of a ball check microvalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Dumitrache, Constantin L.; Grigorescu, Lucian

    2015-02-01

    The microvalves with balls as seen before are used in many applications and their behaviour in terms of fluid dynamics mainly at their opening time (when as demonstrated the ball is bouncing up and down altering the flow parameters) is of a paramount importance. The present study is focused on a micro check ball valve circulating a fluid air-like (with the same constant proprieties). The CFD model is taking into account a transitory zone of functioning from zero time when the pressure inside a "tank" is reaching the opening pressure of the valve, to the final step 0.05 seconds when the ball is stabilizing after bouncing up and down. The geometry of the valve with dimensions in μm is given below (the model is comprising a "slice" of 5 μm thickness extracted from the entire valve. In this paper by using advanced numeric techniques, the behavior of the valve in its transitory opening stage was studied with credible and useful results for further optimisation studies.

  17. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    , to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  18. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  19. The quantitative check-measure of the bend strain parameters of the rotating components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文华; 乔中涛

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of the electric-magnetic check-measure, this paper puts forward a new technology and method that use the magnetic marks to check and measure the dynamic physical parameters such as angle speed, bending strain,stress and bending moment. The principles of the check-measure and the dealing and exchanging technology about signals have been demonstrated and the rotating components have been made up. The timely and quantitative check-measure of the dynamic physical parameters during the component in working has been realized by using computer control.

  20. SU-D-BRD-03: Improving Plan Quality with Automation of Treatment Plan Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, E; Younge, K; Chen, X; Lee, C; Matuszak, M; Kessler, M; Acosta, E; Orow, A; Filpansick, S; Moran, J [University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of an automated plan check tool to improve first-time plan quality as well as standardize and document performance of physics plan checks. Methods: The Plan Checker Tool (PCT) uses the Eclipse Scripting API to check and compare data from the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment management system (TMS). PCT was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase efficiency of our electronic workflow, and to standardize and partially automate plan checks in the TPS. A framework was developed which can be configured with different reference values and types of checks. One example is the prescribed dose check where PCT flags the user when the planned dose and the prescribed dose disagree. PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user. A PDF report is created and automatically uploaded into the TMS. Prior to and during PCT development, errors caught during plan checks and also patient delays were tracked in order to prioritize which checks should be automated. The most common and significant errors were determined. Results: Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated with data extracted with the PCT. These include checks for prescription, reference point and machine scheduling errors which are three of the top six causes of patient delays related to physics and dosimetry. Since the clinical roll-out, no delays have been due to errors that are automatically flagged by the PCT. Development continues to automate the remaining checks. Conclusion: With PCT, 57% of the physics plan checklist has been partially or fully automated. Treatment delays have declined since release of the PCT for clinical use. By tracking delays and errors, we have been able to measure the effectiveness of automating checks and are using this information to prioritize future development. This project was supported in part by P01CA059827.

  1. Approximating Attractors of Boolean Networks by Iterative CTL Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Hannes; Siebert, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of approximating asynchronous attractors of Boolean networks by minimal trap spaces. We define three criteria for determining the quality of an approximation: "faithfulness" which requires that the oscillating variables of all attractors in a trap space correspond to their dimensions, "univocality" which requires that there is a unique attractor in each trap space, and "completeness" which requires that there are no attractors outside of a given set of trap spaces. Each is a reachability property for which we give equivalent model checking queries. Whereas faithfulness and univocality can be decided by model checking the corresponding subnetworks, the naive query for completeness must be evaluated on the full state space. Our main result is an alternative approach which is based on the iterative refinement of an initially poor approximation. The algorithm detects so-called autonomous sets in the interaction graph, variables that contain all their regulators, and considers their intersection and extension in order to perform model checking on the smallest possible state spaces. A benchmark, in which we apply the algorithm to 18 published Boolean networks, is given. In each case, the minimal trap spaces are faithful, univocal, and complete, which suggests that they are in general good approximations for the asymptotics of Boolean networks.

  2. Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Kinoshita, Shuichi; Cai, Dongsheng; Cole, James B

    2009-11-01

    We use the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain (NS-FDTD) method to investigate the interaction of light with the complicated microstructures in the Morpho butterfly scales, which produce the well-known brilliant blue coloring. The NS-FDTD algorithm is particularly suitable to analyze such complex structures because the calculation can be performed in a short time with high accuracy on a relatively coarse numerical grid. We analyze (1) the microstructure obtained directly by binarizing an electron microgram of the cross section of a scale, (2) the reflection and diffraction properties of three model structures--flat, alternating, and tree-shaped alternating multilayers, and (3) an array of alternating multilayers with random noise superposed on the height of the structures. We found that the actual microstructure well reproduced the reflection spectrum in a blue region by integrating the reflection intensities over all the reflection angles. Under normal incidence, the flat multilayer mainly stresses on multilayer interference except for shorter wavelengths, while alternating multilayer rather enhances the effect of diffraction grating due to longitudinally repeating structure by strongly suppressing the reflection toward the normal direction. In the array of alternating multilayers, the reflection into larger angles is considerably suppressed and the spectral shape becomes different from that expected for a single alternating multilayer. This suppression mainly comes from the scattering of reflected light by adjacent structures, which is particularly prominent for the TM mode. Thus a clear difference between the TE and TM modes is observed with respect to the origin of spectral shape, though the obtained spectra are similar to each other. Finally, the polarization dependence of the reflection and the importance of the alternating multilayer are discussed.

  3. Incubation time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex sputum cultures in BACTEC MGIT 960: Four weeks of negative culture is enough for physicians to consider alternative diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwang, Sam; Mubiri, Paul; Bark, Charles M.; Joloba, Moses L.; Boom, W. Henry; Johnson, John L.

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed time to detection of 3747 positive MGIT sputum cultures at a laboratory in a country with heavy burden of tuberculosis. Ninety-nine percent of diagnostic cultures turned positive within 28 days, suggesting that physicians may consider alternative diagnoses if sputum cultures remain negative after 4 weeks of incubation. PMID:26239846

  4. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  5. Check List: Are You a Gifted Principal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicki L.

    1984-01-01

    An 18-item check list is provided for principals to evaluate themselves relative to encouraging gifts and talents of their most able students. Suggestions are given in the areas of educational needs, specialized materials, and counseling. (MC)

  6. A Check List for the Reading Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemake, Josephine S.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a check list created by teachers to be used as an evaluation instrument in observations of reading laboratories in the New York City area. Reflects their ideas about the essential components of a remedial reading program. (FL)

  7. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  8. Computational fact checking from knowledge networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Rocha, Luis M; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation...

  9. Enabling Dynamic Process Simulators to Perform Alternative Tasks: A Time-stepper Based Toolkit for Computer-Aided Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Siettos, C. I.; Pantelides, C. C.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss computational superstructures that, using repeated, appropriately initialized short calls, enable temporal process simulators to perform alternative tasks such as fixed point computation, stability analysis and projective integration. We illustrate these concepts through the acceleration of a gPROMS-based Rapid Pressure Swing Adsorption simulation, and discuss their scope and possible extensions.

  10. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  11. Semantic Importance Sampling for Statistical Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    approach called Statistical Model Checking (SMC) [16], which relies on Monte - Carlo -based simulations to solve this verification task more scalably...Conclusion Statistical model checking (SMC) is a prominent approach for rigorous analysis of stochastic systems using Monte - Carlo simulations. In this... Monte - Carlo simulations, for computing the bounded probability that a specific event occurs during a stochastic system’s execution. Estimating the

  12. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  13. Improved Trial Division Technique for Primality Checking in RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Banerjee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers. To check the primality of large number in personal computer is huge time consuming using the best known trial division algorithm. The time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using the representation of divisors in the form of 6n±1. According to the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic, every number has unique factorization. So to check primality, it is sufficient to check if the number is divisible by any prime below the square root of the number. The set of divisors obtained by 6n±1 form representation contains many composites. These composite numbers have been reduced by 30k approach. In this paper, the number of composites has been further reduced using 210k approach. A performance analysis in time complexity has been given between 210k approach and other prior applied methods. It has been observed that the time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using 210k approach.

  14. HDL Implementation of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawandip Kaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes are one of the most promising error-correcting codes approaching Shannon capacity and have been adopted in many applications. These codes offer huge advantages in terms of coding gain, throughput and power dissipation. Error correction algorithms are often implemented in hardware for fast processing to meet the real-time needs of communication systems. However hardwareimplementation of LDPC decoders using traditional Hardware Description Language (HDL based approach is a complex and time consuming task. In this paper HDL Implementation of Low Density Parity Check Decoder architecture is presented with different rates i.e. 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 4/7, 8/9, 9/10 and variable data lengths i.e. 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 bits and consequent changeable precision factor.

  15. Moderate-Density Parity-Check Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzan, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of short to moderate block-length, linear error-correcting codes, called moderate-density parity-check (MDPC) codes. The number of ones of the parity-check matrix of the codes presented is typically higher than the number of ones of the parity-check matrix of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. But, still lower than those of the parity-check matrix of classical block codes. The proposed MDPC codes are cyclic and are designed by constructing idempotents using cyclotomic cosets. The construction is simple and allows finding short block-length, high-rate codes with good minimum distance. Inspired by some recent iterative soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoders used in a context of classical block codes, we propose a low complexity, efficient, iterative decoder called Auto-Diversity (AD) decoder. AD decoder is based on belief propagation (BP) decoder and takes advantage of the fundamental property of automorphism group of the constructed cyclic code.

  16. HCH for Checking Containment of XPath Fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Feng; Yu-Guo Liao; Yong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    XPath is ubiquitous in XML applications for navigating XML trees and selecting a set of element nodes. In XPath query processing, one of the most important issues is how to efficiently check containment relationship between two XPath expressions. To get out of the intricacy and complexity caused by numerous XPath features, we investigate this issue on a frequently used fragment of XPath expressions that consists of node tests, the child axis (/), the descendant axis (//), branches ([]) and label wildcards (*). Prior work has shown that homomorphism technology can be used for containment checking. However, homomorphism is the sufficient but not necessary condition for containment. For special classes of this fragment, the homomorphism algorithm returns false negatives. To address this problem, this paper proposes two containment techniques, conditioned homomorphism and hidden conditioned homomorphism, and then presents sound algorithms for checking containment. Experimental results confirm the practicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Examining the impact of alternative power measures on individual time use in American and Danish couple households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    are determined by past/present time use decisions and hence potentially endogenous. More powerful individuals have been hypothesized to spend less time on housework, however, housework time also depends upon relative preferences for home produced goods and relative productivity in home production. Gendered...

  18. The Effects of Check-In/Check-Out on Kindergarten Students in an Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobalvarro, Adriana; Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Hughes, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a targeted behavioral intervention, on reducing the problem behaviors of kindergarten students in an urban setting. Participants were referred by their teacher for exhibiting disruptive classroom behaviors, which resulted in classroom removal. Results…

  19. Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Hof, C.C.G.; van Est, R.; Daemen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones, public transport smart cards, security cameras and GPS systems in our car - we are surrounded by digital devices. They track us, guide us, help us, and control us. The book Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things shows us how our digital and physical worlds are

  20. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen D. Ojo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values < 0.001. Unlike AMBS-I, Envirofit G-series did not significantly increase overall fuel consumption. In Phase II, the manufacturer altered Envirofit stove (MAES and Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi (NNIPS altered Envirofit stove (NAES, produced lower mean PM2.5, 1573 μg/m3 and 1341 μg/m3, respectively, relative to AMBS-II 3488 μg/m3 for wood tests. The liquid propane gas stove had the lowest mean PM2.5 concentrations, with measurements indistinguishable from background levels. Results from Study I and II showed significant reduction in PM2.5 for all alternative stoves in a controlled setting. In study I, the AMBS-I stove required more fuel than the traditional stove. In contrast, in study II, the MAES and NAES stoves required statistically less fuel than the AMBS-II. Reductions and increases in fuel use should be interpreted with caution because the composition of fuels was not standardized—an issue which may have implications for generalizability of other findings as well. Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove—a trade-off that may have implications for

  1. The Complexity of Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information and Related Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Aceto; Jens A. Hansen; Anna Ingólfsdóttir; Jacob Johnsen; John Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes (of some) of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This problem arose originally from the geneticists' need to filter their input data from erroneous information, and is well motivated from both a biological and a sociological viewpoint. This paper shows that consistency checking is NP-complete, even with focus on a single gene and in the presence of three alleles. Several other results on the computational complexity of problems from genetics that are related to consistency checking are also offered. In particular, it is shown that checking the consistency of pedigrees over two alleles, and of pedigrees without loops, can be done in polynomial time.

  2. PVeStA: A Parallel Statistical Model Checking and Quantitative Analysis Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlTurki, Musab

    2011-01-01

    Statistical model checking is an attractive formal analysis method for probabilistic systems such as, for example, cyber-physical systems which are often probabilistic in nature. This paper is about drastically increasing the scalability of statistical model checking, and making such scalability of analysis available to tools like Maude, where probabilistic systems can be specified at a high level as probabilistic rewrite theories. It presents PVeStA, an extension and parallelization of the VeStA statistical model checking tool [10]. PVeStA supports statistical model checking of probabilistic real-time systems specified as either: (i) discrete or continuous Markov Chains; or (ii) probabilistic rewrite theories in Maude. Furthermore, the properties that it can model check can be expressed in either: (i) PCTL/CSL, or (ii) the QuaTEx quantitative temporal logic. As our experiments show, the performance gains obtained from parallelization can be very high. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  4. Checking for Optimal Solutions in Some NP-Complete Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michel; Orland, Henri

    2005-09-01

    For some weighted NP-complete problems, checking whether a proposed solution is optimal is a nontrivial task. Such is the case for the traveling salesman problem, or the spin-glass problem in three dimensions. In this Letter, we consider the weighted tripartite matching problem, a well known NP-complete problem. We write mean-field finite temperature equations for this model and derive their zero temperature limit. We show that any solution of the zero temperature equations provides an exact absolute ground state of the system. As a consequence, we propose a criterion which can be checked in polynomial time, and such that given a putative optimal solution, if the criterion is satisfied, then the solution is indeed optimal. This criterion is generalized to a class of variants of the multiple traveling salesmen problems.

  5. SMT-based Bounded Model Checking with Difference Logic Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Bersani, Marcello M; Morzenti, Angelo; Pradella, Matteo; Rossi, Matteo; Pietro, Pierluigi San

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Bounded Model Checking (BMC) is based on translating the model checking problem into SAT, the Boolean satisfiability problem. This paper introduces an encoding of Linear Temporal Logic with Past operators (PLTL) into the Quantifier-Free Difference Logic with Uninterpreted Functions (QF-UFIDL). The resulting encoding is a simpler and more concise version of existing SATbased encodings, currently used in BMC. In addition, we present an extension of PLTL augmented with arithmetic relations over integers, which can express unbounded counters; as such, the extended logic is more expressive than PLTL. We introduce suitable restrictions and assumptions that are shown to make the verification problem for the extended logic decidable, and we define an encoding of the new logic into QF-UFIDL. Finally, a performance comparison with the SAT-based approach on purely PLTL examples shows significant improvements in terms of both execution time and memory occupation.

  6. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wang, Junpu, E-mail: lashaber@gmail.com, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: jwang217@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  7. Non-Trivial Checks of Novel Consistency Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Wang, Junpu

    2014-01-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of slow-roll single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  8. Assembly-Line Health Check up in Digitalized Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅兰; 姚斌; 张子刚

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The health check up flow of digital hospital can be consulted with the assembly line ofindustry factory. Because they have the following same features: highly specialized workstation,closeness and continuance, rhythm, balanced production, continuous production. The essentialprerequisites are as the follows: The inspecting items and methods should be stable; advancedproduct mix and stable production design; standardized raw material, consumption, procedure,inspection method; there are lots of request for health inspection; the customers move at the leastunit; the space arrangement should be reasonable; the time arrangement should be proportion.With the computer net, the digital inspection can achieves the raw material controlling accurately.The basis of check up line concerns about equipment, net and software, data collection, and per-sonnel. The group technology is used in the health inspection flow design of the digital hospital inthe field of items customers and zone redivided. The digital assembly linemic health inspect has thefollowing stages: member registering, notice, check in, arrange order, time control, report, feed-back and analysis. The assembly linemic has following advantages: increasing the productivity,the space utility, satisfaction of customer, fund returning, lowering the cost and ensuring thequality.

  9. Application of Time History Analysis Method in Seismic Checking Computation for Main Bridge of Dapuchun River Super Major Bridge%时程分析法在大蒲春河特大桥主桥抗震验算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛

    2011-01-01

    采用时程分析法对大蒲春河特大桥进行抗震分析,对主桥控制部位E1概率和E2概率地震作用下的响应进行验算,并利用验算结果指导该桥的抗震设计.%This paper carries out seismic analysis of Dapuchun River super major bridge by means of time history analysis method, performs checking computation for response of control part of main bridge to earthquake in E1 probability and E2 probability, and instructs the seismic design of the bridge by means of computation results.

  10. Model checking Quasi Birth Death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, A.K.I.

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-Birth Death processes (QBDs) are a special class of infinite state CTMCs that combines a large degree of modeling expressiveness with efficient solution methods. This work adapts the well-known stochastic logic CSL for use on QBDs as CSL and presents model checking algorithms for so-called lev

  11. Check list of European Hymenomycetous Heterobasidiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1966-01-01

    With this check list an attempt is made to account for the recorded European species of those Basidiomycetes that Patouillard called the “Hétérobasidies”, excluding, however, the Uredinales and Ustilaginales. Therefore, it covers the Septobasidiales, Tremellales (comprising the Auriculariineae and T

  12. Photogrammetric approach to automated checking of DTMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    approach to automated checking and improving of DTMs is evaluated. Corresponding points in two overlapping orthoimages are found by means of area based matching. Provided the image orientation is correct, discovered displacements correspond to DTM errors. Improvements of the method regarding its...

  13. Model Checking Software Systems: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-10

    gained. We suggest a radically different tack: model checking. The two formal objects compared are a finite state machine model of the software...simply terminates. 3.1.1. State Machine Model Let’s consider a simplified model with just one client, one server, and one file. The top graph

  14. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  15. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.19 Check cashing. (a) A reservation business... order. A reservation business may not give scrip, credit or other substitute for U.S. currency...

  16. Posterior Predictive Model Checking in Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This simulation study compared the utility of various discrepancy measures within a posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) framework for detecting different types of data-model misfit in multidimensional Bayesian network (BN) models. The investigated conditions were motivated by an applied research program utilizing an operational complex…

  17. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  18. Software Model Checking for Verifying Distributed Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Verification procedure is an intelligent exhaustive search of the state space of the design Model Checking 6 Verifying Synchronous Distributed App...Distributed App Sagar Chaki, June 11, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Tool Usage Project webpage (http://mcda.googlecode.com) • Tutorial

  19. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  20. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  1. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the tools Spin a

  2. 14 CFR 121.315 - Cockpit check procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit check procedure. 121.315 Section... Cockpit check procedure. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide an approved cockpit check procedure for... for items to be checked. (c) The approved procedures must be readily usable in the cockpit of...

  3. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  4. An Alternative View of the Universe Structure (on the invalidity of the four dimensional space-time concept)

    CERN Document Server

    Hovsepian, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The model of the Universe in this paper uses equations of the unperturbed Keplerian motion. They have been updated, complementied and generalized when the solution of these equations is the characteristic function of a random value from the theory of probabilities. Argument of the differential equation in this case is any more time, an interval of time between sections of a random stationary prosess. In this paper this time interval is referred to as flexible (elastic) time due to its many non-trivial properties. It is proved flexible time does not depend on the space which makes invalid the four dimensional space-time concept. The Universe becomes stationary and Eucledian. It is proved: 1. the advavce of Mercury's perihelion versus the predictions in accordance with the universal gravity law results inequality of the coefficients in the correlation equations of Keplerian moution along axes x, y and z; 2. the velocity of propagation of harmonic oscillation in the Uneverse is not constant; 3. long-range intera...

  5. The Effect of Time on Bone Fluorescence: Implications for Using Alternate Light Sources to Search for Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaraldahab, Mohamed A H; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Bones fluoresce when exposed to certain wavelengths of shortwave light, and this property can be useful in locating and sorting skeletal remains in forensic contexts. The proteins in bone collagen are largely responsible for its fluorescent properties, but these proteins degrade and denature over time. This study examined the fluorescence of bones from four temporal groups (recent, semi-recent, ancient, and historic) ranging from 0 to 1064 years before present. Specimens were photographed under 490 nm wavelength light, and fluorescence was quantified by converting intensity to a gray scale value based on the RGB color model using ImageJ(®) software. Significant (p fluorescence between all four temporal groups, and a 0.324 coefficient of correlation indicates a significant (inverse) relationship between fluorescence and time. Bone fluorescence decreases with time, but some fluorescence is retained even in older samples. Fluorescence can therefore be reliably used in many modern skeletal remains searches.

  6. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement: A data envelopment analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Bijsterbosch, N.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternat

  7. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Access Programs by sect. 4.4 of Executive Order 12958) (60 FR 19825, 3 CFR 1995 Comp., p. 333); (2) “L... Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC) A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense..., Subpt. B, Att. A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147—Standard A—National Agency Check With...

  8. The Check Your Cannabis Screener: A New Online Personalized Feedback Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, John A; van Mierlo, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This brief report describes the development and first year of use of an Internet-based screener for Cannabis users. Two versions of the Check Your Cannabis screener were compared, one linked to an already established harm reduction website for young Cannabis users (as an exercise called “Check how I compare with others,” on www.WhatsWithWeed.ca) and the other a standalone version (www.CheckYourCannabis.net). The What’s With Weed version attracted ten times more users and had a significantly y...

  9. An Approach to Checking 3D Model with Related Engineering Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For some reasons, engineers build their product 3D mo del according to a set of related engineering drawings. The problem is how we ca n know the 3D model is correct. The manual checking is very boring and time cons uming, and still could not avoid mistakes. Thus, we could not confirm the model, maybe try checking again. It will effect the production preparing cycle greatly , and should be solved in a intelligent way. The difficulties are quite obvious, unlike word checking in a word processing package, ...

  10. Clamp force and alignment checking device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Cai, Wayne W.; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Mink, Keith

    2017-04-11

    A check fixture measures a total clamp force applied by a welder device. The welder device includes a welding horn having a plurality of weld pads and welding anvil having a plurality of weld pads. The check fixture includes a base member operatively supporting a plurality of force sensors. The base member and the force sensors are received between the weld pads of the welding horn and the anvil pads of the welding anvil. Each force sensor is configured to measure an individual clamp force applied thereto by corresponding weld and anvil pads when the base member is received between the welding horn and the welding anvil and the welder device is in the clamped position. The individual clamp forces are used to determine whether the weld and/or anvil pads are worn or misaligned.

  11. Model Checking with Probabilistic Tabled Logic Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlin, Andrey; Smolka, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    We present a formulation of the problem of probabilistic model checking as one of query evaluation over probabilistic logic programs. To the best of our knowledge, our formulation is the first of its kind, and it covers a rich class of probabilistic models and probabilistic temporal logics. The inference algorithms of existing probabilistic logic-programming systems are well defined only for queries with a finite number of explanations. This restriction prohibits the encoding of probabilistic model checkers, where explanations correspond to executions of the system being model checked. To overcome this restriction, we propose a more general inference algorithm that uses finite generative structures (similar to automata) to represent families of explanations. The inference algorithm computes the probability of a possibly infinite set of explanations directly from the finite generative structure. We have implemented our inference algorithm in XSB Prolog, and use this implementation to encode probabilistic model...

  12. Speed checks on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  13. A Reality Check on a Cyber Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    policy and global affairs at the Air Force Re- search Institute. His research interests include the intersection of cyberspace and global security. He...holds PhD and MS degrees in global affairs from Rutgers University and an ALB degree in philosophy from Harvard University. A Reality Check on a Cyber...mili- tary strategy and doctrine as an operational domain in which to orga- nize, train, and equip forces to ensure it has the necessary capabilities

  14. Water system microbial check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    A residual iodine microbial check valve (RIMCV) assembly was developed and tested. The assembly is designed to be used in the space shuttle potable water system. The RIMCV is based on an anion exchange resin that is supersaturated with an iodine solution. This system causes a residual to be present in the effluent water which provides continuing bactericidal action. A flight prototype design was finalized and five units were manufactured and delivered.

  15. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Romijn, J.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the tools Spin and Xtl (from the Caesar/Aldebaran package). It turns out that the protocol does not meet some safety properties and that there are situations in which the protocol may never converge to designate a l...

  16. 生化室检验结果审核人员医嘱平均审核时间、心理状况及医疗投诉率调查及分析%Investigation and analysis on the average checking time of biochemistry results,psychologic status of biochemical laboratory test result inspectors,and medical complaint rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦明; 肖洪广; 黄靖宇; 何凤屏; 王凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解生化室检验结果审核人员心理健康状况及医嘱平均审核时间与其心理健康状况、生化室医疗投诉率的关系。方法采用自行设计的检验科生化室医疗投诉情况调查表、生化室信息系统和工作量情况调查表、症状自评量表(SCL‐90)中国修订版对广东省17家二级甲等以上医院检验科生化室检验结果审核人员进行问卷调查。结果生化室检验结果审核人员心理健康状况不如全国常模;女性心理健康状况与男性比较差别不大,但女性在恐怖方面表现较差;主任技师、副主任技师、主管技师心理健康状况比较无明显差别,但初级技师在一些心理因子方面(如强迫症状、躯体化、焦虑、抑郁、恐怖)明显差于其他专业技术职务者;生化室医嘱审核时间在一定程度上与检验结果审核人员心理健康状况、生化室医疗投诉率有关。结论广东省17家二级甲等以上医院检验科生化室检验结果审核人员心理健康状况稍差于国内常模;不同性别、专业技术职务比较心理健康状况无明显差别,但初级检验技师心理健康状况较其他专业技术职务者稍差;医嘱平均审核时间在一定程度上与生化室检验结果审核人员心理健康状况、生化室医疗投诉率有关。%Objective To investigate the relationship among the average checking time of biochemistry results ,mental health of biochemistry results checkers and the rate of medical complains .Methods 258 biochemistry results checkers from 17 hospitals of Guangdong were tested by using symptom checklist(SCL‐90) ,biochemistry results checking time questionnaire and medical com‐plaints questionnaire .Results Compared with the national model data ,the mental health levels of biochemistry results checkers were worse relatively .The mental heath did not have gender difference ,however ,female checkers were significant worse than

  17. Intercross real-time control strategy in alternating activated sludge process for short-cut biological nitrogen removal treating domestic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuying; ZHANG Shanfeng; PENG chengyao; AKIOTAKIGAWA

    2008-01-01

    To develop technically feasible and economically favorable dynamic process control (DPC) strategies for an alternating activated sludge (AAS) system, a bench-scale continuous-flow alternating aerobic and anoxic reactor, performing short-cut nitrogen removal from real domestic wastewater was operated under different control strategies for more than five months. A fixed-time control (FTC) study showed that bending-points on pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) profiles accurately coincided with the major biological activities. "Ammonia valley" on the pH profile represented the end of nitrification, whereas, the "nitrite knee" on the ORP profile and "nitrite apex" on the pH profile both indicated the end of denitrification. Therefore, a new reliable and effective real-time control strategy was developed using pH and ORP as control parameters, to improve the performance of the AAS process. The online control strategy could achieve up to 87% of the total nitrogen [G1](TN) removal efficiency on an average, and saving approximately 20% aeration energy, as compared to the conventional steady-state control systems. Moreover, stable short-cut nitrification and denitrification were successfully achieved with an average nitrite accumulation ratio of above 95%.

  18. The use of alternative pollutant metrics in time-series studies of ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James A; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Various temporal metrics of daily pollution levels have been used to examine the relationships between air pollutants and acute health outcomes. However, daily metrics of the same pollutant have rarely been systematically compared within a study. In this analysis, we describe the variability of effect estimates attributable to the use of different temporal metrics of daily pollution levels. We obtained hourly measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃) from air monitoring networks in 20-county Atlanta for the time period 1993-2004. For each pollutant, we created (1) a daily 1-h maximum; (2) a 24-h average; (3) a commute average; (4) a daytime average; (5) a nighttime average; and (6) a daily 8-h maximum (only for O₃). Using Poisson generalized linear models, we examined associations between daily counts of respiratory emergency department visits and the previous day's pollutant metrics. Variability was greatest across O₃ metrics, with the 8-h maximum, 1-h maximum, and daytime metrics yielding strong positive associations and the nighttime O₃ metric yielding a negative association (likely reflecting confounding by air pollutants oxidized by O₃). With the exception of daytime metric, all of the CO and NO₂ metrics were positively associated with respiratory emergency department visits. Differences in observed associations with respiratory emergency room visits among temporal metrics of the same pollutant were influenced by the diurnal patterns of the pollutant, spatial representativeness of the metrics, and correlation between each metric and copollutant concentrations. Overall, the use of metrics based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (for example, the use of a daily 8-h maximum O₃ as opposed to a 24-h average metric) was supported by this analysis. Comparative analysis of temporal metrics also provided insight into underlying relationships between specific air

  19. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  20. A Little Training Helps Couples Ease into Skin Cancer Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html A Little Training Helps Couples Ease Into Skin Cancer Checks Study finds the potentially life-saving routine ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Skin cancer checks between couples don't have to be ...

  1. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified......, no effective separation exists even within a presidential system, but, we argue, can be partially restored by having an accountable judiciary. Our empirical findings show that a divided government and elected, rather than appointed, state supreme court judges are associated with lower corruption and...

  2. Outage maintenance checks on large generator windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nindra, B.; Jeney, S.I.; Slobodinsky, Y. [National Electric Coil, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the present days of austerity, more constraints and pressures are being brought on the maintenance engineers to certify the generators for their reliability and life extension. The outages are shorter and intervals between the outages are becoming longer. The annual outages were very common when utilities had no regulatory constraints and also had standby capacities. Furthermore, due to lean and mean budgets, outage maintenance programs are being pursued more aggressively, so that longer interval outages can be achieved to ensure peak generator performance. This paper will discuss various visual checks, electrical tests and recommended fixes to achieve the above mentioned objectives, in case any deficiencies are found.

  3. Microscopic analysis and simulation of check-mark stain on the galvanized steel strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hongyun; Yoon, Hyun Gi; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    2010-11-01

    When galvanized steel strip is produced through a continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, the thickness of adhered zinc film is controlled by plane impinging air gas jet referred to as "air-knife system". In such a gas-jet wiping process, stain of check-mark or sag line shape frequently appears. The check-mark defect is caused by non-uniform zinc coating and the oblique patterns such as "W", "V" or "X" on the coated surface. The present paper presents a cause and analysis of the check-mark formation and a numerical simulation of sag lines by using the numerical data produced by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the three-dimensional compressible turbulent flow field around the air-knife system. It was found that there is alternating plane-wise vortices near the impinging stagnation region and such alternating vortices move almost periodically to the right and to the left sides on the stagnation line due to the jet flow instability. Meanwhile, in order to simulate the check-mark formation, a novel perturbation model has been developed to predict the variation of coating thickness along the transverse direction. Finally, the three-dimensional zinc coating surface was obtained by the present perturbation model. It was found that the sag line formation is determined by the combination of the instantaneous coating thickness distribution along the transverse direction near the stagnation line and the feed speed of the steel strip.

  4. The check your cannabis screener: a new online personalized feedback tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; van Mierlo, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This brief report describes the development and first year of use of an Internet-based screener for Cannabis users. Two versions of the Check Your Cannabis screener were compared, one linked to an already established harm reduction website for young Cannabis users (as an exercise called "Check how I compare with others," on www.WhatsWithWeed.ca) and the other a standalone version (www.CheckYourCannabis.net). The What's With Weed version attracted ten times more users and had a significantly younger audience as compared to the standalone version, underlining the benefits of targeting a website to a specific audience and linking to websites with already established reputations. Further work is needed to establish any impact on actual Cannabis use from taking the Check Your Cannabis screener.

  5. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  6. Effects of check dams on runoff characteristics along gully reaches, the case of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia soil and water conservation (SWC) practices, including construction of check dams in gullies, have been widely implemented for the last three decades. Despite this extensive installation of check dams, their effects on runoff response are not well understood as compared to those of other SWC practices. Hence, this study examines the effects of check dams on runoff response in gully channels. 90 degree V-notch weirs were installed to measure a wide range of runoff discharges at the upper and lower sections of five gully reaches: two channel cut in sandstone (a gully with check dams and vegetation (SCV) and an untreated gully (S)) and three cut in limestone (an untreated gully (L), a gully with check dams but no vegetation (LC) and a gully with check dams and vegetation (LCV)). Automatic sensors were installed to monitor runoff depth during two rainy seasons (29/08/14 - 17/09/14 and 24/7/15 - 14/09/15). All runoff characteristics at the lower section of each gully reaches were calculated for a gully reaches length of 50 m. In the sandstone area, the results show longer lag times of runoff to reach the lower section of the channel reach in the treated gully (SCV) compared to the untreated gully: difference in time lag equal lag to production of runoff equals 51% for runoff initiation, 61% for peak runoff and 44% for runoff end. An increase of hydraulic roughness by check dams and water transmission losses in deposited sediments are responsible for the delay of runoff to reach the lower part of the gully channels. In the limestone area, different time lags were recorded in different gully reaches regardless of the treatment effects (lag to runoff initiation, lag to peak flow and lag to runoff end were larger at LC, L and LCV, respectively). The reduction of peak runoff discharge between the upper and lower gully sections was larger in the gullies with check dam and vegetation (8-17%) than in gullies without treatment (5

  7. Found Poems, Member Checking and Crises of Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish veracity, qualitative researchers frequently rely on member checks to insure credibility by giving participants opportunities to correct errors, challenge interpretations and assess results; however, member checks are not without drawbacks. This paper describes an innovative approach to conducting member checks. Six members…

  8. 30 CFR 77.309 - Visual check of system equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual check of system equipment. 77.309... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309 Visual check of system equipment. Frequent visual checks shall be made by the operator of the thermal dryer system control station, or by some other competent person,...

  9. Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS). Do We Check Too Much and Maintain Too Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-26

    They were similar to the trucks and tractors that many soldiers had back home on the farms . Since the U.S. was predominantly a rural society then, the...of an item requiring before-operation checks would render the :t m - iot mission-capable. Currently there are over 200 PMCS checks on the new Abrams...ensure that we are maintaining our vehicles in a go-to-war condition and that we are doing it the smart way. Our system requires significant changes

  10. Model-Based Trace-Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Y; Gravell, A; Ferreira, C; Augusto, J C

    2011-01-01

    Trace analysis can be a useful way to discover problems in a program under test. Rather than writing a special purpose trace analysis tool, this paper proposes that traces can usefully be analysed by checking them against a formal model using a standard model-checker or else an animator for executable specifications. These techniques are illustrated using a Travel Agent case study implemented in J2EE. We added trace beans to this code that write trace information to a database. The traces are then extracted and converted into a form suitable for analysis by Spin, a popular model-checker, and Pro-B, a model-checker and animator for the B notation. This illustrates the technique, and also the fact that such a system can have a variety of models, in different notations, that capture different features. These experiments have demonstrated that model-based trace-checking is feasible. Future work is focussed on scaling up the approach to larger systems by increasing the level of automation.

  11. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  12. Model Checking over Paraconsistent Temporal Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dong-huo; WANG Lin-zhang; CUI Jia-lin

    2008-01-01

    Classical logic cannot be used to effectively reason about concurrent systems with inconsistencies (inconsistencies often occur, especially in the early stage of the development, when large and complex concurrent systems are developed). In this paper, we propose the use of a guasi-classical temporal logic (QCTL) for supporting the verification of temporal properties of such systems even where the consistent model is not available. Our models are paraKripke structures ( extended standard Kripke structures), in which both a formula and its negation are satisfied in a same state, and properties to be verified are expressed by QCTL with paraKripke structures semantics. We introduce a novel notion of paraKripke models, which grasps the paraconsistent character of the entailment relation of QCTL. Furthermore, we explore the methodology of model checking over QCTL, and describe the detailed algorithm of implementing QCTL model checker. In the sequel, a simple example is presented, showing how to exploit the proposed model checking technique to verify the temporal properties of inconsistent concurrent systems.

  13. Model-Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library along with state-of-the-art algorithms for building the transition relation and the state space of discrete state systems. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and give upper bounds of the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi-Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools: EVMDDs for encoding arithmetic expressions, identity-reduced MDDs for representing the transition relation, and the saturation algorithm for reachability analysis. We compare our new symbolic model checking EVMDD library with the widely used CUDD package and show that, in many cases, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster than CUDD.

  14. Application of Model-Checking Technology to Controller Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Jessen, Jan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    its continuous environment, which is modelled and taken care of in our frameworks. Our first technique does it by using Matlab to discretise the problem and then Uppaal-tiga to solve the obtained timed game. This is implemented as a toolbox. The second technique relies on the user defining a timed......In this paper we present two frameworks that have been implemented to link traditional model-checking techniques to the domain of control. The techniques are based on solving a timed game and using the resulting solution (a strategy) as a controller. The obtained discrete controller must fit within...... game model in Uppaal- tiga. Then the strategy is automatically imported in Simulink as an S-function for simulation and validation purposes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these frameworks in different case-studies....

  15. Development of Healthcare Kiosk for Checking Heart Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Sigit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main problem encountered nowadays in the health field, especially in health care is the growing number of population and the decreasing health facilities. In this regard, healthcare kiosk is used as an alternative to the health care facilities. Heart disease is a dangerous one which could threaten human life. Many people have died due to heart disease and the surgery itself is still very expensive. To analyze heart diseases, doctor usually takes a video of the heart movement using ultrasound equipment to distinguish between normal and abnormal case. The results of analysis vary depending on the accuracy and experience of each doctor so it is difficult to determine the actual situation. Therefore, a method using healthcare kiosk to check the heart health is needed to help doctor and improve the health care facilities. The aim of this research is to develop healthcare kiosk which can be used to check the heart health. This research method is divided into three main parts: firstly, preprocessing to clarify the quality of the image.In this section, the writers propose a Median High Boost Filter method which is a combined method of Median Filtering and High Boost Filtering. Secondly, segmentation is used to obtain local cavities of the heart. In this part, the writers propose using Triangle Equation that is a new method to be developed. Thirdly, classification using Partial Monte Carlo method and artificial neural network method; these methods are used to measure the area of the heart cavity and discover the possibility of cardiac abnormalities. Methods for detecting heart health are placed in the kiosk. Therefore, it is expected to facilitate and improve the healthcare facilities. Keywords: Healthcare kiosk, heart health, reprocessing, segmentation, classification.

  16. Mobile Attendance Checking System on Android Platform for Kazakhstani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparkhojayev, N.; Shakhov, E.; Mailybayev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century-the century of Information Technology, it is difficult to imagine life without any gadgets: phones, tablets, computers, laptops, and so on. Today, smartphones and tablets are becoming popular, and thus their operating systems become popular too. Android is designed for low-power devices that run on battery power at full capacity, using all of its services, such as cameras, lights, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi, etc. In Kazakhstani universities, the process of checking students’ attendance is one of the important issues, because final grade evaluation of students is based on their total number of appearances and their grades during the whole semester. This raises the question of having some tool to control students’ attendance. There are many possible ways of controlling attendance: there are many examples when universities prefer to control attendance by the use of paper sheet, and some universities prefer to use two-stage way of controlling attendance: firstly, teachers and professors use paper sheet for checking students’ attendance and after this, they fill out these information into a system manually. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like “presence” or “absence” if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Furthermore, some students may call his/her friend as “presence” nevertheless to the fact that this student is currently absent. After taking into consideration all these issues and the fact that many gadgets use Android platform, authors of the following research paper decided to create a mobile system that makes easier to check students’ attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Almaty Management University, Kazakhstan. The system is based on Android platform, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  17. Modeling magnetic photonic crystals with lossy ferrites using an efficient complex envelope alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Tan, Eng Leong; Chen, Zhi Ning

    2011-04-15

    In this Letter, we present an efficient complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (CE-ADI-FDTD) method for the transient analysis of magnetic photonic crystals with lossy ferrites. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD method is generally formulated for a saturated ferrite with anisotropic permittivity tensor and ferrite loss. Auxiliary differential equations for modeling saturated ferrite and Maxwell's curl equations are first cast into a first-order differential system in a CE form. Then, by using an efficient ADI splitting formulas, the proposed CE-ADI-FDTD method is attained in a very concise form with few and simple right-hand side terms. The performance of the proposed method is validated and compared with the explicit FDTD method.

  18. Alternating-direction method of multipliers estimation of attenuation and activity distributions in time-of-flight flat-panel positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Yueh; Chou, Cheng-Ying [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-18

    A quantitative reconstruction of radiotracer activity distribution in positron emission tomography (PET) requires correction of attenuation, which was typically estimated through transmission measurements. The advancement in hardware development has prompted the use of time-of-flight (TOF) to improve PET imaging. Recently, the application of TOF-PET has been further extended to obtain attenuation map in addition to activity distribution simultaneously by use of iterative algorithms. Two flat-panel detectors are employed thus many transaxial lines of response are not detected. In this work, we applied the alternating-direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to simultaneously reconstruct TOF-PET and attenuation estimation in a dualhead small-animal PET system. The results were compared with those obtained by use of the maximum-likelihood algorithm. The computer simulation results showed that the application of the ADMM algorithm could greatly improve the image quality and reduce noisy appearance.

  19. Human epidermal membrane constant conductance iontophoresis: alternating current to obtain reproducible enhanced permeation and reduced lag times of a nonionic polar permeant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Li, S Kevin; Peck, Kendall D; Zhu, Honggang; Ghanem, Abdel-Halim; Higuchi, William I

    2002-01-31

    An experimental protocol, using an initial 1 min direct current (DC) applied potential of 4 V followed by alternating current (AC), was established to: (a) increase conductance and permeability and decrease lag time for human epidermal membrane (HEM) relative to unaltered HEM and; (b) maintain constant conductance and permeability during flux studies. The protocol allowed specific permeation parameters of the membrane to be characterized under electrically enhanced, constant flux conditions. The permeability, lag time, and effective membrane thickness were determined using a nonionic polar permeant, urea, while the enhanced conductance was maintained at a constant level with AC. A tortuous pore pathway model was employed to analyze the data. The AC protocol increased membrane permeability, and decreased lag time and effective membrane thickness relative to similar parameters obtained in previous studies from unaltered HEM. Lag times ranged from 32.0 to 105.5 min, and permeability coefficients calculated from steady state fluxes ranged from 1.68 to 6.03x10(-7) cm/s for HEM samples with electrical resistance values during transport of 2.3-8.0 kOmega x cm2. Effective membrane thicknesses were calculated to range from 0.34 to 0.61 cm during AC iontophoresis. Significant additional results were obtained when the protocol was applied for two consecutive runs using the same HEM sample, with time for the HEM sample to recover between runs. During the second run, the applied potential was adjusted to reproduce the conductance obtained on the first run. Under these conditions, the consecutive runs yielded essentially the same lag time, permeability and effective membrane thickness values. These results suggest that constant fluxes can be achieved by keeping HEM electrical conductance constant during AC iontophoresis.

  20. Using loose-fill perlite with normal weight precast wall panels to lower the cost, time of construction projects, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al kulabi, Ahmed Kamil

    Lightweight concrete has been used in construction because of its properties, such as thermal, and fire resistances although it is more expensive and less available than normal weight concrete. One way to save time, cost, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete in construction projects is to reduce the number of installed insulations on precast wall panels and to improve the properties of normal weight concrete panels, respectively. These goals can be achieved by improving the four properties of precast panels, such as thermal resistance, fire resistance, heat capacity, and sound insulation by using perlite as insulation. The main goals of this research are getting buildings constructed or modified in less time and cost by producing superior wall panels and improving the properties of normal weight panels. Superior wall panels are new panels that provide the four properties listed above. Precast panels with different cross sections, concrete type, and different amounts of perlite will be investigated to observe the impact of each factor on the mentioned properties. The cost of each panel will be studied, and analytical methods will be used to find the optimum panel that provides the four mentioned properties with least cost. Moreover, theoretical methods will be applied to calculate the four properties for each panel. The preliminary theoretical calculations approved a good improvement in the four properties. In summary, the four properties of precast panels can be improved, time, and cost of construction can be reduced by using perlite as insulation.

  1. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  2. On Diagnostic Checking of Vector ARMA-GARCH Models with Gaussian and Student-t Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the diagnostic checking of vector ARMA (VARMA models with multivariate GARCH errors. For a fitted VARMA-GARCH model with Gaussian or Student-t innovations, we derive the asymptotic distributions of autocorrelation matrices of the cross-product vector of standardized residuals. This is different from the traditional approach that employs only the squared series of standardized residuals. We then study two portmanteau statistics, called Q1(M and Q2(M, for model checking. A residual-based bootstrap method is provided and demonstrated as an effective way to approximate the diagnostic checking statistics. Simulations are used to compare the performance of the proposed statistics with other methods available in the literature. In addition, we also investigate the effect of GARCH shocks on checking a fitted VARMA model. Empirical sizes and powers of the proposed statistics are investigated and the results suggest a procedure of using jointly Q1(M and Q2(M in diagnostic checking. The bivariate time series of FTSE 100 and DAX index returns is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed portmanteau statistics. The results show that it is important to consider the cross-product series of standardized residuals and GARCH effects in model checking.

  3. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  4. Automated Environment Generation for Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Oksana; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2003-01-01

    A key problem in model checking open systems is environment modeling (i.e., representing the behavior of the execution context of the system under analysis). Software systems are fundamentally open since their behavior is dependent on patterns of invocation of system components and values defined outside the system but referenced within the system. Whether reasoning about the behavior of whole programs or about program components, an abstract model of the environment can be essential in enabling sufficiently precise yet tractable verification. In this paper, we describe an approach to generating environments of Java program fragments. This approach integrates formally specified assumptions about environment behavior with sound abstractions of environment implementations to form a model of the environment. The approach is implemented in the Bandera Environment Generator (BEG) which we describe along with our experience using BEG to reason about properties of several non-trivial concurrent Java programs.

  5. Statically checked documentation with design patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornils, Aino; Hedin, Görel

    2000-01-01

    Over the past years, along with the increase in popularity of design patterns, some problems with the use of design patterns have been identified. The so-called tracing problem describes the difficulty in documenting software systems using design patterns. Initial approaches to solving the tracing...... problem have focused on guidelines for documenting design pattern roles and rules within a system, but experience has shown that both in the initial design, and especially in later code revisions, it is all too easy for code and documentation to diverge, rendering the documentation misleading. The authors...... present a flexible and extensible tool which enables designers to use design patterns in a safe and efficient way, which checks the design pattern rules, and which semi-automatically documents, and maintains the documentation of a software system...

  6. Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    average cost of products (in terms of the attributes of the products’ features) and the probability of features to be (un)installed at runtime. The product lines must be modelled in QFLan, which extends the probabilistic feature-oriented language PFLan with novel quantitative constraints among features......We report on the suitability of statistical model checking for the analysis of quantitative properties of product line models by an extended treatment of earlier work by the authors. The type of analysis that can be performed includes the likelihood of specific product behaviour, the expected...... and on behaviour and with advanced feature installation options. QFLan is a rich process-algebraic specification language whose operational behaviour interacts with a store of constraints, neatly separating product configuration from product behaviour. The resulting probabilistic configurations and probabilistic...

  7. Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; 10.1613/jair.774

    2011-01-01

    We tackle the problem of planning in nondeterministic domains, by presenting a new approach to conformant planning. Conformant planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that is guaranteed to achieve the goal despite the nondeterminism of the domain. Our approach is based on the representation of the planning domain as a finite state automaton. We use Symbolic Model Checking techniques, in particular Binary Decision Diagrams, to compactly represent and efficiently search the automaton. In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we present a general planning algorithm for conformant planning, which applies to fully nondeterministic domains, with uncertainty in the initial condition and in action effects. The algorithm is based on a breadth-first, backward search, and returns conformant plans of minimal length, if a solution to the planning problem exists, otherwise it terminates concluding that the problem admits no conformant solution. Second, we provide a symbolic representation ...

  8. Improving Atm Security Check Using DNA Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe, Agu Felix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes how DNA can be used to identify account owner of a particular bank.DNA samples were obtained from body fluid. Buccal swab was used for sample collection .Buccal cell collection involves wiping a small piece of filter paper or a cotton swab against the inside of armpit in order to collect shed epithelial cells. The swab was then air dried or could be pressed against a treated collection card in order to transfer epithelial cells for storage purposes. The stored samples were later amplified and separated .The data generated from the samples were stored and saved in the database so that if a customer comes to claim money, the system checks whether it matches with what is stored in the database ,if it matches with the one in the database, access is granted to the customer,.if it does not match with what is stored in the database ,access is denied from the customer

  9. Advanced techniques for efficient data integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    ” that may go beyond predefined constraints such as primary keys and foreign keys. General integrity constraints are, however, far from being widely available in commercial systems; in fact, their usage is commonly not encouraged, since the database management system would not be able to provide...... their incremental evaluation. Given the size of today’s data repositories and the frequency at which updates may occur, any non-incremental approach, even for conditions whose complexity is only linear in the size of the database, may prove unfeasible in practice. Typically it is the database designer...... modifications in such programs. In this respect, database management systems need to be extended with means to verify, automatically and incrementally, that no violation of integrity is introduced by database updates. For this purpose we develop a procedure aimed at producing incremental checks whose...

  10. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  11. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking....... The resulting system supports a flexible style of programming XML transformations and provides static guarantees of validity of the generated XML data....

  12. Model Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and review the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi- Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools. Compared to the CUDD package, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster

  13. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Tugores, Antonia; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. ...

  14. Efficient Parallel Statistical Model Checking of Biochemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.

  15. Maintenance Check-ups Following Treatment for Cannabis Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert S; Towe, Sheri; Banes, Kelsey; Roffman, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Substance use disorders, including cannabis use disorders and associated negative consequences, are best considered chronic and in need of continuing care. In contrast, most treatment efficacy studies evaluate a fixed number of intervention sessions at a single point in time. The present study evaluated the efficacy of posttreatment maintenance check-ups (MCUs) in maintaining and improving outcomes following nine sessions of motivational enhancement treatment/cognitive behavioral treatment (MET/CBT). Adults dependent on cannabis (n=74) were randomly assigned to the MCU or a no check-up (NCU) condition and followed up at 3- and 9-months. MCU sessions occurred 1 and 4months following the completion of the base treatment. Additional MET/CBT sessions were available to participants throughout the follow-up period. The MCUs specifically encouraged treatment re-entry for those showing ongoing signs of disorder. Participants in the MCU condition reported significantly greater abstinent rates at both follow-ups and were using on fewer days at the 3-month but not the 9-month follow-up. Contrary to hypotheses, MCU participants did not attend more additional treatment and differences in rates of cannabis use emerged prior to the first MCU session. Future research with longer follow-up periods and longer monitoring of outcomes is needed to fully evaluate the utility of MCUs or other forms of continuing care.

  16. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay—A Simple, Fast and Cost-Effective Alternative to Real Time PCR for Specific Detection of Feline Herpesvirus-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Sun, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), an enveloped dsDNA virus, is one of the major pathogens of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and ocular disease. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard diagnostic tool for FHV-1 infection but is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for field tests. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal gene amplification technology, has been explored for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, an exo-RPA assay for FHV-1 detection was developed and validated. Primers targeting specifically the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FHV-1 were designed. The RPA reaction was performed successfully at 39°C and the results were obtained within 20 min. Using different copy numbers of recombinant plasmid DNA that contains the TK gene as template, we showed the detection limit of exo-RPA was 102 copies DNA/reaction, the same as that of real time PCR. The exo-RPA assay did not cross-detect feline panleukopenia virus, feline calicivirus, bovine herpesvirus-1, pseudorabies virus or chlamydia psittaci, a panel of pathogens important in feline URTD or other viruses in Alphaherpesvirinae, demonstrating high specificity. The assay was validated by testing 120 nasal and ocular conjunctival swabs of cats, and the results were compared with those obtained with real-time PCR. Both assays provided the same testing results in the clinical samples. Compared with real time PCR, the exo-RPA assay uses less-complex equipment that is portable and the reaction is completed much faster. Additionally, commercial RPA reagents in vacuum-sealed pouches can tolerate temperatures up to room temperature for days without loss of activity, suitable for shipment and storage for field tests. Taken together, the exo-RPA assay is a simple, fast and cost-effective alternative to real time PCR, suitable for use in less advanced laboratories and for field detection of FHV-1

  17. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Tianjie; Guo, Peng; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Shinan; Yang, Libo; Sun, Linyong; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In regards to the DDF samples, the HER-2 fluorescent signal seemed decayed compared with that of the DDF samples after 1 h. However, the qPCR method still works well up to 12 hours. Our results indicated that qPCR was obviously superior to FISH in cases that were not fixed in a reasonable amount of time. However, qPCR can be an alternative method by which to perform HER2 amplification assays in breast cancer.

  18. Logic Column 19: Symbolic Model Checking for Temporal-Epistemic Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Lomuscio, Alessio

    2007-01-01

    This article surveys some of the recent work in verification of temporal epistemic logic via symbolic model checking, focusing on OBDD-based and SAT-based approaches for epistemic logics built on discrete and real-time branching time temporal logics.

  19. Monitor-Based Statistical Model Checking for Weighted Metric Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach and implementation for ana- lysing weighted timed automata (WTA) with respect to the weighted metric temporal logic (WMTL≤ ). Based on a stochastic semantics of WTAs, we apply statistical model checking (SMC) to estimate and test probabilities of satisfaction with desi......We present a novel approach and implementation for ana- lysing weighted timed automata (WTA) with respect to the weighted metric temporal logic (WMTL≤ ). Based on a stochastic semantics of WTAs, we apply statistical model checking (SMC) to estimate and test probabilities of satisfaction...

  20. When Worlds Collide: An Augmented Reality Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The technology is simple: Mobile technologies such as handheld computers and global positioning systems work in sync to create an alternate, hybrid world that mixes virtual characters with the actual physical environment. The result is a digital simulation that offers powerful game-playing opportunities and allows students to become more engaged…

  1. A correspondence between type checking via reduction and type checking via evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Clark, Dave

    2012-01-01

    We describe a derivational approach to proving the equivalence of different representations of a type system. Different ways of representing type assignments are convenient for particular applications such as reasoning or implementation, but some kind of correspondence between them should be proven....... In this paper we address two such semantics for type checking: one, due to Kuan et al., in the form of a term rewriting system and the other in the form of a traditional set of derivation rules. By employing a set of techniques investigated by Danvy et al., we mechanically derive the correspondence between...... a reduction-based semantics for type checking and a traditional one in the form of derivation rules, implemented as a recursive descent. The correspondence is established through a series of semantics-preserving functional program transformations....

  2. Alternative metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  3. Checking the Quality of Clinical Guidelines using Automated Reasoning Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Hommersom, Arjen; van Bommel, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Requirements about the quality of clinical guidelines can be represented by schemata borrowed from the theory of abductive diagnosis, using temporal logic to model the time-oriented aspects expressed in a guideline. Previously, we have shown that these requirements can be verified using interactive theorem proving techniques. In this paper, we investigate how this approach can be mapped to the facilities of a resolution-based theorem prover, Otter, and a complementary program that searches for finite models of first-order statements, Mace. It is shown that the reasoning required for checking the quality of a guideline can be mapped to such fully automated theorem-proving facilities. The medical quality of an actual guideline concerning diabetes mellitus 2 is investigated in this way.

  4. Checking EABC performance in comparison others cryptography algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mehdi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, selecting algorithm to encryption data is very important considering attacks are varied andaccording to there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Therefore choosing one algorithmis hard among many algorithms. Data confidentiality is one of the most important functions of encryptionalgorithms, it means when the transferring data between different systems is vague for unauthorized systemsor people. Moreover, Encryption algorithms must maintain data integrity and provide availability forinformation. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simply access to the information and do notallow discovering the relationship between information and the encrypted one. Therefore, availability can bedifficult for them. Existing complexities make their longevity and effectiveness increase. In This Article, Ithas been tried to check EABC performance considering execution time, CPU Utilization, Throughput ofencrypting/decrypting database.

  5. Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach in Primality Checking for RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American [1]. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers [2]. In this paper two distinct approaches have been dealt with for primality checking. These are deterministic approach and probabilistic approach. For the deterministic approach, it has chosen modified trial division and for probabilistic approach, Miller-Rabin algorithm is considered. The different kinds of attacks on RSA and their remedy are also being discussed. This includes the chosen cipher text attacks, short private key exponent attack and frequency attack. Apart from these attacks, discussion has been made on how to choose the primes for the RSA algorithm. The time complexity has been demonstrated for the various algorithms implemented and compared with others. Finally the future modifications and expectations arising out of the current limitations have also been stated at the end.

  6. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications.

  7. Analyzing Mode Confusion via Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Carreno, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Mode confusion is one of the most serious problems in aviation safety. Today's complex digital flight decks make it difficult for pilots to maintain awareness of the actual states, or modes, of the flight deck automation. NASA Langley leads an initiative to explore how formal techniques can be used to discover possible sources of mode confusion. As part of this initiative, a flight guidance system was previously specified as a finite Mealy automaton, and the theorem prover PVS was used to reason about it. The objective of the present paper is to investigate whether state-exploration techniques, especially model checking, are better able to achieve this task than theorem proving and also to compare several verification tools for the specific application. The flight guidance system is modeled and analyzed in Murphi, SMV, and Spin. The tools are compared regarding their system description language, their practicality for analyzing mode confusion, and their capabilities for error tracing and for animating diagnostic information. It turns out that their strengths are complementary.

  8. Check-up examination: recommendations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgini, Vanessa; Meindl-Fridez, Claudine; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas U

    2015-01-01

    Check-up examinations, or periodic health examinations (PHEs), have gained in importance during the last decades and are nowadays among the most common reasons for consultations in primary care settings. The aim of PHEs is to identify risk factors and early signs of disease, but also to prevent future illness by early intervention. Therefore, each PHE should include counselling, immunisation and physical examination according to the patient's age and gender. However, deciding whether to screen a patient and choosing the most appropriate screening method can be challenging for general practitioners. The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) provides updated recommendations on different existing preventive care measures based on relevant literature review. The aim of this review is to provide an updated statement of recommendations regarding preventive care measures based mostly on the guidelines derived from the USPSTF and the Swiss Medical Board. Among the major updates, there is no recommendation anymore to routinely screen for breast cancer and prostate cancer in asymptomatic adults. Since 2013, however, the USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT in patients aged 55 to 80 years with a smoking history of ≥30 pack years. During PHEs, the physician should be alert to the patients' hidden agendas, which are the reason for one third of all consultations in primary care.

  9. Comparative evaluation of Map-Check and Arc-Check for dosimetric verification in patients treaties with IMRT; Evaluacion comparativa de MapCHECK y ArcCHECK para verificacion dosimetrica en pacientes tratados con IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A., E-mail: bertha.garcia@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The dosimetric controls that are realized to the patients in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques; are indispensable since allows in real time to verify the quantity of imparted dose to the patient, these controls should be carried out every time that will begin a treatment, because these techniques impart dose dynamically modulating the dose intensity and movements of the Multi leaf Collimator (MLC), for they exist different diodes devices prepared in spiral (3-D) and planar form (2-D); that allows to estimate the dose fluence in a certain area. Treatment studies for head and neck with IMRT were compared regarding the reading average carried out by the diodes in the corresponding areas, using the criteria of the gamma index like dose difference 3% or 3m m of distance for both diode arrangements, in the IMRT case was found in Arc-Check a minor difference of 3/3 for an average of 99.37% of read diodes in a correct way contrary to the reading obtained with the Map-Check 3/3 an average of difference of 96.19%; in IMRT the difference was lower due to different factors like sensibility of the diodes reading, resolution, diodes disposition, as well as the average reading of entrance and exit of the radiation beams. Within the parameters delivered by the diodes arrangement is considered the positioning correction for both acceptance indexes like the gamma factor and the Distance-to-agreement (Dta), the existent difference of reading in factor gamma and Dta fundamentally is the way in like they compare the dose distribution; the Gamma uses dose averages of high and low gradients and Dta use only averages of areas of high gradients between the nearest points giving the distance as a result among the distribution point and the nearest point what makes stricter. (Author)

  10. Verifying Multi-Agent Systems via Unbounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, M.; Lomuscio, A.; Lasica, T.; Penczek, W.; Szreter, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to the problem of verification of epistemic properties in multi-agent systems by means of symbolic model checking. In particular, it is shown how to extend the technique of unbounded model checking from a purely temporal setting to a temporal-epistemic one. In order to achieve this, we base our discussion on interpreted systems semantics, a popular semantics used in multi-agent systems literature. We give details of the technique and show how it can be applied to the well known train, gate and controller problem. Keywords: model checking, unbounded model checking, multi-agent systems

  11. Bluetooth and sensor networks: a reality check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin; Dydensborg, Mads; Bonnet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    commodity radios for wireless devices. As a representative of the frequency hopping spread spectrum radios, it is a natural alternative to broadcast radios in the context of sensor networks. The question is whether Bluetooth can be a viable alternative in practice. In this paper, we report our experience......The current generation of sensor nodes rely on commodity components. The choice of the radio is particularly important as it impacts not only energy consumption but also software design (e.g., network self-assembly, multihop routing and in-network processing). Bluetooth is one of the most popular...... using Bluetooth for the sensor network regime. We describe our tiny Bluetooth stack that allows TinyOS applications to run on Bluetooth-based sensor nodes, we present a multihop network assembly procedure that leverages Bluetooth's device discovery protocol, and we discuss how Bluetooth favorably...

  12. Bluetooth and Sensor Networks : A Reality Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin; Bonnet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The current generation of sensor nodes rely on commodity components. The choice of the radio is particularly important as it impacts not only energy consumption but also software design (e.g., network self-assembly, multihop routing and in-network processing). Bluetooth is one of the most popular...... commodity radios for wireless devices. As a representative of the frequency hopping spread spectrum radios, it is a natural alternative to broadcast radios in the context of sensor networks. The question is whether Bluetooth can be a viable alternative in practice. In this paper, we report our experience...... using Bluetooth for the sensor network regime. We describe our tiny Bluetooth stack that allows TinyOS applications to run on Bluetooth-based sensor nodes, we present a multihop network assembly procedure that leverages Bluetooth's device discovery protocol, and we discuss how Bluetooth favorably...

  13. Seven steps of alternating electron and proton transfer in photosystem II water oxidation traced by time-resolved photothermal beam deflection at improved sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauss, André; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2015-02-12

    The intricate orchestration of electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT) at the Mn4CaOn-cluster of photosystem II (PSII) is mechanistically pivotal but clearly insufficiently understood. Preparations of PSII membrane particles were investigated using a kinetically competent and sensitive method, photothermal beam deflection (PBD), to monitor apparent volume changes of the PSII protein. Driven by nanosecond laser flashes, the PSII was synchronously stepped through its water-oxidation cycle involving four (semi)stable states (S0, S1, S2, and S3) and minimally three additional transiently formed intermediates. The PBD approach was optimized as compared to our previous experiments, resulting in superior signal quality and resolution of more reaction steps. Now seven transitions were detected and attributed, according to the H/D-exchange, temperature, and pH effects on their time constants, to ET or PT events. The ET steps oxidizing the Mn4CaOn cluster in the S2 → S3 and S0 → S1 transitions, a biphasic PT prior to the O2-evolving reaction, as well as the reoxidation of the primary quinone acceptor (QA(-)) at the PSII acceptor side were detected for the first time by PBD. The associated volume changes involve (i) initial formation of charged groups resulting in contraction assignable to electrostriction, (ii) volume contraction explainable by reduced metal-ligand distances upon manganese oxidation, and (iii) charge-compensating proton removal resulting in volume expansion due to electrostriction reversal. These results support a reaction cycle of water oxidation exhibiting alternate ET and PT steps. An extended kinetic scheme for the O2-evolving S3 ⇒ S0 transition is proposed, which includes crucial structural and protonic events.

  14. Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Reynolds, Eva M.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

  15. Model Checking for a General Linear Model with Nonignorable Missing Covariates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua SUN; Wai-Cheung IP; Heung WONG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the model checking problem for a general linear model with nonignorable missing covariates.We show that,without any parametric model assumption for the response probability,the least squares method yields consistent estimators for the linear model even if only the complete data are applied.This makes it feasible to propose two testing procedures for the corresponding model checking problem:a score type lack-of-fit test and a test based on the empirical process.The asymptotic properties of the test statistics are investigated.Both tests are shown to have asymptotic power 1 for local alternatives converging to the null at the rate n-(r),0 ≤ (r) < 1/2.Simulation results show that both tests perform satisfactorily.

  16. Analysing sensory panel performance in a proficiency test using the PanelCheck software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, O.; Luciano, G.; Nilsen, A.

    2010-01-01

    results plays an important role as this provides a time saving and efficient way of screening and investigating sensory panel performances. Most of the statistical methods used in this paper are available in the open source software PanelCheck, which may be downloaded and used for free.......Check software, a workflow is proposed that guides the user through the data analysis process. This allows practitioners and non-statisticians to get an overview over panel performances in a rapid manner without the need to be familiar with details on the statistical methods. Visualisation of data analysis...

  17. GPS based checking survey and precise DEM development in Open mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ai-gong

    2008-01-01

    The checking survey in Open mine is one of the most frequent and important work. It plays the role of forming a connecting link between open mine planning and production. Traditional checking method has such disadvantages as long time consumption,heavy workload, complicated calculating process, and lower automation. Used GPS and GIS technologies to systematically study the core issues of checking survey in open mine.A detail GPS data acquisition coding scheme was presented. Based on the scheme an algorithm used for computer semiautomatic cartography was made. Three methods used for eliminating gross errors from raw data which were needed for creating DEM was discussed. Two algorithms were researched and realized which can be used to create open mine fine DEM model with constrained conditions and to dynamically update the model.The precision analysis and evaluation of the created model were carried out.

  18. Bandwidth and Wavefront Reduction for Static Variable Ordering in Symbolic Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Jeroen; Pol, van de Jaco

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the applicability of bandwidth and wavefront reduction algorithms to static variable ordering. In symbolic model checking event locality plays a major role in time and memory usage. For example, in Petri nets event locality can be captured by dependency matrices, where nonzero entries

  19. A practical approach to model checking Duration Calculus using Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Dung, Phan Anh; Brekling, Aske Wiid

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of reducing a model-checking problem K ⊧ ϕ for discrete time Duration Calculus to the decision problem for Presburger Arithmetic. Theoretical results point at severe limitations of this approach: (1) the reduction in Fränzle and Hansen (Int J Softw Inform 3...

  20. Three Notes on the Complexity of Model Checking Fixpoint Logic with Chop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides lower complexity bounds of deterministic exponential time for the combined, data and expression complexity of Fixpoint Logic with Chop. This matches the previously known upper bound showing that its model checking problem is EXPTIME-complete, even when the transition system or...

  1. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...

  2. 76 FR 16861 - Availability of Funds and Collection of Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... proposed rule. \\29\\ See Regulation CC Sec. 229.20 and EFA Act Sec. 608. A state's funds-availability law...: Background Regulation CC (12 CFR part 229) implements the Expedited Funds Availability Act (EFA Act) and the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (Check 21 Act).\\1\\ The Board implemented the EFA Act in...

  3. Modern Trends in Airport Self Check-in Kiosks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Sabatová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to maintain the flow of the check-in process of air passengers, it is essential that services that ensure this process have been carried as quickly and effectively. One of the major current problems in this area is the efficiency of clearance of a large number of passengers over the check-in counters. By the gradual development of so-called self check-in services eventually delegate some activities in check-in process to passengers and the entire clearance process to speed up. In this article the authors deal with current state of the use of self check-in services in the world and predict the expected evolution of these services in the future. Subsequently, the authors present a new design of self-service kiosk and graphical user interface (GUI of application such self-service check-in kiosk based on the analysis of the functions and features of similar solutions available on the market and with considering all currently known IATA requirements and the criteria relating to disabled passengers in order to lighten the load check-in counters and thereby accelerated the clearance of the passenger at the airport. The aim of the authors was to create a cost competitive solution offering such new features and services that do not offer other solutions, with an emphasis on improving the efficiency of the check-in process of passengers at the airport.

  4. U.T.E.S. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The revised Oregon metro edition of the U.T.E.S. interest check list for intermediate education aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations in the nation. Specific instructions advise the student that the check list is not a test and that…

  5. Development of a stainless steel check valve for cryogenic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, T.T.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Burger, J.F.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Sirbi, A.; Rogalla, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a check valve for use in a sorption compressor that will drive a 10 mW 4.5 K Joule–Thomson cryocooler. For the check valve extremely low backflow rates are tolerable at an operating temperature of the valve of 50 K. To fulfill these requirements, the sealing m

  6. 19 CFR 111.41 - Endorsement of checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of checks. 111.41 Section 111.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.41 Endorsement of checks....

  7. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12 Section 240.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use...

  8. 31 CFR 10.31 - Negotiation of taxpayer checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation of taxpayer checks. 10.31 Section 10.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE... § 10.31 Negotiation of taxpayer checks. A practitioner who prepares tax returns may not endorse...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6657-1 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 301.6657-1 Section 301.6657-1... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6657-1 Bad checks. (a) In general. Except as provided in... district director that it was tendered in good faith with reasonable cause to believe that it would be...

  10. 31 CFR 240.11 - Treasury Check Offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury Check Offset. 240.11 Section 240.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS...

  11. BACKGROUND ELIMINATION IN BANK CHECKS USING GREYSCALE MORPHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, S.; Shridhar, M.; Houle, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of background elimination in personal bank checks to facilitate machine recognition of user entered information. One of the key problems that affect the extraction of user entered information is the wide diversity of the backgrounds of checks. They have differen

  12. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  13. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  14. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  15. Statistical Model Checking of Rich Models and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted

    in undecidability issues for the traditional model checking approaches. Statistical model checking has proven itself a valuable supplement to model checking and this thesis is concerned with extending this software validation technique to stochastic hybrid systems. The thesis consists of two parts: the first part......Software is in increasing fashion embedded within safety- and business critical processes of society. Errors in these embedded systems can lead to human casualties or severe monetary loss. Model checking technology has proven formal methods capable of finding and correcting errors in software....... However, software is approaching the boundary in terms of the complexity and size that model checking can handle. Furthermore, software systems are nowadays more frequently interacting with their environment hence accurately modelling such systems requires modelling the environment as well - resulting...

  16. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  17. Systematics for checking geometric errors in CNC lathes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, R. P.; Rolim, T. L.

    2015-10-01

    Non-idealities presented in machine tools compromise directly both the geometry and the dimensions of machined parts, generating distortions in the project. Given the competitive scenario among different companies, it is necessary to have knowledge of the geometric behavior of these machines in order to be able to establish their processing capability, avoiding waste of time and materials as well as satisfying customer requirements. But despite the fact that geometric tests are important and necessary to clarify the use of the machine correctly, therefore preventing future damage, most users do not apply such tests on their machines for lack of knowledge or lack of proper motivation, basically due to two factors: long period of time and high costs of testing. This work proposes a systematics for checking straightness and perpendicularity errors in CNC lathes demanding little time and cost with high metrological reliability, to be used on factory floors of small and medium-size businesses to ensure the quality of its products and make them competitive.

  18. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  19. Turbomachinery Design Quality Checks to Avoid Friction Induced Structural Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jerry H.

    1999-01-01

    A unique configuration of the P&W SSME Alternate Fuel Turbopump turbine disk/blade assembly, combined with a severe thermal environment, resulted in several structural anomalies that were driven by frictional contact forces. Understanding the mechanics of these problems provides new quality checks for future turbo machinery designs. During development testing in 1997 of the SSME alternate fuel turbopump at Stennis Space Center, several potentially serious problems surfaced with the turbine disk/blade assembly that had not been experienced in extensive earlier testing. Changes to the operational thermal environment were noted based on analytical prediction of modifications that affected performance and on stationary thermal measurements adjacent to the rotor assembly. A detailed structural investigation was required to reveal the mechanism of distress induced by the change. The turbine disk experienced cracking in several locations due to increased thermal gradient induced stress during start and shutdown transients. This was easily predictable using standard analysis procedures and expected once the thermal environment was characterized. What was not expected was the curling of a piston ring used for blade axial retention in the disk, indentation of the axial face of the blade attachment by a spacer separating the first and second stage blades, and most significantly, galling and cracking of the blade root attachment that could have resulted in blade release. Past experience, in gas turbine environments, set a precedent of never relying on friction for help and to evaluate it only in specific instances where it was obvious that it would degrade capability. In each of the three cases above, friction proved to be a determining factor that pushed the components into an unsatisfactory mode of operation. The higher than expected temperatures and rapid thermal transients combined with friction to move beyond past experience. The turbine disk/blade assembly configuration

  20. New in situ capture quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription-PCR method as an alternative approach for determining inactivation of Tulane virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Xu, Shuxia; Yang, David; Young, Glenn M; Tian, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Although quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used for detecting HuNoVs, it only detects the presence of viral RNA and does not indicate viral infectivity. Human blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been identified as receptors/co-receptors for both HuNoVs and Tulane virus (TV) and are crucial for viral infection. We propose that viral infectivity can be evaluated with a molecular assay based on receptor-captured viruses. In this study, we employed TV as an HuNoV surrogate to validate the HBGA-based capture qRT-PCR method against the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) method. We employed type B HBGA on an immuno-well module to concentrate TV, followed by amplification of the captured viral genome by in situ qRT-PCR. We first demonstrated that this in situ capture qRT-PCR (ISC-qRT-PCR) method could effectively concentrate and detect TV. We then treated TV under either partial or full inactivation conditions and measured the remaining infectivity by ISC-qRT-PCR and a tissue culture-based amplification method (TCID50). We found that the ISC-qRT-PCR method could be used to evaluate virus inactivation deriving from damage to the capsid and study interactions between the capsid and viral receptor. Heat, chlorine, and ethanol treatment primarily affect the capsid structure, which in turns affects the ability of the capsid to bind to viral receptors. Inactivation of the virus by these methods could be reflected by the ISC-qRT-PCR method and confirmed by TCID50 assay. However, the loss of the infectivity caused by damage to the viral genome (such as that from UV irradiation) could not be effectively reflected by this method. Despite this limitation, the ISC-qRT-PCR provides an alternative approach to determine inactivation of Tulane virus. A particular advantage of the ISC-qRT-PCR method is that it is also a faster and easier method to effectively

  1. Dynamic Data Possession Checking for Secure Cloud Storage Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using cloud storage service, data owners can access their data anywhere at any time and enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services, without the burden of local data storage and maintenance. Meanwhile, the risk of losing data stored with any untrustworthy service provider is the key barrier to widely adopt cloud storage service. To verify the integrity of data stored in cloud and relieve the security concerns of customers, a privacy-preserving data possession checking (DPC scheme is presented. This scheme uses Merkle Hash Tree to support fully dynamic data operations. To achieve robustness, forward error-correcting codes can be combined with the proposed DPC scheme, which can recover the data when a small amount of file has been corrupted. The scheme allows unlimited times verification without the need for the verifier to compare against the original data, which reduces the communication and computation complexity dramatically and preserves the privacy of the data. Extensive security analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is highly provably secure.

  2. Multi-Objective Model Checking of Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Etessami, Kousha; Vardi, Moshe Y; Yannakakis, Mihalis

    2008-01-01

    We study and provide efficient algorithms for multi-objective model checking problems for Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). Given an MDP, $M$, and given multiple linear-time ($\\omega$-regular or LTL) properties $\\varphi_i$, and probabilities $r_i \\in [0,1]$, $i=1,...,k$, we ask whether there exists a strategy $\\sigma$ for the controller such that, for all $i$, the probability that a trajectory of $M$ controlled by $\\sigma$ satisfies $\\varphi_i$ is at least $r_i$. We provide an algorithm that decides whether there exists such a strategy and if so produces it, and which runs in time polynomial in the size of the MDP. Such a strategy may require the use of both randomization and memory. We also consider more general multi-objective $\\omega$-regular queries, which we motivate with an application to assume-guarantee compositional reasoning for probabilistic systems. Note that there can be trade-offs between different properties: satisfying property $\\varphi_1$ with high probability may necessitate satisfying $\\var...

  3. Implementing Model-Check for Employee and Management Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss methods to which ModelCheck can be implemented to not only improve model quality, but also satisfy both employees and management through different sets of quality checks. This approach allows a standard set of modeling practices to be upheld throughout a company, with minimal interaction required by the end user. The presenter will demonstrate how to create multiple ModelCheck standards, preventing users from evading the system, and how it can improve the quality of drawings and models.

  4. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  5. PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES IN OWN CHECKS IN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite Programmes approach is a requirement for implementing a correct own check plan. This new approach, born according to the European Legislation, is completely recognized by third Nation Authorities and private Inspection and Accreditation Bodies. This method is the basis to verify if an own check system is under control and to verify if corrective actions are built up to warrant hygienic production standards. The present work demonstrate that a correct own check plan is built up only by a Pre Requisites Program approach. The new UNI EN ISO 22000:2005 standard describe this concept specifying the difference between PRP and CCP.

  6. SU-D-BRD-05: Online Framework for Plan Tracking and Automatic Checks in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaks, D; Fletcher, R; Salamon, S; Kim, G; Ning, T; Cornell, M; Pawlicki, T; Cervino, L [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an online framework that tracks a patient’s plan from initial simulation to treatment and that helps automate elements of the physics plan checks usually performed in the record and verify (RV) system and treatment planning system. Methods: We have developed PlanTracker, an online plan tracking system that automatically imports new patients tasks and follows it through treatment planning, physics checks, therapy check, and chart rounds. A survey was designed to collect information about the amount of time spent by medical physicists in non-physics related tasks. We then assessed these non-physics tasks for automation. Using these surveys, we directed our PlanTracker software development towards the automation of intra-plan physics review. We then conducted a systematic evaluation of PlanTracker’s accuracy by generating test plans in the RV system software designed to mimic real plans, in order to test its efficacy in catching errors both real and theoretical. Results: PlanTracker has proven to be an effective improvement to the clinical workflow in a radiotherapy clinic. We present data indicating that roughly 1/3 of the physics plan check can be automated, and the workflow optimized, and show the functionality of PlanTracker. When the full system is in clinical use we will present data on improvement of time use in comparison to survey data prior to PlanTracker implementation. Conclusion: We have developed a framework for plan tracking and automatic checks in radiation therapy. We anticipate using PlanTracker as a basis for further development in clinical/research software. We hope that by eliminating the most simple and time consuming checks, medical physicists may be able to spend their time on plan quality and other physics tasks rather than in arithmetic and logic checks. We see this development as part of a broader initiative to advance the clinical/research informatics infrastructure surrounding the radiotherapy clinic. This research

  7. A Social Justice Alternative for Framing Post-Compulsory Education: A Human Development Perspective of VET in Times of Economic Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fogues, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    The article provides an alternative theoretical framework for evaluating contemporary issues facing education, specifically vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. In order to accomplish this, it draws on the theoretical insights of the capability approach in the work of Amartya Sen; the concept of vulnerability as intrinsic to every…

  8. PERENNIAL CROP NURSERIES TREATED WITH METHYL BROMIDE AND ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS: EFFECTS ON WEED SEED VIABILITY, WEED DENSITIES, AND TIME REQUIRED FOR HAND WEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control provided by alternative fumigants to methyl bromide (MeBr) needs to be tested in perennial crop nurseries in California because MeBr is being phased out in accordance with the Montreal Protocol, few herbicides are registered for perennial nursery use, and costs of other control measures...

  9. An Item Factor Analysis of the Mooney Problem Check List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David W.; Deiker, Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Explores the factor structure of the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) at the junior and senior high school level by undertaking a large obverse factor analysis of item responses in three adolescent criterion groups. (Author/DEP)

  10. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  11. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  12. An Extended Ontology Model and Ontology Checking Based on Description Logics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 蒋馥; 吴家春

    2004-01-01

    Ontology is defined as an explicit specification of a conceptualization. In this paper, an extended ontology model was constructed using description logics, which is a 5-tuples including term set, individual set, term definition set, instantiation assertion set and term restriction set. Based on the extended model, the issue on ontology checking was studied with the conclusion that the four kinds of term checking, including term satisfiability checking, term subsumption checking, term equivalence checking and term disjointness checking, can be reduced to the satisfiability checking, and satisfiability checking can be transformed into instantiation consistence checking.

  13. Performance of Compiler-Assisted Memory Safety Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Performance of Compiler -Assisted Memory Safety Checking David Keaton Robert C. Seacord August 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2014-TN...014 | vii Abstract Buffer overflows affect a large installed base of C code. This technical note describes the criteria for deploying a compiler ...describes a modification to the LLVM compiler to enable hoisting bounds checks from loops and functions. This proof-of-concept prototype has been used

  14. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  15. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  16. Learning Markov Decision Processes for Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Hua; Chen, Yingke; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Constructing an accurate system model for formal model verification can be both resource demanding and time-consuming. To alleviate this shortcoming, algorithms have been proposed for automatically learning system models based on observed system behaviors. In this paper we extend the algorithm on...

  17. Improved Bounded Model Checking for the Universal Fragment of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xu; Wei Chen; Yan-Yan Xu; Wen-Hui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) has been introduced as a complementary technique to BDD-based symbolic model checking in recent years, and a lot of successful work has been done in this direction. The approach was first introduced by A. Biere et al. in checking linear temporal logic (LTL) formulae and then also adapted to check formulae of the universal fragment of computation tree logic (ACTL) by W. Penczek et al. As the efficiency of model checking is still an important issue, we present an improved BMC approach for ACTL based on Penczek's method. We consider two aspects of the approach. One is reduction of the number of variables and transitions in the k-model by distinguishing the temporal operator EX from the others. The other is simplification of the transformation of formulae by using uniform path encoding instead of a disjunction of all paths needed in the k-model. With these improvements, for an ACTI, formula, the length of the final encoding of the formula in the worst case is reduced. The improved approach is implemented in the tool BMV and is compared with the original one by applying both to two well known examples, mutual exclusion and dining philosophers. The comparison shows the advantages of the improved approach with respect to the efficiency of model checking.

  18. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management.

  19. Check, please. Don't expect after-dinner mints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-30

    That's because when the check arrives, there'll be condoms instead. Cabbage and Condoms, a Thai restaurant overseen by the Bangkok-based Population and Development Association, serves both items. The eatery plans to open its first overseas outlet in Beijing next month. "We have been working with Chinese family-planning groups and chose Beijing because it is the capital of the world's most populous country," says PDA founding chairman Mechai Viravaidya, who is widely known as "Mr. Condom" for his promotion of the device to stem population growth and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Stressing public awareness over coercion represents the next wave of birth control in China. The country's population is projected to hit 1.65 billion stabilizing around 2044. "Our food is guaranteed not to cause pregnancy," quips Mechai. Cabbages and condoms plans to serve Chinese and Thai dishes and offer karaoke. Profits will go to promoting birth control and AIDS awareness. The opening is timely: the World Health Organization recently urged China to boost its efforts to fight the spread of AIDS. Officially the country has 1159 cases of the disease, but the real number may be a lot higher. The PDA also plans to open restaurants in Vietnam, Australia and the US.

  20. Assessing the physical vulnerability of check dams through an empirical damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dell'Agnese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of flood risk in mountain streams has to include an assessment of the vulnerability of the protection systems, in addition to an assessment of the vulnerability of the constructed environment on alluvial fans and floodplains. Structures forming the protection systems are of a dual nature, i.e. they are designed to mitigate natural process-related hazards and, on the other hand, are prone to be damaged during their lifecycle by the same processes they should mitigate. Therefore, their effectiveness declines over time. Hence, the knowledge of how effectively control structures perform is essential for risk management. A procedure was developed to assess the physical vulnerability of check dams based on empirical evidence collected in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. A damage index defined on pre- and postevent comparisons of check dam conditions was evaluated for 362 structures in 18 mountain streams along with the relevant processes and the structural characteristics affecting it. Although the available dataset did not allow conclusive functional relationships between damage index and impact variables to be established, it was possible to assess the average expected residual functionality of check dams according to structure characteristics, and event type and intensity. These results may help plan appropriate check dam maintenance.

  1. Interface definitions in literature: A reality check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parslov, Jakob Filippson; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    on the definition and perception of a product interface within engineering design research which is the objective of this article. A structured literature review of interface definitions found within engineering design literature has been carried out. The different definitions were tabulated against four key issues......Companies that develop multi-technological products are challenged on their ability to obtain high product quality and short development lead times in today’s highly competitive and globalized markets. One of the main reasons for poor product quality is due to unidentified or poorly defined product...... interfaces during the design phase leading to unintended product behavior. In an effort to reduce the lead time and increase quality, companies may apply a modular product architecture, thus enabling parallel development and maturing of modules. Achieving a successful integration of the modules at the end...

  2. A Novel Algorithm for Intrusion Detection Based on RASL Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interval temporal logic (ITL model checking (MC technique enhances the power of intrusion detection systems (IDSs to detect concurrent attacks due to the strong expressive power of ITL. However, an ITL formula suffers from difficulty in the description of the time constraints between different actions in the same attack. To address this problem, we formalize a novel real-time interval temporal logic—real-time attack signature logic (RASL. Based on such a new logic, we put forward a RASL model checking algorithm. Furthermore, we use RASL formulas to describe attack signatures and employ discrete timed automata to create an audit log. As a result, RASL model checking algorithm can be used to automatically verify whether the automata satisfy the formulas, that is, whether the audit log coincides with the attack signatures. The simulation experiments show that the new approach effectively enhances the detection power of the MC-based intrusion detection methods for a number of telnet attacks, p-trace attacks, and the other sixteen types of attacks. And these experiments indicate that the new algorithm can find several types of real-time attacks, whereas the existing MC-based intrusion detection approaches cannot do that.

  3. Microcomputer Checks Butt-Weld Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisham, W.; Garner, W.; Cohen, C.; Beal, J.; Polen, R.; Lloyd, J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical gage and microcomputer eliminate time-consuming manual measurements. Alinement and angle of plates on either side of butt weld are measured and recorded automatically by hand-held gage and desk-top microcomputer. Gage/micro-computer quickly determine whether weld is within dimensional tolerances or whether reworking is needed. Microcomputer prints out measurements while operator moves gage from point to point along weld. Out-of-tolerance measurements are marked by an asterisk on printout.

  4. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  5. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lenormand

    Full Text Available The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered.

  6. 基于临界区划分的实时事务并发控制机制%COR-based Concurrency Control Strategies in the Real-time Transaction Model Supporting Functional Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏家莉; 王文乐; 朱文婷; 曹重华

    2013-01-01

    针对支持功能替代的实时事务模型,根据替代做处理的数据对象将替代划分为若干个临界区,提出了临界区动态相容检测方法,提出了基于临界区动态相容的并发控制策略COR-CCS:分区封锁策略、支持预释放的封锁策略、按序提交策略和级联回滚策略,并给出了相应的并发控制实现算法.当实时系统中存在资源冲突时,若高优先级替代未完成的临界区与低优先级替代动态相容,可令二者并发执行.实验仿真结果证明,COR-CCS策略有利减少低优先级替代等待时间、提高系统成功率和CPU有效利用率.%In the real-time system model based on functional alternatives, we divided the alternatives into Critical Operation Regions (short for CORs) according to the data that they handled, and proposed the method to examine the dynamic compatibility between two CORs. Also, we present the strategies, named COR-CCS, that can improve the concurrence of the alternatives, such as: the strategy of locking each by COR, the strategy of pre-releasing lock, the strategy of orderly submitting and the strategy of cascaded roll-backing. After that we gave the algorithm of COR-based concurrency control. When scheduling the real-time system with data confliction, the alternatives can concurrently executed if the CORS in the alternative with higher priority is dynamic compatibility with the lower priority alternative. The experimental results showed that the COR-CCS is effect on reducing the waiting time of the lower priority alternatives, increasing the successful execution ratio of the transactions, and improving the CPU usage.

  7. Open and hidden agendas of "asymptomatic" patients who request check-up exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nüesch Reto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for a check-up recommend routine screening not triggered by specific symptoms for some known risk factors and diseases in the general population. Patients' perceptions and expectations regarding a check-up exam may differ from these principles. However, quantitative and qualitative data about the discrepancy between patient- and provider expectations for this type of clinic consultation is lacking. Methods For a year, we prospectively enrolled 66 patients who explicitly requested a "check-up" at our medical outpatient division. All patients actively denied upon prompting having any symptoms or specific health concerns at the time they made their appointment. All consultations were videotaped and analysed for information about spontaneously mentioned symptoms and reasons for the clinic consultation ("open agendas" and for cues to hidden patient agendas using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS. Results All patients initially declared to be asymptomatic but this was ultimately the case in only 7 out of 66 patients. The remaining 59 patients spontaneously mentioned a mean of 4.2 ± 3.3 symptoms during their first consultation. In 23 patients a total of 31 hidden agendas were revealed. The primary categories for hidden agendas were health concerns, psychosocial concerns and the patient's concept of disease. Conclusions The majority of patients requesting a general check-up tend to be motivated by specific symptoms and health concerns and are not "asymptomatic" patients who primarily come for preventive issues. Furthermore, physicians must be alert for possible hidden agendas, as one in three patients have one or more hidden reasons for requesting a check-up.

  8. Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Model Checking is an automatic verification technique for state-transition systems that are finite=state or that have finite-state abstractions. In the early 1980 s in a series of joint papers with my graduate students E.A. Emerson and A.P. Sistla, we proposed that Model Checking could be used for verifying concurrent systems and gave algorithms for this purpose. At roughly the same time, Joseph Sifakis and his student J.P. Queille at the University of Grenoble independently developed a similar technique. Model Checking has been used successfully to reason about computer hardware and communication protocols and is beginning to be used for verifying computer software. Specifications are written in temporal logic, which is particularly valuable for expressing concurrency properties. An intelligent, exhaustive search is used to determine if the specification is true or not. If the specification is not true, the Model Checker will produce a counterexample execution trace that shows why the specification does not hold. This feature is extremely useful for finding obscure errors in complex systems. The main disadvantage of Model Checking is the state-explosion problem, which can occur if the system under verification has many processes or complex data structures. Although the state-explosion problem is inevitable in worst case, over the past 27 years considerable progress has been made on the problem for certain classes of state-transition systems that occur often in practice. In this talk, I will describe what Model Checking is, how it works, and the main techniques that have been developed for combating the state explosion problem.

  9. Outsourcing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Reveals how outsourcing can save time, money, and headaches and addresses when outsourcing may be the right decision for a school. Recommended criteria for deciding on whether to outsource school services are listed. (GR)

  10. Model Checking in Bits and Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Namjoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated verification of concurrent programs is a difficult problem, primarily because of state explosion: the exponential growth of a program state space with the number of its concurrently active components. It is natural to apply a divide and conquer strategy to ameliorate state explosion, by analyzing only a single component at a time. We show that this strategy leads to the notion of a "split" invariant, an assertion which is globally inductive, while being structured as the conjunction of a number of local, per-component invariants. This formulation is closely connected to the classical Owicki-Gries method and to Rely-Guarantee reasoning. We show how the division of an invariant into a number of pieces with limited scope makes it possible to apply new, localized forms of symmetry and abstraction to drastically simplify its computation. Split invariance also has interesting connections to parametric verification. A quantified invariant for a parametric system is a split invariant for every instance. We show how it is possible, in some cases, to invert this connection, and to automatically generalize from a split invariant for a small instance of a system to a quantified invariant which holds for the entire family of instances.

  11. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  12. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  13. The use of check valve performance data to support new concepts (probabilistic risk assessment, condition monitoring) for check valve program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.; Gower, D.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of developing an integrated check valve database based on the Nuclear Power Reliability Data System (NPRDS) data was presented at the last Symposium. The Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group (NIC), working in cooperation with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has completed an operational database of check valve performance from 1984 to the present. NIC has committed to the nuclear industry to periodically update the data and maintain this information accessible. As the new concepts of probabilistic risk analysis and condition monitoring are integrated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, a critical element will be performance data. From check valve performance data, feasible failure modes and rates can be established. When a failure rate or frequency of failures can be established based on a significant enough population (sampling), a more solid foundation for focusing resources and determining appropriate frequencies and testing can be determined. The presentation will give the updated status of the NIC Check Valve Performance Database covering (1) methodology used to combine the original ORNL data; (2) process/controls established for continuing update and refinement of the data; (3) discussion of how this data is being utilized by (a) OM-22 for condition monitoring, and (b) risk-based inservice testing work of Westinghouse Owners` Group; and (4) results/trends of data evaluations. At the 1994 Symposium, ORNL provided an update as of 1991 to their original work of 1984 -1990 which they had performed to characterize check valve degradations and failures in the nuclear industry. These characterizations will be updated to 1995 and additional reviews provided to give insight into the current condition and trends of check valve performance.

  14. Model Checking-Based Testing of Web Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hongwei; MIAO Huaikou

    2007-01-01

    A formal model representing the navigation behavior of a Web application as the Kripke structure is proposed and an approach that applies model checking to test case generation is presented. The Object Relation Diagram as the object model is employed to describe the object structure of a Web application design and can be translated into the behavior model. A key problem of model checking-based test generation for a Web application is how to construct a set of trap properties that intend to cause the violations of model checking against the behavior model and output of counterexamples used to construct the test sequences.We give an algorithm that derives trap properties from the object model with respect to node and edge coverage criteria.

  15. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive.

  16. A Spatialization-based Method for Checking and Updating Metadata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the application of spatialization technology on metadata quality check and updating was discussed. A new method based on spatialization was proposed for checking and updating metadata to overcome the deficiency of text based methods with the powerful functions of spatial query and analysis provided by GIS software. This method employs the technology of spatialization to transform metadata into a coordinate space and the functions of spatial analysis in GIS to check and update spatial metadata in a visual environment. The basic principle and technical flow of this method were explained in detail, and an example of implementation using ArcMap of GIS software was illustrated with a metadata set of digital raster maps. The result shows the new method with the support of interaction of graph and text is much more intuitive and convenient than the ordinary text based method, and can fully utilize the functions of GIS spatial query and analysis with more accuracy and efficiency.

  17. CheckMATE 2: From the model to the limit

    CERN Document Server

    Dercks, Daniel; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We present the latest developments to the CheckMATE program that allows models of new physics to be easily tested against the recent LHC data. To achieve this goal, the core of CheckMATE now contains over 60 LHC analyses of which 12 are from the 13 TeV run. The main new feature is that CheckMATE 2 now integrates the Monte Carlo event generation via Madgraph and Pythia 8. This allows users to go directly from a SLHA file or UFO model to the result of whether a model is allowed or not. In addition, the integration of the event generation leads to a significant increase in the speed of the program. Many other improvements have also been made, including the possibility to now combine signal regions to give a total likelihood for a model.

  18. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, multiple limbs, or a single limb. The paralysis may affect different parts of the body at different times and may be brief or last for several days. Oftentimes these episodes will resolve after sleep. Affected children may also have abnormal movements involving ...

  19. Model Checking Event-B by Encoding into Alloy

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, Paulo J

    2008-01-01

    As systems become ever more complex, verification becomes more main stream. Event-B and Alloy are two formal specification languages based on fairly different methodologies. While Event-B uses theorem provers to prove that invariants hold for a given specification, Alloy uses a SAT-based model finder. In some settings, Event-B invariants may not be proved automatically, and so the often difficult step of interactive proof is required. One solution for this problem is to validate invariants with model checking. This work studies the encoding of Event-B machines and contexts to Alloy in order to perform temporal model checking with Alloy's SAT-based engine.

  20. The check and error analysis of the BRDF experiment bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed introduction is given to the check method of the BRDF experiment bench which is built on our own. Measurement is made on the BRDF of the standard white plate made of polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) with reference to the existing standard white plate whose surface reflectance is known and by the method of theory approximate and relative comparison. On the basis of that, the BRDF value of the standard white plate in the wave band of 0. 6328 μm is given and the experiment bench is checked, the relative error of the experiment bench being within 20%.

  1. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  2. A New Design and Implementation of an Attendance Checking Node for Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shi-xiong; QIAO Da-lei; CHEN Dai; ZHOU Yong

    2007-01-01

    A novel design and implementation of an attendance checking node for coal mines based on the CAN bus is presented in this paper. Hardware circuits and programming methods for the attendance checking node are discussed, including the single-chip computer with CAN controller AT89C51CC03, the CAN bus transceiver TJA1050, the large capacity DataFlash memory, the real-time clock DS1302, the voice chip ISD2560 and the card-reading circuit in Wiegand format. All the extended hardware satisfies the requirements for intrinsically safe circuits (GB3836.4-2000) and intrinsically safe authentication promoted by the national explosion-proof institute. Further, the software programming methods for the CAN controller (AT89C51CC03) and the implementation of the CAN communications protocol are presented as well.

  3. On the Model Checking of the SpaceWire Link Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we display a practical approach adopted for the formal verification of SpaceWire using model checking to solve state explosion. SpaceWire is a high-speed, full-duplex serial bus standard which is applied in aerospace, so its functions have a very high accuracy requirements. In order to prove the design of the SpaceWire was faithfully implements the SpaceWire protocol’s specification , we present our experience on the model checking of SpaceWire link interface using the Cadence SMV tool. We applied environment state machine to overcome state explosion and successfully  verified  a number of relevant properties about transmitter and controller of the SpaceWire in reasonable CPU time.  

  4. Check and modification of GlobeLand30 with MODIS NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu; Zheng, Xinyan; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    MODIS NDVI time-series data could indicate vegetation status in each season and have been widely used for land cover classification and studies in the fields of vegetation and land degradation monitoring. During global land cover mapping project at 30m resolution aiming at developing high quality product, there were mistakes of classification between bareland and vegetation in GlobeLand30 data in regions surrounding deserts because that the dates of some images are not in growing season. In this paper, we proposed a method to check GlobeLand30 data of 2010 in these areas. Max NDVI value of MODIS NDVI time-series data is chosen to represent growing conditions of vegetation. And then vegetation fraction (VF) calculated from the max NDVI value is divided into bareland and vegetation based on the definition of bareland that VF of bareland is lower than 10%. The dimidiated VF maps are employed to check GlobeLand30 with the help of high resolution images and other references. Finally, errors found out by steps above are modified with VF maps and segmentation objects of images at 30m resolution. 149 map sheets of GlobeLand30 were checked and 105 of them were modified. 13409 samples in 10 map sheets totally were selected to assess the effect of the approach. The result showed that the accuracy after modification of GlobeLand30 was higher than that before modification.

  5. Goodness-of-fit tests for vector autoregressive models in time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes and studies some diagnostic tools for checking the goodness-of-fit of general parametric vector autoregressive models in time series. The resulted tests are asymptotically chi-squared under the null hypothesis and can detect the alternatives converging to the null at a parametric rate. The tests involve weight functions,which provides us with the flexibility to choose scores for enhancing power performance,especially under directional alternatives. When the alternatives are not directional,we construct asymptotically distribution-free maximin tests for a large class of alternatives. A possibility to construct score-based omnibus tests is discussed when the alternative is saturated. The power performance is also investigated. In addition,when the sample size is small,a nonparametric Monte Carlo test approach for dependent data is proposed to improve the performance of the tests. The algorithm is easy to implement. Simulation studies and real applications are carried out for illustration.

  6. Graph-tree-based software control flow checking for COTS processors on pico-satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Mu; Wang Hao; Zheng Yangming; Jin Zhonghe

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a generic high-performance and low-time-overhead software control flow checking solution,graph-tree-based control flow checking (GTCFC) for space-borne commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processors.A graph tree data structure with a topology similar to common trees is introduced to transform the control flow graphs of target programs.This together with design of IDs and signatures of its vertices and edges allows for an easy check of legality of actual branching during target program execution.As a result,the algorithm not only is capable of detecting all single and multiple branching errors with low latency and time overheads along with a linear-complexity space overhead,but also remains generic among arbitrary instruction sets and independent of any specific hardware.Tests of the algorithm using a COTS-processor-based on-board computer (OBC) of in-service ZDPS-1A pico-satellite products show that GTCFC can detect over 90% of the randomly injected and all-pattern-covering branching errors for different types of target programs,with performance and overheads consistent with the theoretical analysis; and beats well-established preeminent control flow checking algorithms in these dimensions.Furthermore,it is validated that GTCGC not only can be accommodated in pico-satellites conveniently with still sufficient system margins left,but also has the ability to minimize the risk of control flow errors being undetected in their space missions.Therefore,due to its effectiveness,efficiency,and compatibility,the GTCFC solution is ready for applications on COTS processors on pico-satellites in their real space missions.

  7. Check list of the Hungarian Salticidae with biogeographical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szüts, Tamás

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated check list of the Hungarian jumping spider fauna is presented. 70 species are recorded from Hungary so far. Four species are new to the Hungarian fauna: Hasarius adansoni, Neon valentulus, Sitticus caricis, Synageles subcingulatus. With 12 original drawings.

  8. The Role of Personal Ethical Checking in Courageous School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.; Pitts, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    When school leaders make calculated decisions to deviate from hierarchical or cultural directives and norms, they may be viewed as mavericks or brigands. This paper details a process of ethical checking to help differentiate ethical decisions from more arbitrary or self-serving decisions. The paper examines conflicts inherent in many professional…

  9. Check list of European hymenomycetous Heterobasidiae. Supplement and corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    This continuation of the “Check list of European hymenomycetous Heterobasidiae” (published in Persoonia 4: 145-335. 1966) contains supplementary matter as well as corrections. — Ypsilonidium (Donk) Donk is published as a new genus. Two new specific combinations are made with this generic name. — Mur

  10. A Check List for Evaluating Persuasive Features of Mathematics Courseware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Baharuddin; Gharbaghi, Alireza; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Rosli, Mohd Shafie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to introduce a check list for evaluating persuasive features of mathematics courseware. Since mathematics is a source of anxiety among students (Zeidner & Matthews, 2010), this research is an attempt to employ persuasive features that can be used in mathematics courseware. Specifically, we sought to determine…

  11. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  12. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, A.

    2006-01-01

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which utiliz

  13. Two Types of Test Assembly Checked and Accepted for CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The detail design of two types of test assembly used in the simulating transportation, and themounting and hydraulic test were completed in 2002. This two types of test assembly are manufactured inshanghai No.1 machine tool works, and checked and accepted in March 2003. The former is used in the

  14. Multi-core and/or symbolic model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Tom; Laarman, Alfons; Pol, van de Jaco; Luettgen, G.; Merz, S.

    2012-01-01

    We review our progress in high-performance model checking. Our multi-core model checker is based on a scalable hash-table design and parallel random-walk traversal. Our symbolic model checker is based on Multiway Decision Diagrams and the saturation strategy. The LTSmin tool is based on the PINS arc

  15. Radiation therapy plan checks in a paperless clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, R Alfredo; Pennington, Edward C; Waldron, Timothy J; Bayouth, John E

    2009-01-27

    Traditional quality assurance checks of a patient's radiation therapy plan involve printing out treatment parameters from the treatment planning system and the "record and verify" (R&V) system and visually checking the information for one-to-one correspondence. In a paperless environment, one can automate this process through independent software that can read the treatment planning data directly and compare it against the parameters in the R&V system's database. In addition to verifying the data integrity, it is necessary to check the logical consistency of the data and the accuracy of various calculations. The results are then imported into the patient's electronic medical record. Appropriate workflows must be developed to ensure that no steps of the QA process are missed. This paper describes our electronic QA system (EQS), consisting of in-house software and workflows. The EQS covers 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy, electrons, stereotactic radiosurgery, total body irradiation, and clinical set ups with and without virtual simulation. The planning systems handled by our EQS are ADAC Pinnacle and Varian FASTPLAN, while the R&V systems are LANTIS and VARIS. The improvement in our plan check process over the paperless system is described in terms of the types of detected errors. The potential problems with the implementation and use of the EQS, as well as workarounds for data that are not easily accessible through electronic means, are described.

  16. Symmetry and partial order reduction techniques in model checking Rebeca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaghouri, M.M.; Sirjani, M.; Mousavi, M.R.; Movaghar, A.

    2007-01-01

    Rebeca is an actor-based language with formal semantics that can be used in modeling concurrent and distributed software and protocols. In this paper, we study the application of partial order and symmetry reduction techniques to model checking dynamic Rebeca models. Finding symmetry based equivalen

  17. Efficient Integrity Checking for Databases with Recursive Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    into incremental and optimized tests specialized for given update patterns. These tests may involve the introduction of new views, but for relevant cases of recursion, simplified integrity constraints are obtained that can be checked more efficiently than the original ones and without auxiliary views. Notably...

  18. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  19. Integrity Checking and Maintenance with Active Rules in XML Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Rekouts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    While specification languages for integrity constraints for XML data have been considered in the literature, actual technologies and methodologies for checking and maintaining integrity are still in their infancy. Triggers, or active rules, which are widely used in previous technologies for the p...

  20. Surrogate headform accelerations associated with stick checks in girls' lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Costa, Laura; Rich, Ryan; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany

    2015-04-01

    Girls' lacrosse is fundamentally a different sport than boys' lacrosse, and girls are not required to wear protective headgear. Recent epidemiological studies have found that stick checks are the leading cause of concussion injury in girls' lacrosse. The purpose of this study was to determine stick check speeds and estimate the head acceleration associated with direct checks to the head. In addition, we briefly examine if commercially available headgear can mitigate the accelerations. Seven (n = 7) experienced female lacrosse players checked, with varying severity, a NOSCAE and an ASTM headform. Stick speed at impact and the associated peak linear accelerations of the headform were recorded. The NOCSAE headform was fitted with four commercially available headgear and similar stick impact testing was performed. The median stick impact speed was 8.1 m/s and 777 deg/s. At these speeds, peak linear acceleration was approximately 60g. Three out of the four headgear significantly reduced the peak linear acceleration when compared with the bare headform. These data serve as baseline for understanding the potential mechanism and reduction of concussions from stick impacts in girls' lacrosse.

  1. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...

  2. Lessons Learned Model Checking an Industrial Communications Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science [LNCS], volume 2057). Toronto, Canada, May 19-20, 2001. Berlin...Model Checking,” 128-147. Integrated Formal Methods: The 4th International Conference (IFM 2004) ( Lecture Notes in Computer Science [LNCS], volume...on Computer Aided Verification (CAV 1990). ( Lecture Notes in Computer Science [LNCS], volume 531). New Brunswick, NJ, June 18-21, 1990.

  3. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  4. Level of agency in sub-clinical checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayachi, S; Van der Linden, M

    2009-03-01

    This study examined cognitive representations of routine action, through the assessment of level of agency, in individuals with sub-clinical checking. The level of agency stems from Action Identification Theory [Vallacher, R. R., Wegner, D. M. (1989). Levels of personal agency: Individual variation in action identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 660-671], which states that how actions are usually identified (based on instrumental aspects or purpose) reflects the predominant accessibility of internal representation (movements executed vs. goal pursued). Furthermore, this framework proposed that altered action regulation is related to low-level of agency (i.e., action identification at an instrumental level). In the current study, the main result indicated that checking symptoms were related to a low-level of agency, that is, individuals with sub-clinical checking identified habitual actions on the basis of instrumental aspects. This seems to indicate that checkers may act with a lack of goal representations. The results are discussed in terms of the role of low-level of agency in checking phenomena and related cognitive dysfunction.

  5. First experiences with the LHC BLM sanity checks

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, J; Effinger, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M G; Zamantzas, C

    2010-01-01

    The reliability concerns have driven the design of the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system from the early stage of the studies up to the present commissioning and the latest development of diagnostic tools. To protect the system against non-conformities, new ways of automatic checking have been developed and implemented. These checks are regularly and systematically executed by the LHC operation team to ensure that the system status is after each test "as good as new". The sanity checks are part of this strategy. They are testing the electrical part of the detectors (ionisation chamber or secondary emission detector), their cable connections to the front-end electronics, further connections to the back-end electronics and their ability to request a beam abort. During the installation and in the early commissioning phase, these checks have shown their ability to find also non-conformities caused by unexpected failure event scenarios. In every day operation, a non-conformity discovere...

  6. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, R. [Nuclear Crago + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  7. Anatomy of Alternating Quantifier Satisfiability (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Bjørner, Nikolaj; Monniaux, David

    We report on work in progress to generalize an algorithm recently introduced in [10] for checking satisfiability of formulas with quantifier alternation. The algorithm uses two auxiliary procedures: a procedure for producing a candidate formula for quantifier elimination and a procedure for elimi...

  8. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2015-10-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques - check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) - using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references ('poles') before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward's minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered 'rapid,' our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best performed 1

  9. Does Digital Game-Based Learning Improve Student Time-on-Task Behavior and Engagement in Comparison to Alternative Instructional Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) activities were examined in comparison with effective, research-based learning strategies to observe any difference in student engagement and time-on task behavior. Experimental and control groups were randomly selected amongst the intermediate elementary school students ages 8 to 10 years old. Student…

  10. A Novel Method to Verify Multilevel Computational Models of Biological Systems Using Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Meta Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvu, Ovidiu; Gilbert, David

    2016-01-01

    Insights gained from multilevel computational models of biological systems can be translated into real-life applications only if the model correctness has been verified first. One of the most frequently employed in silico techniques for computational model verification is model checking. Traditional model checking approaches only consider the evolution of numeric values, such as concentrations, over time and are appropriate for computational models of small scale systems (e.g. intracellular networks). However for gaining a systems level understanding of how biological organisms function it is essential to consider more complex large scale biological systems (e.g. organs). Verifying computational models of such systems requires capturing both how numeric values and properties of (emergent) spatial structures (e.g. area of multicellular population) change over time and across multiple levels of organization, which are not considered by existing model checking approaches. To address this limitation we have developed a novel approximate probabilistic multiscale spatio-temporal meta model checking methodology for verifying multilevel computational models relative to specifications describing the desired/expected system behaviour. The methodology is generic and supports computational models encoded using various high-level modelling formalisms because it is defined relative to time series data and not the models used to generate it. In addition, the methodology can be automatically adapted to case study specific types of spatial structures and properties using the spatio-temporal meta model checking concept. To automate the computational model verification process we have implemented the model checking approach in the software tool Mule (http://mule.modelchecking.org). Its applicability is illustrated against four systems biology computational models previously published in the literature encoding the rat cardiovascular system dynamics, the uterine contractions of labour

  11. Traversing the Web: Check-in Tactics and Place Practice of Facebook Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon de Certeau’s theory of everyday life practice, this paper examines Facebook users’ check-in actions from the perspectives of strategies and tactics. Methodologically, in-depth interviews of 15 subjects as well as interdisciplinary API technique are conducted to facilitate the pedestrian speech acts analysis. The check-in tactics are then discussed in four dimensions: place, timing, people tagged, and the user. The results show that the use of ‘place’ is significantly related to the mood at present. Those who enjoy playing the function would create virtual places. The late check-in, be not a technical restriction, may be a tactic of inviting likes. And it is also influenced by each user’s everyday life context or his/her recognition about ‘reality’. Users frequently tag people who are not with them with multiple purposes. All these demonstrate that users are sophisticated with the capture of ‘opportunities’, appropriating the Facebook ‘place’ as resources to fulfill their interests and desires, and to develop their discrete pedestrian speech acts.

  12. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  13. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Costa, D.P.; Estes, J.A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  14. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  15. Low complexity Reed-Solomon-based low-density parity-check design for software defined optical transmission system based on adaptive puncturing decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Jianglong; Tian, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a low complexity Reed-Solomon-based low-density parity-check (RS-LDPC) code with adaptive puncturing decoding algorithm for elastic optical transmission system. Partial received codes and the relevant column in parity-check matrix can be punctured to reduce the calculation complexity by adaptive parity-check matrix during decoding process. The results show that the complexity of the proposed decoding algorithm is reduced by 30% compared with the regular RS-LDPC system. The optimized code rate of the RS-LDPC code can be obtained after five times iteration.

  16. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  17. Efficient family-based model checking via variability abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Brabrand, Claus

    2016-01-01

    variational models using the standard version of (single-system) Spin. The variability abstractions are first defined as Galois connections on semantic domains. We then show how to use them for defining abstract family-based model checking, where a variability model is replaced with an abstract version of it......Many software systems are variational: they can be configured to meet diverse sets of requirements. They can produce a (potentially huge) number of related systems, known as products or variants, by systematically reusing common parts. For variational models (variational systems or families...... of related systems), specialized family-based model checking algorithms allow efficient verification of multiple variants, simultaneously, in a single run. These algorithms, implemented in a tool Snip, scale much better than ``the brute force'' approach, where all individual systems are verified using...

  18. A Novel Nanometric Reversible Signed Divider with Overflow Checking Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Dastan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the best approaches for designing future computers is that we use reversible logic. Reversible logic circuits have lower power consumption than the common circuits, used in computers nowadays. In this study we propose a new reversible division circuit. This reversible division circuit is signed divider and has an overflow checking capability. Among the designed and proposed reversible division circuits, our proposed division circuit is the first reversible signed divider with overflow checking capability which has been designed. In this circuit we use some reversible components like reversible parallel adder, reversible left-shift register, reversible multiplexer, reversible n-bit register and reversible n-bit register with parallel load line. In this paper all the scales are in the nanometric area.

  19. Spectral Shape of Check-Hybrid GLDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Paolini, Enrico; Chiani, Marco; Fossorier, Marc P C

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymptotic exponent of both the weight spectrum and the stopping set size spectrum for a class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes. Specifically, all variable nodes (VNs) are assumed to have the same degree (regular VN set), while the check node (CN) set is assumed to be composed of a mixture of different linear block codes (hybrid CN set). A simple expression for the exponent (which is also referred to as the growth rate or the spectral shape) is developed. This expression is consistent with previous results, including the case where the normalized weight or stopping set size tends to zero. Furthermore, it is shown how certain symmetry properties of the local weight distribution at the CNs induce a symmetry in the overall weight spectral shape function.

  20. A Succinct Approach to Static Analysis and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr

    In a number of areas software correctness is crucial, therefore it is often desirable to formally verify the presence of various properties or the absence of errors. This thesis presents a framework for concisely expressing static analysis and model checking problems. The framework facilitates...... in the classical formulation of ALFP logic. Finally, we show that the logics and the associated solvers can be used for rapid prototyping. We illustrate that by a variety of case studies from static analysis and model checking....... rapid prototyping of new analyses and consists of variants of ALFP logic and associated solvers. First, we present a Lattice based Least Fixed Point Logic (LLFP) that allows interpretations over complete lattices satisfying Ascending Chain Condition. We establish a Moore Family result for LLFP...

  1. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya [Sankoukai Miyazaki Hospital, Isahaya, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  2. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  3. Changes to criminal records checks used to safeguard vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2012-07-01

    The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is introducing changes to the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) checks carried out on those people who work with vulnerable groups. The new law is the coalition Government's response to the criticism of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. It will merge the CRB and Independent Safeguarding Authority into a new Disclosure and Barring Service and will enhance the rights of applicants to challenge the CRB's right to disclose non-conviction information as part of an enhanced criminal records check. In the first of two articles on the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the current framework for disclosing criminal records and the impact of the changes on district nurses applying for new posts.

  4. Detecting feature interactions in Web services with model checking techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As a platform-independent software system, a Web service is designed to offer interoperability among diverse and heterogeneous applications.With the introduction of service composition in the Web service creation, various message interactions among the atomic services result in a problem resembling the feature interaction problem in the telecommunication area.This article defines the problem as feature interaction in Web services and proposes a model checking-based detection method.In the method, the Web service description is translated to the Promela language - the input language of the model checker simple promela interpreter (SPIN), and the specific properties, expressed as linear temporal logic (LTL) formulas, are formulated according to our classification of feature interaction.Then, SPIN is used to check these specific properties to detect the feature interaction in Web services.

  5. Model checking abstract state machines with answer set programming

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a logic programming paradigm that has been shown as a useful tool in various application areas due to its expressive modelling language. These application areas include Bourided Model Checking (BMC). BMC is a verification technique that is recognized for its strong ability of finding errors in computer systems. To apply BMC, a system needs to be modelled in a formal specification language, such as the widely used formalism of Abstract State Machines (ASMs). In ...

  6. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  7. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shireesha, P.; S.S.V.N.Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and ...

  8. Proof Validation in Real Analysis: Inferring and Checking Warrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Lara; Weber, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In the study reported here, we investigate the skills needed to validate a proof in real analysis, i.e., to determine whether a proof is valid. We first argue that when one is validating a proof, it is not sufficient to make certain that each statement in the argument is true. One must also check that there is good reason to believe that each…

  9. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiang Li; Weiqiang Xia; Liwen Nan; Youjia Zhao; Fujin Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completel...

  10. A Graphical μ-Calculus and Local Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林惠民

    2002-01-01

    A graphical notation for the propositionalμ-calculus, called modal graphs, ispresented. It is shown that both the textual and equational presentations of theμ-calculus canbe translated into modal graphs. A model checking algorithm based on such graphs is proposed.The algorithm is truly local in the sense that it only generates the parts of the underlyingsearch space which are necessary for the computation of the final result. The correctness of thealgorithm is proven and its complexity analysed.

  11. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Shireesha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing newsoftware products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuserepository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describeshow a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking ifoptimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providingcoding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable componentsand guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  12. Grounding devices of electrical equipment's installation and check to maintain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2009-01-01

    At this stage in real life,the incidents of electricity are increasing,the main reason is that the subjective sense is weak,non-importance,especially the operation and maintenance is more neglected,and even there is no sense in this area.In this paper,based on electrical equipment grounding system for use in practice,simple introdusing grounding device of electrical equipment's installation and maintenance checks.

  13. Model Checking Processes Specified In Join-Calculus Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Piotr Maludziński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model checking tool used to verify concurrent systems specified in join-calculus algebra. The temporal properties of systems under verification are expressed in CTL logic. Join-calculus algebra with its operational semantics defined by the chemical abstract machine serves as the basic method for the specification of concurrent systems and their synchronization mechanisms, and allows the examination of more complex systems.

  14. Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios Sagar Chaki and Derrick Karimi Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University {chaki...different runs varies randomly depending on the thread interleaving. The use of a portfolio of solvers to maximize the likelihood of a quick solution is...investigated. Using the Extreme Value theorem, the runtime of each variant, as well as their portfolios is analysed statistically. A formula for the

  15. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shireesha, P; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  16. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  17. Network segregation in a model of misinformation and fact checking

    CERN Document Server

    Tambuscio, Marcella; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Ruffo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Misinformation under the form of rumor, hoaxes, and conspiracy theories spreads on social media at alarming rates. One hypothesis is that, since social media are shaped by homophily, belief in misinformation may be more likely to thrive on those social circles that are segregated from the rest of the network. One possible antidote is fact checking which, in some cases, is known to stop rumors from spreading further. However, fact checking may also backfire and reinforce the belief in a hoax. Here we take into account the combination of network segregation, finite memory and attention, and fact-checking efforts. We consider a compartmental model of two interacting epidemic processes over a network that is segregated between gullible and skeptic users. Extensive simulation and mean-field analysis show that a more segregated network facilitates the spread of a hoax only at low forgetting rates, but has no effect when agents forget at faster rates. This finding may inform the development of mitigation techniques ...

  18. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  19. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  20. Laparoscopic real-time en-face differential optical topography of near-surface heterogeneity by using an applicator probe with the maximum-density radially alternating illumination and detection fiber-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Piao, Daqing; Holyoak, G Reed; Patel, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a laparoscopic applicator probe and a method thereof for real-time en-face topographic mapping of near-surface heterogeneity for potential use in intraoperative margin assessment during minimally invasive oncological procedures. The probe fits in a 12mm port and houses at its maximum 128 copper-coated 750um fibers that form radially alternating illumination (70 fibers) and detection (58 fibers) channels. By simultaneously illuminating the 70 source channels of the probe that is in contact with a scattering medium and concurrently measuring the light diffusely propagated to the 58 detector channels, the presence of near-surface optical heterogeneities can be resolved in an en-face 9.5mm field-of-view in real-time. Visualization of a subsurface margin of strong attenuation contrast at a depth up to 3mm is demonstrated at one wavelength at a frame rate of 1.25Hz.

  1. Automatic Verification of Biochemical Network Using Model Checking Method%基于模型校核的生化网络自动辨别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Il Moon

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on automatic searching and verifying methods for the reachability, transition logics and hierarchical structure in all possible paths of biological processes using model checking. The automatic search and verification for alternative paths within complex and large networks in biological process can provide a consid-erable amount of solutions, which is difficult to handle manually. Model checking is an automatic method for veri-fying if a circuit or a condition, expressed as a concurrent transition system, satisfies a set of properties expressed ina temporal logic, such as computational tree logic (CTL). This article represents that model checking is feasible in biochemical network verification and it shows certain advantages over simulation for querying and searching of special behavioral properties in biochemical processes.

  2. Unity nameplate gets final check before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers make a final check of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  3. Fostering academic competence or putting students under general suspicion? Voluntary plagiarism check of academic papers by means of a web-based plagiarism detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Eleonora Kohl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing number of cases of plagiarism and the ease of use of online published texts, universities are faced with a considerable challenge to prevent and take action against plagiarism in academic student papers. In reaction to plagiarism, web-based plagiarism detection systems (PDSs are increasingly used to check submitted papers - this checking entails various problems, for example the percentage of plagiarism found is only an indication of the actual extent of plagiarism and not all types of plagiarism can be identified. To cope with this problematic situation the voluntary plagiarism check (VPC, an alternative preventive university didactic concept, was developed at the University of Education, Freiburg (Germany. It focused on the development of individual skills. Students were able to submit their academic papers (e.g. an undergraduate paper, final thesis anonymously. These were then tested with the PDS Ephorus. Following interpretation and summary of the findings by the project team - plagiarism as well as referencing mistakes - we advised the students on a suitable approach to academic writing based on their own typical mistakes. The VPC was conducted as a three-semester research project and was later evaluated. About 500 academic papers were tested. In 90% of the undergraduates' work incorrect and/or missing citations were found. This high percentage decreased among students in later semesters. Instances of plagiarism were detected in about 40% of the papers when the texts of advanced students (≥6th semester were tested. At the same time the length of the plagiarised texts decreased. Around half of the students stated that it was acceptable to copy single sentences or short passages from other sources without citation; they did not consider plagiarising on a limited scale as cheating. A similar number of students admitted to having doubts about whether they could write a good paper without plagiarising. Almost all

  4. All About Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…

  5. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing collection, comments requested the Voluntary Appeal File (VAF... Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check...

  6. Using Stochastic Model Checking to Provision Complex Business Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2012-01-01

    bounds on resources consumed during execution of business processes. Accurate resource provisioning is often central to ensuring the safe execution of a process. We first introduce a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN), which we extend with probabilistic and non......-deterministic branching and reward annotations. We then develop an algorithm for the efficient translation of these models into the guarded command language used by the model checker PRISM, in turn enabling model checking of BPMN processes and allowing for the calculation of a wide range of quantitative properties...

  7. Optimisation of BPMN Business Models via Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the optimisation of business processes modelled in the business process modelling language BPMN, which builds upon earlier work, where we developed a model checking based method for the analysis of BPMN models. We define a structure for expressing optimisation goals...... for synthesized BPMN components, based on probabilistic computation tree logic and real-valued reward structures of the BPMN model, allowing for the specification of complex quantitative goals. We here present a simple algorithm, inspired by concepts from evolutionary algorithms, which iteratively generates...

  8. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Zhu, Huibiao; Huang, Heqing

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues that require novel methods and applications. In this context, an important issue is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this technical report, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker.

  9. Model Checking Data Consistency for Cache Coherence Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Pan; Hui-Min Lin; Yi Lv

    2006-01-01

    A method for automatic verification of cache coherence protocols is presented, in which cache coherence protocols are modeled as concurrent value-passing processes, and control and data consistency requirement are described as formulas in first-orderμ-calculus. A model checker is employed to check if the protocol under investigation satisfies the required properties. Using this method a data consistency error has been revealed in a well-known cache coherence protocol.The error has been corrected, and the revised protocol has been shown free from data consistency error for any data domain size, by appealing to data independence technique.

  10. Android Security (Decompilation of APK File to Check Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world wide revolution in Android technology is changing our lives in term of the way we learn and use. Android Security fits into this because the technology has been around long enough and can provide various benefits for security in this area. The main objective of this paper is to Decompile the Android App And Check the permissions Used By That App (What The permissions any app is accessing Like reading messages, Using our internet data, reading our call logs. This Research Paper Helps Peoples To aware About the Un necessary Applications and Their Permissions That Are in Our Phone Stealing Our Credit Card details, secret details etc.

  11. [Discharge of very preterm infants from neonatology: check list].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F

    2004-02-01

    Key elements of the check list for neonatal discharge include: discharge discussion with parents, relation with maternal and child welfare assistants and family practitioner, scheduling of follow-up visits, request for insurance coverage, parental presence allowance, special education allowance, debriefing with nurses and nurses providers, clinical and biological appraisal, discharge prescription. For a former extremely premature baby, going home - often after a long hospitalization and a variety of pathologic problems - must be prepared and should not be decided in haste, not only for the baby and his/her parents, but also. for the neonatal staff!

  12. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  13. Daily check of the electron beams with a diode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, P. [Hospital Civil de Charleroi (Belgium). Centre for Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A fast systems to check all the accelerator beams on a daily basis has been developed. A cheap home-made detector, based on non-medical diodes (type 1N5408), has been used since July 1992 to verify all the electron beams every day. The relative energy and Top-cGy correspondence is verified with one single irradiation of less than 1 minute by 6 diodes fixed in a polystyrene phantom. The principle of construction, software implementation and results are presented.

  14. Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leungwattanakit, Watcharin; Artho, Cyrille; Hagiya, Masami; Tanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Mitsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Model checkers find failures in software by exploring every possible execution schedule. Java PathFinder (JPF), a Java model checker, has been extended recently to cover networked applications by caching data transferred in a communication channel. A target process is executed by JPF, whereas its peer process runs on a regular virtual machine outside. However, non-deterministic target programs may produce different output data in each schedule, causing the cache to restart the peer process to handle the different set of data. Virtualization tools could help us restore previous states of peers, eliminating peer restart. This paper proposes the application of virtualization technology to networked model checking, concentrating on JPF.

  15. Energy Audit Checks - A socioeconomic assessment; Energikartlaeggningscheckar - En samhaellsekonomisk utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    This review is part of the Swedish Energy Agency's work with skills and methodology development on economic analyzes. The present socioeconomic analysis is the first of its kind to evaluate the current support for energy audit checks and is based on the instrument's purpose, goals and obstacles. Cost effectiveness is the main focus, as well as a description of the instrument's benefits and costs. The evaluation also aims to further develop the instrument in conjunction with the implementation of energy efficiency directive. Proposals for new instruments have however not been part of the mission.

  16. Injection Beam Loss and Beam Quality Checks for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Bracco, Chiara; Drosdal, Lene; Holzer, Eva; Khasbulatov, Denis; Magnin, Nicolas; Meddahi, Malika; Nordt, Annika; Sapinski, Mariusz; Vogt, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the injection into the LHC is monitored by a dedicated software system which acquires and analyses the pulse waveforms from the injection kickers, and measures key beam parameters and compares them with the nominal ones. The beam losses at injection are monitored on many critical devices in the injection regions, together with the longitudinal filling pattern and maximum trajectory offset on the first 100 turns. The paper describes the injection quality check system and the results from LHC beam commissioning, in particular the beam losses measured during injection at the various aperture limits. The results are extrapolated to full intensity and the consequences are discussed

  17. Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...

  18. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Fruth, Matthias; Kwiatkowska, Marta

    2012-01-01

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic application scenarios.

  19. Probabilistic Priority Message Checking Modeling Based on Controller Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Although the probabilistic model checking tool called PRISM has been applied in many communication systems, such as wireless local area network, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, the technique is not used in a controller area network (CAN). In this paper, we use PRISM to model the mechanism of priority messages for CAN because the mechanism has allowed CAN to become the leader in serial communication for automobile and industry control. Through modeling CAN, it is easy to analyze the characteristic of CAN for further improving the security and efficiency of automobiles. The Markov chain model helps us to model the behaviour of priority messages.

  20. Model Checking Workflow Net Based on Petri Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Conghua; CHEN Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    The soundness is a very important criterion for the correctness of the workflow.Specifying the soundness with Computation Tree Logic (CTL) allows us to verify the soundness with symbolic model checkers.Therefore the state explosion problem in verifying soundness can be overcome efficiently.When the property is not satisfied by the system,model checking can give a counter-example, which can guide us to correct the workflow.In addition, relaxed soundness is another important criterion for the workflow.We also prove that Computation Tree Logic * (CTL * ) can be used to character the relaxed soundness of the workflow.

  1. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report......, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic...

  2. 42 CFR 457.216 - Treatment of uncashed or canceled (voided) CHIP checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of uncashed or canceled (voided) CHIP... canceled (voided) CHIP checks. (a) Purpose. This section provides rules to ensure that States refund the... section— Canceled (voided) check means an CHIP check issued by a State or fiscal agent that prior to...

  3. Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

  4. 30 CFR 75.803-1 - Maximum voltage ground check circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum voltage ground check circuits. 75.803-1 Section 75.803-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... § 75.803-1 Maximum voltage ground check circuits. The maximum voltage used for ground check...

  5. 28 CFR 105.23 - Procedure for requesting criminal history record check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.23 Procedure for requesting criminal... checks, declaring that it is an authorized employer that employs private security officers; that all fingerprints and requests for criminal history background checks are being submitted for private...

  6. High pressure check valve for application in a miniature cryogenic scorption cooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.F.; Wekken, van der M.C.; Berenschot, E.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Rogalla, H.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a check valve with integrated filter that can stand gas pressures of more than 100 bar in the closed direction and which has a very low pressure drop at low absolute gas pressures in the forward direction. The check valve is designed as a part of a check valve unit for applicatio

  7. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  8. Stat-LRC: statistical rules check for variational lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Aswin; Kundu, Sandip

    2010-03-01

    As interconnect densities increase with each technology generation, the lithographic processes required to print all features with acceptable irregularities have become more complex. Restricted design rules (RDR) and modelbased Design for Manufacturability (DFM) guidelines have been added to the existing Design Rule Check (DRC) software to prevent unprintable patterns to be drawn on the mask by predicting their imprint on the wafer. It is evident from analyses of predicted patterns that edge placement errors have a continuous distribution, hence a pass/fail cut-off is somewhat arbitrary. In this paper, we describe a methodology to perform Statistical Lithography Rules Check (Stat-LRC) involving design yield based on interconnect linewidth distribution for variation in lithographic input error sources. In this scheme, a list of error locations indicating polygons that have yield below a user specified threshold are listed. The overall design yield is recovered by trading-off slightly poorer EPE distributions for lines with short runs with excellent ones. The simulation/analysis environment is fully automated and yield recovery improvement has been demonstrated.

  9. Development of a stainless steel check valve for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, T. T.; Venhorst, G. C. F.; Burger, J. F.; Holland, H. J.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Sirbi, A.; Rogalla, H.

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a check valve for use in a sorption compressor that will drive a 10 mW 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cryocooler. For the check valve extremely low backflow rates are tolerable at an operating temperature of the valve of 50 K. To fulfill these requirements, the sealing mechanism of the valve is based on a full metal to metal contact. In order to obtain sufficiently low leak rates, both parts were machined to a surface flatness in the order of 100 nm. In addition, the closing plate (boss) of the valve deforms (bends) slightly under pressure, forming itself to the opposite valve seat and thus reducing the gap between these parts. The measured leak flow at 50 K was 1.6 μg/s helium @ 16 bar pressure difference, which is well below the aim of 3 μg/s. The valve was subjected to an accelerated lifetime test of 300,000 cycles. It was observed that the leak flow through the valve during this test steadily decreased to a level of 0.15 μg/s after 100,000 cycles.

  10. Tarmo: A Framework for Parallelized Bounded Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Wieringa, Siert; Heljanko, Keijo; 10.4204/EPTCS.14.5

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates approaches to parallelizing Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for shared memory environments as well as for clusters of workstations. We present a generic framework for parallelized BMC named Tarmo. Our framework can be used with any incremental SAT encoding for BMC but for the results in this paper we use only the current state-of-the-art encoding for full PLTL. Using this encoding allows us to check both safety and liveness properties, contrary to an earlier work on distributing BMC that is limited to safety properties only. Despite our focus on BMC after it has been translated to SAT, existing distributed SAT solvers are not well suited for our application. This is because solving a BMC problem is not solving a set of independent SAT instances but rather involves solving multiple related SAT instances, encoded incrementally, where the satisfiability of each instance corresponds to the existence of a counterexample of a specific length. Our framework includes a generic architecture for a ...

  11. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  12. SoS contract verification using statistical model checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mignogna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive formal verification for systems of systems (SoS is impractical and cannot be applied on a large scale. In this paper we propose to use statistical model checking for efficient verification of SoS. We address three relevant aspects for systems of systems: 1 the model of the SoS, which includes stochastic aspects; 2 the formalization of the SoS requirements in the form of contracts; 3 the tool-chain to support statistical model checking for SoS. We adapt the SMC technique for application to heterogeneous SoS. We extend the UPDM/SysML specification language to express the SoS requirements that the implemented strategies over the SoS must satisfy. The requirements are specified with a new contract language specifically designed for SoS, targeting a high-level English- pattern language, but relying on an accurate semantics given by the standard temporal logics. The contracts are verified against the UPDM/SysML specification using the Statistical Model Checker (SMC PLASMA combined with the simulation engine DESYRE, which integrates heterogeneous behavioral models through the functional mock-up interface (FMI standard. The tool-chain allows computing an estimation of the satisfiability of the contracts by the SoS. The results help the system architect to trade-off different solutions to guide the evolution of the SoS.

  13. An Integrated Approach of Model checking and Temporal Fault Tree for System Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Digitalization of instruments and control systems in nuclear power plants offers the potential to improve plant safety and reliability through features such as increased hardware reliability and stability, and improved failure detection capability. It however makes the systems and their safety analysis more complex. Originally, safety analysis was applied to hardware system components and formal methods mainly to software. For software-controlled or digitalized systems, it is necessary to integrate both. Fault tree analysis (FTA) which has been one of the most widely used safety analysis technique in nuclear industry suffers from several drawbacks as described in. In this work, to resolve the problems, FTA and model checking are integrated to provide formal, automated and qualitative assistance to informal and/or quantitative safety analysis. Our approach proposes to build a formal model of the system together with fault trees. We introduce several temporal gates based on timed computational tree logic (TCTL) to capture absolute time behaviors of the system and to give concrete semantics to fault tree gates to reduce errors during the analysis, and use model checking technique to automate the reasoning process of FTA.

  14. Alternative nuclear technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  15. Model analysis of check dam impacts on long-term sediment and water budgets in southeast Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Niraula, Rewati

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of check dam infrastructure on soil and water conservation at the catchment scale using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This paired watershed study includes a watershed treated with over 2000 check dams and a Control watershed which has none, in the West Turkey Creek watershed, Southeast Arizona, USA. SWAT was calibrated for streamflow using discharge documented during the summer of 2013 at the Control site. Model results depict the necessity to eliminate lateral flow from SWAT models of aridland environments, the urgency to standardize geospatial soils data, and the care for which modelers must document altering parameters when presenting findings. Performance was assessed using the percent bias (PBIAS), with values of ±2.34%. The calibrated model was then used to examine the impacts of check dams at the Treated watershed. Approximately 630 tons of sediment is estimated to be stored behind check dams in the Treated watershed over the 3-year simulation, increasing water quality for fish habitat. A minimum precipitation event of 15 mm was necessary to instigate the detachment of soil, sediments, or rock from the study area, which occurred 2% of the time. The resulting watershed model is useful as a predictive framework and decision-support tool to consider long-term impacts of restoration and potential for future restoration.

  16. Checking rounds for isolation precautions in the control of multidrug-resistant organisms: reduction achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadoro, P; Martini, E; Gioia, M G; Stoico, R; Savini, S; Manso, E; Serafini, G; Prospero, E; D'Errico, M M

    2017-02-07

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effectiveness of a quality improvement initiative in limiting the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital setting. During the period 2011-2013, a multimodal intervention was activated at a tertiary care center in Italy. The intervention included: laboratory-based surveillance, interdisciplinary training sessions, monitoring the adoption of isolation precautions and daily supervision provided by infection control nurses, and a monthly feedback. Time series analysis was used to evaluate the trends and correlations between the MDROs rate, intensity of checking rounds, and hospital-wide data (i.e., transfer of patients, patients' days, site of isolation, etc.). A total of 149,251 patients were included in the study. The proportion of patients undergoing transmission-based isolation precautions within 24 h from a positive laboratory finding increased from 83% in 2011 to 99% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The wards appropriately adopting the correct isolation precaution increased from 83% in 2011 to 97.6% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The frequency of controls was significantly reduced after the observation of compliance in the appropriate wards (p < 0.05). After three years, the incidence rate changed from 5.8/1000 days of stay [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-6.1] in 2011 to 4.7 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) in 2013 (p < 0.0001). Moreover, microorganisms isolated from different types of specimens showed variable potential for transmission (i.e., skin as the most potential and urine the least). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention, with sustained reduction of MDROs rate, besides check reduction, and highlight the long-term efficacy of checking rounds in changing professionals' behaviors.

  17. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  18. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  19. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The mitigation of torrent related hazards is an important issue in mountainous regions. Structural mitigation measures have been implemented on hill slopes and in streambeds for more than 150 years in all Europe. Check dams play a key role in these mitigation plans and can have highly variable functions (horizontal and vertical stabilization of streambeds, consolidation of hillslopes' toe, retention of sediments, modulations of high solid discharges, lowering of streambed slope, etc.). Thousands of structures had been built more than a century ago. Since their construction, land uses evolved, torrent control works, associated with reforestation, curtailed a part of the sediment production. According to field experience, defining the initial and current functions of some old structures can remain challenging in some cases. To better understand for which purposes thousands of these structures were built during the 19th and 20th centuries , we analyzed old books to determine: what was the history of the comprehension of the processes involved in torrent related hazards? and; how the use of check dams evolved to take into account this improving comprehension? i.e. how the human actions on watercourses co-evolved with scientific knowledge from the early 19th centuries to nowadays? The presentation does not aim to determine who, the first, addressed any scientific question: equivalent history and scientific works took place in all regions of the world at different time and the French were not the first to build check dams and to undertook watershed scale mitigation plans. But the French example is interesting because the torrent control works were planned in mountainous regions at the country scale (the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Massif Central). Initial plans were to reforest mountains, relying on civil engineering works if needed. Their implementation , through the French Mountain Lands' reforestation and grass seeding laws of 1860 and 1864, proved to be difficult for

  20. Using Hybrid Decision Tree -Houph Transform Approach For Automatic Bank Check Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A. Elnemr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps in the realization of an automatic system of bank check processing is the automatic classification of checks and extraction of handwritten area. This paper presents a new hybrid method which couple together the statistical color histogram features, the entropy, the energy and the Houph transform to achieve the automatic classification of checks as well as the segmentation and recognition of the various information on the check. The proposed method relies on two stages. First, a two-step classification algorithm is implemented. In the first step, a decision classification tree is built using the entropy, the energy, the logo location and histogram features of colored bank checks. These features are used to classify checks into several groups. Each group may contain one or more type of checks. Therefore, in the second step the bank logo or bank name are matched against its stored template to identify the correct prototype. Second, Hough transform is utilized to detect lines in the classified checks. These lines are used as indicator to the bank check fields. A group of experiments is performed showing that the proposed technique is promising as regards classifying the bank checks and extracting the important fields in that check.

  1. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  2. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health What's considered an alternative therapy is a moving target. Get the facts about what CAM means and ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/alternative-medicine/art-20045267 . Mayo ...

  3. LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra

    CERN Multimedia

    Remenska, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...

  4. Neurology check list. 5. rev. and enl. ed.; Checkliste Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehl, Holger [Evangelisches und Johanniter Klinikum, Duisburg (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Reinhardt, Frank

    2013-02-01

    The neurology check list covers the following issues, organized in four parts: Grey part - diagnostic fundamentals, therapeutic principles: clinical neurological examination, liquor puncture, specific laboratory diagnostics, neurophysical diagnostics, imaging techniques, therapeutic principles, legal aspects, neurological assessment. Green Part - leading syndromes and leading symptoms. Blue part - neurological disease appearance: pains in head and face, pain syndrome, congenital and development disturbances, liquor circulation disturbances, ZNS hemorrhages, tumors and neoplasm, paraneoplastic syndromes, inflammatory diseases of the nervous system, dementia diseases, metabolic and other encephalopathy, cerebellum diseases and system surmounting processes, movement degeneration, basal ganglion diseases, epilepsy, non-epileptic attacks, medulla diseases, brain nerve diseases, plexus lesions, radicular lesions, peripheric neuropathy, neuromuscular transfer disturbances, muscular diseases. Red part: neurological intensive medicine.

  5. Miniaturized passive hydrogel check valve for hydrocephalus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Helen N; Bristol, Ruth E; Junseok Chae

    2014-03-01

    Improvements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining techniques for treatment of hydrocephalus are urgently sought after to substitute for current CSF shunts that are plagued by high failure rates. The passive check valve aims to restore near natural CSF draining operations while mitigating possible failure mechanisms caused by finite leakage or low resilience that frequently constrain practical implementation of miniaturized valves. A simple hydrogel diaphragm structures core passive valve operations and enforce valve sealing properties to substantially lower reverse flow leakage. Experimental measurements demonstrate realization of targeted cracking pressures (PT ≈ 20-110 mmH2O) and operation at -800 <; ΔP <; 600 mmH2O without observable degradation or leakage.

  6. Numerical methods for checking the regularity of subdivision schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Charina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by applications in computer graphics and animation, we study the numerical methods for checking $C^k-$regularity of vector multivariate subdivision schemes with dilation 2I. These numerical methods arise from the joint spectral radius and restricted spectral radius approaches, which were shown in Charina (Charina, 2011) to characterize $W^k_p-$regularity of subdivision in terms of the same quantity. Namely, the $(k,p)-$joint spectral radius and the $(k,p)-$restricted spectral radius are equal. We show that the corresponding numerical methods in the univariate scalar and vector cases even yield the same upper estimate for the $(k,\\infty)-$joint spectral radius for a certain choice of a matrix norm. The difference between the two approaches becomes apparent in the multivariate case and we confirm that they indeed offer different numerical schemes for estimating the regularity of subdivision. We illustrate our results with several examples.

  7. Ground-based complex for checking the optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, V.; Boreiko, V.; Dmitrotsa, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Lavrova, M.; Popescu, E. M.; Sabirov, B.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Volvach, A.; Yashin, I.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose TUS space experiment is to study cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies produced by extensive air showers from space. The concentrator is located on satellite, made in the form of the Fresnel mirror towards the earth's atmosphere, the focus of which is a photodetector. The angle of view of the mirror is ±4.5° that for a given height of the orbit corresponds to the area 80 × 80 km2 on ground. The ground complex consisting of a number of stations, to check the optical system of the experiment is created, (their location and the amount will be determined after the launch of the satellite based on its actual orbit).

  8. Check Point金融行业客户案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    此案例的金融行业用户为国家重点金融交易机构,承担了非常重要的多种金融业务,安全性和可靠性的重要在该机构中是不言而喻的。在没有选择Check Point之前,该用户只采用了传统的利用交换架构的路由交换设备配置Access List的防火墙保护方案。但该架构在安全问题日益严重的今天,已经越来越不能满足用户的需求,主要体现在:

  9. SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pritam; Shankar, Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    MATLAB Simulink is a member of a class of visual languages that are used for modeling and simulating physical and cyber-physical systems. A Simulink model consists of blocks with input and output ports connected using links that carry signals. We extend the type system of Simulink with annotations and dimensions/units associated with ports and links. These types can capture invariants on signals as well as relations between signals. We define a type-checker that checks the wellformedness of Simulink blocks with respect to these type annotations. The type checker generates proof obligations that are solved by SRI's Yices solver for satisfiability modulo theories (SMT). This translation can be used to detect type errors, demonstrate counterexamples, generate test cases, or prove the absence of type errors. Our work is an initial step toward the symbolic analysis of MATLAB Simulink models.

  10. Nonlinear smoothing identification algorithm with application to data consistency checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idan, M.

    1993-01-01

    A parameter identification algorithm for nonlinear systems is presented. It is based on smoothing test data with successively improved sets of model parameters. The smoothing, which is iterative, provides all of the information needed to compute the gradients of the smoothing performance measure with respect to the parameters. The parameters are updated using a quasi-Newton procedure, until convergence is achieved. The advantage of this algorithm over standard maximum likelihood identification algorithms is the computational savings in calculating the gradient. This algorithm was used for flight-test data consistency checks based on a nonlinear model of aircraft kinematics. Measurement biases and scale factors were identified. The advantages of the presented algorithm and model are discussed.

  11. DEPUTY:Analysing Architectural Structures and Checking Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Gorshkov; J.P.Wellisch

    2001-01-01

    The DepUty(dependencies utility)can be classified as a project and process management tool.The main goal of DepUty is to assist by means of source code analysis and graphical representation using UML,in understanding dependencies of sub-systems and packages in CMS object Oriented software,to understand architectureal structure,and to schedule code release in modularised integration.It also allows a new-comer to more easily understand the global structure, of CMS software,and to void circular dependencies up-front or re-factor the code,in case it was already too close to the edge of non-maintainability.We will discuss the various views DepUty provides to analyse package dependencies and illustrate both the metrics and style checking facilities it provides.

  12. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  13. A Formal Verification Methodology for Checking Data Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Umezawa, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Formal verification techniques have been playing an important role in pre-silicon validation processes. One of the most important points considered in performing formal verification is to define good verification scopes; we should define clearly what to be verified formally upon designs under tests. We considered the following three practical requirements when we defined the scope of formal verification. They are (a) hard to verify (b) small to handle, and (c) easy to understand. Our novel approach is to break down generic properties for system into stereotype properties in block level and to define requirements for Verifiable RTL. Consequently, each designer instead of verification experts can describe properties of the design easily, and formal model checking can be applied systematically and thoroughly to all the leaf modules. During the development of a component chip for server platforms, we focused on RAS (Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability) features and described more than 2000 properties in...

  14. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  15. Advanced Microbial Check Valve development. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a flight qualified assembly that provides bacteriologically safe drinking water for the Space Shuttle. The 1-lb unit is basically a canister packed with an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through it. It is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of disinfection is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was developed to disinfect the fuel cell water and to prevent back contamination of stored potable water on the Space Shuttle. This paper reports its potential for space applications beyond the basic Shuttle mission. Data are presented that indicate the MCV is suitable for use in advanced systems that NASA has under development for the reclamation of humidity condensate, wash water and human urine.

  16. Checks and balances: the welcomed tension between philosophy and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jamie Carlin; Arp, Robert

    2008-03-01

    There is a tension between science and philosophy, but this tension need not engender enmity or derision. Scientists and philosophers can work together, and we argue that working together is beneficial to both, even if it is sometimes uncomfortable. We offer examples of how philosophy can autonomously and effectively inform scientific practice. Science and philosophy share certain methodological concerns and practices; therefore, scientists who disregard philosophy are vulnerable to critical conceptual mistakes. If our arguments are correct, and if it can also be shown that science informs philosophy, then, while it is possible for both disciplines to operate autonomously, each should welcome the checks and balances that each provides for one another in the investigation and explanation of reality.

  17. Primary health-care nurses and Internet health information-seeking: Access, barriers and quality checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Jean; Strong, Alison; Chan, Helen; Hanna, Sue; Huntington, Annette

    2016-02-01

    Online information is a critical resource for evidence-based practice and patient education. This study aimed to establish New Zealand nurses' access and evaluation of online health information in the primary care context using a postal questionnaire survey; there were 630 respondents from a random sample of 931 nurses. The majority of respondents were satisfied with work access to online information (84.5%, n = 501) and searched for online information at least several times a week (57.5%, n = 343). The major barrier to online information seeking was insufficient time, but 68 respondents had no work online information access. The level of nursing qualification was significantly correlated with computer confidence and information quality checking. A range of information evaluation approaches was used. Most nurses in study accessed and evaluated Internet information in contrast to the findings of earlier studies, but there were barriers preventing universal integration into practice.

  18. A conceptual model of check dam hydraulics for gully control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castillo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little information in scientific literature regarding the modifications induced by check dam systems in flow regimes in restored gully reaches, despite it being a crucial issue for the design of conservation measures. Here, we develop a conceptual model to classify flow regimes in straight rectangular channels for initial and dam-filling conditions as well as a method of estimating efficiency in order to provide guidelines for optimal design. The model integrates several previous mathematical approaches for assessing the main processes involved (hydraulic jump HJ, impact flow, gradually varied flows. Its performance was compared with the simulations obtained from IBER, a bi-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The impact of check dam spacing (defined by the geometric factor of influence c on efficiency was explored. Eleven main classifications of flow regimes were identified depending on the element and level of influence. The model produced similar results when compared with IBER, but led to higher estimations of HJ and impact lengths. Total influence guaranteed maximum efficiency and HJ control defining the location of the optimal c. Geometric total influence (c = 1 was a valid criterion for the different stages of the structures in a wide range of situations provided that hydraulic roughness conditions remained high within the gully, e.g. through revegetation. Our total influence criterion involved shorter spacing than that habitually recommended in technical manuals for restoration, but was in line with those values found in spontaneous and stable step-pools systems, which might serve as a reference for man-made interventions.

  19. Applicability of refractometry for fast routine checking of hospital preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Stijn; Verón, Aurora Monteagudo; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2016-04-30

    Quality control of hospital pharmacy formulations is of the utmost importance to ensure constant quality and to avoid potential mistakes before administration to the patient. In this study we investigated the applicability of refractometry as a fast, inexpensive and easy-to-use quality control measurement. Refractive indices (RI) of a multitude of different hospital formulations with varying concentrations of active compound were measured. The samples consisted of a number of binary aqueous solutions (one compound in water), complex aqueous solutions (multiple compounds in water or in a constant matrix), two suspensions and one emulsion. For all these formulations, linear regression analysis was performed, quality control limits determined and accuracy and repeatability were checked. Subsequently, actual hospital pharmacy samples were analyzed to check whether they were within the specified limits. For both binary and complex aqueous formulations, repeatability was good and a linear correlation for all samples could be observed on condition that the concentration of the active compound was sufficiently high. The refractometer was not sensitive enough for solutions of folic acid and levothyroxine, which had too low a concentration of active compound. Due to lack of homogeneity and light scattering, emulsions and suspensions do not seem suitable for quality control by refractometry. A mathematical equation was generated to predict the refractive index of an aqueous solution containing clonidine HCl as active compound. Values calculated from the equation were compared with measured values and deviations of all samples were found to be lower than 1.3%. In order to use refractometry in a hospital pharmacy for quality control of multicomponent samples, additional intermediate measurements would be required, to overcome the fact that refractometry is not compound specific. In conclusion, we found that refractometry could potentially be useful for daily, fast quality

  20. Tarmo: A Framework for Parallelized Bounded Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siert Wieringa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates approaches to parallelizing Bounded Model Checking (BMC for shared memory environments as well as for clusters of workstations. We present a generic framework for parallelized BMC named Tarmo. Our framework can be used with any incremental SAT encoding for BMC but for the results in this paper we use only the current state-of-the-art encoding for full PLTL. Using this encoding allows us to check both safety and liveness properties, contrary to an earlier work on distributing BMC that is limited to safety properties only. Despite our focus on BMC after it has been translated to SAT, existing distributed SAT solvers are not well suited for our application. This is because solving a BMC problem is not solving a set of independent SAT instances but rather involves solving multiple related SAT instances, encoded incrementally, where the satisfiability of each instance corresponds to the existence of a counterexample of a specific length. Our framework includes a generic architecture for a shared clause database that allows easy clause sharing between SAT solver threads solving various such instances. We present extensive experimental results obtained with multiple variants of our Tarmo implementation. Our shared memory variants have a significantly better performance than conventional single threaded approaches, which is a result that many users can benefit from as multi-core and multi-processor technology is widely available. Furthermore we demonstrate that our framework can be deployed in a typical cluster of workstations, where several multi-core machines are connected by a network.