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Sample records for checking alternating timed

  1. Efficient on-the-fly Algorithm for Checking Alternating Timed Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    of building a symbolic turn-based two-player game such that the existence of a winning strategy is equivalent to the simulation being satisfied. We also propose an on-the-fly algorithm for solving this game. This simulation checking method can be applied to the case of non-alternating or strong simulations...

  2. On the Complexity of Model-Checking Branching and Alternating-Time Temporal Logics in One-Counter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    We study the complexity of the model-checking problem for the branching-time logic CTL ∗  and the alternating-time temporal logics ATL/ATL ∗  in one-counter processes and one-counter games respectively. The complexity is determined for all three logics when integer weights are input in unary (non...

  3. Model-Checking an Alternating-time Temporal Logic with Knowledge, Imperfect Information, Perfect Recall and Communicating Coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Dima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a variant of ATL with distributed knowledge operators based on a synchronous and perfect recall semantics. The coalition modalities in this logic are based on partial observation of the full history, and incorporate a form of cooperation between members of the coalition in which agents issue their actions based on the distributed knowledge, for that coalition, of the system history. We show that model-checking is decidable for this logic. The technique utilizes two variants of games with imperfect information and partially observable objectives, as well as a subset construction for identifying states whose histories are indistinguishable to the considered coalition.

  4. Checking Timed Automata for Linear Duration Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2000-01-01

    It is proved in this paper that checking a timed automaton M with respect to a linear duration property D can be done by investigating only the integral timed states of M. An equivalence relation is introduced in this paper to divide the infinite number of integral timed states into finite number of equivalence classes. Based on this, a method is proposed for checking whether M satisfies D. In some cases, the number of equivalence classes is too large for a computer to manipulate. A technique for reducing the search-space for checking linear duration property is also described. This technique is more suitable for the case in this paper than those in the literature because most of those techniques are designed for reachability analysis.

  5. Checking MSC Specifications for Timing Inconsistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuandong(李宣东); TAN Wenkai(谭文凯); ZHENG Guoliang(郑国梁)

    2002-01-01

    Message sequence chart (MSC) is a graphical and textual language for the description and specification of the interactions between system components. MSC specifica tions allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and offer an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Like any other aspect of the specification and design process, MSCs are amenable to errors, and their analysis is important. In this paper, the verification problem of MSC specification for timing inconsistency is studied, which means that no execu tion scenario described by an MSC specification is timing consistent. An algorithm is developed to check MSC specifications for timing inconsistency.

  6. Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle; Vaandrager, Frits W.

    We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication of a...

  7. Practical Run-time Checking via Unobtrusive Property Caching

    OpenAIRE

    Stulova, Nataliia; Morales, José F.; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2015-01-01

    The use of annotations, referred to as assertions or contracts, to describe program properties for which run-time tests are to be generated, has become frequent in dynamic programing languages. However, the frameworks proposed to support such run-time testing generally incur high time and/or space overheads over standard program execution. We present an approach for reducing this overhead that is based on the use of memoization to cache intermediate results of check evaluation, avoiding repea...

  8. Time-of-flight spectroscopy: energy calibration and consistensy check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunault, A.; Andersen, K. H.; Blanc, Y.; Fåk, B.; Godfrin, H.; Guckelsberger, K.; Scherm, R.

    1992-06-01

    A method for calibration of the energy transfers at a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer is presented: flight pamths and wavelength are determined to 10 -3 using the arrival times of neutron pulses and prompt capture γs from the sample. We also developed a method to check the reproducibility of a series of TFO data sets, each with over 50 000 data points.

  9. Model-Checking Linear-Time Properties of Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    We define a formal framework for reasoning about linear-time properties of quantum systems in which quantum automata are employed in the modeling of systems and certain closed subspaces of state (Hilbert) spaces are used as the atomic propositions about the behavior of systems. We provide an algorithm for verifying invariants of quantum automata. Then automata-based model-checking technique is generalized for the verification of safety properties recognizable by reversible automata and omega-properties recognizable by reversible Buechi automata.

  10. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary of this...... logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints on their...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  11. Verifying Real-time Commit Protocols Using Dense-time Model Checking Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bataineh, Omar I.; Reynolds, Mark; French, Tim; Woodings, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The timed-based automata model, introduced by Alur and Dill, provides a useful formalism for describing real-time systems. Over the last two decades, several dense-time model checking tools have been developed based on that model. The paper considers the verification of real-time distributed commit protocols using dense-time model checking technology. More precisely, we model and verify the well-known timed two phase commit protocol in three different state-of-the-art real-time model checkers...

  12. Verifying Real-time Commit Protocols Using Dense-time Model Checking Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bataineh, Omar I; French, Tim; Woodings, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The timed-based automata model, introduced by Alur and Dill, provides a useful formalism for describing real-time systems. Over the last two decades, several dense-time model checking tools have been developed based on that model. The paper considers the verification of real-time distributed commit protocols using dense-time model checking technology. More precisely, we model and verify the well-known timed two phase commit protocol in three different state-of-the-art real-time model checkers: UPPAAL, Rabbit, and RED, and compare the results.

  13. Model Checking Real Time Java Using Java PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Gary; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Visser, Willem

    2005-01-01

    The Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) is an augmentation of Java for real time applications of various degrees of hardness. The central features of RTSJ are real time threads; user defined schedulers; asynchronous events, handlers, and control transfers; a priority inheritance based default scheduler; non-heap memory areas such as immortal and scoped, and non-heap real time threads whose execution is not impeded by garbage collection. The Robust Software Systems group at NASA Ames Research Center has JAVA PATHFINDER (JPF) under development, a Java model checker. JPF at its core is a state exploring JVM which can examine alternative paths in a Java program (e.g., via backtracking) by trying all nondeterministic choices, including thread scheduling order. This paper describes our implementation of an RTSJ profile (subset) in JPF, including requirements, design decisions, and current implementation status. Two examples are analyzed: jobs on a multiprogramming operating system, and a complex resource contention example involving autonomous vehicles crossing an intersection. The utility of JPF in finding logic and timing errors is illustrated, and the remaining challenges in supporting all of RTSJ are assessed.

  14. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun;

    2013-01-01

    probabilistic operator. CCSL allows us to express a richer class of properties for CTMCs. Based on a parameterized product obtained from the CTMC and an automaton extracted from a given CCSL formula, we propose an approximate model checking algorithm and analyse its complexity....

  15. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. An Efficient Explicit-time Description Method for Timed Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao; 10.4204/EPTCS.14.6

    2009-01-01

    Timed model checking, the method to formally verify real-time systems, is attracting increasing attention from both the model checking community and the real-time community. Explicit-time description methods verify real-time systems using general model constructs found in standard un-timed model checkers. Lamport proposed an explicit-time description method using a clock-ticking process (Tick) to simulate the passage of time together with a group of global variables to model time requirements. Two methods, the Sync-based Explicit-time Description Method using rendezvous synchronization steps and the Semaphore-based Explicit-time Description Method using only one global variable were proposed; they both achieve better modularity than Lamport's method in modeling the real-time systems. In contrast to timed automata based model checkers like UPPAAL, explicit-time description methods can access and store the current time instant for future calculations necessary for many real-time systems, especially those with p...

  17. Model Checking Classes of Metric LTL Properties of Object-Oriented Real-Time Maude Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Ábrahám; Peter Csaba Ölveczky; Daniela Lepri

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a transformational approach for model checking two important classes of metric temporal logic (MTL) properties, namely, bounded response and minimum separation, for nonhierarchical object-oriented Real-Time Maude specifications. We prove the correctness of our model checking algorithms, which terminate under reasonable non-Zeno-ness assumptions when the reachable state space is finite. These new model checking features have been integrated into Real-Time Maude, and are use...

  18. Model checking of time Petri nets using the state class timed automaton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lime, Didier; Roux, Olivier H.

    2006-01-01

    behavioral semantics of the TPN (the initial TPN and the obtained TA are proved timed-bisimilar). It allows us to check real-time properties on TPN by using the state class TA. This can be done efficiently thanks to a reduction of the number of clocks. We have implemented the method, and give some...... experimental results illustrating the efficiency of the translation algorithm in terms of number of clocks. Using the state class TA, we also give a framework for expressing and efficiently verifying TCTL properties on the initial TPN....

  19. Alternating-time temporal logic with finite-memory strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Vester

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Model-checking the alternating-time temporal logics ATL and ATL* with incomplete information is undecidable for perfect recall semantics. However, when restricting to memoryless strategies the model-checking problem becomes decidable. In this paper we consider two other types of semantics based on finite-memory strategies. One where the memory size allowed is bounded and one where the memory size is unbounded (but must be finite. This is motivated by the high complexity of model-checking with perfect recall semantics and the severe limitations of memoryless strategies. We show that both types of semantics introduced are different from perfect recall and memoryless semantics and next focus on the decidability and complexity of model-checking in both complete and incomplete information games for ATL/ATL*. In particular, we show that the complexity of model-checking with bounded-memory semantics is Delta_2p-complete for ATL and PSPACE-complete for ATL* in incomplete information games just as in the memoryless case. We also present a proof that ATL and ATL* model-checking is undecidable for n >= 3 players with finite-memory semantics in incomplete information games.

  20. Efficient model checking for duration calculus based on branching-time approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2008-01-01

    Duration Calculus (abbreviated to DC) is an interval-based, metric-time temporal logic designed for reasoning about embedded real-time systems at a high level of abstraction. But the complexity of model checking any decidable fragment featuring both negation and chop, DC's only modality, is non......-elementary and thus impractical. We here investigate a similar approximation as frequently employed in model checking situation-based temporal logics, where linear-time problems are safely approximated by branching-time counterparts amenable to more efficient model-checking algorithms. Mimicking the role that a...... situation has in (A)CTL as origin of a set of linear traces, we define a branching-time counterpart to interval-based temporal logics building on situation pairs spanning sets of intervals. While this branching-time interval semantics yields the desired reduction in complexity of the model-checking problem...

  1. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, M.; Madsen, R. G.; Mortensen, S. K.; Pettersson, P.; Thomasen, C. B.

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model of...... UPPAAL. The fixed scheduling algorithm used by the LEGO(R) RCX(TM) processor is modeled in UPPALL, and supply of similar (sufficient) timed automata models for the environment allows analysis of the overall real-time system using the tools of UPPALL. To illustrate our technique for sorting LEGO(R) bricks...

  2. Posterior Predictive Checks for Conditional Independence between Response Time and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Conditional independence (CI) between response time and response accuracy is a fundamental assumption of many joint models for time and accuracy used in educational measurement. In this study, posterior predictive checks (PPCs) are proposed for testing this assumption. These PPCs are based on three discrepancy measures reflecting different…

  3. Model Checking Process Algebra of Communicating Resources for Real-time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACOR, for real-time systems which deals with resource constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACOR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to express preemptiveness, urgent ness and...... original semantics of PACOR and enables the verification of PACOR systems using symbolic model checking in UPPAAL and statistical model checking UPPAAL SMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACOR, translation and verification....

  4. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  5. Multi-Core Emptiness Checking of Timed Büchi Automata using Inclusion Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laarman, Alfons; Olesen, Mads Chr.; Dalsgaard, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    the first parallel LTL model checking algorithm for timed automata. The algorithms are implemented in LTSmin, and experimental evaluations show the effectiveness and scalability of both contributions: subsumption halves the number of states in the real-world FDDI case study, and the multi......This paper contributes to the multi-core model checking of timed automata (TA) with respect to liveness properties, by investigating checking of TA Büchi emptiness under the very coarse inclusion abstraction or zone subsumption, an open problem in this field. We show that in general Büchi emptiness...... is not preserved under this abstraction, but some other structural properties are preserved. Based on those, we propose a variation of the classical nested depth-first search (NDFS) algorithm that exploits subsumption. In addition, we extend the multi-core cndfs algorithm with subsumption, providing...

  6. Stochastic Semantics and Statistical Model Checking for Networks of Priced Timed Automata

    CERN Document Server

    David, Alexandre; Legay, Axel; Mikučionis, Marius; Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted; van Vliet, Jonas; Wang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a natural stochastic semantics of Networks of Priced Timed Automata (NPTA) based on races between components. The semantics provides the basis for satisfaction of probabilistic Weighted CTL properties (PWCTL), conservatively extending the classical satisfaction of timed automata with respect to TCTL. In particular the extension allows for hard real-time properties of timed automata expressible in TCTL to be refined by performance properties, e.g. in terms of probabilistic guarantees of time- and cost-bounded properties. A second contribution of the paper is the application of Statistical Model Checking (SMC) to efficiently estimate the correctness of non-nested PWCTL model checking problems with a desired level of confidence, based on a number of independent runs of the NPTA. In addition to applying classical SMC algorithms, we also offer an extension that allows to efficiently compare performance properties of NPTAs in a parametric setting. The third contribution is an efficient tool implem...

  7. Model-Checking Real-Time Properties of an Aircraft Landing Gear System Using Fiacre

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomieu, Bernard; Dal Zilio, Silvano; Fronc, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    International audience We describe our experience with modeling the landing gear system of an aircraft using the formal specification language Fiacre. Our model takes into account the behavior and timing properties of both the physical parts and the control software of this system. We use this formal model to check safety and real-time properties on the system but also to find a safe bound on the maximal time needed for all gears to be down and locked (assuming the absence of failures). Ou...

  8. Elimination of Fixed Checkin/Check-Out Time as a Source of Entrepreneurial Edge in Hotel Business

    OpenAIRE

    Uzonna Joseph, Onyemeh

    2013-01-01

    This research uses the travails of a young engineer, Nigel, during his international travels and challenges he encountered with erratic check-in/checkout time at hotels, to explore the elimination of fixed check-in/check-out as an entrepreneurial opportunity that can generate competitive advantage. The hotel industry in Malaysia, a Southeast Asian country of about 28million people, provides the contextual background for the study. The situation analysis of Malaysia hotel ind...

  9. Model checking Branching-Time Properties of Multi-Pushdown Systems is Hard

    CERN Document Server

    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi; Kumar, K Narayan; Saivasan, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We address the model checking problem for shared memory concurrent programs modeled as multi-pushdown systems. We consider here boolean programs with a finite number of threads and recursive procedures. It is well-known that the model checking problem is undecidable for this class of programs. In this paper, we investigate the decidability and the complexity of this problem under the assumption of bounded context-switching defined by Qadeer and Rehof, and of phase-boundedness proposed by La Torre et al. On the model checking of such systems against temporal logics and in particular branching time logics such as the modal $\\mu$-calculus or CTL has received little attention. It is known that parity games, which are closely related to the modal $\\mu$-calculus, are decidable for the class of bounded-phase systems (and hence for bounded-context switching as well), but with non-elementary complexity (Seth). A natural question is whether this high complexity is inevitable and what are the ways to get around it. This...

  10. Run-Time Assertion Checking of Data- and Protocol-Oriented Properties of Java Programs: An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, C.P.T. de; Boer, F.S. de; Johnsen, E.B.; Kohn, A.; Wong, P.Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Run-time assertion checking is one of the useful techniques for detecting faults, and can be applied during any program execution context, including debugging, testing, and production. In general, however, it is limited to checking state-based properties. We introduce SAGA, a general framework that

  11. Model Checking Probabilistic Real-Time Properties for Service-Oriented Systems with Service Level Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krause

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of quality of service properties is an important aspect of service-oriented software engineering. Notations for so-called service level agreements (SLAs, such as the Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA language, provide a formal syntax to specify such assurances in terms of (legally binding contracts between a service provider and a customer. On the other hand, formal methods for verification of probabilistic real-time behavior have reached a level of expressiveness and efficiency which allows to apply them in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we suggest to employ the recently introduced model of Interval Probabilistic Timed Automata (IPTA for formal verification of QoS properties of service-oriented systems. Specifically, we show that IPTA in contrast to Probabilistic Timed Automata (PTA are able to capture the guarantees specified in SLAs directly. A particular challenge in the analysis of IPTA is the fact that their naive semantics usually yields an infinite set of states and infinitely-branching transitions. However, using symbolic representations, IPTA can be analyzed rather efficiently. We have developed the first implementation of an IPTA model checker by extending the PRISM tool and show that model checking IPTA is only slightly more expensive than model checking comparable PTA.

  12. Paper or plastic? the effect of time on the use of check and debit cards at grocery stores

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth C. Klee

    2006-01-01

    Time is a significant cost of conducting transactions, and theoretical models predict that transactions costs significantly affect the type of media of exchange buyers use. However, there is little empirical work documenting the magnitude of this effect. This paper uses grocery store scanner data to examine how time affects consumer choices of checks and debit cards. On average, check transactions take thirty percent longer than debit card transactions. This time difference is a significant f...

  13. Visual Predictive Check in Models with Time-Varying Input Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largajolli, Anna; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Campioni, Marco; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear mixed effects models are commonly used modeling techniques in the pharmaceutical research as they enable the characterization of the individual profiles together with the population to which the individuals belong. To ensure a correct use of them is fundamental to provide powerful diagnostic tools that are able to evaluate the predictive performance of the models. The visual predictive check (VPC) is a commonly used tool that helps the user to check by visual inspection if the model is able to reproduce the variability and the main trend of the observed data. However, the simulation from the model is not always trivial, for example, when using models with time-varying input function (IF). In this class of models, there is a potential mismatch between each set of simulated parameters and the associated individual IF which can cause an incorrect profile simulation. We introduce a refinement of the VPC by taking in consideration a correlation term (the Mahalanobis or normalized Euclidean distance) that helps the association of the correct IF with the individual set of simulated parameters. We investigate and compare its performance with the standard VPC in models of the glucose and insulin system applied on real and simulated data and in a simulated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) example. The newly proposed VPC performance appears to be better with respect to the standard VPC especially for the models with big variability in the IF where the probability of simulating incorrect profiles is higher. PMID:26265094

  14. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  15. On-line Monitoring of Metric Temporal Logic with Time- Series Constraints Using Alternating Finite Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Drusinsky, Doron

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a technique for monitoring and checking temporal logic assertions augmented with real-time and time-series constraints, or Metric Temporal Logic Series (MTLS). The method is based on Remote Execution and Monitoring (REM) of temporal logic assertions. We describe the syntax and semantics of MTLS and a monitoring technique based on alternating finite automata that is efficient for a large set of frequently used formulae and is also an on-line technique. ...

  16. Alternative method for full flow stroke testing of safety injection tank check valves at Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the evolution that led to the use of a reduced pressure safety injection tank (SIT) dump as the preferred test method for full-stroke testing the SIT check valves at Fort Calhoun Station. This discussion includes the following: (1) An interpretation of the Code requirements for full-stroke testing of check valves, (2) problems encountered with various test methods, (3) the analysis technique used to relate the reduced-pressure flow test results to safety analysis flow requirements, (4) a description of the test method and results to date, and (5) summary of resource expenditures while evaluating the test methods. Fort Calhoun Station found that a reduced-pressure SIT dump was the most cost-effective method of SIT chock valve testing that would yield credible test results

  17. Checking Java Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut tells you about tools that will improve the quality of your Java code, using checking above and beyond what the standard tools do, including: Using javac options, JUnit and assertions Making your IDE work harder Checking your source code with PMD Checking your compiled code (.class files) with FindBugs Checking your program's run-time behavior with Java PathFinder

  18. CHECKING AND VERIFYING TEMPORAL DATA VALIDITY USING VALID TIME TEMPORAL DIMENSION AND QUERIES IN ORACLE 12C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaypalsinh A. Gohil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Database is the most convenient form to represent time element associated with data. Temporal validity support a unique feature of temporal database lets you associate one or more valid time dimensions with a table and have data be visible depending on its time-based validity, as determined by the start and end dates or time stamps of the period for which a given record is considered to be a valid record. This study focuses on checking and verification of temporal data using valid time dimension of temporal database. This study covers the steps for adding a valid time dimension on a table, and various methods for querying the table and retrieving records based on a specified valid time value or range with help of Oracle 12c.

  19. Calculation of plantar pressure time integral, an alternative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melai, Tom; IJzerman, T Herman; Schaper, Nicolaas C; de Lange, Ton L H; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Lieverse, Aloysius G; Savelberg, Hans H C M

    2011-07-01

    In plantar pressure measurement, both peak pressure and pressure time integral are used as variables to assess plantar loading. However, pressure time integral shows a high concordance with peak pressure. Many researchers and clinicians use Novel software (Novel GmbH Inc., Munich, Germany) that calculates this variable as the summation of the products of peak pressure and duration per time sample, which is not a genuine integral of pressure over time. Therefore, an alternative calculation method was introduced. The aim of this study was to explore the relevance of this alternative method, in different populations. Plantar pressure variables were measured in 76 people with diabetic polyneuropathy, 33 diabetic controls without polyneuropathy and 19 healthy subjects. Peak pressure and pressure time integral were obtained using Novel software. The quotient of the genuine force time integral over contact area was obtained as the alternative pressure time integral calculation. This new alternative method correlated less with peak pressure than the pressure time integral as calculated by Novel. The two methods differed significantly and these differences varied between the foot sole areas and between groups. The largest differences were found under the metatarsal heads in the group with diabetic polyneuropathy. From a theoretical perspective, the alternative approach provides a more valid calculation of the pressure time integral. In addition, this study showed that the alternative calculation is of added value, along peak pressure calculation, to interpret adapted plantar pressures patterns in particular in patients at risk for foot ulceration. PMID:21737281

  20. A Framework for Relating Timed Transition Systems and Preserving TCTL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær; Srba, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Many formal translations between time dependent models have been proposed over the years. While some of them produce timed bisimilar models, others preserve only reachability or (weak) trace equivalence. We suggest a general framework for arguing when a translation preserves Timed Computation Tree...... Logic (TCTL) or its safety fragment.The framework works at the level of timed transition systems, making it independent of the modeling formalisms and applicable to many of the translations published in the literature. Finally, we present a novel translation from extended Timed-Arc Petri Nets to...

  1. Deterministic Timed AFA: A New Class of Timed Alternating Finite Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz Fellah; Zachary Friggstad; Soufiane Noureddine

    2007-01-01

    Timed Alternating Finite Automata (TAFA), a natural generalization of Timed Finite Automata (TFA), are synchronous and powerful models for real-time computations. They become an effective and expressive model for developing embedded systems with real-time constraint computations which are required in many applications. We introduce Deterministic Timed Alternating Finite Automata (DTAFA), a new class of timed alternating finite automata, extended with a finite set of restricted and mutually ex...

  2. Posttransfusion Haematocrit Equilibration: Timing Posttransfusion Haematocrit Check in Neonates at the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Audu, L. I.; A. T. Otuneye; Mairami, A. B.; L. J. Mshelia; Nwatah, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common morbidity in the NICU and often requires transfusion of packed red blood cells. Haematocrit equilibration following red cell transfusion occurs over time ultimately resulting in a stable packed cell volume (PCV). Knowledge of this equilibration process is pertinent in the accurate timing of posttransfusion (PT) PCV. We conducted a prospective study to determine an appropriate timing for PT PCV estimation on 47 stable anaemic babies at the Neonatal Unit of National Hospital...

  3. Prohibited Items, Wait Time, Baggage and Baggage ASP, Passenger and Passenger ASP, Travel Document Check (TDC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — TSA operational data including: Airport wait time (hourly) data Airport throughput (hourly) data Prohibited item (hourly) data Monthly Objectives Report (MOR) data...

  4. Valuation of Temp-Time's Fresh-Check® Indicator on Perishable Food Products in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Corey; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Consumers are becoming acutely attentive to the factors that influence food safety and food wholesomeness. The food industry is well regulated, yet there is still illness that results from contaminated fresh food products. Recent food contamination outbreaks and concerns with how food is grown have created an almost hypersensitive food consumer. The TempTime Corporation is a leading international manufacturer in time-temperature sensitive indicators for fresh food products. This company's aim...

  5. Using the time domain reflectometer to check for a locate a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is one of the most useful tools for finding cable faults (opens, shorts, bad cable splices). The TDR is connected to the end of the line and shows the distance to the fault. It uses a low voltage signal that will not damage the line or interfere with nearby lines. The TDR sends a pulse or energy down the cable under test; when the pulse encounters the end of the cable or any cable fault, a portion of the pulse energy is reflected. The elapsed time of the reflected pulse is and indication of the distance to the fault. The shape of the reflected pulse uniquely identifies the type of cable fault. (author)

  6. Model Checking Probabilistic Real-Time Properties for Service-Oriented Systems with Service Level Agreements

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Christian; 10.4204/EPTCS.73.8

    2011-01-01

    The assurance of quality of service properties is an important aspect of service-oriented software engineering. Notations for so-called service level agreements (SLAs), such as the Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA) language, provide a formal syntax to specify such assurances in terms of (legally binding) contracts between a service provider and a customer. On the other hand, formal methods for verification of probabilistic real-time behavior have reached a level of expressiveness and efficiency which allows to apply them in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we suggest to employ the recently introduced model of Interval Probabilistic Timed Automata (IPTA) for formal verification of QoS properties of service-oriented systems. Specifically, we show that IPTA in contrast to Probabilistic Timed Automata (PTA) are able to capture the guarantees specified in SLAs directly. A particular challenge in the analysis of IPTA is the fact that their naive semantics usually yields an infinite set of states and infinitely...

  7. Check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs

  8. Variable time flow as an alternative to dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Magain, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modelling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the Universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which cosmological time flows depends on the global geometric curvature the Universe. Using a simple one-parameter model for the relation between proper time and curvature, we build a cosmological model that fits the Type Ia Supernovae data (the best cosmological standard candles) without the need for dark energy nor probably exotic dark matter.

  9. Forecasting Stock Prices by Using Alternative Time Series Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kivilcim Metin; Gulnur Muradoglu

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the forecast performance of alternative time series models, namely VAR in levels, stochastic seasonal models (SSM) and error correction models (ECM) at the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). Considering the emerging market characteristic of the ISE, stock prices are estimated by using, money supply, inflation rate, interest rates, exchange rates and budget deficits. Then, in an out-of-sample forecasting exercise from January 1995 through December 1995, comp...

  10. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks.

  11. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks

  12. The evolution of dark energy density parameter with the time depend gravitational constant in the Ho$\\check{r}$ava-Lifshitz cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Saaidi, Kh

    2010-01-01

    We study the holographic dark energy on the subject of Ho$\\check{r}$ava-Lifshitz gravity with a time dependent gravitational constant (G(t)), in the non-flat space-time. We obtain the differential equation that specify the evolution of the dark energy density parameter based on varying gravitational constant. we find out a relation for the state parameter of the dark energy equation to low redshifts which containing varying $G$ correction.

  13. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based on...

  14. Intelligent Data Visualization for Cross-Checking Spacecraft System Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James C.; McCann, Robert S.; Remolina, Emilio; Breeden, David; Stroozas, Brett A.; Mohammed, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Any reasoning system is fallible, so crew members and flight controllers must be able to cross-check automated diagnoses of spacecraft or habitat problems by considering alternate diagnoses and analyzing related evidence. Cross-checking improves diagnostic accuracy because people can apply information processing heuristics, pattern recognition techniques, and reasoning methods that the automated diagnostic system may not possess. Over time, cross-checking also enables crew members to become comfortable with how the diagnostic reasoning system performs, so the system can earn the crew s trust. We developed intelligent data visualization software that helps users cross-check automated diagnoses of system faults more effectively. The user interface displays scrollable arrays of timelines and time-series graphs, which are tightly integrated with an interactive, color-coded system schematic to show important spatial-temporal data patterns. Signal processing and rule-based diagnostic reasoning automatically identify alternate hypotheses and data patterns that support or rebut the original and alternate diagnoses. A color-coded matrix display summarizes the supporting or rebutting evidence for each diagnosis, and a drill-down capability enables crew members to quickly view graphs and timelines of the underlying data. This system demonstrates that modest amounts of diagnostic reasoning, combined with interactive, information-dense data visualizations, can accelerate system diagnosis and cross-checking.

  15. Regular health checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....

  16. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  17. Keeping valves in check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check valves are located in almost all safety and non-safety related fluid systems in a nuclear power plant. Malfunction or failure of these valves during plant operations, or in some cases under cold shutdown conditions, can seriously affect plant safety and result in costly, time-consuming maintenance. A major cause of check valve failure in the past has been excessive wear of internal components due to high disc flutter. Valve operation under conditions that cause the valve disc and hinge arm to oscillate or flutter can lead to degradations which, if undetected and not corrected, may result in malfunction or failure. Checkmate II, a portable, non-intrusive diagnostic system, has been developed to test various types of check valves using patented ultrasonic testing technology. The system comprises a computer, ultrasonic oscilloscope, transducers, and supporting hardware, and can identify many different phenomena, including: disc position and disc flutter; backstop and seat tapping; relative motion between hinge arm and disc; hinge pin wear and uneven hinge pin wear; disc stud wear and loosened stud nuts; combined stud and hinge pin wear, stuck and missing discs; broken springs. (author)

  18. Symbolic Models for Nonlinear Time-Varying Time-Delay Systems via Alternating Approximate Bisimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pola, Giordano; Di Benedetto, Maria Domenica

    2010-01-01

    Time-delay systems are an important class of dynamical systems that provide a solid mathematical framework to deal with many application domains of interest. In this paper we focus on nonlinear control systems with unknown and time-varying delay signals and we propose one approach to the control design of such systems, which is based on the construction of symbolic models. Symbolic models are abstract descriptions of dynamical systems in which one symbolic state and one symbolic input correspond to an aggregate of states and an aggregate of inputs. We first introduce the notion of incremental input-delay-to-state stability and characterize it by means of Liapunov-Krasovskii functionals. We then derive sufficient conditions for the existence of symbolic models that are shown to be alternating approximately bisimilar to the original system. Further results are also derived which prove the computability of the proposed symbolic models in a finite number of steps.

  19. A high spatial and temporal resolutions quality assurance tool for checking the accuracy of HDR source dwell positions and times

    OpenAIRE

    Shum, Tsz-hang; 岑梓恆

    2013-01-01

    In High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, treatment dose to patients is highly dependent on the accuracy of positioning and duration of the source. Source misplacement or wrong duration of treatment could potentially result in adverse clinical side effects to patients. In order to maintain successful treatment for patients, an independent Quality Assurance (QA) verification is crucial to measure the High Dose Rate (HDR) source positioning and dwell time periodically to ensure the prescribed dose...

  20. Variable time flow as an alternative to dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Magain, Pierre; Hauret, Clémentine

    2016-01-01

    Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modelling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the ...

  1. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 January 2015. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  2. [Complementary and alternative medicine--time for research and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of complementary and alternative medicine [CAM] is increasing in popularity in the modern world. In this issue of Harefuah, seven articles relate to various aspects of CAM: the use of various modalities of CAM in four community clinics in Northern Israel, an assessment of the needs and expectations of patients on chemotherapy from the integration of CAM in palliative oncological care, a description of a series of quality research studies relating to CAM in hemato-oncological disorders and autoimmune diseases and a discussion of ethical dilemmas and issues relating to Jewish law. Other authors review the history of clinical studies with an emphasis on mind-body connection and the placebo effect. The conclusion that may be derived about CAM from this compilation of articles is that, despite the ltack of scientific evidence to support the paradigm underlying most CAM modalities and the scarcity of evidence to support its efficacy, the increasing popularity of CAM should lead us to expand research into CAM and to teach our medical students about CAM. We should do so for the sake of proper doctor-patient relationships and to prevent improper use of CAM by the general public. The diversity of CAM modalities and the heterogeneity of training patterns among those who practice CAM call for the prompt regulation of training and licensing of all CAM practitioners. PMID:21939117

  3. Time on Camera: An Alternative Explanation of NASCAR Tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Groothuis; Jana Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff

    2009-01-01

    NASCAR’s reward structure for rank order tournaments has been considered the exception to the rule in tournament theory due to the linear payout structure. We suggest that the rewards for drivers are nonlinear when you take into consideration the value of sponsorship time on camera and sponsor mentions during a race on TV. Given the importance of corporate sponsorship in NASCAR, we suggest that performance in a race provides additional benefits that are not captured in traditional tournament ...

  4. Time for action: science education for an alternative future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2003-06-01

    Following a brief historical survey of the popular 'slogans' that have influenced science education during the past quarter century and a review of current international debate on scientific literacy and science pedagogy, the author takes the view that while much of value has been achieved, there is still considerable cause for concern and that it is time for action in two senses. First, it is time to take action on the school science curriculum because it no longer meets the needs, interests and aspirations of young citizens. Second, it is time for a science curriculum oriented toward sociopolitical action. The author argues that if current social and environmental problems are to be solved, we need a generation of scientifically and politically literate citizens who are not content with the role of 'armchair critic'. A particular concern in North America is the link between science education, economic globalization, increasing production and unlimited expansion - a link that threatens the freedom of individuals, the spiritual well-being of particular societies and the very future of the planet. The author's response is to advocate a politicized, issues-based curriculum focused on seven areas of concern (human health; food and agriculture; land, water and mineral resources; energy resources and consumption; industry; information transfer and transportation; ethics and social responsibility) and addressed at four levels of sophistication, culminating in preparation for sociopolitical action. The curriculum proposal outlined in the article is intended to produce activists: people who will fight for what is right, good and just; people who will work to re-fashion society along more socially-just lines; people who will work vigorously in the best interests of the biosphere. At the heart of this curriculum is a commitment to pursue a fundamental realignment of the values underpinning Western industrialized society. Achieving that goal is a formidable task - one that

  5. Personal time in alternative and time travel narrative: the cases of groundhog day, twelve monkeys and 2001: a space odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzotta, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    In alternative and time travel narratives, our everyday conception of time is often challenged. Similarly, in counterfactual history, various parallel realities exist. In time travel narrative, it is possible to travel in the past or in the future. In all of these cases, there are clues that help viewers to comprehend new ideas of time and, in some cases, the construction of the story time is not sufficient to comprehend the story. In order to solve some of the main logical paradoxes, persona...

  6. Control-flow checking via regular expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Benso, Alfredo; Di Natale, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; Prinetto, Paolo Ernesto; Tagliaferri, Luca

    2001-01-01

    The present paper explains a new approach to program control flow checking. The check has been inserted at source-code level using a signature methodology based on regular expressions. The signature checking is performed without a dedicated watchdog processor but resorting to inter-process communication (IPC) facilities offered by most of the modern operating systems. The proposed approach allows very low memory overhead and trade-off between fault latency and program execution time overhead

  7. Anonymity control in electronic check systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunguang; Yang Yixian; Hu Zhengming

    2005-01-01

    Electronic check systems, as one of electronic payment systems, are more desirable than other electronic cash systems. In the system, only a single check is used to pay any price that is not more than the face value. The main problem in check systems is to design an efficient refund mechanism that makes refund checks undistinguished from initial checks during payment and deposit. The problem of anonymity control also called fairness is also an important issue in check systems. All check systems yet are unconditional anonymity that opens the door to misuse for crime such as laundering and blackmailing. In this paper, the notion of anonymity revocation is introduced to electronic check system for the first time, and a model of fair electronic check system is proposed. An efficient fair online electronic check system with reusable refund is presented. In the system, a passive trustee is employed to revoke the anonymity of un-honest users. Moreover, the system solves the reusability problem of refunds thanks to the RSA-based partially signature. The system is efficient and meets all basic security requirements.

  8. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    of an abstract interpretation. For the generalisation to lattice automata to have benefit it is important that efficient tools exist. This thesis presents multi-core tools for efficient and scalable reachability and Büchi emptiness checking of timed/lattice automata. Finally, a number of case studies...... overapproximation of the hardware is needed; the case of identifying timing anomalous hardware for which such abstractions are hard to find is considered....

  9. Health Check Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthchecktools.html Health Check Tools To use the sharing features on ... Schedule (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Children's Health Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen ( ...

  10. Check It Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Check it Out Tests That Can Help Protect Your Heart ... years, or more often if your doctor recommends it. Other Tests There also are several tests that ...

  11. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  12. Application of Six Sigma management on shortening the waiting time of patients accepting CT check%应用六西格玛管理法缩短CT检查等候时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 曲路; 钟惠玲; 吴清香; 丁小容

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨应用六西格玛管理法缩短CT检查等候时间,以提高患者对医疗护理服务的满意度.方法 根据六西格玛5步法(即定义、测量、分析、改进、控制)对CT检查流程进行改进管理,包括成立六西格玛管理小组,测量CT检查等候时间,分析影响CT检查等候时间的因素,改进影响CT检查等候时间的措施,制订控制措施.结果 患者CT检查等候时间缩短(P<0.01),患者及医生满意度提高(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 应用六西格玛管理方法能有效提高CT检查的工作质量与效率.%Objective To explore the application of the six sigma management in shorting the waiting time of patients accepting CT check, and to improve patients'satisfaction of medical care service. Methods According to the five - step methods of Six Sigma( define, measure, analyz, improve, and control) ,the following measures were undertaken. The methods included establishing Six Sigma management team, measuring the waiting time of CT check, analyzing the influencing factors of the waiting time during CT check, improving measures of influencing CT check waiting time and making control measures. Results The waiting time of patients accepting CT check was shorten ( P < 0. 01 ) , the patient's and doctor's satisfaction were significantly increased ( P< 0. 01 or P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The application of Six Sigma management can effectively enhance the working quality and efficiency.

  13. Direct Model Checking Matrix Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Hans Kleine Büning; Li-Fu Wang

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, Model Checking has proven its efficacy and power in circuit design, network protocol analysis and bug hunting. Recent research on automatic verification has shown that no single model-checking technique has the edge over all others in all application areas. So, it is very difficult to determine which technique is the most suitable for a given model. It is thus sensible to apply different techniques to the same model. However, this is a very tedious and time-consuming task, for each algorithm uses its own description language. Applying Model Checking in software design and verification has been proved very difficult. Software architectures (SA) are engineering artifacts that provide high-level and abstract descriptions of complex software systems. In this paper a Direct Model Checking (DMC) method based on Kripke Structure and Matrix Algorithm is provided. Combined and integrated with domain specific software architecture description languages (ADLs), DMC can be used for computing consistency and other critical properties.

  14. Alternate Data Acquisition and Real-time Monitoring System on HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Peijie; Luo Jiarong; Wang Hua; Li Guiming

    2005-01-01

    A new system called alternate data acquisition and real-time monitoring system has been developed for long-time discharge in tokamak operation. It can support continuous on-line data acquisition at a high sampling rate and a graphic display of the plasma parameters during the discharge. Thus operators can monitor and control the plasma state in real time. An application of this system has been demonstrated on the HT-7 tokamak.

  15. The macroeconomic forecasting performance of autoregressive models with alternative specifications of time-varying volatility

    OpenAIRE

    CLARK, Todd E.; Francesco Ravazzolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares alternative models of time-varying macroeconomic volatility on the basis of the accuracy of point and density forecasts of macroeconomic variables. In this analysis, we consider both Bayesian autoregressive and Bayesian vector autoregressive models that incorporate some form of time-varying volatility, precisely stochastic volatility (both with constant and time-varying autoregressive coeffi cients), stochastic volatility following a stationary AR process, stochastic volat...

  16. Transaction management with integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Database integrity constraints, understood as logical conditions that must hold for any database state, are not fully supported by current database technology. It is typically up to the database designer and application programmer to enforce integrity via triggers or tests at the application level......, which are difficult to maintain and error prone. Two important aspects must be taken care of. 1.~It is too time consuming to check integrity constraints from scratch after each update, so simplified checks before each update should be used relying on the assumption that the current state is consistent....... 2.~In concurrent database systems, besides the traditional correctness criterion, the execution schedule must ensure that the different transactions can overlap in time without destroying the consistency requirements tested by other, concurrent transactions....

  17. Check valves aging assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out an assessment of several check value diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. The evaluations have focussed on the capabilities of each method to provide information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects, check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data, including data obtained from the vendors who recently participated in a comprehensive series of tests directed by a nuclear industry users group. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed that provide several unique capabilities. These methods, based on external ac- an dc-magnetic monitoring are also described. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor both the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information

  18. Checking modes of HAL programs

    OpenAIRE

    de la Banda, MG; Harvey, W; Marriott, K.; Stuckey, PJ; Demoen, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Recent constraint logic programming (CLP) languages, such as HAL and Mercury, require type, mode and determinism declarations for predicates. This information allows the generation of efficient target code and the detection of many errors at compile-time. Unfortunately, mode checking in such languages is difficult. One of the main reasons is that, for each predicate mode declaration, the compiler is required to appropriately re-order literals in the predicate's definition. The task is further...

  19. Point patterns occurring on complex structures in space and space-time: An alternative network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Eckardt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach of analyzing possibly multitype point patterns in space and space-time that occur on network structures, and introduces several different graph-related intensity measures. The proposed formalism allows to control for processes on undirected, directional as well as partially directed network structures and is not restricted to linearity or circularity.

  20. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  1. Selection of alternative routings in real time: DMM and modified DMM rules

    OpenAIRE

    HASSAM, Ahmed; SARI, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of the modified Dissimilarity Maximisation Method (modified DMM) for real-time Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) scheduling. The modified DMM is an improvement over the DMM. It is a plan selection method for an alternative process that was developed for routing selection in real-time FMS scheduling. A computer simulation model, which mimics a physical system, is used to evaluate the effect of DMM and modified DMM r...

  2. Checking for Ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... glucose-and-a1c, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  3. A computer-checked verification of Milner's scheduler

    OpenAIRE

    Korver, H.; Springintveld, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present an equational verification of Milner's scheduler, which we checked by computer.To our knowledge this is the first time that the scheduler is proof-checked for a general number n of scheduled processes.

  4. Breaking the Time Barrier: Algebra Instruction in an Alternate-Day Block Schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Vella S.

    1998-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over half of the high schools in Virginia utilized a block schedule in 1996-97. With an extended block of time, teachers have the opportunity to vary instruction to incorporate a range of strategies to enhance student engagement and increase student achievement. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed description of algebra instruction in an extended alternate-day block schedule. Using case study methodology, data were gathered from six algebra teachers' classrooms. ...

  5. Optimal Timing of Carbon Capture Policies Under Alternative CCS Cost Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Lafforgue, Gilles; MOREAUX Michel

    2012-01-01

    We determine the optimal exploitation time-paths of three types of perfect substitute energy resources: The first one is depletable and carbon-emitting (dirty coal), the second one is also depletable but carbon-free thanks to a carbon capture and storage (CCS) process (clean coal) and the last one is renewable and clean (solar energy). We assume that the atmospheric carbon stock cannot exceed some given ceiling. These optimal paths are considered along with alternative structures of the CCS c...

  6. Evidence of Encapsulated Learning Systems in an Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task

    OpenAIRE

    McConville, Dan

    2011-01-01

    A model of learning systems that has received wide acknowledgment is that promulgated by Squire (1992). The model describes explicit and implicit learning systems as being encapsulated and operating in parallel. This paper aimed to investigate if implicit procedural sequence learning could be affected by explicit learning processes in an alternating serial reaction time task (ASRTT). The ASRTT involved visual-stimuli appearing in one of four spatial-locations placed horizo...

  7. Swing check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A swing check valve which includes a valve body having an inlet and outlet is described. A recess in the valve body designed to hold a seal ring and a check valve disc swingable between open and closed positions. The disc is supported by a high strength wire secured at one end in a support spacer pinned through bearing blocks fixed to the valve body and at its other end in a groove formed on the outer peripheral surface of the disc. The parts are designed and chosen such to provide a lightweight valve disc which is held open by minimum velocity of fluid flowing through the valve which thus reduces oscillations and accompanying wear of bearings supporting the valve operating parts. (Auth.)

  8. Holographic Space-time and Black Holes: Mirages As Alternate Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom; Kundu, Sandipan; Pedraza, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We revisit our investigation of the claim of [1] that old black holes contain a firewall, i.e. an in-falling observer encounters highly excited states at a time much shorter than the light crossing time of the Schwarzschild radius. We used the formalism of Holographic Space-time (HST) where there is no dramatic change in particle physics inside the horizon until a time of order the Schwarzschild radius. We correct our description of the interior of the black hole . HST provides a complete description of the quantum mechanics along any time-like trajectory, even those which fall through the black hole horizon. The latter are described as alternative factorizations of the description of an external observer, turning the mirage of the interior provided by that observer's membrane paradigm on the stretched horizon, into reality.

  9. Buckling check tools for plate panel and column structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorela, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Buckling is, besides yielding, one of the major causes of failures in structures, and buckling checks are therefore an integral part of strength analyses. Checks can be performed either with methods requiring heavy numerical calculations or with equations based on rules and recommendations from a classification society. Numerical calculations are extremely time-consuming and commercial buckling check programs are expensive. There is therefore a need for buckling check tools based on the recom...

  10. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  11. Constraint LTL Satisfiability Checking without Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Bersani, Marcello M; Morzenti, Angelo; Pradella, Matteo; Rossi, Matteo; Pietro, Pierluigi San

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel technique to decide the satisfiability of formulae written in the language of Linear Temporal Logic with Both future and past operators and atomic formulae belonging to constraint system D (CLTLB(D) for short). The technique is based on the concept of bounded satisfiability, and hinges on an encoding of CLTLB(D) formulae into QF-EUD, the theory of quantifier-free equality and uninterpreted functions combined with D. Similarly to standard LTL, where bounded model-checking and SAT-solvers can be used as an alternative to automata-theoretic approaches to model-checking, our approach allows users to solve the satisfiability problem for CLTLB(D) formulae through SMT-solving techniques, rather than by checking the emptiness of the language of a suitable automaton A{\\phi}. The technique is effective, and it has been implemented in our Zot formal verification tool.

  12. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  13. Alternating-time temporal belief logic and its model checking%交互时态信念逻辑及其模型检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁正元; 胡山立; 赖贤伟

    2008-01-01

    交互时态认知逻辑(ATEL)是对交互时态逻辑(ATL)的扩展,但是它只刻画了知识,没有探讨信念的刻画问题.给出广义并发博弈结构,以模态算子的形式在ATL的语法层面给出了三种信念算子,在广义并发博弈结构下给出其语义,建立了交互时态信念逻辑(ATBL).给出一个多项式时间模型检测算法,并证明了ATBL的模型检测复杂度为PTIME-complete;给出并证明了ATBL的若干良好性质,比较了相关工作.对Agent认知形式化作了进一步探索,为多Agent系统研究提供了一个较好的形式化工具.

  14. Adapting a Tier 2 Behavioral Intervention, Check-in/Check-out, to Meet Students' Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoszowski, Nicole Cain

    2014-01-01

    Check-in/check-out (CICO) is a resource-efficient, mentor-based, Tier 2 intervention. Various problem behaviors of students with and without disabilities across traditional and alternative school settings have been impacted positively by CICO. Not all students respond to the traditional, five-step approach, however. This article provides an…

  15. Checking Model Transformation Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Fabian; Egea, Marina; Guerra, Esther; Lara, Juan De

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38883-5_15 Proceedings of 6th International Conference, ICMT 2013, Budapest, Hungary, June 18-19, 2013 Refinement is a central notion in computer science, meaning that some artefact S can be safely replaced by a refinement R, which preserves S’s properties. Having available techniques and tools to check transformation refinement would enable (a) the reasoning on whether a transformation correctly impl...

  16. Online treatment compliance checking for clinical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengxing; Bao, Yurong; Dong, Wei; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2014-10-01

    Compliance checking for clinical pathways (CPs) is getting increasing attention in health-care organizations due to stricter requirements for cost control and treatment excellence. Many compliance measures have been proposed for treatment behavior inspection in CPs. However, most of them look at aggregated data seen from an external perspective, e.g. length of stay, cost, infection rate, etc., which may provide only a posterior impression of the overall conformance with the established CPs such that in-depth and in near real time checking on the compliance of the essential/critical treatment behaviors of CPs is limited. To provide clinicians real time insights into violations of the established CP specification and support online compliance checking, this article presents a semantic rule-based CP compliance checking system. In detail, we construct a CP ontology (CPO) model to provide a formal grounding of CP compliance checking. Using the proposed CPO, domain treatment constraints are modeled into Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules to specify the underlying treatment behaviors and their quantified temporal structure in a CP. The established SWRL rules are integrated with the CP workflow such that a series of applicable compliance checking and evaluation can be reminded and recommended during the pathway execution. The proposed approach can, therefore, provides a comprehensive compliance checking service as a paralleling activity to the patient treatment journey of a CP rather than an afterthought. The proposed approach is illustrated with a case study on the unstable angina clinical pathway implemented in the Cardiology Department of a Chinese hospital. The results demonstrate that the approach, as a feasible solution to provide near real time conformance checking of CPs, not only enables clinicians to uncover non-compliant treatment behaviors, but also empowers clinicians with the capability to make informed decisions when dealing with treatment compliance

  17. True-time delay by slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating amplifying and absorbing sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Modeling of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating gain and absorption sections demonstrate an increase in time delay by concatenating segments. A true-time delay is predicted over a large bandwidth at high frequency.......Modeling of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating gain and absorption sections demonstrate an increase in time delay by concatenating segments. A true-time delay is predicted over a large bandwidth at high frequency....

  18. On resonance phase alternated CWFP sequences for rapid and simultaneous measurement of relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaretto, Tatiana; Andrade, Fabiana Diuk; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Souza, Andre Alves; deAzevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2015-10-01

    T1 and T2 relaxation times have been frequently used as probes for physical-chemical properties in several time-domain NMR applications (TD-NMR) such as food, polymers and petroleum industries. T2 measurements are usually achieved using the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence because it is a fast and robust method. On the other hand, the traditional methods for determining T1, i.e., inversion and saturation recovery, are time-consuming, driving several authors to develop rapid 1D and 2D methods to obtain T1 and T2 or T1/T2 ratio. However, these methods usually require sophisticated processing and/or high signal to noise ratio (SNR). This led us to develop simple methods for rapid and simultaneous determination of T1 and T2 using Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) and Carr-Purcell Continuous Wave Free Precession (CP-CWFP) pulse sequences. Nevertheless, a drawback of these sequences is that they require specific adjustment of the frequency offset or the time interval between pulses (Tp). In this paper we present an alternative form of these sequences, named CWFPx-x, CP-CWFPx-x, where a train of π/2 pulses with phases alternated by π enable performing the experiments on-resonance and independently of Tp, when Tp < T2∗. Moreover, a CPMG type sequence with π/2 refocusing pulses shows similar results to CP-CWFP when the pulses are alternated between y and -y axis, CPMG90y-y. In these approaches, the relaxation times are determined using the magnitude of the signals after the first pulse |M0| and in the steady-state |Mss|, as well as the exponential time constant T∗ to reach the steady-state regime, as in conventional CWFP. CP-CWFPx-x shows the highest dynamic range to measure T∗ among CWFP sequences and, therefore, is the best technique to measure T1 and T2 since it is less susceptible to SNR and can be performed for any T1/T2 ratio.

  19. Bounded Model Checking of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang

    2007-01-01

    Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.

  20. 14 CFR 91.1093 - Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator). 91.1093 Section 91.1093 Aeronautics and Space....1093 Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator... observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a...

  1. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking (MC is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control (PC problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired properties are verified and determine a winning strategy.

  2. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  3. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUPeng

    2005-01-01

    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  4. Efficient CSL Model Checking Using Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming; Hermanns, Holger

    2012-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996 [ 1, 2]. Their proof can be turned into an approximation algorithm with worse than...

  5. Automata-Based CSL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming; Hermanns, Holger

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...

  6. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  7. A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao

    2012-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language (IEEE-1850) describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.

  8. Probabilistic and hybrid model checking deployments for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early stages of system development, model checking is a good practice for examining the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Model checking involves verifying a system's properties based on the system's finite state model. For varying applications like computers and wireless communication prior to expensive simulations, model checking has become a vital requirement in order to investigate the performance and reliability. In this paper for the first time, we are presenting probabilistic and hybrid model checking tools which are being implemented to analyse and verify the WSN applications and their examples. Here we are categorizing the model checking tools and presenting how they have been used for the investigation of various behaviours of WSN solutions. Consequently, this paper helps readers/researchers to choose the appropriate model checking tool and to get benefited in shape of validating their solutions. The paper has also highlighted the problems of existing model checking tools within WSN domain. (author)

  9. Alternative Conditions to Time Inconsistency Equilibrium of an International Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Bastanifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy rule is an approach to avoid time inconsistency problem as regarded by new classical economist to choose a time plan for policy making in order to maximize households’ well-being. The foundation of time inconsistency problem is not coincidence of expectations as an ex-ante variable, which is expected variable, with actual variable as an ex-post variable. Expectations in Finn Kydland and Edward Prescott as the 2004 laureates of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, is rational and formed only by a representative agent because of the discretionary policy of benevolent planner. However the benevolent planner may be as an international planner. In this paper, we develop the model of Kydland and Prescott, by substituting the assumption of heterogeneous households (a domestic household and foreign household instead of a representative agent and using heterogeneous beliefs. The recent assumption helps us to have an alternative time inconsistency equilibrium with at least two different sources of expectations, which is called Dichotomy Sources of Expectations (DSE as the main contribution of this paper .We then use expectations-adjusted Phillips curve to see the conditions of time inconsistency of k percent monetary rule of Friedman in a framework of DSE’s Model. The results show that expectations-adjusted Phillips curve in a society with DSE is not vertical and Friedman's k-percent rule may not be optimal. We find out that, not only an international benevolent planner but also a foreign household must set a rule to maximize the well-being of the world. Indeed, we need a multi-dimensional rule for any international monetary policy.

  10. 14 CFR 135.339 - Initial and transition training and checking: Check airmen (aircraft), check airmen (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... checking: Check airmen (aircraft), check airmen (simulator). 135.339 Section 135.339 Aeronautics and Space... and checking: Check airmen (aircraft), check airmen (simulator). (a) No certificate holder may use a... an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device. This paragraph applies...

  11. MPST Software: grl_pef_check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jared A.; Kwok, John H.; Fisher, Forest W.

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a tool used to verify and validate spacecraft sequences at the predicted events file (PEF) level for the GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, see http://www.nasa. gov/mission_pages/grail/main/index. html) mission as part of the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Team (MPST) operations process to reduce the possibility for errors. This tool is used to catch any sequence related errors or issues immediately after the seqgen modeling to streamline downstream processes. This script verifies and validates the seqgen modeling for the GRAIL MPST process. A PEF is provided as input, and dozens of checks are performed on it to verify and validate the command products including command content, command ordering, flight-rule violations, modeling boundary consistency, resource limits, and ground commanding consistency. By performing as many checks as early in the process as possible, grl_pef_check streamlines the MPST task of generating GRAIL command and modeled products on an aggressive schedule. By enumerating each check being performed, and clearly stating the criteria and assumptions made at each step, grl_pef_check can be used as a manual checklist as well as an automated tool. This helper script was written with a focus on enabling the user with the information they need in order to evaluate a sequence quickly and efficiently, while still keeping them informed and active in the overall sequencing process. grl_pef_check verifies and validates the modeling and sequence content prior to investing any more effort into the build. There are dozens of various items in the modeling run that need to be checked, which is a time-consuming and errorprone task. Currently, no software exists that provides this functionality. Compared to a manual process, this script reduces human error and saves considerable man-hours by automating and streamlining the mission planning and sequencing task for the GRAIL mission.

  12. The Effects of Check, Connect, and Expect on Behavioral and Academic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Houchins, David E.; Robinson, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    "Check, Connect, and Expect" (CCE) is a secondary tier behavioral intervention that provides students with levels of support including a dedicated "coach" for check-in and check-out procedures, and social skills instruction. Elementary students (n = 22) in an alternative education school setting received CCE for 13 weeks…

  13. Improved Safety for Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Viruses by Use of a TaqMan Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR "Double Check" Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B.; Freuling, C. M.; Wakeley, P. R.;

    2010-01-01

    To improve the diagnosis of classical rabies virus with molecular methods, a validated, ready-to-use, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed. In a first step, primers and 6-carboxyfluorescien-labeled TaqMan probes specific for rabies virus were selected from the consensus...... sequence of the nucleoprotein gene of 203 different rabies virus sequences derived from GenBank. The selected primer-probe combination was highly specific and sensitive. During validation using a sample set of rabies virus strains from the virus archives of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI; Germany......), the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA; United Kingdom), and the DTU National Veterinary Institute (Lindholm, Denmark), covering the global diversity of rabies virus lineages, it was shown that both the newly developed assay and a previously described one had some detection failures. This was...

  14. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…

  15. Statistical Model Checking for Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel;

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Model Checking (SMC) is a highly scalable simulation-based verification approach for testing and estimating the probability that a stochastic system satisfies a given linear temporal property. The technique has been applied to (discrete and continuous time) Markov chains, stochastic...

  16. Availability of a Renewable, Checked System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, O.

    1976-01-01

    Recurrent expressions are given for point and interval unavailability of a renewable system subjected to periodic checking/repair. The expressions are generalizations of the basic relations in the theory of discrete renewal processes. The asymptotic limits for long times follow simply from a...

  17. A Metric Encoding for Bounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, Matteo; Morzenti, Angelo; San Pietro, Pierluigi

    In Bounded Model Checking, both the system model and the checked property are translated into a Boolean formula to be analyzed by a SAT-solver. We introduce a new encoding technique which is particularly optimized for managing quantitative future and past metric temporal operators, typically found in properties of hard real time systems. The encoding is simple and intuitive in principle, but it is made more complex by the presence, typical of the Bounded Model Checking technique, of backward and forward loops used to represent an ultimately periodic infinite domain by a finite structure. We report and comment on the new encoding technique and on an extensive set of experiments carried out to assess its feasibility and effectiveness.

  18. Graded CTL Model Checking for Test Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Napoli, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a great attention from the scientific community towards the use of the model-checking technique as a tool for test generation in the simulation field. This paper aims to provide a useful mean to get more insights along these lines. By applying recent results in the field of graded temporal logics, we present a new efficient model-checking algorithm for Hierarchical Finite State Machines (HSM), a well established symbolism long and widely used for representing hierarchical models of discrete systems. Performing model-checking against specifications expressed using graded temporal logics has the peculiarity of returning more counterexamples within a unique run. We think that this can greatly improve the efficacy of automatically getting test cases. In particular we verify two different models of HSM against branching time temporal properties.

  19. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis......Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... multi-valued setting, and we therefore obtain a multivalued analysis for temporal properties specied by CTL formulas. In particular, we have shown that the three-valued CTL model checking problem over Kripke modal transition systems can be exactly encoded in three-valued ALFP. Last, we come back to two...

  20. Alternative Approaches to Estimating the Linear Propagator and Finite-Time Growth Rates from Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-An Lee and Zih-Ting Hung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagator of a linear model plays a central role in empirical no mal mode and finite-time instability problems. Its estimation will affect whether the linear stability character is tics of the corresponding dynamic system can be properly extracted. In this study, we introduce two alternative methods for estimating the linear propagator and finite-time growth rates from data. The first is the generalized singular value de composition (GSVD and the second is the singular value de composition combined with the cosine-sine decomposition (SVD-CSD. Both methods linearize the relation between the predictor and the predict and by de composing them to have a common evolution structure and then make the estimations. Thus, the linear propagator and the associated singular vectors can be simultaneously derived. The GSVD clearly reveals the connection between the finite-time amplitude growth rates and the singular values of the propagator. However, it can only be applied in situations when given data have more state variables than observations. Further more, it generally encounters an over-fit ting problem when data are contaminated by noise. To fix these two draw backs, the GSVD is generalized to the SVD-CSD to include data filtering capability. There fore, it has more flexibility in dealing with general data situations. These two methods as well as the Yule-Walker equation were applied to two synthetic datasets and the _ sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA to evaluate their performance. The results show that, be cause of linearization and flexible filtering capabilities, the propagator and its associated properties could be more accurately estimated with the SVD-CSD than other methods.

  1. Alternative strategies: A means for saving money and time on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is undertaking studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for disposal of high level nuclear waste. Yucca Mountain is located in an arid environment. Many processes that could contribute to mobilization of radionuclides are either absent or minimized in a dry site. Therefore, Yucca Mountain should have the potential of being a veryfavorable site for disposal of waste. The determination of suitability has no precedence, and the characterization of an and site is complex, requiring intensive studies to determine suitability. The studies undertaken by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are very costly. By a process called performance allocation, the YMP determined strategies to satisfy regulations or meet performance while minimizing costs and schedules. Those involved recognized that allocations should be reviewed as additional information became available. The allocation has not been reviewed nor revised since the initial allocation in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The purpose of this paper is to outline alternative allocations that the author feels should be considered based on the additional information that is available at this time

  2. Examining the impact of alternative power measures on individual time use in American and Danish couple households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    determined by past/present time use decisions and hence potentially endogenous. More powerful individuals have been hypothesized to spend less time on housework, however, housework time also depends upon relative preferences for home produced goods and relative productivity in home production. Gendered...... notions of time use and censored earnings and time data also pose problems. We propose examining leisure time and exploring alternative measures of power less prone to endogeneity bias in order to address these theoretical and empirical concerns. Our results indicate that leisure time is more consistently...

  3. Scram system with continuos check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment described pretends to be a further step to the use of integrated circuits in nuclear instrumentation, considering that this type of control was traditionally carried out on the bases of electromechanical elements. A continuous self-check method has been applied in accordance with the high reliability requiered for this type of equipments. The developed equipment fulfils the condition that any deficiency in its component elements, causes an anormal self-detected operation. The equipment covers two systems: the Scram one, that includes the sequence generator-detector, the rods check and scram chain, and the Check system that uses pulses from the sequence detector. (author)

  4. New methods of concurrent checking

    CERN Document Server

    Goessel, Michael; Sogomonyan, Egor; Marienfeld, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Written by a team of two leading experts and two very successful young former PhD students, New Methods of Concurrent Checking describes new methods of concurrent checking, such as partial duplication, use of output dependencies, complementary circuits, self-dual parity, self-dual duplication and others. A special chapter demonstrates how the new general methods of concurrent checking can be more specifically applied to regular structures to obtain optimum results. This is exemplified for all types of adders up to 64 bits with a level of detail never before presented in the literature. The cle

  5. Variations of model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.N.

    2002-01-01

    The logic ATCTL is a convenient logic to specify properties with actions and real-time. It is intended as a property language for Lightweight UML models [12], which consist mainly of simplified class diagrams and statecharts. ATCTL combines two known extensions of CTL, namely ACTL and TCTL. The reas

  6. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger;

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategie...

  7. Treasury Check Verification Query (TCVQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The TCVQ system determines the SSN of an individual whose check has been returned to a local field office. The FO is able to request this information via the TCVQ...

  8. Differential effects of uninostril and alternate nostril pranayamas on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have reported the differential physiological and psychological effects of yogic uninostril breathing (UNB and alternate nostril breathing (ANB techniques. This study aims to determine differential effects of these techniques on reaction time (RT, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP. Materials and Methods: Twenty yoga-trained subjects came to the lab on six different days and RT, HR, and BP were recorded randomly before and after nine rounds of right UNB (surya nadi [SN], left UNB (chandra nadi [CN], right initiated ANB (surya bhedana [SB], left initiated ANB (chandra bhedana [CB], nadi shuddhi (NS, and normal breathing (NB. Results: Overall comparison of ∆ % changes showed statistically significant differences between groups for all parameters. There was an overall reduction in HR- and BP-based parameters following CB, CN, and NS with concurrent increases following SB and SN. The differential effects of right nostril initiated (SB and SN and left nostril initiated (CB, CN, and NS UNB and ANB techniques were clearly evidenced. Changes following NB were insignificant in all respects. The overall comparison of ∆ % changes for RT showed statistically significant differences between groups that were significantly lowered following both SB and SN. Discussion and Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of sympathomimetic effects of right nostril initiated pranayamas with sympatholytic/parasympathomimetic effect following left nostril initiated pranayamas. We suggest that the main effect of UNB and ANB techniques is determined by the nostril used for inspiration rather than that used for expiration. We conclude that right and left yogic UNB and ANB techniques have differential physiological effects that are in tune with the traditional swara yoga concept that air flow through right nostril (SN and pingala swara is activatory in nature, whereas the flow through left nostril (CN and ida swara is relaxatory.

  9. Advances in Probabilistic Model Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowska, Marta; Parker, David

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic model checking is an automated verification method that aims to establish the correctness of probabilistic systems. Probability may arise, for example, due to failures of unreliable components, communication across lossy media, or through the use of randomisation in distributed protocols. Probabilistic model checking enables a range of exhaustive, quantitative analyses of properties such as "the probability of a message being delivered within 5ms is at least 0.89". In the last t...

  10. Model checking PSL safety properties

    OpenAIRE

    Launiainen, Tuomas

    2009-01-01

    Model checking is a modern, efficient approach to gaining confidence of the correctness of complex systems. It outperforms conventional testing methods especially in cases where a high degree of confidence in the correctness of the system is required, or when the test runs of the system are difficult to reproduce accurately. In model checking the system is verified against a specification that is expressed in a formal specification language. The main challenges are that the process requires q...

  11. Community perspectives: Community check cashing

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Leibsohn

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2009, Community Development Finance (CDF) opened the first nonprofit, full-service check cashing store in the country in Fruitvale, California. The project is designed to provide low-income households with the financial services they need, without the asset-stripping characteristics common to the fringe banking industry. In addition to providing affordable check cashing services and a payday loan product, CDF also provides financial coaching and literacy training, small business ass...

  12. Model composition in model checking

    OpenAIRE

    Felscher, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Model-checking allows one to formally check properties of systems: these properties are modeled as logic formulas and the systems as structures like transition systems. These transition systems are often composed, i.e., they arise in form of products or sums. The composition technique allows us to deduce the truth of a formula in the composed system from "interface information": the truth of formulas for the component systems and information in which components which of these formulas hold. W...

  13. Body checking behaviors in men

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D. Catherine; Anderson, Drew A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Males have been facing increasing pressure from the media to attain a lean, muscular physique, and are at risk for body dissatisfaction, disturbed eating and exercise behaviors, and abuse of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs). The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between body checking and mood, symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, importance of shape and weight, and APED use in undergraduate males. Body checking in males was correlated with weight and shape ...

  14. 42 CFR 60.52 - The student's loan check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... expenses due before the time of enrollment, the school may obtain the student's endorsement and disburse to... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.52 The student's loan check. (a) When a school receives from a HEAL lender a loan disbursement check or draft payable jointly to the school and to one of its students,...

  15. Software tools for the simple processing of a real-time system input/output. Application to the survey/check of a ion source by a mini-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This I/0 software is composed by the set of modules allowing exchanges of data between computer and process to control. It is developed taking several types of problems into account. Particularly the use of I/0 must be easy for the pedestrian and I/0 system should be able to evolve because the number of parameters can increase or lessen and also, the characteristics of some parameters can change. The respect of these conditions requires some particular solutions. For example, it is preferable for the control process software to be written in high level language and the I/0 software to be accessible in this language. It is important, also that hardware and software intermediate levels for exchanges of data be easy for user writing a program. The other problems, typical of the real time check are determined by use of the computer standard I/0. However some further modules are necessary to obtain a real time I/0 system having satisfying performances

  16. Improved Integrity Constraints Checking in Distributed Databases by Exploiting Local Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A.Alwan; Hamidah Ibrahim; Nur Izura Udzir

    2009-01-01

    Most of the previous studies concerning checking the integrity constraints in distributed database derive simplified forms of the initial integrity constraints with the sufficiency property, since the sufficient test is known to be cheaper than the complete test and its initial integrity constraint as it involves less data to be transferred across the network and can always be evaluated at the target site (single site). Their studies are limited as they depend strictly on the assumption that an update operation will be executed at a site where the relation specified in the update operation is located, which is not always true. Hence, the sufficient test, which is proven to be local test by previous study, is no longer appropriate. This paper proposes an approach to checking integrity constraints in a distributed database by utilizing as much as possible the local information stored at the target site. The proposed approach derives support tests as an alternative to the existing complete and sufficient tests proposed by previous researchers with the intention to increase the number of local checking regardless the location of the submitted update operation. Several analyses have been performed to evaluate the proposed approach, and the results show that support tests can benefit the distributed database, where local constraint checking can be achieved.

  17. Use of time and materials and cost reimbursement subcontracts for remedial actions under the alternative remedial contracting strategy contracts. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directive is intended to establish agency guidance on the use of time and materials and cost reimbursement contracts for remedial actions in general and to provide specific instruction regarding the use of these approaches in subcontracting under the Alternative Remedial Contracting Strategy (ARCS) contracts

  18. Checking C Pointer Programs for Memory Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    We propose an original approach for checking memory safety of C pointer programs possibly including pointer arithmetic and sharing (but no casts, structures, double indirection or memory deallocation). This involves first identifying aliasing and strings, which we do in a local setting rather than through a global analysis as it is done usually. Our separation analysis in particular is a totally new treatment of non-aliasing. We present for the first time two abstract lattices to deal with lo...

  19. Uncertainty in Cross Orthogonality Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yuichi

    Finite element structural dynamic models are typically validated using data obtained from a modal testing. Although it is known that test variability may affect the verification, the test variability is typically ignored in the verification process. This paper describes the sensitivities of cross orthogonality check to the test variability. The cross orthogonality check is one of correlation techniques which is gaining acceptance in the structural dynamics community, because of its improved accuracy over the standard modal assurance criterion. Then an uncertainty index of the cross orthogonality check is proposed based on the fact that the sensitivities are much dependent on sensor placement. The results of some artificially generated test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  20. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    KO, MALCOLM K.W.; SZE, NIEN DAK; Molnar, Gyula; PRATHER, MICHAEL J.

    1993-01-01

    The halocarbons (chloroflurocarbons, CFCs, and their replacement chemicals: the hydrochloroflurocarbons, HCFCs, and the hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs) are greenhouse gases. The atmospheric accumulation of these gases is expected to add to the global warming predicted for expected increases of CO2, CH4, N2O, tropospheric ozone and H2O. Over the next decades, production of CFCs is scheduled to be phased out, while emissions of their alternatives are expected to increase. A simple model is used to il...

  1. Alternating nitrification-denitrification via nitrite for nitrogen removal from soybean wastewater by SBR with real-time control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-ying; GAO Da-wen; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Peng; YANG Qing

    2004-01-01

    Anew treating technology for complete nitrogen removal from soybean wastewater with high nitrogen concentrations was studied. Nitrification-denitrification via nitrite was performed in three kinds of operation condition, i.e. nitrification-denitrification via nitrite under traditional SBR process, nitrification- denitrification via nitrite by alternating oxic/anoxic under fixed-time control and nitrification- denitrification via nitrite by alternating oxic/anoxic under on-line fuzzy control. As a result, nitrification-denitrification via nitrite by alternating oxic/anoxic under on-line fuzzy control was the best. It not only improve both nitrification and denitrification rates and decrease total reaction time, but also, save the amount of adding carbon source and alkalinity. Also real-time fuzzy control aeration and mixing time could shorten reaction time and save operation cost. So this method enhanced the efficiency and the stability of nitrogen removal together with, and made operation costs and construction invest to be reduced in the process of wastewater .

  2. Advanced techniques for efficient data integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    Integrity constraint checking, understood as the verification of data correctness and well-formedness conditions that must be satisfied in any state of a database, is not fully supported by current database technology. In a typical scenario, a database is required to comply with given semantic cr...... contexts, such as recursive databases, concurrent database systems, data integration systems and XML document collections, and provide a performance evaluation of the proposed model.......Integrity constraint checking, understood as the verification of data correctness and well-formedness conditions that must be satisfied in any state of a database, is not fully supported by current database technology. In a typical scenario, a database is required to comply with given semantic...... criteria (the integrity constraints) and to maintain the compliance each time data are updated. Since the introduction of the SQL2 standard, the SQL language started supporting assertions, which allow one to define general data consistency requirements expressing arbitrarily complex “business rules” that...

  3. From preventive to permissive checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis; Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negative correlation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth...

  4. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Yu Liu; Chun-Cheng Lin; Ching-Ren Chiu; You-Song Tsao; Qunwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP). This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, a...

  5. Losses of Humanity in Times of War: The Actions of Alternative Subjects of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Monárrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses loss of humanity due to violence in Ciudad Juarez (2008–2014 and the actions of alternative subjects of justice – the organized civil society – seeking to address it. This paper resonates with theoretical currents of feminism and humanism, both of which have created a critical apparatus for thinking about social inequality in the context of life, death, and injustice. The discussion draws on the theoretical concepts of discourse societies, necropolitics, private government and actions. With this theoretical structure, the paper seeks to understand the political actions of eight civil society organizations aiming to recover the right to the body, to space and to be a political subject for a community shattered by violence. The paper argues that, through these actions, they helped to prevent crime, enhance public safety and stabilise a society suffering from continued violence due in large part to the war on drugs.

  6. Probabilistic Model--Checking of Quantum Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, S; Papanikolaou, N; Gay, Simon; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    We establish fundamental and general techniques for formal verification of quantum protocols. Quantum protocols are novel communication schemes involving the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena for representation, storage and transmission of data. As opposed to quantum computers, quantum communication systems can and have been implemented using present-day technology; therefore, the ability to model and analyse such systems rigorously is of primary importance. While current analyses of quantum protocols use a traditional mathematical approach and require considerable understanding of the underlying physics, we argue that automated verification techniques provide an elegant alternative. We demonstrate these techniques through the use of PRISM, a probabilistic model-checking tool. Our approach is conceptually simpler than existing proofs, and allows us to disambiguate protocol definitions and assess their properties. It also facilitates detailed analyses of actual implemented systems. We illustrate our techniqu...

  7. An EOQ model for time-dependent deteriorating items with alternating demand rates allowing shortages by considering time value of money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Antara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with an economic order quantity (EOQ model of an inventory problem with alternating demand rate: (i For a certain period, the demand rate is a non linear function of the instantaneous inventory level. (ii For the rest of the cycle, the demand rate is time dependent. The time at which demand rate changes, may be deterministic or uncertain. The deterioration rate of the item is time dependent. The holding cost and shortage cost are taken as a linear function of time. The total cost function per unit time is obtained. Finally, the model is solved using a gradient based non-linear optimization technique (LINGO and is illustrated by a numerical example.

  8. From Preventive to Permissive Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negativcorrelation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth cen...... shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylized Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply...

  9. Analysis of time-variant quadratic phase couplings in the tracé alternant EEG by recursive estimation of 3rd-order time-frequency distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Marko; Schwab, Karin; Leistritz, Lutz; Eiselt, Michael; Witte, Herbert

    2006-10-15

    The quantification of transient quadratic phase couplings (QPC) by means of time-variant bispectral analysis is a useful approach to explain several interrelations between signal components. A generalized recursive estimation approach for 3rd-order time-frequency distributions (3rd-order TFD) is introduced. Based on 3rd-order TFD, time-variant estimations of biamplitude (BA), bicoherence (BC) and phase bicoherence (PBC) can be derived. Different smoothing windows and local moment functions for an optimization of the estimation properties are investigated and compared. The methods are applied to signal simulations and EEG signals, and it can be shown that the new time-variant bispectral analysis results in a reliable quantification of QPC in the tracé alternant EEG of healthy neonates. PMID:16737739

  10. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis: an alternative to recommended regimens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  11. Diagnostic checking for conditional heteroscedasticity models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We suggest the score type tests for goodness-of-fit of conditional heteroscedasticity models in both univariate and multivariate time series.The tests can detect the alternatives converging to the null at a parametric rate.Weight functions are involved in the construction of the tests,which provides us with the flexibility to choose scores,especially under directional alternatives,for enhancing power performance.Furthermore,when the alternatives are not directional,we construct asymptotically distribution-free maximin tests for a large class of alternatives.A possibility to construct score-based omnibus tests is discussed when the alternative is saturated.The power performance is also investigated.A simulation study is carried out and a real data is analyzed.

  12. The Street Vendors of Bangkok: Alternatives to Indoor Retailers at a Time of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During an economic crisis, consumers will use different techniques to make their money go as far as possible: More carefully comparing prices at point of sale locations, bringing out the coins they previously left unused in saving banks, switching to lower cost options and choosing to shop in less convenient locations in order to find discounts. One such option is to use street vendors rather than regular indoor retailers. Street vendors can provide cheaper goods because, in many cases, they do not need to pay for electricity or water bills and their rental costs can be much lower. Further, vendors themselves may be more willing to enter into haggling negotiations and offer cash discounts to well-known or regular customers. However, it would be wrong to assume that all street vendors are the same in terms of character or that they operate according to the same business model. Approach: This is a case study based principally on secondary sources and recapitulating primary research reported previously. Results: Research among street vendors in several locations reveal a wide variety of experiences, ability to provide value added goods and services and intentions and ambitions for the business concerned. While the majority of vendors have quite low levels of ambition, earn minimum wages or less and have little concept of marketing or adding value to products, there are other vendors who have organized their own international supply chains, contract manufactured their own branded goods and franchise stalls throughout the city of Bangkok. In some cases, therefore, street vending should be encouraged because it can offer a route out of the informal economy and into the formal economy for people who might not otherwise be able to achieve regular employment. Vendors also offer, in some cases, good quality alternatives to indoor retailers and help keep prices as a whole down. Conclusion/Recommendations: This case study addressed the

  13. An alternative approach to characterize time series data: Case study on Malaysian rainfall data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the characterization of time series rainfall data to understand the behavior in the Malaysian rainfall data. An analysis of the rainfall behavior of different time periods is also conducted. The rainfall data is rounded. A bar with a width of 12 pixels is drawn for each day in the data. The length of the bars drawn is equal to the corresponding rainfall value. Each bar is separated by a space of 2 pixels. Bars for data from different year are stored in different rows. Morphological opening is performed on the barcode image obtained, using line kernels of increasing length. Connected component-labeling algorithm is implemented on the resulting images to identify the individual bar codes and to compute the number of bars remaining after the opening process. A daily rainfall record for the duration of 30 years, obtained from the Melaka Meteorological Station, is analyzed. The results provide characterization of behavior in daily rainfall data

  14. An alternative approach to characterize time series data: Case study on Malaysian rainfall data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, P. [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka 75450 (Malaysia)] e-mail: radha.krishnan@mmu.edu.my; Dinesh, S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka 75450 (Malaysia)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of time series rainfall data to understand the behavior in the Malaysian rainfall data. An analysis of the rainfall behavior of different time periods is also conducted. The rainfall data is rounded. A bar with a width of 12 pixels is drawn for each day in the data. The length of the bars drawn is equal to the corresponding rainfall value. Each bar is separated by a space of 2 pixels. Bars for data from different year are stored in different rows. Morphological opening is performed on the barcode image obtained, using line kernels of increasing length. Connected component-labeling algorithm is implemented on the resulting images to identify the individual bar codes and to compute the number of bars remaining after the opening process. A daily rainfall record for the duration of 30 years, obtained from the Melaka Meteorological Station, is analyzed. The results provide characterization of behavior in daily rainfall data.

  15. Alternating-direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, single fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors

  16. Alternating-direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, single fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finan, C.H. III

    1980-12-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors.

  17. Checking for normality in linear mixed models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping; ZHU LiXing; FANG Yun

    2012-01-01

    Linear mixed models are popularly used to fit continuous longitudinal data,and the random effects are commonly assumed to have normal distribution.However,this assumption needs to be tested so that further analysis can be proceeded well.In this paper,we consider the Baringhaus-Henze-Epps-Pulley (BHEP) tests,which are based on an empirical characteristic function.Differing from their case,we consider the normality checking for the random effects which are unobservable and the test should be based on their predictors.The test is consistent against global alternatives,and is sensitive to the local alternatives converging to the null at a certain rate arbitrarily close to 1/(√)n where n is sample size.Furthermore,to overcome the problem that the limiting null distribution of the test is not tractable,we suggest a new method:use a conditional Monte Carlo test (CMCT) to approximate the null distribution,and then to simulate p-values.The test is compared with existing methods,the power is examined,and several examples are applied to illustrate the usefulness of our test in the analysis of longitudinal data.

  18. An alternative time marker for the study of the uniform and uniformly accelerated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique Moura da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a type of time marker set up with materials of low cost for the study of uniform movements as well as those accelerated by gravitacional force. A mechanism used to measure its frequency is coupled to it in order to find the approximate value of the acceleration of the local gravity. The experiment, that is adapted to be used during a kinematics class, can also be presented by the students at a science fair, for being a stimulating factor as it involves the students’ participation in its construction.

  19. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may give a fully negotiable check in addition to U.S. currency when cashing a draft, check or money... or any other obligation the customer owes to the business, but in no event may the owner or...

  20. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions KidsHealth > For Kids > Checking Out Cuts, ... weren't wearing kneepads. How Do Cuts and Scratches Heal? After getting a cut, scratch, or abrasion, ...

  1. Time-series prediction of shellfish farm closure: A comparison of alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish farms are closed for harvest when microbial pollutants are present. Such pollutants are typically present in rainfall runoff from various land uses in catchments. Experts currently use a number of observable parameters (river flow, rainfall, salinity as proxies to determine when to close farms. We have proposed using the short term historical rainfall data as a time-series prediction problem where we aim to predict the closure of shellfish farms based only on rainfall. Time-series event prediction consists of two steps: (i feature extraction, and (ii prediction. A number of data mining challenges exist for these scenarios: (i which feature extraction method best captures the rainfall pattern over successive days that leads to opening or closure of the farms?, (ii The farm closure events occur infrequently and this leads to a class imbalance problem; the question is what is the best way to deal with this problem? In this paper we have analysed and compared different combinations of balancing methods (under-sampling and over-sampling, feature extraction methods (cluster profile, curve fitting, Fourier Transform, Piecewise Aggregate Approximation, and Wavelet Transform and learning algorithms (neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbour, decision tree, and Bayesian Network to predict closure events accurately considering the above data mining challenges. We have identified the best combination of techniques to accurately predict shellfish farm closure from rainfall, given the above data mining challenges.

  2. Alternative of feeding for livestock of double purpose in critical times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest component in the tropical pastures is that the fiber and the obtained nitrogen is non-protein; the microorganisms of the rumen have the capacity to digest the fiber and the non-proteic nitrogen, converting then in nutritious useful. The environmental situations of the warm tropic demand these requirements. Small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. Brachiaria spp in bovines, presenting deficit of ammonia (of 4-10 mg/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mg, the animal answer, was favorable. Since young bulls are supplemented with 60 gr of urea and 300 grs. Of molasses, during 350 days, 210 Kg of weight won, against 145 Kg of brachiaria-molasses and 310 in single brachiaria. The use of urea molasses is more effective in the dry time than in the rainy one, but if there is not enough biomass, it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and no-quantity, it also stimulates the consumption; this supplement that has been suggested should be strategic according to the nutritional quality of the pasture, time of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentration of ammonia; they indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  3. Helical tomotherapy quality assurance with ArcCHECK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To design a quality assurance (QA) procedure for helical tomotherapy that measures multiple beam parameters with 1 delivery and uses a rotating gantry to simulate treatment conditions. The customized QA procedure was preprogrammed on the tomotherapy operator station. The dosimetry measurements were performed using an ArcCHECK diode array and an A1SL ion chamber inserted in the central holder. The ArcCHECK was positioned 10 cm above the isocenter so that the 21-cm diameter detector array could measure the 40-cm wide tomotherapy beam. During the implementation of the new QA procedure, separate comparative measurements were made using ion chambers in both liquid and solid water, the tomotherapy onboard detector array, and a MapCHECK diode array for a period of 10 weeks. There was good agreement (within 1.3%) for the beam output and cone ratio obtained with the new procedure and the routine QA measurements. The measured beam energy was comparable (0.3%) to solid water measurement during the 10-week evaluation period, excluding 2 of the 10 measurements with unusually high background. The symmetry reading was similarly compromised for those 2 weeks, and on the other weeks, it deviated from the solid water reading by ∼2.5%. The ArcCHECK phantom presents a suitable alternative for performing helical tomotherapy QA, provided the background is collected properly. The proposed weekly procedure using ArcCHECK and water phantom makes the QA process more efficient

  4. Postauricular Approach for Mandibular Angle Ostectomy: An Alternative for Shortening the Recovery Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoseob; Kang, Minbum

    2016-01-01

    Many surgical procedures to improve mandibular contour have been introduced in East Asia. Despite consensus regarding mandible contouring surgery, surgery which includes angle ostectomy and lateral cortex excision, some patients require only mandibular angle ostectomy. The intraoral approach is a widely used method, but has disadvantages with regard to the need for endotracheal intubation and patients are limited in their food intake for a considerable length of time. The authors wanted to shorten the recovery period and so the postauricular approach is introduced in this study and assessed.One hundred seventy-five Asian patients underwent mandibular angle ostectomy via a postauricular approach. All operations were performed under intravenous sedation without endotracheal intubation. Superficial subcutaneous dissection and vertical dissection were performed, with special care taken to avoid injuring the facial nerve. Patients responded to a simple questionnaire during the postoperative period. Questions solicited the patient's reason for their choice of this approach and their satisfaction with it.No visible scar and no palpable bony step were observed without ear pulling. Some patients experienced temporary sensory changes in the postauricular area. None of the patients complained of perioral numbness or facial paralysis. Six patients had significant bleeding in the operative field and 1 patient experienced salivary leakage for 2 weeks which was managed well without event. Of the 175 patients, 133 responded to the questionnaire. Satisfaction was expressed by 94.7% of patients and 88.7% of patients would recommend this surgery to their friends; 69.2% of patients experienced inconvenience for 1 week or less.The postauricular approach for mandibular angle ostectomy is a very convenient method for surgeons to use for patients who want to undergo mandibular angle ostectomy with a short recovery time. PMID:25325390

  5. The effect of pause time upon the communicative interactions of young people who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Hilary; Sutherland, Dean; McAuliffe, Megan

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of variation in partner-initiated pause time on the expressive communication of young people who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Eight participants aged 8;11-20;08 years (mean 16;02 years) participated in the study. Three pause time conditions (2, 10, and 45 seconds) were trialled during a scripted shared storybook reading task. A total of 27 turn opportunities were provided for participants during the task. Participant interactions were analysed for the percentage of responses made to a turn opportunity, mean length of utterance in words (MLU), percentage of assertive conversational acts made, and the modes of communication used. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to respond to a turn opportunity when their communication partner provided a longer pause time. Additionally, a longer pause time resulted in longer MLUs. Participants did not use more assertive conversational acts and continued to use a variety of communication modes when provided with a longer pause time. Results indicate that increasing pause time is an effective strategy to support the development of expressive communication for young people who use AAC. This suggests the need for professionals providing AAC services to encourage communication partners to provide extended pauses during interactions. PMID:21888558

  6. Timing and causes of piglet mortality in alternative and conventional farrowing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, J N; Rudd, A R; Mendl, M T; Broom, D M; Meredith, M J; Corning, S; Simmins, P H

    2000-08-19

    The causes and timing of piglet mortality were studied in different farrowing systems. In the first experiment 198 litters were recorded in three systems, two of which allowed the sows to move freely, and the third restricted them in conventional crates. More piglets were weaned from the conventional crates than from the open systems and they grew more quickly. More than half the liveborn mortality occurred during the first four days after parturition. In the open systems, 17 per cent and 14 per cent of the piglets born alive were crushed, compared with only 8 per cent in the crates. In the second experiment, 29 sows and litters were studied in detail in a communal pen system during the first seven days of lactation. Three-quarters of the liveborn mortality was due to crushing. The total number of piglets dying per litter, including stillbirths, was significantly associated with the total litter size and the sow's parity. The percentage liveborn mortality was significantly associated with the parity and body length of the sows and with the within-litter variation in the birth weight of the piglets. Individual birth weight was closely associated with percentage survival. Only 28 per cent of piglets weighing less than 1.1 kg at birth survived to seven days. PMID:10994922

  7. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 91.1093: (1) A check... simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type aircraft. (2) A check pilot (simulator) is...

  9. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.413: (1) A check airman (airplane) is a person who is qualified, and...

  10. The NHS health check programme in England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Alford, Simon; Cushing, Jill; Panter, Lee

    2016-03-01

    Despite an extensive evidence-base linking patterns of health with social determinants, recent public health policy has emphasized 'lifestyle diseases' and risk factor modification through behavioural and pharmacological intervention. In England, one manifestation of this has been the launch of the National Health Service Health Check programme. This paper reports findings from a small-scale qualitative study exploring experiences of engaging with a community-based health check in Knowsley, England, among 17 males and 19 females, with varying levels of risk for cardiovascular disease, who agreed to be contacted for the purpose of research at the time they underwent their check. Analysis revealed that the community-based nature of the checks provided opportunities for people to find out more about their health who might not otherwise have done so. Participants expressed a range of responses to the communication of the risk score, often revealing their confusion about its meaning. Changes in behaviour were identified, which participants connected with having had a check. This study raises questions about where, how and by whom health checks are delivered. Emphasis on health checks reflects the dominant individualist ideology, but this study also suggests that the process provides opportunities to enable and empower individuals, albeit in small ways. However, they remain a 'downstream' approach to public health, emphasizing medical and behavioural options for risk factor reduction rather than focussing on primary prevention through changes to the wider environment. Furthermore, although developed as a central feature of the UK's strategy to reduce health inequalities, health checks may widen them. PMID:25073761

  11. 76 FR 16861 - Availability of Funds and Collection of Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... checks to depositary banks electronically.\\8\\ Based on information from banking industry sources, the... of the rule.\\20\\ \\18\\ 57 FR 46956 (Oct. 14, 1992). \\19\\ Times are stated as local time of the paying... is applicable to the Reserve Banks. (53 FR 11911 (Apr. 11, 1988)) The overwhelming majority...

  12. Feasibility Checking for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  13. Alternated Prone and Supine Whole-Breast Irradiation Using IMRT: Setup Precision, Respiratory Movement and Treatment Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare setup precision, respiration-related breast movement and treatment time between prone and supine positions for whole-breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery were treated with prone and supine whole breast-irradiation in a daily alternating schedule. Setup precision was monitored using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Respiration-related breast movement in the vertical direction was assessed by magnetic sensors. The time needed for patient setup and for the CBCT procedure, the beam time, and the length of the whole treatment slot were also recorded. Results: Random and systematic errors were not significantly different between positions in individual patients for each of the three axes (left-right, longitudinal, and vertical). Respiration-related movement was smaller in prone position, but about 80% of observations showed amplitudes <1 mm in both positions. Treatment slots were longer in prone position (21.2 ± 2.5 min) than in supine position (19.4 ± 0.8 min; p = 0.044). Conclusion: Comparison of setup precision between prone and supine position in the same patient showed no significant differences in random and systematic errors. Respiratory movement was smaller in prone position. The longer treatment slots in prone position can probably be attributed to the higher repositioning need.

  14. Climate change: Check the data yourself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on climatic drivers and ecological responses through time tend to be complex and difficult to use by anyone oethr than the individual scientist who collected them. We provide an alternative approach that simplifies complex datasets into derived data products including long-term trends that can ...

  15. Heteroscedasticity checks for regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For checking on heteroscedasticity in regression models, a unified approach is proposed to constructing test statistics in parametric and nonparametric regression models. For nonparametric regression, the test is not affected sensitively by the choice of smoothing parameters which are involved in estimation of the nonparametric regression function. The limiting null distribution of the test statistic remains the same in a wide range of the smoothing parameters. When the covariate is one-dimensional, the tests are, under some conditions, asymptotically distribution-free. In the high-dimensional cases, the validity of bootstrap approximations is investigated. It is shown that a variant of the wild bootstrap is consistent while the classical bootstrap is not in the general case, but is applicable if some extra assumption on conditional variance of the squared error is imposed. A simulation study is performed to provide evidence of how the tests work and compare with tests that have appeared in the literature. The approach may readily be extended to handle partial linear, and linear autoregressive models.

  16. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Resource-constrained devices are becoming ubiquitous. Examples include cell phones, palm pilots, and digital thermostats. It can be difficult to fit required functionality into such a device without sacrificing the simplicity and clarity of the software. Increasingly complex embedded systems...... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming at the...... assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  17. Loess Plateau check dams can potentially sequester eroded soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Liu, Shuguang; Yuan, Wenping; Dong, Wenjie; Xia, Jiangzhou; Cao, Yaojun; Jia, Yanwei

    2016-06-01

    Check dams are special soil and water conservation structures in the Loess Plateau, China. They play an important role in intercepting sediments and soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the decomposition of intercepted SOC and the environmental regulations at check dams have not been investigated. We conducted several paired field experiments at both check dams and slope lands in the Yanhe Watershed of the Loess Plateau to examine the characteristics of SOC decomposition at check dams. On average, the SOC mineralization rate in slope lands was approximately three times higher than in check dams. Increased soil moisture and compaction in check dams can constrain carbon mineralization by limiting the oxygen availability of SOC and can isolate substrate carbon from heterotrophic microorganisms. Our results indicate that check dams display a considerable potential for eroded SOC sequestration via reducing the soil respiration rate and highlight the important implications of lateral carbon redistribution and human engineering projects when estimating regional or global ecosystem carbon cycles.

  18. An experimental analysis of body checking

    OpenAIRE

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Payne, Elizabeth; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between repeated body checking and its impact on body size estimation and body dissatisfaction is of interest for two reasons. First, it has importance in theoretical accounts of the maintenance of eating disorders and, second, body checking is targeted in cognitive-behavioural treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of manipulating body checking on body size estimation and body dissatisfaction. Sixty women were randomly assigned either to repeatedly scru...

  19. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    OpenAIRE

    Himr D.; Habán V.; Dokoupil P.

    2016-01-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of...

  20. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.; Dokoupil, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  1. Comparison of Alternative Crop Phenology Detection Algorithms using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data in US Corn Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hong, S. Y.; Kang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop phenology is important for understanding of crop development and growth processes and improving the accuracy of crop model. Remote sensing offers a feasible tool for monitoring spatio-temporal patterns of crop phenology in region and continental scales. Various methods have developed to determine the timing of crop phenological stages using spectral vegetation indices (i.e. NDVI and EVI) derived from satellite data. In our study, it was compared four alternative detection methods to identify crop phenological stages (i.e. the emergence and harvesting date) using high quality NDVI time series data derived from MODIS. In threshold method assumes the emergence and harvesting date when NDVI values exceed and decreases down to a given threshold, respectively. Two kind of threshold values were applied for NDVI and it increment for eight days. The other two methods use a logistic fitting model and inflection points on fitted curve, respectively. It was compared the four methods for corn and soybean, respectively. For validation, three kinds of datasets were utilized: AmeriFlux biological data of planting and harvest dates, and emergence date estimated from growing degree days (AGDDs) at flux tower sites, and state-level USDA Crop Progress Report (CPR). All methods showed substantial uncertainty but the threshold method showed relatively better agreement against with both site- and state-level data for soybean phenology. For better NDVI-based regional estimation of crop phenology, factors of uncertainty were examined and discussed in this study.

  2. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  3. Heteroscedasticity checks for regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Lixing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Carroll, R. J., Ruppert, D., Transformation and Weighting in Regression, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1988.[2]Cook, R. D., Weisberg, S., Diagnostics for heteroscedasticity in regression, Biometrika, 1988, 70: 1—10.[3]Davidian, M., Carroll, R. J., Variance function estimation, J. Amer. Statist. Assoc., 1987, 82: 1079—1091.[4]Bickel, P., Using residuals robustly I: Tests for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1978, 6: 266—291.[5]Carroll, R. J., Ruppert, D., On robust tests for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1981, 9: 205—209.[6]Eubank, R. L., Thomas, W., Detecting heteroscedasticity in nonparametric regression, J. Roy. Statist. Soc., Ser. B, 1993, 55: 145—155.[7]Diblasi, A., Bowman, A., Testing for constant variance in a linear model, Statist. and Probab. Letters, 1997, 33: 95—103.[8]Dette, H., Munk, A., Testing heteoscedasticity in nonparametric regression, J. R. Statist. Soc. B, 1998, 60: 693—708.[9]Müller, H. G., Zhao, P. L., On a semi-parametric variance function model and a test for heteroscedasticity, Ann. Statist., 1995, 23: 946—967.[10]Stute, W., Manteiga, G., Quindimil, M. P., Bootstrap approximations in model checks for regression, J. Amer. Statist. Asso., 1998, 93: 141—149.[11]Stute, W., Thies, G., Zhu, L. X., Model checks for regression: An innovation approach, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 1916—1939.[12]Shorack, G. R., Wellner, J. A., Empirical Processes with Applications to Statistics, New York: Wiley, 1986.[13]Efron, B., Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife, Ann. Statist., 1979, 7: 1—26.[14]Wu, C. F. J., Jackknife, bootstrap and other re-sampling methods in regression analysis, Ann. Statist., 1986, 14: 1261—1295.[15]H rdle, W., Mammen, E., Comparing non-parametric versus parametric regression fits, Ann. Statist., 1993, 21: 1926—1947.[16]Liu, R. Y., Bootstrap procedures under some non-i.i.d. models, Ann. Statist., 1988, 16: 1696—1708.[17

  4. Check-In Check-Out + Social Skills: Enhancing the Effects of Check-In Check-Out for Students With Social Skill Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott W.; Sabey, Christian V.

    2015-01-01

    Check-In Check-Out is a Tier 2 intervention designed to reduce problem behavior and increase prosocial behavior. Although the intervention has demonstrated effects in several studies, few research efforts have considered how the intervention can be modified to support students with social skill deficits. Through a multiple baseline design across…

  5. 7 CFR 58.243 - Checking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking quality. 58.243 Section 58.243 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.243 Checking quality. All milk, milk products and dry milk products shall be subject to inspection and analysis by the dairy plant for quality and condition throughout each processing...

  6. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  7. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  8. The model checking fingerprints of CTL operators

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Andreas; Meier, Arne; Mundhenk, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the inherent expressive power of CTL operators. We investigate the complexity of model checking for all CTL fragments with one CTL operator and arbitrary Boolean operators. This gives us a fingerprint of each CTL operator. The comparison between the fingerprints yields a hierarchy of the operators that mirrors their strength with respect to model checking.

  9. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.; van den Hout, M.A.; Giele, C.L.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den Ho

  10. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs, ...

  11. Towards Model Checking a Spi-Calculus Dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, S.; Latella, D.; Lenzini, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model checking framework for a spi-calculus dialect which uses a linear time temporal logic for expressing security properties. We have provided our spi-calculus dialect, called SPID, with a semantics based on labeled transition systems (LTS), where the intruder is modeled in the Dolev-

  12. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brihaye, Thomas; Jungers, Marc; Lasaulce, Samson; Markey, Nicolas; Oreiby, Ghassan

    2010-01-01

    Model checking (MC) is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control ( PC) problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors...

  13. Operational workforce planning for check-in counters at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolletz, Raik

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses operation models for workforce planning for check-in systems at airports. We characterize different tasks of the hierarchical workforce planning problem with time-dependent demand. A binary linear programming formulation is developed for the fortnightly tour scheduling problem...

  14. A Metric Encoding for Bounded Model Checking (extended version)

    CERN Document Server

    Pradella, Matteo; Pietro, Pierluigi San

    2009-01-01

    In Bounded Model Checking both the system model and the checked property are translated into a Boolean formula to be analyzed by a SAT-solver. We introduce a new encoding technique which is particularly optimized for managing quantitative future and past metric temporal operators, typically found in properties of hard real time systems. The encoding is simple and intuitive in principle, but it is made more complex by the presence, typical of the Bounded Model Checking technique, of backward and forward loops used to represent an ultimately periodic infinite domain by a finite structure. We report and comment on the new encoding technique and on an extensive set of experiments carried out to assess its feasibility and effectiveness.

  15. MOM: A meteorological data checking expert system in CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists have long faced the problem of verifying the data they use. Experience shows that there is a sizable number of errors in the data reported by meteorological observers. This is unacceptable for computer forecast models, which depend on accurate data for accurate results. Most errors that occur in meteorological data are obvious to the meteorologist, but time constraints prevent hand-checking. For this reason, it is necessary to have a 'front end' to the computer model to ensure the accuracy of input. Various approaches to automatic data quality control have been developed by several groups. MOM is a rule-based system implemented in CLIPS and utilizing 'consistency checks' and 'range checks'. The system is generic in the sense that it knows some meteorological principles, regardless of specific station characteristics. Specific constraints kept as CLIPS facts in a separate file provide for system flexibility. Preliminary results show that the expert system has detected some inconsistencies not noticed by a local expert.

  16. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; SU Guanghui; WANG Gaopeng; QIU Suizheng; XIAO Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach.

  17. Arithmetic Operand Ordering for Equivalence Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Yanling; GE Haitong; YAN Xiaolang; Ren Kun

    2007-01-01

    An information extraction-based technique is proposed for RTL-to-gate equivalence checking. Distances are calculated on directed acyclic graph (AIG). Multiplier and multiplicand are distinguished on multiplications with different coding methods, with which the operand ordering/grouping information could be extracted from a given implementation gate netlist, helping the RTL synthesis engine generate a gate netlist with great similarity. This technique has been implemented in an internal equivalence checking tool, ZD_VIS. Compared with the simple equivalence checking, the speed is accelerated by at least 40% in its application to a class of arithmetic designs, addition and multiplication trees. The method can be easily incorporated into existing RTL-to-gate equivalence checking frameworks, increasing the robustness of equivalence checking for arithmetic circuits.

  18. 14 CFR 135.337 - Qualifications: Check airmen (aircraft) and check airmen (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... check airmen (simulator). 135.337 Section 135.337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 135.339: (1) A check airman (aircraft) is a person who is qualified to conduct flight checks in an aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a...

  19. The importance of check-cashing businesses to the unbanked: racial/ethnic differences

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, William H.; Sherrie L. W. Rhine; Maude Toussaint-Comeau

    2003-01-01

    The roughly 9.5 percent of all U.S. families that are without some type of transaction account (unbanked) are disproportionately represented by minorities. The unbanked often must rely on alternative ways to carry out basic financial transactions such as cashing payroll checks and paying bills. This study analyzes unique survey data and finds that a consumer's decision to patronize check-cashing businesses is jointly made with the decision to be unbanked. For the unbanked, these businesses ar...

  20. Simple Check Valves for Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Harold F.; Smith, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A simple design concept for check valves has been adopted for microfluidic devices that consist mostly of (1) deformable fluorocarbon polymer membranes sandwiched between (2) borosilicate float glass wafers into which channels, valve seats, and holes have been etched. The first microfluidic devices in which these check valves are intended to be used are micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. In this application, it will be necessary to store some liquid samples in reservoirs in the devices for subsequent laboratory analysis, and check valves are needed to prevent cross-contamination of the samples. The simple check-valve design concept is also applicable to other microfluidic devices and to fluidic devices in general. These check valves are simplified microscopic versions of conventional rubber- flap check valves that are parts of numerous industrial and consumer products. These check valves are fabricated, not as separate components, but as integral parts of microfluidic devices. A check valve according to this concept consists of suitably shaped portions of a deformable membrane and the two glass wafers between which the membrane is sandwiched (see figure). The valve flap is formed by making an approximately semicircular cut in the membrane. The flap is centered over a hole in the lower glass wafer, through which hole the liquid in question is intended to flow upward into a wider hole, channel, or reservoir in the upper glass wafer. The radius of the cut exceeds the radius of the hole by an amount large enough to prevent settling of the flap into the hole. As in a conventional rubber-flap check valve, back pressure in the liquid pushes the flap against the valve seat (in this case, the valve seat is the adjacent surface of the lower glass wafer), thereby forming a seal that prevents backflow.

  1. Alternating direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive, single fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive magnetoyhydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid synchronization errors. While the continuity and magnetic flux equations are expressed as conservation laws, the momentum and energy equations are nonconservative. This is to: (1) provide enhanced numerical stability by eliminating errors introduced by the nonvanishing of Δ.B on the finite difference mesh; and, (2) allow the simulation of low beta plasmas. To allow for general simulations, the boundary conditions may be Dirichlet, Neumann, or periodic. A conservation boundary condition based on the physical properties of the wall is presented. The resulting finite difference equations are a coupled system of nonlinear algebraic equations which are solved by the Newton-Raphson iteration technique. The model is applied to a number of problems of importance in magnetic fusion research. Ideal and resistive internal kink instabilities are simulated in a Cartesian geometry. Growth rates and nonlinear saturation amplitudes are found to be in agreement with previous analytic and numerical predictions. These instabilities are simulated in square cross section torus

  2. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    Integrity checking is an essential means for the preservation of the intended semantics of a deductive database. Incrementality is the only feasible approach to checking and can be obtained with respect to given update patterns by exploiting query optimization techniques. By reducing the problem to...... query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  3. Why your practice must do background checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupko, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Hiring qualified staff is critical for a medical practice. As many physicians have discovered, taking applicants' resumes on faith can be a mistake. Background company searches show that one in three applicants provide false, inaccurate, misleading, or incomplete information. Fake degrees, false licenses and certifications, and criminal histories are a few of the problems that a proper background check can reveal. This article describes further why background checks are essential, how to incorporate a background check into your hiring process, and some of the legalities involved in the process. PMID:17494489

  4. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himr D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  5. Schedulability of Herschel revisited using statistical model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel;

    2015-01-01

    Schedulability analysis is a main concern for several embedded applications due to their safety-critical nature. The classical method of response time analysis provides an efficient technique used in industrial practice. However, the method is based on conservative assumptions related to execution...... and blocking times of tasks. Consequently, the method may falsely declare deadline violations that will never occur during execution. This paper is a continuation of previous work of the authors in applying extended timed automata model checking (using the tool UPPAAL) to obtain more exact...... schedulability analysis, here in the presence of non-deterministic computation times of tasks given by intervals [BCET,WCET]. Computation intervals with preemptive schedulers make the schedulability analysis of the resulting task model undecidable. Our contribution is to propose a combination of model checking...

  6. Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...

  7. Automatic check of the RFX machine signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with an automatic computer procedure developed to detect errors or faults in the signal waveforms measured during the operation of the RFX machine. These data are generated by the diagnostic equipment and other sensors installed in the machine and in its power supplies. The signal check is paramount, since even a single faulty waveform may lead to wrong results in the post-processing phase. Due to their large number, the manual inspection of each signal after the pulse is impossible. The check has to be performed as quickly as possible, in order to identify and discard the defective waveforms before their on-line elaboration. To this purpose, the on-line signal check program is integrated in the control data acquisition system of RFX. Presently, the procedure is being used to check the quality of the saved machine pulse data

  8. Computational fact checking from knowledge networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Rocha, Luis M; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation...

  9. Computational Fact Checking from Knowledge Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia

    Full Text Available Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation.

  10. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when they ... out: Getting a partner trained to spot potential skin cancers can be a lifesaver for melanoma survivors, a ...

  11. Computational Fact Checking from Knowledge Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Shiralkar, Prashant; Rocha, Luis M.; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation. PMID:26083336

  12. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts are...

  13. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  14. Health Check Tools: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/healthchecktools.html Health Check Tools To use the sharing features on ... Schedule (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Children's Health Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen ( ...

  15. SU-D-BRD-03: Improving Plan Quality with Automation of Treatment Plan Checks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of an automated plan check tool to improve first-time plan quality as well as standardize and document performance of physics plan checks. Methods: The Plan Checker Tool (PCT) uses the Eclipse Scripting API to check and compare data from the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment management system (TMS). PCT was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase efficiency of our electronic workflow, and to standardize and partially automate plan checks in the TPS. A framework was developed which can be configured with different reference values and types of checks. One example is the prescribed dose check where PCT flags the user when the planned dose and the prescribed dose disagree. PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user. A PDF report is created and automatically uploaded into the TMS. Prior to and during PCT development, errors caught during plan checks and also patient delays were tracked in order to prioritize which checks should be automated. The most common and significant errors were determined. Results: Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated with data extracted with the PCT. These include checks for prescription, reference point and machine scheduling errors which are three of the top six causes of patient delays related to physics and dosimetry. Since the clinical roll-out, no delays have been due to errors that are automatically flagged by the PCT. Development continues to automate the remaining checks. Conclusion: With PCT, 57% of the physics plan checklist has been partially or fully automated. Treatment delays have declined since release of the PCT for clinical use. By tracking delays and errors, we have been able to measure the effectiveness of automating checks and are using this information to prioritize future development. This project was supported in part by P01CA059827

  16. SU-D-BRD-03: Improving Plan Quality with Automation of Treatment Plan Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, E; Younge, K; Chen, X; Lee, C; Matuszak, M; Kessler, M; Acosta, E; Orow, A; Filpansick, S; Moran, J [University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of an automated plan check tool to improve first-time plan quality as well as standardize and document performance of physics plan checks. Methods: The Plan Checker Tool (PCT) uses the Eclipse Scripting API to check and compare data from the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment management system (TMS). PCT was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase efficiency of our electronic workflow, and to standardize and partially automate plan checks in the TPS. A framework was developed which can be configured with different reference values and types of checks. One example is the prescribed dose check where PCT flags the user when the planned dose and the prescribed dose disagree. PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user. A PDF report is created and automatically uploaded into the TMS. Prior to and during PCT development, errors caught during plan checks and also patient delays were tracked in order to prioritize which checks should be automated. The most common and significant errors were determined. Results: Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated with data extracted with the PCT. These include checks for prescription, reference point and machine scheduling errors which are three of the top six causes of patient delays related to physics and dosimetry. Since the clinical roll-out, no delays have been due to errors that are automatically flagged by the PCT. Development continues to automate the remaining checks. Conclusion: With PCT, 57% of the physics plan checklist has been partially or fully automated. Treatment delays have declined since release of the PCT for clinical use. By tracking delays and errors, we have been able to measure the effectiveness of automating checks and are using this information to prioritize future development. This project was supported in part by P01CA059827.

  17. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implicati...

  18. Check Point认证简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Check Point软件技术有限公司是因特网安全领域的全球著名企业,占有全球65%VPN/防火墙市场份额(IDC 2002),财富前100强中有97家公司采用Check Point的安全产品。

  19. Generic Architecture for Mobile Check System

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMA MAAZOUZ; HABIB.BENLAHMER; NACEUR.ACHTAICH

    2013-01-01

    the explosion of the market of Smartphone has rapidly changed the way of m-commerce transactions, especially the m-payment systems which are knowing a wide acceptance due to their diversity and the new mobile technologies. In this work we have introduced the system m-check as a mobile payment system, we have presented a generic architecture of the system and the different protocols for the implementation of the system m-check

  20. Generic Architecture for Mobile Check System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIMA MAAZOUZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available the explosion of the market of Smartphone has rapidly changed the way of m-commerce transactions, especially the m-payment systems which are knowing a wide acceptance due to their diversity and the new mobile technologies. In this work we have introduced the system m-check as a mobile payment system, we have presented a generic architecture of the system and the different protocols for the implementation of the system m-check

  1. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  2. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  3. 31 CFR 235.4 - Check Forgery Insurance Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Check Forgery Insurance Fund. 235.4... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE ISSUANCE OF SETTLEMENT CHECKS FOR FORGED CHECKS DRAWN ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.4 Check Forgery Insurance Fund. The Check Forgery...

  4. ZnS/6Li scintillation material as an alternative to 6Li-glass scintillators for neutron detection in time focusing geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative of using 6Li-glass scintillators for neutron detection in time focusing geometry the effects of ZnS/6Li scintillation material on the measuring efficiency will be discussed on example of the high resolution RTOF device FSS at GKSS Geesthacht, Germany. ((orig.))

  5. A review of historical check valve failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check valve operating problems in recent years have resulted in significant operating transients, increased cost, and decreased system availability. In response, additional attention has been given to check valves by utilities, as well as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Operation and Maintenance Committee. All these organizations have the fundamental goal of ensuring reliable operation of check valves. A key ingredient of an engineering-oriented reliability improvement effort is a thorough understanding of relevant historical experience. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently conducting a detailed review of historical failure data available through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System. The focus of the review is on check valve failures that have involved significant degradation of the valve internal parts. A variety of parameters are being considered during the review, including size, age, system of service, method of failure discovery, the affected valve parts, attributed causes, and corrective actions. This work is being carried out under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research program. At this time, the study is approximately 50% complete. All failure records have been reviewed and categorized, and preliminary tabulation and correlation of data is underway. The bulk of the tabulation and correlation portion of the work is expected to be completed by the end of June 1992. A report draft is expected in the fall of 1992

  6. Automatic adjustment of cycle length and aeration time for improved nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the nitrogen dynamics in the alternating BIODENITRO and BIODENIPHO processes with a focus on two control handles influencing now scheduling and aeration: the cycle length and the ammonia concentration at which a nitrifying period is terminated. A steady state analysis examining...

  7. The Conscious System for the Movement Technique: An Ontological and Holistic Alternative for (Spanish) Physical Education in Troubled Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Balboa, Juan-Miguel; Prados Megías, Esther

    2014-01-01

    After critically analyzing some of the Spanish physical education's (PE) main justifications and pointing out their problematic effects on teachers and students, the paper proposes an alternative orientation to teaching and learning PE that fosters consciousness, centeredness and transformation. Drawing from arguments and examples taken from…

  8. Semantic rule-checking for regulation compliance checking: an overview of strategies and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Pieter; Zhang, Sijie

    2015-01-01

    As more and more architectural design and construction data is represented in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model, it makes sense to take advantage of the underlying logical basis of RDF and realise a semantic rule-checking process as it is currently not available in architectural design and construction industry. Such a semantic rule-checking process would be of considerable value to regulation compliance checking procedures, because the additional logical basis would (1) all...

  9. Improved Trial Division Technique for Primality Checking in RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Banerjee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers. To check the primality of large number in personal computer is huge time consuming using the best known trial division algorithm. The time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using the representation of divisors in the form of 6n±1. According to the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic, every number has unique factorization. So to check primality, it is sufficient to check if the number is divisible by any prime below the square root of the number. The set of divisors obtained by 6n±1 form representation contains many composites. These composite numbers have been reduced by 30k approach. In this paper, the number of composites has been further reduced using 210k approach. A performance analysis in time complexity has been given between 210k approach and other prior applied methods. It has been observed that the time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using 210k approach.

  10. Population growth can be checked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J P

    Since independence, India's population size has doubled. The rate of growth was 2.5% during 1971-81, an increase from the rate of 2.15% observed during the 1951-61 period. The increase indicated that efforts to decrease population growth have not succeeded. The implications with respect to food, housing, clothing, education, and health facilities, which are fundamental to improving the physical quality of life, are severe. This demographic trend is a serious impediment to progress. The population growth is due to a constant birthrate and a sharp decline in mortality. Reducing the birthrate is necessary to reduce the rate of growth. An attitudinal change adopting the norm of family limitation should be encouraged through propaganda, socioeconomic programs, and religious and cultural organizations. Other measures to bring about a decline in the birthrate include: increasing the marriage age, and expanding educational and employment opportunities for women and girls. These measures will require substantial effort and time. Incentives may show more immediate effects. Monetary incentives are not desired because of the possibility of misuse. However the government could assume responsibility for the education and guarantee employment of children of couples who have only one child, and provide free education to children of couples with only 2 children. These incentives are not likely to be misused, can be available to all segments of the population, and involve no immediate large financial burden on the government. In addition, scholarships to the Harijan students should be limited to 2 per family. If these measures are accepted, they could quickly reduce the birth rate. PMID:12311944

  11. Recent improvements in check valve monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, ORNL has carried out an evaluation of three check valve monitoring methods: acoustic emission, ultrasonic inspection, and magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA). This work has focused on determining the capabilities of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation) and undesirable operating modes. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two noval nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed (external ac- and dc-magnetic monitoring) that provide several improvements over the other methods. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data to illustrate the capabilities of these methods to detect simulated check valve degradation. 3 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Formalizing Real-Time Embedded System into Promela

    OpenAIRE

    Sukvanich Punwess; Thongtak Arthit; Vatanawood Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative of formalization of the real-time embedded system into Promela model. The proposed formal model supports the essential features of the real-time embedded system, including system resource-constrained handling, task prioritization, task synchronization, real-time preemption, the parallelism of resources via DMA. Meanwhile, the model is also fully compatible with the partial order reduction algorithm for model checking. The timed automata of the real-time embedded syst...

  13. Parallel State Space Construction for Model-Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Garavel, Hubert; Mateescu, Radu; Smarandache, Irina

    2001-01-01

    The verification of concurrent finite-state systems by model-checking often requires to generate (a large part of) the state space of the system under analysis. Because of the state explosion problem, this may be a resource-consuming operation, both in terms of memory and CPU time. In this report, we aim at improving the performances of state space construction by using parallelization techniques. We present parallel algorithms for constructing state spaces (or Labeled Transition Systems) on ...

  14. Check Point任命新总裁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    近日,互联网安全解决方案供应商Check Point软件技术有限公司宣布,Amnon Bar—Lev晋升为公司总裁。Bar--Lev将继续掌管公司面向客户的工作,包括销售、市场营销、业务发展、技术服务和合作伙伴计划。Bar—Lev于2005年加入Check Point,担任技术服务副总裁,并于2006年开始领导全球市场运营。在此期间,Check Point营业额增长了1倍多,达到约12亿美元。

  15. HCH for Checking Containment of XPath Fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Feng; Yu-Guo Liao; Yong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    XPath is ubiquitous in XML applications for navigating XML trees and selecting a set of element nodes. In XPath query processing, one of the most important issues is how to efficiently check containment relationship between two XPath expressions. To get out of the intricacy and complexity caused by numerous XPath features, we investigate this issue on a frequently used fragment of XPath expressions that consists of node tests, the child axis (/), the descendant axis (//), branches ([]) and label wildcards (*). Prior work has shown that homomorphism technology can be used for containment checking. However, homomorphism is the sufficient but not necessary condition for containment. For special classes of this fragment, the homomorphism algorithm returns false negatives. To address this problem, this paper proposes two containment techniques, conditioned homomorphism and hidden conditioned homomorphism, and then presents sound algorithms for checking containment. Experimental results confirm the practicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  16. Quality checking of radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work of the HMIP Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) for the period September 1989 -August 1991. The WQCL has conducted research and development of procedures for the receipt, sampling and analysis of low level solid radioactive waste (LLW), intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) and hazardous chemical waste (HW). Operational facilities have been commissioned for quality checking both LLW and HW. Waste quality checking has been completed on LLW packages seized from the UK waste disposal route by HMIP Inspectors. Packages have ranged in size from the 200 litre steel drum to half-height ISO freight container. Development work was continued on methods of sample extraction and radio-chemical analysis for cement encapsulated ILW in the form of magnox, graphite and stainless steel. This work was undertaken on non-radioactive simulants. (author)

  17. Gate-Check System for Outotec Company

    OpenAIRE

    Zajac, Lukas; Bartusek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis was to create the interactive, electronic web application Gate-Check for Outotec Company, which replaced the old system based on MS Excel document. Another purpose was gaining new skills and experiences in communication with the company, in which the team acted as a Supply Company. The created web application (Gate-Check System) should be compatible with any device with integrated web browser with support HTML5, JavaScript and CSS3 and active internet connect...

  18. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet and...... testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...

  19. A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-in Check-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Pyle, Daniel; Charlton, Cade T.; Sabey, Christian V.; Lund, Emily M.; Ross, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions play an important role within the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports framework, bridging the gap between schoolwide Tier 1 interventions and individualized Tier 3 supports. Check-in Check-out (CICO) is a promising Tier 2 intervention for addressing mild problem behavior and potentially preventing the need for more…

  20. Function-Based Modification of Check-In/Check-Out to Influence Escape-Maintained Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has suggested Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) effectiveness is linked to the function of problem behavior. Though effective for students whose misbehavior occurs to gain attention, findings are equivocal for behavior that occurs to escape academic tasks. The purpose of this study was to therefore evaluate a modification to CICO, wherein…

  1. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future

  2. An alternative expression for the Black-Scholes formula in terms of Brownian first and last passage times

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, D.; Roynette, Bernard; Yor, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The celebrated Black-Scholes formula which gives the price of a European option, may be expressed as the cumulative function of a last passage time of Brownian motion. A related result involving first passage times is also obtained.

  3. Assembly-line health check up in digitalized hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalan; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Zigang

    2002-01-01

    The health check up flow of digital hospital can be consulted with the assembly line of industry factory. Because they have the following same features: highly specialized workstation, closeness and continuance, rhythm, balanced production, continuous production. The essential prerequisites are as the follows: The inspecting items and methods should be stable; advanced product mix and stable production design; standardized raw material, consumption, procedure, inspection method; there are lots of request for health inspection; the customers move at the least unit; the space arrangement should be reasonable; the time arrangement should be proportion. With the computer net, the digital inspection can achieves the raw material controlling accurately. The basis of check up line concerns about equipment, net and software, data collection, and personnel. The group technology is used in the health inspection flow design of the digital hospital in the field of items customers and zone redivided. The digital assembly linemic health inspect has the following stages: member registering, notice, check in, arrange order, time control, report, feedback and analysis. The assembly linemic has following advantages: increasing the productivity, the space utility, satisfaction of customer, fund returning, lowering the cost and ensuring the quality. PMID:12674786

  4. Assembly-Line Health Check up in Digitalized Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅兰; 姚斌; 张子刚

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The health check up flow of digital hospital can be consulted with the assembly line ofindustry factory. Because they have the following same features: highly specialized workstation,closeness and continuance, rhythm, balanced production, continuous production. The essentialprerequisites are as the follows: The inspecting items and methods should be stable; advancedproduct mix and stable production design; standardized raw material, consumption, procedure,inspection method; there are lots of request for health inspection; the customers move at the leastunit; the space arrangement should be reasonable; the time arrangement should be proportion.With the computer net, the digital inspection can achieves the raw material controlling accurately.The basis of check up line concerns about equipment, net and software, data collection, and per-sonnel. The group technology is used in the health inspection flow design of the digital hospital inthe field of items customers and zone redivided. The digital assembly linemic health inspect has thefollowing stages: member registering, notice, check in, arrange order, time control, report, feed-back and analysis. The assembly linemic has following advantages: increasing the productivity,the space utility, satisfaction of customer, fund returning, lowering the cost and ensuring thequality.

  5. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed

  6. SMT-based Bounded Model Checking with Difference Logic Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Bersani, Marcello M; Morzenti, Angelo; Pradella, Matteo; Rossi, Matteo; Pietro, Pierluigi San

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Bounded Model Checking (BMC) is based on translating the model checking problem into SAT, the Boolean satisfiability problem. This paper introduces an encoding of Linear Temporal Logic with Past operators (PLTL) into the Quantifier-Free Difference Logic with Uninterpreted Functions (QF-UFIDL). The resulting encoding is a simpler and more concise version of existing SATbased encodings, currently used in BMC. In addition, we present an extension of PLTL augmented with arithmetic relations over integers, which can express unbounded counters; as such, the extended logic is more expressive than PLTL. We introduce suitable restrictions and assumptions that are shown to make the verification problem for the extended logic decidable, and we define an encoding of the new logic into QF-UFIDL. Finally, a performance comparison with the SAT-based approach on purely PLTL examples shows significant improvements in terms of both execution time and memory occupation.

  7. A study of condition monitoring of check valve using acoustic emission and neural network technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The check valve is one of typical component being extensively used in safety systems of nuclear power plants. The failures of check valves have resulted in significant maintenance efforts, on occasion, have resulted in water hammer, over-pressurization of low-pressure systems, and damage to flow system components. The objective of this research is to demonstrate condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission, AE detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/ replacement could be preformed prior to loss of safety function. This work is also focused on the capability of neural network technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes

  8. The Complexity of Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information and Related Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Aceto; Jens A. Hansen; Anna Ingólfsdóttir; Jacob Johnsen; John Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes (of some) of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This problem arose originally from the geneticists' need to filter their input data from erroneous information, and is well motivated from both a biological and a sociological viewpoint. This paper shows that consistency checking is NP-complete, even with focus on a single gene and in the presence of three alleles. Several other results on the computational complexity of problems from genetics that are related to consistency checking are also offered. In particular, it is shown that checking the consistency of pedigrees over two alleles, and of pedigrees without loops, can be done in polynomial time.

  9. PVeStA: A Parallel Statistical Model Checking and Quantitative Analysis Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlTurki, Musab

    2011-01-01

    Statistical model checking is an attractive formal analysis method for probabilistic systems such as, for example, cyber-physical systems which are often probabilistic in nature. This paper is about drastically increasing the scalability of statistical model checking, and making such scalability of analysis available to tools like Maude, where probabilistic systems can be specified at a high level as probabilistic rewrite theories. It presents PVeStA, an extension and parallelization of the VeStA statistical model checking tool [10]. PVeStA supports statistical model checking of probabilistic real-time systems specified as either: (i) discrete or continuous Markov Chains; or (ii) probabilistic rewrite theories in Maude. Furthermore, the properties that it can model check can be expressed in either: (i) PCTL/CSL, or (ii) the QuaTEx quantitative temporal logic. As our experiments show, the performance gains obtained from parallelization can be very high. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  11. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne Joachim

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...

  12. Using chemical organization theory for model checking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleta, Christoph; Richter, Stephan; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing number and complexity of biomodels makes automatic procedures for checking the models' properties and quality necessary. Approaches like elementary mode analysis, flux balance analysis, deficiency analysis and chemical organization theory (OT) require only the stoichiometric structure of the reaction network for derivation of valuable information. In formalisms like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), however, information about the stoichiometric coefficients re...

  13. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual; Sulzmann, Martin

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; and...

  14. The common agricultural policy health check

    OpenAIRE

    Erjavec, Emil; Lovec, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the ministers of agriculture of European Union member states made a political agreement on the Common Agricultural Policy reform, also known as the Health Check. The reform coincided with three things: the ongoing Doha round of the World Trade Organization negotiations

  15. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen D. Ojo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values < 0.001. Unlike AMBS-I, Envirofit G-series did not significantly increase overall fuel consumption. In Phase II, the manufacturer altered Envirofit stove (MAES and Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi (NNIPS altered Envirofit stove (NAES, produced lower mean PM2.5, 1573 μg/m3 and 1341 μg/m3, respectively, relative to AMBS-II 3488 μg/m3 for wood tests. The liquid propane gas stove had the lowest mean PM2.5 concentrations, with measurements indistinguishable from background levels. Results from Study I and II showed significant reduction in PM2.5 for all alternative stoves in a controlled setting. In study I, the AMBS-I stove required more fuel than the traditional stove. In contrast, in study II, the MAES and NAES stoves required statistically less fuel than the AMBS-II. Reductions and increases in fuel use should be interpreted with caution because the composition of fuels was not standardized—an issue which may have implications for generalizability of other findings as well. Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove—a trade-off that may have implications for

  16. Yarning about health checks: barriers and enablers in an urban Aboriginal medical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Warren; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Askew, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    The annual health check for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People has been welcomed as a means of conducting a comprehensive assessment to address preventive health care delivery, identify new diagnoses and initiate new treatments. Rates of health check uptake across Australia have been poor with less than 12% of the eligible population receiving one during 2009/10. This qualitative study sought to identify barriers and enablers to undertaking health checks in an urban Aboriginal Medical Service through semistructured interviews with 25 clinical staff (doctors, nurses and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers). Clinical systems for conducting health checks were unclear to staff, with barriers relating to time pressures for both patients and clinic staff, and lack of clarity about staff responsibilities for initiating and conducting the health check. Additionally some staff perceived some content as sensitive, invasive, culturally inappropriate and of questionable value. Other barriers included concerns about community health literacy, disengagement with preventative health care, and suspicion about confidentiality and privacy. The development of clear service-wide systems that support the conduct of health checks are required to increase uptake, combined with supportive local clinical leadership and audit and feedback systems. Staff training, consideration of culture and roles, and critical review of health check content may improve staff confidence and community acceptance. Community-based health education and promotion is strongly supported by staff to increase client engagement, knowledge and acceptance of the health check. PMID:23552601

  17. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND ALTERNATIVE FLAME RETARDANTS IN HOUSE DUST IN DENMARK – LEVELS, PATTERNS AND CHANGES OVER TIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Nielsen, Jesper Bo;

    2016-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as a source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular for children [1]. Since the EU ban of the commercial PBDE Penta- and OctaBDE mixtures in 2004 and the regulation of DecaBDE through the EU Restriction of Hazardous Substances (Ro......HS) Directive, replacements might have been in use [2]. Building on our previous results on PBDEs in house dust from Denmark and associations with perinatal exposure [3], the present study addresses i) PBDE levels in dust sampled in 2014 in comparison with 2007, ii) the occurrence of alternative flame...... previously observed for PBDEs, distributions were skewed with arithmetic means clearly higher than medians, suggesting that exposure might be much above average for certain individuals. Likewise, the FR composition in dust varied, with individual dust samples containing more BEHT-TEBP or BTBPE than DBDPE...

  18. Renewable energy in Algeria. What alternatives to fossil fuels? Solar, nuclear, or both at the same time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, Algeria has been known as a producer of hydrocarbons, both liquids and gaseous. The country's energy requirements are 99% satisfied by hydrocarbons (oil and gas). In the long term, reproducing the current pattern of energy consumption could become a problem for the supply-demand balance. Moreover, electricity generation, now sourced entirely from hydrocarbons, is slated to reach 75 to a 80 TWh in 2020 and between 130 to 150 TWh in 2030. From this standpoint and to be assured of having adequate energy supplies, the massive integration of alternative energies into the energy mix constitutes a major challenge for the preservation of fossil fuels, for diversifying electricity production methods and for contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  19. Learning Markov Decision Processes for Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Hua; Chen, Yingke; Jaeger, Manfred;

    2012-01-01

    Constructing an accurate system model for formal model verification can be both resource demanding and time-consuming. To alleviate this shortcoming, algorithms have been proposed for automatically learning system models based on observed system behaviors. In this paper we extend the algorithm on...... learning probabilistic automata to reactive systems, where the observed system behavior is in the form of alternating sequences of inputs and outputs. We propose an algorithm for automatically learning a deterministic labeled Markov decision process model from the observed behavior of a reactive system....... The proposed learning algorithm is adapted from algorithms for learning deterministic probabilistic finite automata, and extended to include both probabilistic and nondeterministic transitions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed and evaluated by learning system models of slot machines. The...

  20. Learning Markov Decision Processes for Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Mao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructing an accurate system model for formal model verification can be both resource demanding and time-consuming. To alleviate this shortcoming, algorithms have been proposed for automatically learning system models based on observed system behaviors. In this paper we extend the algorithm on learning probabilistic automata to reactive systems, where the observed system behavior is in the form of alternating sequences of inputs and outputs. We propose an algorithm for automatically learning a deterministic labeled Markov decision process model from the observed behavior of a reactive system. The proposed learning algorithm is adapted from algorithms for learning deterministic probabilistic finite automata, and extended to include both probabilistic and nondeterministic transitions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed and evaluated by learning system models of slot machines. The evaluation is performed by analyzing the probabilistic linear temporal logic properties of the system as well as by analyzing the schedulers, in particular the optimal schedulers, induced by the learned models.

  1. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quench checks; NOX analyzer. 86.327-79... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum... capillary, and if used, dilution capillary. (c) Quench check as follows: (1) Calibrate the NOX analyzer...

  2. A magnetically driven PDMS micropump with ball check-valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tingrui; McDonald, Scott J.; Kai, Eleanor M.; Ziaie, Babak

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost, PDMS-membrane micropump with two one-way ball check-valves for lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic applications. The micropump consists of two functional PDMS layers, one holding the ball check-valves and an actuating chamber, and the other covering the chamber and holding a miniature permanent magnet on top for actuation. An additional PDMS layer is used to cover the top magnet, and thereby encapsulate the entire device. A simple approach was used to assemble a high-performance ball check-valve using a micropipette and heat shrink tubing. The micropump can be driven by an external magnetic force provided by another permanent magnet or an integrated coil. In the first driving scheme, a small dc motor (6 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length) with a neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet embedded in its shaft was used to actuate the membrane-mounted magnet. This driving method yielded a large pumping rate with very low power consumption. A maximum pumping rate of 774 µL min-1 for deionized water was achieved at the input power of 13 mW, the highest pumping rate reported in the literature for micropumps at such power consumptions. Alternatively, we actuated the micropump with a 10-turn planar coil fabricated on a PC board. This method resulted in a higher pumping rate of 1 mL min-1 for deionized water. Although more integratable and compact, the planar microcoil driving technique has a much higher power consumption.

  3. Simple and Effective Type Check Removal through Lazy Basic Block Versioning

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier-Boisvert, Maxime; Feeley, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically typed programming languages such as JavaScript and Python defer type checking to run time. In order to maximize performance, dynamic language VM implementations must attempt to eliminate redundant dynamic type checks. However, type inference analyses are often costly and involve tradeoffs between compilation time and resulting precision. This has lead to the creation of increasingly complex multi-tiered VM architectures. This paper introduces lazy basic block versioning, a sim...

  4. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  5. Time-Darts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Yrke; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic data structures for model checking timed systems have been subject to a significant research, with Difference Bound Matrices (DBMs) still being the preferred data structure in several mature verification tools. In comparison, discretization offers an easy alternative, with all operations...... having linear-time complexity in the number of clocks, and yet valid for a large class of closed systems. Unfortunately, fine-grained discretization causes itself a state-space explosion. We introduce a new data structure called time-darts for the symbolic representation of state-spaces of timed automata....... Compared with the complete discretization, a single time-dart allows to represent an arbitrary large set of states, yet the time complexity of operations on time-darts remain linear in the number of clocks. We prove the correctness of the suggested reachability algorithm and perform several experiments in...

  6. An Alternative View of the Universe Structure (on the invalidity of the four dimensional space-time concept)

    CERN Document Server

    Hovsepian, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The model of the Universe in this paper uses equations of the unperturbed Keplerian motion. They have been updated, complementied and generalized when the solution of these equations is the characteristic function of a random value from the theory of probabilities. Argument of the differential equation in this case is any more time, an interval of time between sections of a random stationary prosess. In this paper this time interval is referred to as flexible (elastic) time due to its many non-trivial properties. It is proved flexible time does not depend on the space which makes invalid the four dimensional space-time concept. The Universe becomes stationary and Eucledian. It is proved: 1. the advavce of Mercury's perihelion versus the predictions in accordance with the universal gravity law results inequality of the coefficients in the correlation equations of Keplerian moution along axes x, y and z; 2. the velocity of propagation of harmonic oscillation in the Uneverse is not constant; 3. long-range intera...

  7. Evidence for the safety assurance of the radiation associated equipments for stat-up check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the new amendment of the Medical Service Law and the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, the safety control for the medical equipments and devices was strengthened; and a radiological technologist should be stipulated as a safety control manager for the medical equipments and devices. Although it is thought that Start-up check is important for the safety assurance, the enforcement situation is not clear until now. In this report, on the occasion of the start-up of the new Law, questionnaire about the start up check (time and a check items) were investigated from 56 hospitals applying the visit interview. Modality by modality check up time was obtained from 261 institutions by the descriptive study paper type. Start-up check and arming up were applied for almost all modalities about 30 minutes before start of the clinical tests. The check up items for the medical equipments and devices depended on each hospital. Therefore, safety assurance should be established, cooperating with the medical equipment distributors, the hospital sharing the checked results for the patients' safety. (author)

  8. Theta phase shift in spike timing and modulation of gamma oscillation: a dynamic code for spatial alternation during fixation in rat hippocampal area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Nishida, Hiroshi; Redish, A David; Lauwereyns, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Although hippocampus is thought to perform various memory-related functions, little is known about the underlying dynamics of neural activity during a preparatory stage before a spatial choice. Here we focus on neural activity that reflects a memory-based code for spatial alternation, independent of current sensory and motor parameters. We recorded multiple single units and local field potentials in the stratum pyramidale of dorsal hippocampal area CA1 while rats performed a delayed spatial-alternation task. This task includes a 1-s fixation in a nose-poke port between selecting alternating reward sites and so provides time-locked enter-and-leave events. At the single-unit level, we concentrated on neurons that were specifically active during the 1-s fixation period, when the rat was ready and waiting for a cue to pursue the task. These neurons showed selective activity as a function of the alternation sequence. We observed a marked shift in the phase timing of the neuronal spikes relative to the theta oscillation, from the theta peak at the beginning of fixation to the theta trough at the end of fixation. The gamma-band local field potential also changed during the fixation period: the high-gamma power (60-90 Hz) decreased and the low-gamma power (30-45 Hz) increased toward the end. These two gamma components were observed at different phases of the ongoing theta oscillation. Taken together, our data suggest a switch in the type of information processing through the fixation period, from externally cued to internally generated. PMID:24478159

  9. Pre-flight Functionality Check to Enhance Mission Efficacy of Precision Guided Munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Maini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision-guided munitions (PGMs, because of their precision strike capability, are used extensively in the modern warfare. The efficacy of the mission is critically dependent on the successful deployment of the weapon. To ensure high level of effectiveness of these sophisticated weapons, these must be tested at regular intervals. Periodic functionality checks of these weapons are carried out using comprehensive characterisation systems. In addition to comprehensive testing, pre-flight functionality checks with the weapon strapped on to the launchplatform using portable test systems should be carried out. These functionality checks, also referred to as serviceability checks, perform Go/No Go testing of the weapon by focusing on one or two vital parameters of the guided weapon. Pre-flight functionality check of PGM allows a quick appraisal on the functional status of the vital operational parameters of relevance to efficacy of the mission. This review highlights the parameters that need to be checked, both for comprehensive testing of these weapons on a periodic basis and also those required for pre-flight functionality or readiness checks. International systems available for the purpose have also been reviewed, vis-à-vis, their capabilities and limitations to perform the two types of tests with particular emphasis on the pre-flight functionality checks with guided weapon in strap-on condition. Some alternative design approaches have also been proposed.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(5, pp.459-465, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1547

  10. Quality control checks and balances in ENSDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is the repository of data evaluated by the members of the International Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network. This network includes evaluators at 15 data centers in 10 countries and operates under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The main output of the data from this file is the journal Nuclear Data Sheets, widely used by the nuclear structure research community; however, specialized output from this file is also prepared for applied users in the fields of medical practice and research, health physics, industry, nuclear power, and environmental protection. This paper describes the various means each evaluator has access to including format-checking programs and programs for checking/evaluating physical quantities and calculations

  11. CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT: A SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Amy; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions are implemented similarly across students and thus serve as an efficient and cost-effective method of behavior support in school settings. Check-in/check-out is a Tier 2 intervention with documented effectiveness (e.g., Hawken & Horner, 2003; Todd, Campbell, Meyer, & Horner, 2008). Key features of the intervention include brief morning and afternoon meetings with the intervention coordinator, use of a point card on which the teacher monitors student behavior, and teacher ...

  12. Speed checks on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  13. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Mikučionis, Marius; Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted; Sedwards, Sean

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...... applied for implementing this semantics in the UPPAAL-SMC simulation engine. We report on two applications of the resulting tool-set coming from systems biology and energy aware buildings....

  14. From model checking to model measuring

    OpenAIRE

    Henzinger, Thomas A.; Otop, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We define the model-measuring problem: given a model $M$ and specification~$\\varphi$, what is the maximal distance $\\rho$ such that all models $M'$ within distance $\\rho$ from $M$ satisfy (or violate)~$\\varphi$. The model measuring problem presupposes a distance function on models. We concentrate on automatic distance functions, which are defined by weighted automata. The model-measuring problem subsumes several generalizations of the classical model-checking problem, in particular, qu...

  15. The Effect of Time on Bone Fluorescence: Implications for Using Alternate Light Sources to Search for Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaraldahab, Mohamed A H; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Bones fluoresce when exposed to certain wavelengths of shortwave light, and this property can be useful in locating and sorting skeletal remains in forensic contexts. The proteins in bone collagen are largely responsible for its fluorescent properties, but these proteins degrade and denature over time. This study examined the fluorescence of bones from four temporal groups (recent, semi-recent, ancient, and historic) ranging from 0 to 1064 years before present. Specimens were photographed under 490 nm wavelength light, and fluorescence was quantified by converting intensity to a gray scale value based on the RGB color model using ImageJ(®) software. Significant (p fluorescence between all four temporal groups, and a 0.324 coefficient of correlation indicates a significant (inverse) relationship between fluorescence and time. Bone fluorescence decreases with time, but some fluorescence is retained even in older samples. Fluorescence can therefore be reliably used in many modern skeletal remains searches. PMID:27404617

  16. The Activity Check of Brachytherapy Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope Ir-192, which is used in brachytherapy depends on import in whole quantities. There are a few ways for its activity. measurement using Welltype chamber or the way to rely on authentic decay table of manufacturer. In-air dosimetry using Farmer Chamber, etc. In this paper, let me introduce the way using Farmer chamber which is easier and simple. With the Farmer chamber and source calibration jig, take a measurement the activity of an isotope Ir-192 and compare the value with the value from decay table of manufacturer and check the activity of source. The result of measurement, compared the value from decay table, by ±2.1. (which belongs to recommendable value for AAPM ±5% as difference of error range). It is possible to use on clinical medicine. With the increase in use of brachytherapy, the increase of import is essential. And an accurate activity check of source is compulsory. For the activity check of source, it was possible to use Farmer chamber and source calibration jig without additional purchase of Well type chamber.

  17. An Approach to Checking 3D Model with Related Engineering Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For some reasons, engineers build their product 3D mo del according to a set of related engineering drawings. The problem is how we ca n know the 3D model is correct. The manual checking is very boring and time cons uming, and still could not avoid mistakes. Thus, we could not confirm the model, maybe try checking again. It will effect the production preparing cycle greatly , and should be solved in a intelligent way. The difficulties are quite obvious, unlike word checking in a word processing package, ...

  18. Variable Circular Collimator in Robotic Radiosurgery: A Time-Efficient Alternative to a Mini-Multileaf Collimator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Water, S.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Breedveld, S.; Nuyttens, J.J.M.E.; Schaart, D.R.; Heijmen, B.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    urpose Compared with many small circular beams used in CyberKnife treatments, beam’s eye view-shaped fields are generally more time-efficient for dose delivery. However, beam’s eye view-shaping devices, such as a mini-multileaf collimator (mMLC), are not presently available for CyberKnife, although

  19. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-09-01

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour

  20. A rigorous approach to self-checking programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kien A.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1986-01-01

    Self-checking programming is shown to be an effective concurrent error detection technique. The reliability of a self-checking program however relies on the quality of its assertion statements. A self-checking program written without formal guidelines could provide a poor coverage of the errors. A constructive technique for self-checking programming is presented. A Structured Program Design Language (SPDL) suitable for self-checking software development is defined. A set of formal rules, was also developed, that allows the transfromation of SPDL designs into self-checking designs to be done in a systematic manner.

  1. Stochastic Model Checking of the Stochastic Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zeng, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Calculus uses quality binders for input to express strategies for continuing the computation even when the desired input has not been received. The Stochastic Quality Calculus adds generally distributed delays for output actions and real-time constraints on the quality binders for inp...... based on stochastic model checking and we compute closed form solutions for a number of interesting scenarios. The analyses are applied to the design of an intelligent smart electrical meter of the kind to be installed in European households by 2020....

  2. Thermodynamic check calculation for the turboset of CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEFR is the first sodium coolant fast reactor in China. The main function of the three loops is to transform the heat energy from the nuclear island to electricity energy. The turboset has completed three auxiliary steam impact tests and the grid-connected power generation test in 40% P0 working condition after installed and commissioned, but its rated power thermodynamic performance cannot be demonstrated at all times. By thermodynamic check calculation, this paper demonstrates that its capacity at rated power and gets its thermal economics. It also provides significant reference for the whole plant thermal equilibrium calculation of CEFR. (authors)

  3. Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Check Excessively in Response to Mild Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolo, Marieke B J; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Hooge, Ignace T C; Cath, Daniëlle C

    2016-07-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) not only respond to obsessions with perseverative checking, but also engage in more general checking, irrespective of their obsessive concerns. This study investigated whether general checking is specific to OCD and exacerbated when only mild uncertainty is induced. Thirty-one patients with OCD, 26 anxiety- and 31 healthy controls performed a visual search task with eye-tracking and indicated in 50 search displays whether a target was "present" or "absent". Target-present trials were unambiguous, whereas target-absent trials induced mild uncertainty, because participants had to rely on not overlooking the target. Checking behavior was measured by assessing search time and the number of fixations, measured with an eye-tracker. Results showed that in both target-present and target-absent trials patients with OCD searched longer and made more fixations than healthy and anxiety controls. However, the difference in checking behavior between patients with OCD and the control groups was larger in target-absent trials (where mild uncertainty was induced). Anxiety and healthy controls did not differ in checking behavior. Thus, mild uncertainty appears to specifically promote checking in patients with OCD, which has implications for treatment. PMID:27423170

  4. Model checking and strategy synthesis for stochastic games: from theory to practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowska, MZ

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic model checking is an automatic procedure for establishing if a desired property holds in a probabilistic model, aimed at verifying quantitative probabilistic specifications such as the probability of a critical failure occurring or expected time to termination. Much progress has been made in recent years in algorithms, tools and applications of probabilistic model checking, as exemplified by the probabilistic model checker PRISM (www.prismmodelchecker.org). However, the unstoppa...

  5. Fetal short time variation during labor: a non-invasive alternative to fetal scalp pH measurements?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiermeier, Sven; Reinhard, Joscha; Hatzmann, Hendrike; Zimmermann, Ralf C.; Westhof, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether short time variation (STV) of fetal heart beat correlates with scalp pH measurements during labor. Patients and methods: From 1279 deliveries, 197 women had at least one fetal scalp pH measurement. Using the CTG-Player®, STVs were calculated from the electronically saved cardiotocography (CTG) traces and related to the fetal scalp pH measurements. Results: There was no correlation between STV and fetal scalp pH measurements (r=−0.0592). Conclusions: Fetal ST...

  6. SAT-Based Model Checking without Unrolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Aaron R.

    A new form of SAT-based symbolic model checking is described. Instead of unrolling the transition relation, it incrementally generates clauses that are inductive relative to (and augment) stepwise approximate reachability information. In this way, the algorithm gradually refines the property, eventually producing either an inductive strengthening of the property or a counterexample trace. Our experimental studies show that induction is a powerful tool for generalizing the unreachability of given error states: it can refine away many states at once, and it is effective at focusing the proof search on aspects of the transition system relevant to the property. Furthermore, the incremental structure of the algorithm lends itself to a parallel implementation.

  7. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified, no...... effective separation exists even within a presidential system, but, we argue, can be partially restored by having an accountable judiciary. Our empirical findings show that a divided government and elected, rather than appointed, state supreme court judges are associated with lower corruption and...

  8. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  9. Applying GPS to check horizontal control quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Vincent; Weiss Gabriel; Sabová Jana

    2004-01-01

    GPS technologies can also be used for check quality in available horizontal point set with coordinates CJ of the frame S-JTSK. When survey and setting-out tasks should be performed in certain area, one can found in it allways some points of the fundamental and detail state controls. To use these points for some actual aims, it is necessary to investigate their compatibility (among the point mark positions and the point coordinate of control points). This can be done using GPS surveying that m...

  10. Distributed Parametric and Statistical Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bulychev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical Model Checking (SMC is a trade-off between testing and formal verification. The core idea of the approach is to conduct some simulations of the system and verify if they satisfy some given property. In this paper we show that SMC is easily parallelizable on a master/slaves architecture by introducing a series of algorithms that scale almost linearly with respect to the number of slave computers. Our approach has been implemented in the UPPAAL SMC toolset and applied on non-trivial case studies.

  11. Infeasibility of Quantum Cryptography Without Eavesdropping Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang; Wang, Qiyan

    Secure key distribution is impossible in pure classical environment. Unconditional secure key distribution is available when quantum means are introduced, assisted by a classical communication channel. What is possible when a quantum key distribution scheme is without classical communication? We present a general model with this constraint and show that quantum key distribution without classical eavesdropping check is in principle impossible. For an adversary can always succeed in obtaining the secret key via a special case of man-in-the-middle attack, namely intercept-and-forward attack without any risk of being captured.

  12. Transport Catastrophe Analysis as an Alternative to a Monofractal Description: Theory and Application to Financial Crisis Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kamenshchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation was to overcome limitations of a persistency analysis, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot for monofractal Brownian processes: nondifferentiability, Brownian nature of process, and a linear memory measure. We have extended a sense of a Hurst factor by consideration of a phase diffusion power law. It was shown that precatastrophic stabilization as an indicator of bifurcation leads to a new minimum of momentary phase diffusion, while bifurcation causes an increase of the momentary transport. An efficiency of a diffusive analysis has been experimentally compared to the Reynolds stability model application. An extended Reynolds parameter has been introduced as an indicator of phase transition. A combination of diffusive and Reynolds analyses has been applied for a description of a time series of Dow Jones Industrial weekly prices for the world financial crisis of 2007–2009. Diffusive and Reynolds parameters showed extreme values in October 2008 when a mortgage crisis was fixed. A combined R/D description allowed distinguishing of market evolution short-memory and long-memory shifts. It was stated that a systematic large scale failure of a financial system has begun in October 2008 and started fading in February 2009.

  13. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  14. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  15. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    it can give an exact characterisation of the semantics of formulae in a modal logic. This shows that model checking can be performed by means of state-of-the-art approaches to static analysis and allow us to conclude that the problems of model checking and static analysis are reducible to each other....... In terms of computational complexity we show that model checking by means of static analysis gives the same complexity bounds as are known for traditional approaches to model checking....

  16. Evaluation of the Machine Performance Check application for TrueBeam Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an application to verify geometry and beam performances of TrueBeam Linacs, through automated checks based on their kV-MV imaging systems. In this study, preliminary tests with MPC were analyzed using all photon beam energies of our TrueBeam, comparing whenever possible with external independent checks. Data acquisition comprises a series of 39 images (12 with kV and 27 with MV detector) acquired at predefined positions without and with the IsoCal phantom in the beam, and with particular MLC pattern settings. MPC performs geometric and dosimetric checks. The geometric checks intend to test the treatment isocenter size and its coincidence with imaging devices, the positioning accuracy of the imaging systems, the collimator, the gantry, the jaws, the MLC leaves and the couch position. The dosimetric checks: refer to a reference MV image and give the beam output, uniformity and center change relative to the reference. MPC data were acquired during 10 repetitions on different consecutive days. Alternative independent checks were performed. Geometric: routine mechanical tests, Winston-Lutz test for treatment isocenter radius. Dosimetric: the 2D array StarCheck (PTW) was used just after the MPC data acquisition. Results were analyzed for 6, 10, 15 MV flattened, and 6, 10 MV FFF beams. Geometric checks: treatment isocenter was between 0.31 ± 0.01 mm and 0.42 ± 0.02 mm with MPC, compared to 0.27 ± 0.01 mm averaged on all energies with the Winston-Lutz test. Coincidence of kV and MV imaging isocenters was within 0.36 ± 0.0 and 0.43 ± 0.06 mm, respectively (0.4 ± 0.1 mm with external tests). Positioning accuracy of MLC was within 0.5 mm; accuracy of jaws was 0.04 ± 0.02, 0.10 ± 0.05, −1.01 ± 0.03, 0.92 ± 0.04 mm for X1, X2, Y1, Y2 jaws, respectively, with MPC. Dosimetric tests: the output stability relative to the baseline was in average 0.15 ± 0.07% for MPC to compare with 0.3 ± 0.2% with the independent measurement. MPC

  17. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  18. Model-Based Trace-Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Y; Gravell, A; Ferreira, C; Augusto, J C

    2011-01-01

    Trace analysis can be a useful way to discover problems in a program under test. Rather than writing a special purpose trace analysis tool, this paper proposes that traces can usefully be analysed by checking them against a formal model using a standard model-checker or else an animator for executable specifications. These techniques are illustrated using a Travel Agent case study implemented in J2EE. We added trace beans to this code that write trace information to a database. The traces are then extracted and converted into a form suitable for analysis by Spin, a popular model-checker, and Pro-B, a model-checker and animator for the B notation. This illustrates the technique, and also the fact that such a system can have a variety of models, in different notations, that capture different features. These experiments have demonstrated that model-based trace-checking is feasible. Future work is focussed on scaling up the approach to larger systems by increasing the level of automation.

  19. Model Checking over Paraconsistent Temporal Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dong-huo; WANG Lin-zhang; CUI Jia-lin

    2008-01-01

    Classical logic cannot be used to effectively reason about concurrent systems with inconsistencies (inconsistencies often occur, especially in the early stage of the development, when large and complex concurrent systems are developed). In this paper, we propose the use of a guasi-classical temporal logic (QCTL) for supporting the verification of temporal properties of such systems even where the consistent model is not available. Our models are paraKripke structures ( extended standard Kripke structures), in which both a formula and its negation are satisfied in a same state, and properties to be verified are expressed by QCTL with paraKripke structures semantics. We introduce a novel notion of paraKripke models, which grasps the paraconsistent character of the entailment relation of QCTL. Furthermore, we explore the methodology of model checking over QCTL, and describe the detailed algorithm of implementing QCTL model checker. In the sequel, a simple example is presented, showing how to exploit the proposed model checking technique to verify the temporal properties of inconsistent concurrent systems.

  20. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K1 and K2; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K1, and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K2. Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K2. The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K2 and then by K1, using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K2 provides the authentication and with key K1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  1. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  2. 32 CFR 809a.1 - Random installation entry point checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random installation entry point checks. 809a.1... Entry Policy § 809a.1 Random installation entry point checks. The installation commander determines when, where, and how to implement random checks of vehicles or pedestrians. The commander conducts...

  3. A Real-time Algorithm for the Pitch Extraction Based on a Multi-level Likeness Checking Mechanism%基于多层次相似性检测机制的语音基频实时估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄生叶; 叶梧

    2001-01-01

    To get the pitch of a speech remains an unsolved but basic problem in the field of speech signal process.The traditional method of estimating pitches based on autocorrelation function is not always accurate,while those which can give rather accurate results are complex and hard to apply to situations demanding good real-time performance.In order to take into account both the accuracy and the real-time performance, the authors have developed an algorithm based on a multi-level likeness checking mechanism to evaluate the pitch of speech signal.The algorithm has a good real-time behaviour and can be easily realized by hardware.%基音周期的确定是语音处理领域中的一个尚未完全解决的基本问题。传统的基于自相关函数的估计基音周期的方法过于粗糙,而那些准确性高的方法计算太复杂,不适用于实时要求高的场合。为了兼顾准确性与实时性,提出了一种基于多层次相似性检测机制的语音基频估计算法,该算法具有实时性好、易于硬件实现的特点。

  4. Mobile Attendance Checking System on Android Platform for Kazakhstani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparkhojayev, N.; Shakhov, E.; Mailybayev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century-the century of Information Technology, it is difficult to imagine life without any gadgets: phones, tablets, computers, laptops, and so on. Today, smartphones and tablets are becoming popular, and thus their operating systems become popular too. Android is designed for low-power devices that run on battery power at full capacity, using all of its services, such as cameras, lights, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi, etc. In Kazakhstani universities, the process of checking students’ attendance is one of the important issues, because final grade evaluation of students is based on their total number of appearances and their grades during the whole semester. This raises the question of having some tool to control students’ attendance. There are many possible ways of controlling attendance: there are many examples when universities prefer to control attendance by the use of paper sheet, and some universities prefer to use two-stage way of controlling attendance: firstly, teachers and professors use paper sheet for checking students’ attendance and after this, they fill out these information into a system manually. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like “presence” or “absence” if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Furthermore, some students may call his/her friend as “presence” nevertheless to the fact that this student is currently absent. After taking into consideration all these issues and the fact that many gadgets use Android platform, authors of the following research paper decided to create a mobile system that makes easier to check students’ attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Almaty Management University, Kazakhstan. The system is based on Android platform, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  5. A check on pollution and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental problems in Nigeria are mainly petroleum prospecting pollution problems such as spills, oil-well blow out; ballast discharges, improper disposal of drilling muds, gas flaring and acid rain etc., but accept that pollution must take place if all life activities in a modern day environment must go on. But the world as a whole is being persuaded to minimize the extent of pollution because environmental degradation affects all parts of the world. For instance, if oil is spilled by a sinking tanker in the Indian Ocean, definitely, with time it will flow into the Atlantic Ocean devastating the flora and fauna in its wake. In recognition of this, the environment that is polluted must be adequately compensated, by way of remediation and restoration. The enactment of environmental protection laws and regulations themselves do not restore order. Enforcement does. In reaction to the endless complaints of oil communities, FEPA has directed that all oil companies which operate in Nigeria must submit to it within 60 days, an inventory of all dumpsites in their areas of operation since they started. This will help the organisation to determine the level of compensation and liability, he added. The General Manager, Relations and Environment of Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd. (SPDC), Mr. Basil Omiyi, said that the third Nigeria Economic Summit (NES-3) recognized the fact that There Is No Alternative (TINA) and in recognizing this the legal framework of Nigeria in the Oil Industry should in turn recognize this so that the laws could be modified to accommodate other fiscal arrangements. Mr. Omiyi advised that all stakeholders in the industry should cooperate instead of antagonizing one another

  6. Development of CT-guided biopsy sampling for time-dependent postmortem redistribution investigations in blood and alternative matrices--proof of concept and application on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staeheli, Sandra N; Gascho, Dominic; Fornaro, Juergen; Laberke, Patrick; Ebert, Lars C; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Thali, Michael J; Kraemer, Thomas; Steuer, Andrea E

    2016-02-01

    The postmortem redistribution (PMR) phenomenon complicates interpretation in forensic toxicology. Human data on time-dependent PMR are rare and only exist for blood so far. A new method for investigation of time-dependent PMR in blood as well as in alternative body fluids and tissues was developed and evaluated using automated biopsy sampling. At admission of the bodies, introducer needles were placed in liver, lung, kidney, muscle, spleen, adipose tissue, heart, femoral vein, and lumbar spine using a robotic arm guided by a computed tomography scanner (CT). Needle placement accuracy was analyzed and found to be acceptable for the study purpose. Tissue biopsies and small volume body fluid samples were collected in triplicate through the introducer needles. At autopsy (around 24 h after admission), samples from the same body regions were collected. After mastering of the technical challenges, two authentic cases were analyzed as a proof of concept. Drug concentrations of venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, bromazepam, flupentixol, paroxetine, and lorazepam were determined by LC-MS/MS, and the percentage concentration changes between the two time points were calculated. Concentration changes were observed with both increases and decreases depending on analyte and matrix. While venlafaxine, flupentixol, paroxetine, and lorazepam generally showed changes above 30% and more, O-desmethylvenlafaxine and bromazepam did not undergo extensive PMR. The presented study shows that CT-controlled biopsy collection provides a valuable tool for systematic time-dependent PMR investigation, demanding only minimal sample amount and causing minimal damage to the body. PMID:26677021

  7. Check all SCHE Supply Purge Check Valves to Prevent Back Flow from SCHE into Helium Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-10-23

    These valves are 1/2-inch check valves used to prevent SCHe backflow into the Helium System if pressure in the Helium System drops below the pressure of the control valve downstream of the SCHe supply bottles. (14 psig in trains A and B and 2 psig in trains C and D).

  8. Check all SCHe Supply Purge Check Valves to Prevent Back Flow from SCHe into Helium Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These valves are 1/2-inch check valves used to prevent SCHe backflow into the Helium System if pressure in the Helium System drops below the pressure of the control valve downstream of the SCHe supply bottles. (14 psig in trains A and B and 2 psig in trains C and D)

  9. Nonparametric checks for count data models: an application to demand for health care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Begoña; Delgado, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents model specification checking procedures for count data regression models which are consistent in the direction of nonparametric alternatives. The discussion is motivated in the context of a model of demand for health care in Spain. The parameters of the regression model are estimated by maximum likelihood based on Poisson and Negative Binomial specifications as well as by ordinary least squares and semiparametric generalized least squares. However, our interest is not only...

  10. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Von der Heydt, Max O.; Mogensen, Claus T.; Canham, John; Harpold, Dan N.; Johnson, Joel; Errigo, Therese; Glavin, Daniel P.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-09-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover carries a set of five external verification standards in hermetically sealed containers that can be sampled as would be a Martian rock, by drilling and then portioning into the solid sample inlet of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite. Each organic check material (OCM) canister contains a porous ceramic solid, which has been doped with a fluorinated hydrocarbon marker that can be detected by SAM. The purpose of the OCM is to serve as a verification tool for the organic cleanliness of those parts of the sample chain that cannot be cleaned other than by dilution, i.e., repeated sampling of Martian rock. SAM possesses internal calibrants for verification of both its performance and its internal cleanliness, and the OCM is not used for that purpose. Each OCM unit is designed for one use only, and the choice to do so will be made by the project science group (PSG).

  11. Improving Atm Security Check Using DNA Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe, Agu Felix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes how DNA can be used to identify account owner of a particular bank.DNA samples were obtained from body fluid. Buccal swab was used for sample collection .Buccal cell collection involves wiping a small piece of filter paper or a cotton swab against the inside of armpit in order to collect shed epithelial cells. The swab was then air dried or could be pressed against a treated collection card in order to transfer epithelial cells for storage purposes. The stored samples were later amplified and separated .The data generated from the samples were stored and saved in the database so that if a customer comes to claim money, the system checks whether it matches with what is stored in the database ,if it matches with the one in the database, access is granted to the customer,.if it does not match with what is stored in the database ,access is denied from the customer

  12. Workflow Fault Tree Generation Through Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2014-01-01

    probabilistic structure of the system being modelled. From these calculations, a comprehensive fault tree is generated. Further, we show that annotating the model with rewards (data) allows the expected mean values of reward structures to be calculated at points of failure....... with probabilistic non-deterministic branching. We present an algorithm that allows for exhaustive generation of possible error states that could arise in execution of the model, where the generated error states allow for both fail-stop behaviour and continued system execution. We employ stochastic...... model checking to calculate the probabilities of reaching each non-error system state. Each generated error state is assigned a variable indicating its individual probability of occurrence. Our method can determine the probability of combined faults occurring, while accounting for the basic...

  13. Thermodynamic Pressure/Temperature Transducer Health Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher D. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Deyoe, Richard T. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and procedure for checking the health of a pressure transducer in situ is provided. The procedure includes measuring a fixed change in pressure above ambient pressure and a fixed change in pressure below ambient pressure. This is done by first sealing an enclosed volume around the transducer with a valve. A piston inside the sealed volume is increasing the pressure. A fixed pressure below ambient pressure is obtained by opening the valve, driving the piston The output of the pressure transducer is recorded for both the overpressuring and the underpressuring. By comparing this data with data taken during a preoperative calibration, the health of the transducer is determined from the linearity, the hysteresis, and the repeatability of its output. The further addition of a thermometer allows constant offset error in the transducer output to be determined.

  14. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  15. Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; 10.1613/jair.774

    2011-01-01

    We tackle the problem of planning in nondeterministic domains, by presenting a new approach to conformant planning. Conformant planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that is guaranteed to achieve the goal despite the nondeterminism of the domain. Our approach is based on the representation of the planning domain as a finite state automaton. We use Symbolic Model Checking techniques, in particular Binary Decision Diagrams, to compactly represent and efficiently search the automaton. In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we present a general planning algorithm for conformant planning, which applies to fully nondeterministic domains, with uncertainty in the initial condition and in action effects. The algorithm is based on a breadth-first, backward search, and returns conformant plans of minimal length, if a solution to the planning problem exists, otherwise it terminates concluding that the problem admits no conformant solution. Second, we provide a symbolic representation ...

  16. Statically checked documentation with design patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornils, Aino; Hedin, Görel

    2000-01-01

    Over the past years, along with the increase in popularity of design patterns, some problems with the use of design patterns have been identified. The so-called tracing problem describes the difficulty in documenting software systems using design patterns. Initial approaches to solving the tracing...... problem have focused on guidelines for documenting design pattern roles and rules within a system, but experience has shown that both in the initial design, and especially in later code revisions, it is all too easy for code and documentation to diverge, rendering the documentation misleading. The authors...... present a flexible and extensible tool which enables designers to use design patterns in a safe and efficient way, which checks the design pattern rules, and which semi-automatically documents, and maintains the documentation of a software system...

  17. DEPUTY: analysing architectural structures and checking style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DepUty (dependencies utility) can be classified as a project and process management tool. The main goal of DepUty is to assist by means of source code analysis and graphical representation using UML, in understanding dependencies of sub-systems and packages in CMS Object Oriented software, to understand architectural structure, and to schedule code release in modularised integration. It also allows a new-comer to more easily understand the global structure of CMS software, and to void circular dependencies up-front or re-factor the code, in case it was already too close to the edge of non-maintainability. The authors will discuss the various views DepUty provides to analyse package dependencies, and illustrate both the metrics and style checking facilities it provides

  18. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Tugores, Antonia; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. ...

  19. Condition monitoring of a check valve for nuclear power plants by means of acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary object of this work is to investigate advanced condition monitoring systems based on acoustic emission (AE) detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/replacement could be performed prior to loss of safety function. The research is focused on the capability of AE technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes. The systematic approach to classify the dynamic responses of AE signatures associated with typical failure modes of check valve for nuclear power plants is performed in this study. The characteristics of AE signature responses of internal parts of check valves due to local aging and degradation is analyzed by extracting effective AE parameters. This work also includes the investigation and adaptation of several advanced sensor technologies such as accelerometer and advanced ultrasonic technique. In addition, this work will develop advanced sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms from check valve degradation. (author)

  20. Assertion checking environment (ACE) for formal verification of C programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe an Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) for compositional verification of programs, which are written in an industrially sponsored safe subset of C programming language called MISRA C [Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software, 1998]. The theory is based on Hoare logic [Commun. ACM 12 (1969) 576] and the C programs are verified using static assertion checking technique. First the functional specifications of the program, captured in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function, are derived from the specifications. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (also called annotations or formal comments) in the program code. The assertions are then proved formally using ACE and theorem proving tool called Stanford Temporal Prover [The Stanford Temporal Prover User's Manual, 1998]. ACE has been developed by us and consists mainly of a translator c2spl, a GUI and some utility programs. The technique and tools developed are targeted towards verification of real-time embedded software

  1. Happiness and Time Preference: The Effect of Positive Affect in a Random-Assignment Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    John Ifcher; Homa Zarghamee

    2011-01-01

    We conduct a random-assignment experiment to investigate whether positive affect impacts time preference, where time preference denotes a preference for present over future utility. Our result indicates that, compared to neutral affect, mild positive affect significantly reduces time preference over money. This result is robust to various specification checks, and alternative interpretations of the result are considered. Our result has implications for the effect of happiness on time preferen...

  2. When Worlds Collide: An Augmented Reality Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The technology is simple: Mobile technologies such as handheld computers and global positioning systems work in sync to create an alternate, hybrid world that mixes virtual characters with the actual physical environment. The result is a digital simulation that offers powerful game-playing opportunities and allows students to become more engaged…

  3. Structure-Based Deadlock Checking of Asynchronous Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Guang Ren; Zhi-Ying Wang; Doug Edwards

    2011-01-01

    It is important to verify the absence of deadlocks in asynchronous circuits.Much previous work relies on a reachability analysis of the circuits' states,with the use of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) or Petri nets to model the behaviors of circuits.This paper presents an alternative approach focusing on the structural properties of well-formed asynchronous circuits that will never suffer deadlocks.A class of data-driven asynchronous pipelines is targeted in this paper,which can be viewed as a network of basic components connected by handshake channels.The sufficient and necessary conditions for a component network consisting of Steer,Merge,Fork and Join are given.The slack elasticity of the channels is analyzed in order to introduce pipelining.As an application,a deadlock checking method is implemented in a syntax-directed asynchronous design tool - Teak.The proposed method shows a great runtime advantage when compared against previous Petri net based verification tools.

  4. Routine health check-ups of unemployed in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterdahl, T

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 all the 273 long-term unemployed in the municipality Lillesand, Norway were invited to participate in a proactive health care program. 229 were included in the program, consisting of a medical examination by a general practitioner, councelling, personal support and referrals. The job-loss aroused lots of negative emotions, mostly defensive feelings and resignations, which are likely to reduce self-esteem and coping ability. The prevalence of somatoform symptoms and anxiety was twice as high as in the normal population, and for depression the prevalence was three times higher. 24% of the unemployed were referred to further examination. Invitation to a health examination may be the ticket of entry for revealing some of the concealed morbidity among long-term unemployed. Health check-ups of unemployed will probably be very cost-effective PMID:10197474

  5. Shuttle Atlantis is used for Safe Haven fit check

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Shuttle Atlantis, with twin solid rocket boosters and external tank atop the Mobile Launcher Platform and Crawler-Transporter, inches toward high bay 2, on the west side, in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). For the first time in Space Shuttle history, a fully stacked Shuttle is moving into the bay. The VAB and nearby rock-paved crawlerway have recently undergone major modifications to provide Shuttle flight hardware more storage space and protection '''Safe Haven''' - from hurricanes or tropical storms. Atlantis began moving out of VAB high bay 1 on the east side at 2:59 a.m. EDT. After the successful Safe Haven fit check, Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to roll out to Launch Pad 39B in preparation for the STS-106 launch on Sept. 8.

  6. A Succinct Approach to Static Analysis and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr

    In a number of areas software correctness is crucial, therefore it is often desirable to formally verify the presence of various properties or the absence of errors. This thesis presents a framework for concisely expressing static analysis and model checking problems. The framework facilitates...... guarantees that there always is single best solution for a problem under consideration. We also develop a solving algorithm, based on a dierential worklist, that computes the least solution guaranteed by the Moore Family result. Furthermore, we present a logic for specifying analysis problems called Layered...... Fixed Point Logic. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst-case time complexity result. We develop a BDD...

  7. Checking the Quality of Clinical Guidelines using Automated Reasoning Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Hommersom, Arjen; van Bommel, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Requirements about the quality of clinical guidelines can be represented by schemata borrowed from the theory of abductive diagnosis, using temporal logic to model the time-oriented aspects expressed in a guideline. Previously, we have shown that these requirements can be verified using interactive theorem proving techniques. In this paper, we investigate how this approach can be mapped to the facilities of a resolution-based theorem prover, Otter, and a complementary program that searches for finite models of first-order statements, Mace. It is shown that the reasoning required for checking the quality of a guideline can be mapped to such fully automated theorem-proving facilities. The medical quality of an actual guideline concerning diabetes mellitus 2 is investigated in this way.

  8. Bluetooth and sensor networks: a reality check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin; Dydensborg, Mads; Bonnet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The current generation of sensor nodes rely on commodity components. The choice of the radio is particularly important as it impacts not only energy consumption but also software design (e.g., network self-assembly, multihop routing and in-network processing). Bluetooth is one of the most popular...... commodity radios for wireless devices. As a representative of the frequency hopping spread spectrum radios, it is a natural alternative to broadcast radios in the context of sensor networks. The question is whether Bluetooth can be a viable alternative in practice. In this paper, we report our experience...... using Bluetooth for the sensor network regime. We describe our tiny Bluetooth stack that allows TinyOS applications to run on Bluetooth-based sensor nodes, we present a multihop network assembly procedure that leverages Bluetooth's device discovery protocol, and we discuss how Bluetooth favorably...

  9. Sufficiency-based Filtering of Invariants for Sequential Equivalence Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Verification, as opposed to Testing and Post-Silicon Validation, is a critical step for Integrated Circuits (IC) Design, answering the question â Are we designing the right function?â before the chips are manufactured. One of the core areas of Verification is Equivalence Checking (EC), which is a special yet independent case of Model Checking (MC). Equivalence Checking aims to prove that two circuits, when fed with the same inputs, produce the exact same outputs. There are broadly two ways...

  10. Comparative evaluation of Map-Check and Arc-Check for dosimetric verification in patients treaties with IMRT; Evaluacion comparativa de MapCHECK y ArcCHECK para verificacion dosimetrica en pacientes tratados con IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A., E-mail: bertha.garcia@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The dosimetric controls that are realized to the patients in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques; are indispensable since allows in real time to verify the quantity of imparted dose to the patient, these controls should be carried out every time that will begin a treatment, because these techniques impart dose dynamically modulating the dose intensity and movements of the Multi leaf Collimator (MLC), for they exist different diodes devices prepared in spiral (3-D) and planar form (2-D); that allows to estimate the dose fluence in a certain area. Treatment studies for head and neck with IMRT were compared regarding the reading average carried out by the diodes in the corresponding areas, using the criteria of the gamma index like dose difference 3% or 3m m of distance for both diode arrangements, in the IMRT case was found in Arc-Check a minor difference of 3/3 for an average of 99.37% of read diodes in a correct way contrary to the reading obtained with the Map-Check 3/3 an average of difference of 96.19%; in IMRT the difference was lower due to different factors like sensibility of the diodes reading, resolution, diodes disposition, as well as the average reading of entrance and exit of the radiation beams. Within the parameters delivered by the diodes arrangement is considered the positioning correction for both acceptance indexes like the gamma factor and the Distance-to-agreement (Dta), the existent difference of reading in factor gamma and Dta fundamentally is the way in like they compare the dose distribution; the Gamma uses dose averages of high and low gradients and Dta use only averages of areas of high gradients between the nearest points giving the distance as a result among the distribution point and the nearest point what makes stricter. (Author)

  11. Interference checking approach with tolerance based on assembly dimension chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Li Yingguang; Wang Wei; and Liao Wenhe

    2012-01-01

    CAD model with nominal dimension is implemented in interference checking of assembly simulation of aircraft complex parts at present, which causes inadequate availability. In order to address this challenging issue, interference checking method with tolerance based on assembly dimension chain was proposed. Worst case and maximum error probability of tolerance of composing loop were used, and CAD models were respectively re-constructed and inserted into simulation system. Before dynamic interference checking, engineering semantic interference condition was set to assembly requirements. Finally, the interface checking result was a basis for reasonability of assembly process and tolerance. A prototype system was developed based on the above research.

  12. Verifying Multi-Agent Systems via Unbounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, M.; Lomuscio, A.; Lasica, T.; Penczek, W.; Szreter, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to the problem of verification of epistemic properties in multi-agent systems by means of symbolic model checking. In particular, it is shown how to extend the technique of unbounded model checking from a purely temporal setting to a temporal-epistemic one. In order to achieve this, we base our discussion on interpreted systems semantics, a popular semantics used in multi-agent systems literature. We give details of the technique and show how it can be applied to the well known train, gate and controller problem. Keywords: model checking, unbounded model checking, multi-agent systems

  13. Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Reynolds, Eva M.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

  14. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Access Programs by sect. 4.4 of Executive Order 12958) (60 FR 19825, 3 CFR 1995 Comp., p. 333); (2) “L...) Date and Place of Birth: Corroboration of date and place of birth through a check of...

  15. 25 CFR 115.704 - May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... checks/payments or pension fund checks/payments even though those funds are not specified in § 115.702... May we accept for deposit into a trust account retirement checks/payments or pension fund checks.../payments or pension fund checks/payments or any funds from sources that are not identified in the table...

  16. Enhancing symbolic model checking by AI techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Buccafurri, Francesco; Eiter, Thomas; Gottlob, Georg; Leone, Nicola

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of different cellular devices and the investigation of their computing power can be made in terms of their capabilities to time­construct and time­compute functions. Time­construction means that a distinguished cell has to enter distinguished states exactly at the time steps f(1); f(2); : : :, whereas time­computation requires the distinguished cell to enter a distinguished state firstly at time step f(n), where n is the length of the input. Here the family of functions which are ...

  17. In-phantom dosimetric measurements as quality control for brachytherapy. System check and constancy check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In brachytherapy dosimetric measurements are difficult due to the inherent dose-inhomogeneities. Typically in routine clinical practice only the nominal dose rate is determined for computer controlled afterloading systems. The region of interest lies close to the source when measuring the spatial dose distribution. In this region small errors in the positioning of the detector, and its finite size, lead to large measurement uncertainties that exacerbate the routine dosimetric control of the system in the clinic. The size of the measurement chamber, its energy dependence, and the directional dependence of the measurement apparatus are the factors which have a significant influence on dosimetry. Although ionisation chambers are relatively large, they are employed since similar chambers are commonly found on clinical brachytherapy units. The dose is determined using DIN 6800 [11] since DIN 6809-2 [12], which deals with dosimetry in brachytherapy, is antiquated and is currently in the process of revision. Further information regarding dosimetry for brachytherapy can be found in textbooks [1] and [2]. The measurements for this work were performed with a HDR (High-Dose-Rate) 192Ir source, type mHDR V2, and a Microselectron Afterloader V2 both from Nucletron/Elekta. In this work two dosimetric procedures are presented which, despite the aforemention difficulties, should assist in performing checks of the proper operation of the system. The first is a system check that measures the dose distribution along a line and is to be performed when first bringing the afterloader into operation, or after significant changes to the system. The other is a dosimetric constancy check, which with little effort can be performed monthly or weekly. It simultaneously verifies the positioning of the source at two positions, the functionality of the system clock and the automatic re-calculation of the source activity.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK UP FOR INDIAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the past women’s health care services were focused mainly on the health problems during pregnancy and childbirth. Although these are major contributors of morbidity and mortality in women life and require to be addressed in correct perspective, but at the same time the question arises that why should women’s health remain limited to traditional Maternal and Child Health issues, as they are also exposed to strong risks of lifestyle diseases and specific conditions like certain cancers, anaemia, besides hazards of pregnancy/ child birth. Due largely to asymptomatic nature of these conditions, women may not be aware that they are at risk for non-communicable diseases, therefore screening for these diseases are important for assessing risk of future medical problems and to encourage a healthy lifestyle by women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the outset, to sensitize the women regarding importance of health check-up, health awareness campaign was run, followed by health examination including anthropometry, general medical checkup, blood tests for haemoglobin, blood sugar, ( Random, serum cholesterol, urine test for albumin and sugar, clinical breast examination for presence of lump and PAP smear for cervical cancer. Subjects with abnormal results were counseled by counselor and referred for further managements. SAMPLING: 1760 females married to Armed Forces personnel between the ages of 22 years to 55 years of age were selected for screening excluding pregnant women. 1384 women participated in the study. RESULTS: The prevalence of various parameters studied was comparable to national figures and other studies. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that women are vulnerable to lifestyle diseases, certain cancers and non-communicable diseases. Strict preventive measures and health education is mandatory to limit this menace; a formalized periodic health check up for women in different age groups is strongly recommended.

  19. Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-03-07

    This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

  20. 42 CFR 35.47 - Disposition of Government checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of Government checks. 35.47 Section 35... Disposition of Government checks. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, immediately upon... to the department, agency, or establishment of the Government of the United States issuing...

  1. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna;

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  2. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89... Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter... of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer which has been set to...

  3. 40 CFR 90.319 - NOX converter check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX converter check. 90.319 Section 90... Provisions § 90.319 NOX converter check. (a) The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO2... percent of the NO concentration). The NOX analyzer must be in the NO mode so that the span gas does...

  4. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use of... are furnished and that the seller is not overpaying for them. The customer should expend the...

  5. Three Notes on the Complexity of Model Checking Fixpoint Logic with Chop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides lower complexity bounds of deterministic exponential time for the combined, data and expression complexity of Fixpoint Logic with Chop. This matches the previously known upper bound showing that its model checking problem is EXPTIME-complete, even when the transition system or...

  6. Application safety enhancement model using self-checking with software enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Chandrasekaran; Ravishankar, Arthi; Gopal, Deepthi; Subramanian, Dhaarini

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to propose a safety enhancement model for application software in accelerating the respective self checking strategies similar to bio enzymatic actions. The application software components which are safety critical may have to be assessed periodically or on demand to achieve not only the functional correctness but also the safety specifications or features while getting executed. The design and deployment of such software modules can be formally verified for possible safety flaws using self checking capabilities and software enzymatic actions. The self checks must sense the safety holes in the software and decide to activate the built-in software components called enzymes to do the safe guard operations in a timely manner to mitigate the safety faults using the proposed enzyme calculus. The various application hazards due to the boolean faults in the functional and behavioral model that lead to software safety issues are considered in this approach.

  7. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  8. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  9. Statistical Model Checking of Rich Models and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted

    undecidability issues for the traditional model checking approaches. Statistical model checking has proven itself a valuable supplement to model checking and this thesis is concerned with extending this software validation technique to stochastic hybrid systems. The thesis consists of two parts: the first part...... motivates why existing model checking technology should be supplemented by new techniques. It also contains a brief introduction to probability theory and concepts covered by the six papers making up the second part. The first two papers are concerned with developing online monitoring techniques for...... systems. The fifth paper shows how stochastic hybrid automata are useful for modelling biological systems and the final paper is concerned with showing how statistical model checking is efficiently distributed. In parallel with developing the theory contained in the papers, a substantial part of this work...

  10. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  11. Systematics for checking geometric errors in CNC lathes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, R. P.; Rolim, T. L.

    2015-10-01

    Non-idealities presented in machine tools compromise directly both the geometry and the dimensions of machined parts, generating distortions in the project. Given the competitive scenario among different companies, it is necessary to have knowledge of the geometric behavior of these machines in order to be able to establish their processing capability, avoiding waste of time and materials as well as satisfying customer requirements. But despite the fact that geometric tests are important and necessary to clarify the use of the machine correctly, therefore preventing future damage, most users do not apply such tests on their machines for lack of knowledge or lack of proper motivation, basically due to two factors: long period of time and high costs of testing. This work proposes a systematics for checking straightness and perpendicularity errors in CNC lathes demanding little time and cost with high metrological reliability, to be used on factory floors of small and medium-size businesses to ensure the quality of its products and make them competitive.

  12. Personalized versus non-personalized computerized decision support system to increase therapeutic quality control of oral anticoagulant therapy: an alternating time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatellier Gilles

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality control of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT during the initiation and maintenance treatment is generally poor. Physicians' ordering of OAT (especially fluindione and warfarin can be improved by dose adjustment algorithms, taking into account the results of International Normalized Ratio (INR. Reminders at the point of care, computerized or not, have been demonstrated to be effective in changing physicians prescription behavior. However, few studies have addressed the benefit of personalized reminders versus non personalized reminders, whereas the personalized reminders require more development to access patient record data and integrate with the computerized physician order entry system. The Hospital Information System of George Pompidou European Hospital integrates an electronic medical record, lab test and drugs order entry system. This system allows to evaluate such reminders and to consider their implementation for routine use as well as the continuous evaluation of their impact on medical practice quality indicators. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of two types of reminders on overtreatment by oral anticoagulant: a simple reminder of text formatted dose adjustment table and a personalized recommendation for oral anticoagulant dose and next date of INR control, adapted to patient data. Both types of reminders appear to the physician at the moment of drug ordering. Methods The study is an alternating time series experiment with three 6 months periods, each one including every 2 months according to a Latin square scheme: a control period without any reminder, a period with the simple non personalized reminder, a period with personalized reminder. All patients hospitalized in departments using the computerized physician order entry system and ordered fluindione or warfarin, will be included in the study between November 2004 and May 2006. Main outcome will be the proportion of overcoagulation

  13. Dynamic Data Possession Checking for Secure Cloud Storage Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using cloud storage service, data owners can access their data anywhere at any time and enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services, without the burden of local data storage and maintenance. Meanwhile, the risk of losing data stored with any untrustworthy service provider is the key barrier to widely adopt cloud storage service. To verify the integrity of data stored in cloud and relieve the security concerns of customers, a privacy-preserving data possession checking (DPC scheme is presented. This scheme uses Merkle Hash Tree to support fully dynamic data operations. To achieve robustness, forward error-correcting codes can be combined with the proposed DPC scheme, which can recover the data when a small amount of file has been corrupted. The scheme allows unlimited times verification without the need for the verifier to compare against the original data, which reduces the communication and computation complexity dramatically and preserves the privacy of the data. Extensive security analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is highly provably secure.

  14. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  15. Implementing Model-Check for Employee and Management Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss methods to which ModelCheck can be implemented to not only improve model quality, but also satisfy both employees and management through different sets of quality checks. This approach allows a standard set of modeling practices to be upheld throughout a company, with minimal interaction required by the end user. The presenter will demonstrate how to create multiple ModelCheck standards, preventing users from evading the system, and how it can improve the quality of drawings and models.

  16. Pump check valve failures in BWR residual heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pump check valve failure mechanisms are often complex and represent a unique challenge, since in many cases, the location of these check valves is critical to proper system operation. Contributing factors identified at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant included low flow operation of the system as well as excessive flow induced turbulence and cavitation in the system upstream of the check valves. A modification to the system was made to eliminate, or reduce the contribution of the above factors to these valve problems. Several non-standard approaches were taken during the course of modifying the system

  17. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  18. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  19. Ultimacy and alternative possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, John Martin

    2009-01-01

    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism (about which I have been puzzled for some time). Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.

  20. SU-D-BRD-05: Online Framework for Plan Tracking and Automatic Checks in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an online framework that tracks a patient’s plan from initial simulation to treatment and that helps automate elements of the physics plan checks usually performed in the record and verify (RV) system and treatment planning system. Methods: We have developed PlanTracker, an online plan tracking system that automatically imports new patients tasks and follows it through treatment planning, physics checks, therapy check, and chart rounds. A survey was designed to collect information about the amount of time spent by medical physicists in non-physics related tasks. We then assessed these non-physics tasks for automation. Using these surveys, we directed our PlanTracker software development towards the automation of intra-plan physics review. We then conducted a systematic evaluation of PlanTracker’s accuracy by generating test plans in the RV system software designed to mimic real plans, in order to test its efficacy in catching errors both real and theoretical. Results: PlanTracker has proven to be an effective improvement to the clinical workflow in a radiotherapy clinic. We present data indicating that roughly 1/3 of the physics plan check can be automated, and the workflow optimized, and show the functionality of PlanTracker. When the full system is in clinical use we will present data on improvement of time use in comparison to survey data prior to PlanTracker implementation. Conclusion: We have developed a framework for plan tracking and automatic checks in radiation therapy. We anticipate using PlanTracker as a basis for further development in clinical/research software. We hope that by eliminating the most simple and time consuming checks, medical physicists may be able to spend their time on plan quality and other physics tasks rather than in arithmetic and logic checks. We see this development as part of a broader initiative to advance the clinical/research informatics infrastructure surrounding the radiotherapy clinic. This research

  1. SU-D-BRD-05: Online Framework for Plan Tracking and Automatic Checks in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaks, D; Fletcher, R; Salamon, S; Kim, G; Ning, T; Cornell, M; Pawlicki, T; Cervino, L [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an online framework that tracks a patient’s plan from initial simulation to treatment and that helps automate elements of the physics plan checks usually performed in the record and verify (RV) system and treatment planning system. Methods: We have developed PlanTracker, an online plan tracking system that automatically imports new patients tasks and follows it through treatment planning, physics checks, therapy check, and chart rounds. A survey was designed to collect information about the amount of time spent by medical physicists in non-physics related tasks. We then assessed these non-physics tasks for automation. Using these surveys, we directed our PlanTracker software development towards the automation of intra-plan physics review. We then conducted a systematic evaluation of PlanTracker’s accuracy by generating test plans in the RV system software designed to mimic real plans, in order to test its efficacy in catching errors both real and theoretical. Results: PlanTracker has proven to be an effective improvement to the clinical workflow in a radiotherapy clinic. We present data indicating that roughly 1/3 of the physics plan check can be automated, and the workflow optimized, and show the functionality of PlanTracker. When the full system is in clinical use we will present data on improvement of time use in comparison to survey data prior to PlanTracker implementation. Conclusion: We have developed a framework for plan tracking and automatic checks in radiation therapy. We anticipate using PlanTracker as a basis for further development in clinical/research software. We hope that by eliminating the most simple and time consuming checks, medical physicists may be able to spend their time on plan quality and other physics tasks rather than in arithmetic and logic checks. We see this development as part of a broader initiative to advance the clinical/research informatics infrastructure surrounding the radiotherapy clinic. This research

  2. Photogrammetric approach to automated checking of DTMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    Geometrically accurate digital terrain models (DTMs) are essential for orthoimage production and many other applications. Collecting reference data or visual inspection are reliable but time consuming and therefore expensive methods for finding errors in DTMs. In this paper, a photogrammetric app...

  3. Interface definitions in literature: A reality check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parslov, Jakob Filippson; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Companies that develop multi-technological products are challenged on their ability to obtain high product quality and short development lead times in today’s highly competitive and globalized markets. One of the main reasons for poor product quality is due to unidentified or poorly defined product...

  4. Review and analysis of check valve failure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M. D.; Casada, D. A.

    Check valve operating problems in recent years have resulted in significant operating transients, increased cost and decreased system availability. There has been, in response, additional attention given to check valves by utilities, as well as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Operation and Maintenance Committee. All these organizations have the fundamental goal of ensuring reliable operation of check valves. A key ingredient to an engineering-oriented reliability improvement effort is a thorough understanding of relevant historical experience. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently conducting a detailed review of historical failure data available through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System. The focus of the review is on check valve failures that have involved significant degradation of the valve internal parts. A variety of parameters are being considered during the review, including size, age, system of service, method of failure discovery, the affected valve parts, attributed causes, and corrective actions.

  5. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  6. Imagery versus verbal interpretive cognitive bias modification for compulsive checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Melissa J; Grisham, Jessica R

    2016-08-01

    Pathological doubting and checking is a common symptom presentation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous research has established that compulsive checkers do not display an actual memory deficit, but lack confidence in their memories and experience intolerance of uncertainty regarding the completion of tasks. We investigated whether interpretive cognitive bias modification (CBM-I) reduced memory distrust and intolerance of uncertainty in a nonclinical sample. We also examined the possible enhancement of CBM-I for OCD through imagery training. The results provide evidence that participants who received positive imagery CBM-I training may have interpreted novel ambiguous checking scenarios more adaptively and endorsed negative checking beliefs less relative to participants in the control imagery CBM-I condition. Findings on behavioural checking tasks did not indicate any specific response to CBM-I training. Future research may translate these suggestive findings into a useful adjunct to traditional strategies targeting maladaptive OCD beliefs. PMID:27300752

  7. Decentralized Checking Context Inconsistency in Ubiquitous Mobile Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daqiang; Yang, Zhijun; Huang, Hongyu; Zou, Qin

    Contexts are often noisy in ubiquitous mobile computing environments due to user mobility, unreliable wireless connectivity and resource constraints. Various schemes have been proposed to check context inconsistency for ubiquitous mobile applications. However, most of them require central control. This requirement inhibits their working in ubiquitous mobile environments, which are characterized by the asynchronous coordination among computing devices. In this paper, we propose DCCI scheme - Decentralized Checking Context Inconsistency for ubiquitous mobile applications by exploiting the preference-based locality that denotes context inconsistency occurs among the nodes that impose various restrictions on the same context. According to this locality, DCCI constructs a preference-based shortcut structure to check inconsistency within shortcuts. Extensive experiments show that DCCI can accurately and efficiently check context inconsistency in a fully distributed manner.

  8. Exercise May Keep Diabetes in Check During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160113.html Exercise May Keep Diabetes in Check During Pregnancy Short ... university news release. "We advise all women to exercise during pregnancy, as long as there aren't ...

  9. Skin Cancer Check? Do Some Sole-Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159385.html Skin Cancer Check? Do Some Sole-Searching Deadly melanoma is ... wear-and-tear appears to promote the deadly skin cancer in at least one place where the sun ...

  10. 31 CFR 240.15 - Checks issued to deceased payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS... a financial institution, it will be paid by Treasury without the submission of documentary proof...

  11. Automatic checking system of radioactivity in motor-cars 'AKKORD'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring device has been developed for an automated checking of all vehicles leaving or entering a nuclear installation against uncontrolled lost of radioactive material. This device is an excellent tool for radioactive material flow control. (orig.)

  12. Ist-Versteuerung und ein Cross-Check-Verfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Hendricks

    2004-01-01

    Auch Dr. Barbara Hendricks, Parlamentarische Staatssekretärin im Bundesfinanzministerium, brachte einen Wechsel von der gegenwärtigen Soll-Besteuerung zur Ist-Besteuerung verbunden mit einem Cross-Check in die Diskussion ein.

  13. The impact of debit card regulation on checking account fees

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2011, when new regulations capped the interchange fees paid to banks for debit card transactions, some news reports predicted banks might increase checking account fees. The cap reduced many banks' revenue and the concern was that they might offset their losses by charging more for checking accounts. Sullivan examines data from broad samples of banks and finds that many large banks raised fees—but among the thousands of smaller banks that had been exempted from the regulations, so...

  14. Check Point:极速灵动安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    8月25日,Check Point软件技术有限公司推出了号称业界速度最快的安全网关。这款名为Check Point 61000的安全系统能为数据中心、电信和云服务供应商提供可扩展的性能。

  15. Efficient Checking of Individual Rewards Properties in Markov Population Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, Luca; Hillston, Jane

    2015-01-01

    In recent years fluid approaches to the analysis of Markov populations models have been demonstrated to have great pragmatic value. Initially developed to estimate the behaviour of the system in terms of the expected values of population counts, the fluid approach has subsequently been extended to more sophisticated interrogations of models through its embedding within model checking procedures. In this paper we extend recent work on checking CSL properties of individual agents within a Marko...

  16. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...... partitions, and thereby limit the amount of disk access and network communication. We report on several experiments made with our verification platform ASAP that implements the dynamic partitioning scheme proposed in this paper....

  17. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola; Vagin, Oleksander

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  18. Inferring loop invariants by mutation, dynamic analysis, and static checking

    OpenAIRE

    Galeotti, J.P.; Furia, C.A.; May, E.; Fraser, G.; Zeller, A.

    2015-01-01

    Verifiers that can prove programs correct against their full functional specification require, for programs with loops, additional annotations in the form of loop invariants - properties that hold for every iteration of a loop. We show that significant loop invariant candidates can be generated by systematically mutating postconditions; then, dynamic checking (based on automatically generated tests) weeds out invalid candidates, and static checking selects provably valid ones. We present a fr...

  19. Query containment checking as a view updating problem

    OpenAIRE

    Farré Tost, Carles; Teniente López, Ernest; Urpí Tubella, Antoni

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach that handles query containment problems by expressing them as a view updating problem. Since this approach is independent of any particular view updating method, it provides a general framework that joins research efforts in both the query containment checking and view updating fields. In particular, the larger development of current view updating technology allows us to check properly query containment when considering negative-der...

  20. Attitudes and use of alternative therapies in UK prostate cancer patients-isn't it time we were in the know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, P J; Le Monnier, K J; Brewster, S F

    2001-01-01

    With increasing media interest in prostate cancer and the availability of data to patients from support groups and the Internet, the knowledge and use of alternative therapies by patients is becoming more common. The purpose of our study was to quantify patient awareness and use of alternative therapies for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer in the UK. In May 2000, we performed a survey of men attending our urology outpatient clinic for prostate cancer evaluation or follow-up. All men diagnosed with and those at high risk (abnormal prostate specific antigen) for prostate cancer were eligible for the study. Each eligible patient was then sent an anonymous 25-item questionnaire to explore their knowledge and use of various alternative therapies for prostate cancer. Out of 195 patients who were sent the questionnaire, 168 responded, for a response rate of 86%. One hundred and sixty-four were analysed. Eight-two out of 164 (50%) were aware of alternative therapies for prevention/treatment of prostate cancer, the most common were tomatoes/tomato-based products and low-fat diet. There were 27 (16.5%) respondents taking alternative therapies for their prostate. Private patients were more aware (60.4% private vs 46.2% NHS) of complimentary therapies and were more likely to take them (27.9% private vs 12.4% NHS) than National Health Service patients. The majority of patients (60%) had not informed their GP or urologist. Fifteen therapies and 12 medication sources were recorded. Asked if doctors should discuss non-prescribed therapies, even if there is no proven benefit, 62% said 'yes' while 29% said 'no'. Alternative therapy use for prostate cancer is likely to increase. If we don't ask patients specifically whether they are taking them, patients are unlikely to tell us. Urologists and clinical oncologists treating men with prostate cancer need to be aware of alternative therapies and have some understanding of any benefit or harm, not only to be able to answer

  1. Microcomputer Checks Butt-Weld Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisham, W.; Garner, W.; Cohen, C.; Beal, J.; Polen, R.; Lloyd, J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical gage and microcomputer eliminate time-consuming manual measurements. Alinement and angle of plates on either side of butt weld are measured and recorded automatically by hand-held gage and desk-top microcomputer. Gage/micro-computer quickly determine whether weld is within dimensional tolerances or whether reworking is needed. Microcomputer prints out measurements while operator moves gage from point to point along weld. Out-of-tolerance measurements are marked by an asterisk on printout.

  2. Improved Bounded Model Checking for the Universal Fragment of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xu; Wei Chen; Yan-Yan Xu; Wen-Hui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) has been introduced as a complementary technique to BDD-based symbolic model checking in recent years, and a lot of successful work has been done in this direction. The approach was first introduced by A. Biere et al. in checking linear temporal logic (LTL) formulae and then also adapted to check formulae of the universal fragment of computation tree logic (ACTL) by W. Penczek et al. As the efficiency of model checking is still an important issue, we present an improved BMC approach for ACTL based on Penczek's method. We consider two aspects of the approach. One is reduction of the number of variables and transitions in the k-model by distinguishing the temporal operator EX from the others. The other is simplification of the transformation of formulae by using uniform path encoding instead of a disjunction of all paths needed in the k-model. With these improvements, for an ACTI, formula, the length of the final encoding of the formula in the worst case is reduced. The improved approach is implemented in the tool BMV and is compared with the original one by applying both to two well known examples, mutual exclusion and dining philosophers. The comparison shows the advantages of the improved approach with respect to the efficiency of model checking.

  3. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of check valves in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL check valve aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of check valve monitoring methods and techniques. Several check valve monitoring methods are described and compared. These methods include: acoustic emission monitoring, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA), external magnetics. These diagnostic technologies were shown to be useful in determining check valve condition (e.g., disc position, disc motion, and seat leakage), although none of the methods was by itself, successful in monitoring all three condition indicators. The combination of acoustic emission with either ultrasonics or one of the magnetic technologies, however, yields a monitoring system that succeeds in providing the sensitivity to detect all major check valve operating conditions. Other areas covered in the paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues, utility group activities, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  4. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management. PMID:27272248

  5. An Extended Ontology Model and Ontology Checking Based on Description Logics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 蒋馥; 吴家春

    2004-01-01

    Ontology is defined as an explicit specification of a conceptualization. In this paper, an extended ontology model was constructed using description logics, which is a 5-tuples including term set, individual set, term definition set, instantiation assertion set and term restriction set. Based on the extended model, the issue on ontology checking was studied with the conclusion that the four kinds of term checking, including term satisfiability checking, term subsumption checking, term equivalence checking and term disjointness checking, can be reduced to the satisfiability checking, and satisfiability checking can be transformed into instantiation consistence checking.

  6. Advanced techniques for efficient data integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    criteria (the integrity constraints) and to maintain the compliance each time data are updated. Since the introduction of the SQL2 standard, the SQL language started supporting assertions, which allow one to define general data consistency requirements expressing arbitrarily complex “business rules...... means that the database will never reach illegal states and, thus, rollback as well as repair actions are virtually unneeded. The simplification process is unavoidably bound to a function that gives an approximate measure of the cost of evaluating the simplified constraints in actual database states...

  7. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  8. Assessing the physical vulnerability of check dams through an empirical damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dell'Agnese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of flood risk in mountain streams has to include an assessment of the vulnerability of the protection systems, in addition to an assessment of the vulnerability of the constructed environment on alluvial fans and floodplains. Structures forming the protection systems are of a dual nature, i.e. they are designed to mitigate natural process-related hazards and, on the other hand, are prone to be damaged during their lifecycle by the same processes they should mitigate. Therefore, their effectiveness declines over time. Hence, the knowledge of how effectively control structures perform is essential for risk management. A procedure was developed to assess the physical vulnerability of check dams based on empirical evidence collected in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. A damage index defined on pre- and postevent comparisons of check dam conditions was evaluated for 362 structures in 18 mountain streams along with the relevant processes and the structural characteristics affecting it. Although the available dataset did not allow conclusive functional relationships between damage index and impact variables to be established, it was possible to assess the average expected residual functionality of check dams according to structure characteristics, and event type and intensity. These results may help plan appropriate check dam maintenance.

  9. The Complexity of Model Checking Higher-Order Fixpoint Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Roland; Lange, Martin; Somla, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    Higher Order Fixpoint Logic (HFL) is a hybrid of the simply typed λ-calculus and the modal μ-calculus. This makes it a highly expressive temporal logic that is capable of expressing various interesting correctness properties of programs that are not expressible in the modal μ-calculus. This paper...... of solving rather large parity games of small index. As a consequence of this we obtain an ExpTime upper bound on the expression complexity of each HFLk,m. The lower bound is established by a reduction from the word problem for alternating (k-1)-fold exponential space bounded Turing Machines. As a...

  10. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Maxime; Picornell, Miguel; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G; Tugores, Antònia; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered. PMID:25133549

  11. Cross-Checking Different Sources of Mobility Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Maxime; Picornell, Miguel; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G.; Tugores, Antònia; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered. PMID:25133549

  12. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lenormand

    Full Text Available The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered.

  13. Model Checking in Bits and Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Namjoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated verification of concurrent programs is a difficult problem, primarily because of state explosion: the exponential growth of a program state space with the number of its concurrently active components. It is natural to apply a divide and conquer strategy to ameliorate state explosion, by analyzing only a single component at a time. We show that this strategy leads to the notion of a "split" invariant, an assertion which is globally inductive, while being structured as the conjunction of a number of local, per-component invariants. This formulation is closely connected to the classical Owicki-Gries method and to Rely-Guarantee reasoning. We show how the division of an invariant into a number of pieces with limited scope makes it possible to apply new, localized forms of symmetry and abstraction to drastically simplify its computation. Split invariance also has interesting connections to parametric verification. A quantified invariant for a parametric system is a split invariant for every instance. We show how it is possible, in some cases, to invert this connection, and to automatically generalize from a split invariant for a small instance of a system to a quantified invariant which holds for the entire family of instances.

  14. 45 CFR 205.32 - Procedures for issuance of replacement checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Issue a stop payment order on the original AFDC check through appropriate banking procedures; and (ii... replacement check, a recipient is required to report a lost or stolen AFDC check to the police or...

  15. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to sharp rise in oil proces after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, world attention has been focussed on the energy problem. At present the energy problem is limited to the cost and reliability of supply, even though there are enough supplies to go round. However, in the future the problem will be of availability, because in spite of the full exploitation of currently available conventional energy sources, the supply will fall short of demand which will always be increasing. Hence, there is need to develop alternate energy sources, including fast breeder reactors, fusion reactors and MHD. Economic and technical aspects of these energy are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  16. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  17. Action plans for motor-operated valves and check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper performance of motor-operated valves (MOVs) and check valves is necessary for the safety operation of a nuclear power plant. Problems have been experienced, however, with these valves for many years. Currently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the nuclear industry have a number of activities under way to provide assurance that MOVs and check valves will successfully perform their safety functions when needed. The Mechanical Engineering Branch (EMEB) of the NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation has been assigned the responsibility of coordinating NRC activities and monitoring industry activities regarding MOVs and check valves. To meet this responsibility, EMEB has prepared action plans to provide assurance of the proper performance of these valves. Among the staff activities described in the action plans is the consideration of the need to revise the regulations to clarify the inservice testing (IST) requirements for these valves. The need for regulatory guidance for the development of acceptable IST programs, as well as for other licensee activities relating to the performance of MOVs and check valves, will also be evaluated. In addition, NRC personnel will have to verify, in a consistent manner, implementation of licensee commitments in response to NRC generic letters and bulletins. Another important aspect of the action plans is the provision for the NRC staff to provide assistance, where appropriate, to the industry in its efforts to address MOV and check valve issues. Finally, the action plans include a tentative schedule for accomplishing the described staff activities

  18. Independent checks of linear accelerators equipped with multileaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) provides independent checks of therapeutic equipment as a part of state supervision. In the end of 2003, the audit was broaden for linear accelerators equipped with multileaf collimators (MLC). NRPI provides TLD postal audits and on-site independent checks. This contribution describes tests for multileaf collimators and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique that are accomplished within the independent on-site check of linear accelerators. The character and type of tests that are necessary to pursue for multileaf collimator depends on application technique. There are three basic application of the MLC. The first we call 'static MLC' and it serves for replacing conventional blocking or for adjusting the field shape to match the beam's-eye view projection of a planning target volume during an arc rotation of the x-ray beam. This procedure is called conformal radiotherapy. The most advanced technique with MLC is intensity modulated radiation therapy. The dose can be delivered to the patient with IMRT in various different ways: dynamic MLC, segmented MLC and IMRT arc therapy. Independent audits represent an important instrument of quality assurance. Methodology for independent check of static MLC was successfully verified on two types of accelerators: Varian and Elekta. Results from pilot measurements with dynamic MLC imply that the methodology is applicable for Varian accelerators. In the future, the experience with other types of linear accelerators will contribute to renovation, modification, and broaden independent checks methodology. (authors)

  19. On Robustness Analysis of Stochastic Biochemical Systems by Probabilistic Model Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Brim, Lubos; Ceska, Milan; Drazan, Sven; Safranek, David

    2013-01-01

    This report proposes a novel framework for a rigorous robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems. The technique is based on probabilistic model checking. We adapt the general definition of robustness introduced by Kitano to the class of stochastic systems modelled as continuous time Markov Chains in order to extensively analyse and compare robustness of biological models with uncertain parameters. The framework utilises novel computational methods that enable to effectively evaluat...

  20. A review of X-ray explosives detection techniques for checked baggage

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, K.; Bradley, DA

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, the security focus for civil aviation has shifted from hijacking in the 1980s, towards deliberate sabotage. X-ray imaging provides a major tool in checked baggage inspection, with various sensitive techniques being brought to bear in determining the form, and density of items within luggage as well as other material dependent parameters. This review first examines the various challenges to X-ray technology in securing a safe system of passenger transportation. An overview is ...

  1. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  2. The use of check valve performance data to support new concepts (probabilistic risk assessment, condition monitoring) for check valve program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.; Gower, D.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of developing an integrated check valve database based on the Nuclear Power Reliability Data System (NPRDS) data was presented at the last Symposium. The Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group (NIC), working in cooperation with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has completed an operational database of check valve performance from 1984 to the present. NIC has committed to the nuclear industry to periodically update the data and maintain this information accessible. As the new concepts of probabilistic risk analysis and condition monitoring are integrated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, a critical element will be performance data. From check valve performance data, feasible failure modes and rates can be established. When a failure rate or frequency of failures can be established based on a significant enough population (sampling), a more solid foundation for focusing resources and determining appropriate frequencies and testing can be determined. The presentation will give the updated status of the NIC Check Valve Performance Database covering (1) methodology used to combine the original ORNL data; (2) process/controls established for continuing update and refinement of the data; (3) discussion of how this data is being utilized by (a) OM-22 for condition monitoring, and (b) risk-based inservice testing work of Westinghouse Owners` Group; and (4) results/trends of data evaluations. At the 1994 Symposium, ORNL provided an update as of 1991 to their original work of 1984 -1990 which they had performed to characterize check valve degradations and failures in the nuclear industry. These characterizations will be updated to 1995 and additional reviews provided to give insight into the current condition and trends of check valve performance.

  3. Bipartite graph-based control flow checking for COTS-based small satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Honghao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single event upset (SEU effect, caused by highly energized particles in aerospace, threatens the reliability and security of small satellites composed of commercial-off-the-shelves (COTS. SEU-induced control flow errors (CFEs may cause unpredictable behavior or crashes of COTS-based small satellites. This paper proposes a generic software-based control flow checking technique (CFC and bipartite graph-based control flow checking (BGCFC. To simplify the types of illegal branches, it transforms the conventional control flow graph into the equivalent bipartite graph. It checks the legality of control flow at runtime by comparing a global signature with the expected value and introduces consecutive IDs and bitmaps to reduce the time and memory overhead. Theoretical analysis shows that BGCFC can detect all types of inter-node CFEs with constant time and memory overhead. Practical tests verify the result of theoretical analysis. Compared with previous techniques, BGCFC achieves the highest error detection rate, lower time and memory overhead; the composite result in evaluation factor shows that BGCFC is the most effective one among all these techniques. The results in both theory and practice verify the applicability of BGCFC for COTS-based small satellites.

  4. A Spatialization-based Method for Checking and Updating Metadata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the application of spatialization technology on metadata quality check and updating was discussed. A new method based on spatialization was proposed for checking and updating metadata to overcome the deficiency of text based methods with the powerful functions of spatial query and analysis provided by GIS software. This method employs the technology of spatialization to transform metadata into a coordinate space and the functions of spatial analysis in GIS to check and update spatial metadata in a visual environment. The basic principle and technical flow of this method were explained in detail, and an example of implementation using ArcMap of GIS software was illustrated with a metadata set of digital raster maps. The result shows the new method with the support of interaction of graph and text is much more intuitive and convenient than the ordinary text based method, and can fully utilize the functions of GIS spatial query and analysis with more accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...... of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...... safety violations. From a formal methods perspective, these verification objectives can be approached by theorem proving, global, or bounded model checking. This article explains the techniques for application of bounded model checking techniques, and discusses their advantages in comparison...

  6. Self-checking state machine realizations in CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, P. K.

    1994-06-01

    In this reporting period, we have studied the currently available techniques for designing totally self-check checkers for m-out-of-n codes. Such codes can be used for state assignment in self-checking state machines. The major advantage of m-out-of-n codes is that they can detect single and unidirectional multibit errors in the encoded information bits. Thus, if a circuit is designed such that its output forms an m-out-of-n code, any fault in the circuit which creates a single bit error or unidirectional multibit error at the output can be detected on-line. On-line error detection, also known as self-checking, can be accomplished by using a checker to monitor the circuit output. The output of the checker is 01 or 10 if there is no fault in the circuit under test or in the checker itself, otherwise the output will be 00 or 11.

  7. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification of...... behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...... safety violations. From a formal methods perspective, these verification objectives can be approached by theorem proving, global, or bounded model checking. This paper explains the techniques for application of bounded model checking techniques, and discusses their advantages in comparison to the...

  8. Model Checking-Based Testing of Web Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hongwei; MIAO Huaikou

    2007-01-01

    A formal model representing the navigation behavior of a Web application as the Kripke structure is proposed and an approach that applies model checking to test case generation is presented. The Object Relation Diagram as the object model is employed to describe the object structure of a Web application design and can be translated into the behavior model. A key problem of model checking-based test generation for a Web application is how to construct a set of trap properties that intend to cause the violations of model checking against the behavior model and output of counterexamples used to construct the test sequences.We give an algorithm that derives trap properties from the object model with respect to node and edge coverage criteria.

  9. LOAD-CHECK. Disposal planning for LWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the changes of the German atomic law from November 8, 2011 the operation licensing of LWR plants expire latest 2022, for eight NPPs the operation licenses are already expired. In order to optimize the fuel element management in the still operated but also in the decommissioned nuclear power plants the computer code module LOAD-CHECK was developed. LOAD-CHECK allows the foresight container planning for an optimized schedule and the container amount for loading campaigns esp. in case of the disposal of special fuel elements (MOX fuel elements or high-burnup fuel elements). The program can also be used a s tool for development of transport licensing and storage licensing according of CASTOR registered V casks. In the contribution the LOAD-CHECK program for the PWR and BWR fuel element disposal management in CASTOR registered B casks is presented.

  10. Check Point推出NGX版本Connectra SSL VPN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    6月7日,互联网安全解决方案供应商Check Point软件技术有限公司在美国宣布推出Connectra NGX,这是其SSL VPN解决方案的增强版本。Connectra NGX充分发挥了Check Point最近推出的NGX平台的全新连接功能,以及支持中央化安全监控及维护的SmartCenter。Connectra NGX有下列特点:

  11. An analysis of prostate patient computer plan checks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The physics group at the Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool Hospital performs independent quality assurance checks on all radiation treatment fields. These checks involve calculating doses from the prescribed monitor units using data independent of the planning computer. In the physics check the dose at the isocentre or other prescription point is calculated and usually no consideration is given to patient inhomogeneities and curvature. This dose is compared with the dose at the same position as derived from the Varian CADPLAN treatment planning system (CTPS). For the treatment of prostate cancer, the most common technique involves four 6MV x-ray fields: AP, PA and two laterals with the dose prescribed to the isocentre as recommended by I.C.R.U. Report 50 ('Prescribing, Recording and Reporting Photon Beam Therapy', International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A., 1993). This work attempts to determine the cause and magnitude of dose variations between CTPS and -physics check derived doses in prostate patients. A set of 50 prostate patients, treated with the above technique, was selected for the study. The physics checks were evaluated and the average patient separations and dose variations were determined. These dose variations were between zero and 5% (median 4%). A median isocentre dose difference of 6.2% between using and not using a bone inhomogeneity correction method has been observed in 6MV x-ray arc treatments of the prostate (Nemeth et al, Med. Dosim., 18:171-177, 1993). The physics check method was benchmarked in a homogeneous solid water phantom using a PTW Farmer type ionisation chamber with the four field prostate technique and compared with the CTPS derived doses. This showed good agreement. An anthropomorphic phantom was treated with the above prostate technique, using a field size of 9x9 cm2 for all four fields. The CTPS and physics check derived doses at the isocentre were calculated and compared

  12. The check and error analysis of the BRDF experiment bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed introduction is given to the check method of the BRDF experiment bench which is built on our own. Measurement is made on the BRDF of the standard white plate made of polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) with reference to the existing standard white plate whose surface reflectance is known and by the method of theory approximate and relative comparison. On the basis of that, the BRDF value of the standard white plate in the wave band of 0. 6328 μm is given and the experiment bench is checked, the relative error of the experiment bench being within 20%.

  13. Using Model Checking to Validate AI Planner Domain Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Pecheur, Charles; Havelund, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an investigation into using model checking to assist validation of domain models for the HSTS planner. The planner models are specified using a qualitative temporal interval logic with quantitative duration constraints. We conducted several experiments to translate the domain modeling language into the SMV, Spin and Murphi model checkers. This allowed a direct comparison of how the different systems would support specific types of validation tasks. The preliminary results indicate that model checking is useful for finding faults in models that may not be easily identified by generating test plans.

  14. Spell-checking in Spanish: the case of diacritic accents

    OpenAIRE

    Atserias Batalla, Jordi; Fuentes Fort, Maria; Nazar, Rogelio; Renau, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the problem of diacritic restoration (or diacritization) in the context of spell-checking, with the focus on an orthographically rich language such as Spanish. We argue that despite the large volume of work published on the topic of diacritization, currently available spell-checking tools have still not found a proper solution to the problem in those cases where both forms of a word are listed in the checker’s dictionary. This is the case, for instance, when a word form ...

  15. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  16. Higher Data Quality by Online Data-Entry and Automated Plausibility Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietragalla, Barbara; Sigg, Christian; Güsewell, Sabine; Clot, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Long-term phenological observations are now recognized as important indicators for climate change impact studies. With the increased need for phenological data, there is also an increased need for higher data quality. Since 1951 MeteoSwiss has been operating a national phenological observation network. Currently the network consists of about 150 active stations observing up to 69 different phenophases. An important aim of a running three years project at MeteoSwiss is a further increase of the quality of the collected data. The higher data quality will be achieved by an automated procedure performing plausibility checks on the data and by online data-entry. Further measures such as intensified observer instructions and collection of more detailed metadata also contribute to a high data quality standard. The plausibility checks include the natural order of the phenophases within a species and also between different species (with regard to possible natural deviation). Additionally it will be checked if the observed date differs by less than two standard deviations from the average for this phenophase at the altitude of the station. A value outside of these limits is not necessarily a false value, since occurrences of extreme values will be beyond these limits. Therefore, within this check of the limits, the timing of the season of the respective year will also be taken into account. In case of an implausible value a comparison with other stations of the same region and sea level is proposed. A further possibility of data quality control could be to model the different phenophases statistically and to use this model for estimating the likelihood of observed values. An overall exploratory data analysis is currently performed providing a solid basis to implement the best possible methods for the plausibility checks. Important advantages of online data-entry are the near real-time availability of the data as well as the avoidance of various kinds of typical mistakes

  17. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  18. Check and modification of GlobeLand30 with MODIS NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu; Zheng, Xinyan; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    MODIS NDVI time-series data could indicate vegetation status in each season and have been widely used for land cover classification and studies in the fields of vegetation and land degradation monitoring. During global land cover mapping project at 30m resolution aiming at developing high quality product, there were mistakes of classification between bareland and vegetation in GlobeLand30 data in regions surrounding deserts because that the dates of some images are not in growing season. In this paper, we proposed a method to check GlobeLand30 data of 2010 in these areas. Max NDVI value of MODIS NDVI time-series data is chosen to represent growing conditions of vegetation. And then vegetation fraction (VF) calculated from the max NDVI value is divided into bareland and vegetation based on the definition of bareland that VF of bareland is lower than 10%. The dimidiated VF maps are employed to check GlobeLand30 with the help of high resolution images and other references. Finally, errors found out by steps above are modified with VF maps and segmentation objects of images at 30m resolution. 149 map sheets of GlobeLand30 were checked and 105 of them were modified. 13409 samples in 10 map sheets totally were selected to assess the effect of the approach. The result showed that the accuracy after modification of GlobeLand30 was higher than that before modification.

  19. Model-Checking the Higher-Dimensional Modal mu-Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Martin; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.6

    2012-01-01

    The higher-dimensional modal mu-calculus is an extension of the mu-calculus in which formulas are interpreted in tuples of states of a labeled transition system. Every property that can be expressed in this logic can be checked in polynomial time, and conversely every polynomial-time decidable problem that has a bisimulation-invariant encoding into labeled transition systems can also be defined in the higher-dimensional modal mu-calculus. We exemplify the latter connection by giving several examples of decision problems which reduce to model checking of the higher-dimensional modal mu-calculus for some fixed formulas. This way generic model checking algorithms for the logic can then be used via partial evaluation in order to obtain algorithms for theses problems which may benefit from improvements that are well-established in the field of program verification, namely on-the-fly and symbolic techniques. The aim of this work is to extend such techniques to other fields as well, here exemplarily done for process...

  20. A site check prior to regional anaesthesia to prevent wrong-sided blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, P; Pattullo, S

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the 'Stop Before You Block' (SB4YB) initiative in an Australian teaching hospital. This process, which began in the UK in 2010, is a pre-procedure pause to confirm the correct side of a regional anaesthetic block. A change in practice was implemented with the formal roll out of a SB4YB educational program. Use of the initiative was then audited over a subsequent three-month period. It was hoped that after implementing the initiative, at least 80% of blocks would have a site check performed. However, despite apparent support for the initiative, uptake was less than expected with only about 57% of blocks having a site check performed. A site check was less frequent if the block was done as an emergency procedure, outside of an operating theatre or by a locum or visiting anaesthetist. Our conclusion from the audit was that education is insufficient to promote a change in this practice. We propose that Stop Before You Block or a block time-out should be performed prior to all unilateral nerve blocks. Success of this initiative requires education, and both cultural and systems changes to occur. We propose that a formal block time-out should become part of the surgical safety checklist and this activity should be endorsed and promoted by anaesthetic professional bodies. PMID:27456184

  1. Functional Equivalence Checking for Verification of Algebraic Transformations on Array-Intensive Source Code

    CERN Document Server

    Shashidhar, K C; Catthoor, Francky; Janssens, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Development of energy and performance-efficient embedded software is increasingly relying on application of complex transformations on the critical parts of the source code. Designers applying such nontrivial source code transformations are often faced with the problem of ensuring functional equivalence of the original and transformed programs. Currently they have to rely on incomplete and time-consuming simulation. Formal automatic verification of the transformed program against the original is instead desirable. This calls for equivalence checking tools similar to the ones available for comparing digital circuits. We present such a tool to compare array-intensive programs related through a combination of important global transformations like expression propagations, loop and algebraic transformations. When the transformed program fails to pass the equivalence check, the tool provides specific feedback on the possible locations of errors.

  2. Shuttle Atlantis rolls out of VAB for Safe Haven fit check

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 30-second timed exposure captures the bright lights around the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) plus the equally bright moon (upper right) as Space Shuttle Atlantis (far left) rolls out of the east side bay 1. The Launch Control Center sits between the Shuttle and the VAB. The full stack of Shuttle, solid rocket boosters and external tank are taking part in a fit check for the newly renovated crawlerway and high bay 2, which is on the west side. The major modifications to the crawlerway and VAB provide Shuttle flight hardware more storage space and protection '''Safe Haven''' - from hurricanes or tropical storms. Atlantis began moving out of VAB high bay 1 at 2:59 a.m. EDT. After the successful Safe Haven fit check, Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to roll out to Launch Pad 39B in preparation for the STS-106 launch on Sept. 8.

  3. Analysing sensory panel performance in a proficiency test using the PanelCheck software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, O.; Luciano, G.; Nilsen, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses statistical methods and a workflow strategy for comparing performance across multiple sensory panels that participated in a proficiency test (also referred to as inter laboratory test). Performance comparison and analysis are based on a data set collected from 26 sensory panels......Check software, a workflow is proposed that guides the user through the data analysis process. This allows practitioners and non-statisticians to get an overview over panel performances in a rapid manner without the need to be familiar with details on the statistical methods. Visualisation of data analysis...... results plays an important role as this provides a time saving and efficient way of screening and investigating sensory panel performances. Most of the statistical methods used in this paper are available in the open source software PanelCheck, which may be downloaded and used for free....

  4. The Effects of Peer-Mediated Check-In/Check-Out on the Social Skills of Socially Neglected Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A; Gresham, Frank M; Dart, Evan H

    2016-07-01

    Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) is a moderately effective Tier 2 intervention often used to address attention-maintained problem behaviors in schools. Recent studies on CICO have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention when combined with social skills training and when utilizing students' peers as interventionists. Using a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of peer-mediated CICO to target social skills in elementary school students identified as socially neglected using a sociometric classification system. Results, implications for practice, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:27056878

  5. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  6. Spanish Language Versions of the Depression Adjective Check Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Bernard; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study aimed to develop an instrument that could be used for mental health research with Spanish-speaking populations. The Depression Adjective Check Lists (DACL) used to measure depressive mood was translated into Spanish and administered to 70 Hispanic subjects. Reliability determinations were high and close to those for the English version.…

  7. Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouter, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).

  8. Two Types of Test Assembly Checked and Accepted for CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The detail design of two types of test assembly used in the simulating transportation, and themounting and hydraulic test were completed in 2002. This two types of test assembly are manufactured inshanghai No.1 machine tool works, and checked and accepted in March 2003. The former is used in the

  9. Homeland Security Initiatives and Background Checks in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie; Keller, Eileen Weisenbach; Hertz, Giles T.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have faced a new challenge. While there has been a movement underway on college campuses to increase the safety of a wide range of university constituents through criminal background checks (CBCs), in most cases this movement has failed to include CBCs of foreign faculty and student populations. The…

  10. Self-checking state machine realization in CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, P. K.; Walker, A.

    1994-12-01

    In this reporting period we have accomplished the following: (1) developed a procedure for totally self-checking (TSC) checker design for m-out-of-2m codes at the transistor level and (2) derived a technique for designing TSC fault-tolerant systems.

  11. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid : A stochastic model checking case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuksel, E.; Nielson, H.R.; Nielson, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Informatics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Zhu, H. (East China Normal Univ. (China)); Huang, H. (Wuxi SensingNet Industrialization Research Institute (China))

    2012-07-01

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker. (Author)

  12. A Standardization of the Mooney Problem Check List - College Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Ralph Mason; And Others

    The Mooney Problem Check List, College Form, was administered to 2,261 students from six Louisiana universities, for standardization purposes. Usable protocols were obtained for 1,929 subjects. Comparisons among schools, school classes, sex, race, and marital status were made for the 11 Mooney categories. Norm tables were developed for all groups…

  13. Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John; Casten, John; Cowling, Catherine; Gray, Charles; Guhr, David; Hoofnagle, Kara; Huffman, Jessica; Mina, Moises; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of bouncers at on site establishments that served alcohol was observed. Our aim was to better understand how bouncers went about their job when the bar had a mandatory policy to check identification of all customers. Utilizing an ethnographic decision model, we found that bouncers were significantly more likely to card customers that…

  14. Bounded Model Checking of Temporal Formulas with Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alcino

    2012-01-01

    Alloy is formal modeling language based on first-order relational logic, with no specific support for specifying reactive systems. We propose the usage of temporal logic to specify such systems, and show how bounded model checking can be performed with the Alloy Analyzer.

  15. Periodical check of the NPP Dukovany fuel cycles safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analyses are among the most important parts of Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). The analyses are based, among other things, on reactor core characteristics that can change due to fuel burnup or can vary in dependence on the actual fuel cycle design (fuel composition and core design) or other operational conditions. The validity of the SAR must be preserved under all circumstances. This is why elaboration of a methodology for checking the core characteristics was necessary. This concerns especially those core characteristics that can undergo major changes during operation and play an important role in safety analysis. Evaluation of validity of the results of a safety analysis is vital for application of such methodology. The main methodological principles are summarized and some illustrative results for Dukovany NPP units are presented. The following aspects are discussed: History and goals of fuel cycle key parameters checking; Basic principles of methodology (key reactor core parameters for safety analyses: reactivity coefficients and kinetic parameters, efficiency of control assemblies, reactor core power distribution characteristics, combination of parameters for specific events; structure of representative values for safety analyses); Illustration of present state in application of the checking procedure; Possible consequences of the checking procedure application; and Future of the methodology. (P.A.)

  16. 31 CFR 240.14 - Checks issued to incompetent payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS... without submission of documentary proof of the authority of the guardian or other fiduciary, with the... the certifying agency with information as to the incompetence of the payee and documentary...

  17. 40 CFR 91.319 - NOX converter check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX converter check. 91.319 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.319 NOX... of the NO concentration). The NOX analyzer must be in the NO mode so that the span gas does not...

  18. Modeling Environment for Component Model Checking from Hierarchical Architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pařízek, P.; Plášil, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 182, - (2007), s. 139-153. ISSN 1571-0661 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/0770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * environment model checking * hierarchical component architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  19. Goodness-of-fit tests for vector autoregressive models in time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes and studies some diagnostic tools for checking the goodness-of-fit of general parametric vector autoregressive models in time series. The resulted tests are asymptotically chi-squared under the null hypothesis and can detect the alternatives converging to the null at a parametric rate. The tests involve weight functions,which provides us with the flexibility to choose scores for enhancing power performance,especially under directional alternatives. When the alternatives are not directional,we construct asymptotically distribution-free maximin tests for a large class of alternatives. A possibility to construct score-based omnibus tests is discussed when the alternative is saturated. The power performance is also investigated. In addition,when the sample size is small,a nonparametric Monte Carlo test approach for dependent data is proposed to improve the performance of the tests. The algorithm is easy to implement. Simulation studies and real applications are carried out for illustration.

  20. 47 CFR 80.293 - Check bearings by authorized ship personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Check bearings by authorized ship personnel. 80... Check bearings by authorized ship personnel. The requirement for calibration by check bearings is met if: (a) The required verification by check bearings are made not more than 90 days prior to the date...

  1. The Time-Varying-Parameter Model as an Alternative to ARCH for Modeling Changing Conditional Variance: The Case of Lucas Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Charles R. Nelson; Chang-Jin Kim

    1988-01-01

    The main econometric issue in testing the Lucas hypothesis (1973) in a times series context is the estimation of the variance conditional on past information. The ARCH model, proposed by Engle (1982), is one way of specifying the conditional variance. But the assumption underlying the ARCH specification is ad-hoc. The existence of ARCH can sometimes be interpreted as evidence of misspecification. Under the assumption that a monetary policy regime is continuously changing, a time-varying-param...

  2. An Alternative Framework for Time Series Decomposition and Forecastingand its Relevance for Portfolio Choice – A Comparative Study of the Indian Consumer Durable and Small Cap Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Jaydip; DATTA CHAUDHURI, Tamal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. One of the challenging research problems in the domain of time series analysis and forecasting is making efficient and robust prediction of stock market prices. With rapid development and evolution of sophisticated algorithms and with the availability of extremely fast computing platforms, it has now become possible to effectively extract, store, process and analyze high volume stock market time series data. Complex algorithms for forecasting are now available for speedy execution o...

  3. Recommended Screening-Checks for Placed Orders in Industry Internal Tool- OMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjanamurthy M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the information and proposed solution regarding Screening Checks for Industry Internal Tool-Order Management System. After placing orders by customers through shopping website the industry people should verify the orders in different ways to avoid loss. Need to do Screening and in different checks for Maximize acceptance of valid orders, Increase customer service productivity, More tailored and effective screening strategies, Minimize online fraud losses. Free up your teams to focus on their core competency – running your business. Here mainly proposing screening checks sectors are Credit card information checks, Basic Information checks, financing information checks, Electronic information checks.

  4. Monitor-Based Statistical Model Checking for Weighted Metric Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach and implementation for ana- lysing weighted timed automata (WTA) with respect to the weighted metric temporal logic (WMTL≤ ). Based on a stochastic semantics of WTAs, we apply statistical model checking (SMC) to estimate and test probabilities of satisfaction with...... desired levels of confidence. Our ap- proach consists in generation of deterministic monitors for formulas in WMTL≤ , allowing for efficient SMC by run-time evaluation of a given formula. By necessity, the deterministic observers are in general approx- imate (over- or under-approximations), but are most...

  5. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  6. A Novel Method to Verify Multilevel Computational Models of Biological Systems Using Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Meta Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David

    2016-01-01

    Insights gained from multilevel computational models of biological systems can be translated into real-life applications only if the model correctness has been verified first. One of the most frequently employed in silico techniques for computational model verification is model checking. Traditional model checking approaches only consider the evolution of numeric values, such as concentrations, over time and are appropriate for computational models of small scale systems (e.g. intracellular networks). However for gaining a systems level understanding of how biological organisms function it is essential to consider more complex large scale biological systems (e.g. organs). Verifying computational models of such systems requires capturing both how numeric values and properties of (emergent) spatial structures (e.g. area of multicellular population) change over time and across multiple levels of organization, which are not considered by existing model checking approaches. To address this limitation we have developed a novel approximate probabilistic multiscale spatio-temporal meta model checking methodology for verifying multilevel computational models relative to specifications describing the desired/expected system behaviour. The methodology is generic and supports computational models encoded using various high-level modelling formalisms because it is defined relative to time series data and not the models used to generate it. In addition, the methodology can be automatically adapted to case study specific types of spatial structures and properties using the spatio-temporal meta model checking concept. To automate the computational model verification process we have implemented the model checking approach in the software tool Mule (http://mule.modelchecking.org). Its applicability is illustrated against four systems biology computational models previously published in the literature encoding the rat cardiovascular system dynamics, the uterine contractions of labour

  7. Special report. Conducting pre-employment background checks: where to get help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In the December 1994 issue, we warned of the need to conduct adequate background checks of physicians, nurses, administrators, and other types of employees. A number of examples were presented in which hospitals put themselves at risk by hiring: an administrator with a phony doctorate and master's degrees; a nurse who had been found guilty of stealing drugs when she worked at a nursing home; a male nurse who had been arrested for raping patients under anesthesia (he had previously had his teaching license revoked for sexual misconduct with a student); a nursing aide arrested for fondling a 73-year-old woman in her bed who had been convicted of a similar attack at a nearby medical center three years earlier; and a doctor who had served jail time for attempted murder, who was hired by a leading hospital as a psychiatric resident. As was pointed out in the December article, conducting adequate background checks is not always an easy matter, even if your hospital has such a policy. However, a number of firms have emerged to provide improved services in this area. In this report, we will bring you up to date on a firm that specializes in background checks for health care industry job applicants, another firm that maintains a database of work histories of thousands of officers, and a firm that claims its integrity test can spot potential thieves. PMID:10142094

  8. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  9. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  10. Window-based MU calculator for independent dosimetry check in routine radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is estimated that over one hundred thousand deaths are associated with medical errors each year in the USA alone. Most of these errors are preventable. Calculation errors in medical physics are no exception which are mostly preventable through sound quality assurance programmes. Preventable radiation dosimetry errors in Panama have resulted in numerous deaths. Confirmation of Monitor Unit (MU)/treatment time on a radiation producing machine by a second check forms the backbone of a dosimetry QA programme in any radiation oncology setup. The existing MU computer programs are either incorporated in treatment planning systems or they are marketed as stand alone programs to double check the calculations. Such programs, though robust in nature, are not affordable for most developing countries because of their cost. A trend has been evolving to use window based MU calculators for photon and electron dosimetry. A simple window based monitor unit program has been designed and developed using Visual C++ software for independent MU check. The program reads TMR data from a data file. The data file is organized for each scanned field size and depth in a two dimensional matrix. Field size and depth in between the existing data are interpolated by the program. The pull-down menus allow the user to select tray, compensator and wedges, if used. Field sizes, depth and other information are typed in for computation. It has been tested against our existing dosimetry calculation and found within 1% of hand calculation for different field sizes and depth interpolations. The computed results may be printed out as hard copy for record. The calculator is easily programmable for a particular radiation machine by tailoring the TMR/PDD data tables and other parameters. The existing programming platform may be modified for contour based planning system in future. The existing module provides a second check to improve the QA by verifying the computed MU independently. (author)

  11. A characterization of check valve degradation and failure experience in the nuclear power industry: 1991 Failures, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review and characterization of check valve failures taken from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System was performed in accordance with part two of a three-phase project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The analysis was performed for check valve failures occurring in 1991 and is intended to update the previous analysis performed for the time period 1984--1990. To maintain consistency and for ease of the 1991 analysis presents the same parameters and cross-correlations in essentially the same format as the 1984--1990 study. Additional data was obtained for the 1991 analysis, including information related to specific check valve type. This information is presented in a separate section of the report

  12. A study of the characteristics of the acoustic emission signals for condition monitoring of check valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate that a condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission (AE) detection can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance or replacement can be preformed prior to the loss of safety function. This research is focused on the investigation and understanding of the capability of the acoustic emission technique to provide diagnostic information on check valve failures. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference. It is clearly demonstrated that the distinction of different types of failure were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters

  13. A study of the characteristics of the acoustic emission signals for condition monitoring of check valves in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon-Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Kumjeong-gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: johlee@pusan.ac.kr; Lee, Min-Rae [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Teak [Man-Machine Interface System Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Laboratories, Risk and Reliability Analysis Department, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jung, Yoong-Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Kumjeong-gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate that a condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission (AE) detection can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance or replacement can be preformed prior to the loss of safety function. This research is focused on the investigation and understanding of the capability of the acoustic emission technique to provide diagnostic information on check valve failures. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference. It is clearly demonstrated that the distinction of different types of failure were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters.

  14. A Possible Tool for Checking Errors in the INAA Results, Based on Neutron Data and Method Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents preliminary results of a new type of possible application in the INAA experiments of elemental analysis, useful to check errors occurred during investigation of unknown samples; it relies on the INAA method validation experiments and accuracy of the neutron data from the literature. The paper comprises 2 sections, the first one presents--in short--the steps of the experimental tests carried out for INAA method validation and for establishing the 'ACTIVA-N' laboratory performance, which is-at the same time-an illustration of the laboratory evolution on the way to get performance. Section 2 presents our recent INAA results on CRMs, of which interpretation opens discussions about the usefulness of using a tool for checking possible errors, different from the usual statistical procedures. The questionable aspects and the requirements to develop a practical checking tool are discussed

  15. Immune Check Point Inhibitors Combination in Melanoma: Worth the Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Marlana; Weight, Ryan; Valsecchi, Matias E; Sato, Takami

    2016-01-01

    The combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors ipilimumab and nivolumab has been recently been FDA approved for first line treatment of unresectable and metastatic BRAF wild type melanoma. The approval came following the impressive results of the CheckMate 067, where the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab appeared to outperform each as a single agent in regards to response rate and progression free survival. Though we await final overall survival data, the combination will likely be adapted by many oncologists and integrated into the ever changing melanoma treatment algorithm. In this article we aim to summarize the data leading up to the recent FDA approval and publication by Larkin et al. that presents the results from the CheckMate 067 trial. We will also further explore the feasibility, challenges, and applicability of combination immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. PMID:27028970

  16. Application of acoustic emission technique for check valve monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very limited choice is available in monitoring the health of check valves during service. Ultrasonics, magnetic flux leakage and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring are three methods, of which AE is the prominent. The paper describes work done on swing check valves in the ECCS circuit of Cirus using AE. It indicates that the valves can be monitored for any abnormal behaviour during their stable operation and during opening and closing. AE can also sense any abnormality at the hinge pin, hinge arm, disc etc., if they give AE emission. However, many of these may require background data from a spare valve of similar design or a working stand by. In absence of such a valve, data from the present study will be used as a baseline data for comparison with signatures taken during future inspections. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya [Sankoukai Miyazaki Hospital, Isahaya, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  18. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  19. Detecting feature interactions in Web services with model checking techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As a platform-independent software system, a Web service is designed to offer interoperability among diverse and heterogeneous applications.With the introduction of service composition in the Web service creation, various message interactions among the atomic services result in a problem resembling the feature interaction problem in the telecommunication area.This article defines the problem as feature interaction in Web services and proposes a model checking-based detection method.In the method, the Web service description is translated to the Promela language - the input language of the model checker simple promela interpreter (SPIN), and the specific properties, expressed as linear temporal logic (LTL) formulas, are formulated according to our classification of feature interaction.Then, SPIN is used to check these specific properties to detect the feature interaction in Web services.

  20. L2C2: Logic-based LSC Consistency Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hai-Feng; Subramaniam, Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    Live sequence charts (LSCs) have been proposed as an inter-object scenario-based specification and visual programming language for reactive systems. In this paper, we introduce a logic-based framework to check the consistency of an LSC specification. An LSC simulator has been implemented in logic programming, utilizing a memoized depth-first search strategy, to show how a reactive system in LSCs would response to a set of external event sequences. A formal notation is defined to specify external event sequences, extending the regular expression with a parallel operator and a testing control. The parallel operator allows interleaved parallel external events to be tested in LSCs simultaneously; while the testing control provides users to a new approach to specify and test certain temporal properties (e.g., CTL formula) in a form of LSC. Our framework further provides either a state transition graph or a failure trace to justify the consistency checking results.

  1. LEMming: A Linear Error Model to Normalize Parallel Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Data as an Alternative to Reference Gene Based Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Feuer, Ronny; Vlaic, Sebastian; Arlt, Janine; Sawodny, Oliver; Dahmen, Uta; Zanger, Ulrich M; Thomas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis is an essential part of biological and medical investigations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is characterized with excellent sensitivity, dynamic range, reproducibility and is still regarded to be the gold standard for quantifying transcripts abundance. Parallelization of qPCR such as by microfluidic Taqman Fluidigm Biomark Platform enables evaluation of multiple transcripts in samples treated under various conditions. Despite advanced technologies, cor...

  2. Temporal Characterization of Carrot Broth-Enhanced Real-Time PCR as an Alternative Means for Rapid Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Prenatal Anorectal and Vaginal Screenings ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Erik; Napierala, Maureen; Munson, Kimber L.; Culver, Anne; Hryciuk, Jeanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of overnight carrot broth culture using the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay (carrot broth-enhanced PCR) yields increased sensitivity compared to that of carrot broth culture alone for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. We investigated the prospect of reducing the carrot broth incubation time prior to PCR performance. In vitro experimentation demonstrated that carrot broth-enhanced PCR nominally detected 10 CFU S. agalactiae after 4 h of carrot broth incubation with competitive flora....

  3. Will online bill payment spell the demise of paper checks?

    OpenAIRE

    James C. McGrath

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years, the emergence and adoption of electronic payment instruments have acutely affected check usage. This transition has been especially evident at the point of sale as debit and credit cards have become pervasive. Today, the rapid growth of online bill payment looks to threaten checks’ last redoubt. However, bill payment technology is still in its adolescence; the interplay of many stakeholders in the industry, including technology firms, banks, billers, payment cards...

  4. Checking Session-Oriented Interactions between Web Services

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parízek, P.; Adámek, Jiří

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, s. 3-10. ISBN 978-0-7695-3276-9. [SEAA 2008. EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications /34./. Parma (IT), 03.09.2008-05.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : web services * BPEL * session-oriented interactions * behavior protocols * model checking Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  5. Fast Liveness Checking for SSA-Form Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Boissinot B.; Hack S.; Grund D.; De Dinechin B.D.; Rastello F.

    2007-01-01

    Liveness analysis is an important analysis in optimizing compilers. Liveness information is used in several optimizations and is mandatory during the code-generation phase. Two drawbacks of conventional liveness analyses are that their computations are fairly expensive and their results are easily invalidated by program transformations. We present a method to check liveness of variables that overcomes both obstacles. The major advantage of the proposed method is that the analysis result survi...

  6. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  7. A Novel Nanometric Reversible Signed Divider with Overflow Checking Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Faraz Dastan; Majid Haghparast

    2012-01-01

    One of the best approaches for designing future computers is that we use reversible logic. Reversible logic circuits have lower power consumption than the common circuits, used in computers nowadays. In this study we propose a new reversible division circuit. This reversible division circuit is signed divider and has an overflow checking capability. Among the designed and proposed reversible division circuits, our proposed division circuit is the first reversible signed divider with overflow ...

  8. 309 Facility deactivation and decommisioning Criteria Completion Check Lists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate and track completion of the 309 Facility turnover criteria completion an Applicability Matrix and Criteria Completion Check Lists were prepared. The applicability matrix documents the required turnover criteria for a given area in the facility or scope of work. The applicable criteria is selected for 16 different areas. For each area a completion checklist is provided to document completion of a requirement by WHC and the Environmental Restoration Contractor

  9. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Shireesha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing newsoftware products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuserepository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describeshow a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking ifoptimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providingcoding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable componentsand guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  10. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  11. Model Checking Processes Specified In Join-Calculus Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Piotr Maludziński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model checking tool used to verify concurrent systems specified in join-calculus algebra. The temporal properties of systems under verification are expressed in CTL logic. Join-calculus algebra with its operational semantics defined by the chemical abstract machine serves as the basic method for the specification of concurrent systems and their synchronization mechanisms, and allows the examination of more complex systems.

  12. Model Checking Processes Specified In Join-Calculus Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Piotr Maludziński; Grzegorz Dobrowolski

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a model checking tool used to verify concurrent systems specified in join-calculus algebra. The temporal properties of systems under verification are expressed in CTL logic. Join-calculus algebra with its operational semantics defined by the chemical abstract machine serves as the basic method for the specification of concurrent systems and their synchronization mechanisms, and allows the examination of more complex systems.

  13. A Graphical μ-Calculus and Local Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林惠民

    2002-01-01

    A graphical notation for the propositionalμ-calculus, called modal graphs, ispresented. It is shown that both the textual and equational presentations of theμ-calculus canbe translated into modal graphs. A model checking algorithm based on such graphs is proposed.The algorithm is truly local in the sense that it only generates the parts of the underlyingsearch space which are necessary for the computation of the final result. The correctness of thealgorithm is proven and its complexity analysed.

  14. Model Checking for Licensing Support in the Finnish Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antti, Pakonen; Janne, Valkonen [VTT Technical Research, VTT (Finland); Sami, Matinaho; Markus, Hartikainen [Protum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    This paper examines how model checking can be used to support the qualification of digital I and C software in nuclear power plants, in a way that is consistent with regulatory demands specifically, the common position of seven European nuclear regulators and authorised technical support organisations. As a practical example, we discuss the third-party review service provided by VTT for the power company Fortum in the I and C renewal project of the Loviisa plant in southern Finland.

  15. INVESTING FORMULA ENFORCEABLE BILL OF EXCHANGE, PROMISSORY NOTES AND CHECK

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA - ELENA OLARU

    2011-01-01

    Right bills constituted a proper, solemn and formal training both bills of exchange, promissory notes or checks, but also in terms of bills receivable realization and autonomy is manifested in the sphere of application, and in priority and exclusivity of its incidence from common law, namely the Civil Procedure Code. Legal rules relating to bills of rights realization is a perfect rigorous regime. The special regime, derogating governing procedure execution quality bills is justified and bill...

  16. Residential Landscape Water Check Programs: Exploring a Conservation Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    In response to drought and regional growth in the arid western United States, urban water demand management is increasingly important. Single family residences use approximately 60% of their water consumption to irrigate landscapes often in excess of plant water requirements. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design to investigate outdoor water consumption and assess the effectiveness of a landscape water check conservation program. Study objectives included describing a contextualized...

  17. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, R. [Nuclear Crago + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  18. Correctness of Sensor Network Applications by Software Bounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Faragó, David

    We investigate the application of the software bounded model checking tool CBMC to the domain of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We automatically generate a software behavior model from a network protocol (ESAWN) implementation in a WSN development and deployment platform (TinyOS), which is used to rigorously verify the protocol. Our work is a proof of concept that automatic verification of programs of practical size (≈ 21 000 LoC) and complexity is possible with CBMC and can be integrated into TinyOS. The developer can automatically check for pointer dereference and array index out of bound errors. She can also check additional, e.g., functional, properties that she provides by assume- and assert-statements. This experience paper shows that our approach is in general feasible since we managed to verify about half of the properties. We made the verification process scalable in the size of the code by abstraction (eg, from hardware) and by simplification heuristics. The latter also achieved scalability in data type complexity for the properties that were verifiable. The others require technical advancements for complex data types within CBMC's core.

  19. SU8 diaphragm micropump with monolithically integrated cantilever check valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezkerra, Aitor; Fernández, Luis José; Mayora, Kepa; Ruano-López, Jesús Miguel

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a SU8 unidirectional diaphragm micropump with embedded out-of-plane cantilever check valves. The device represents a reliable and low-cost solution for integration of microfluidic control in lab-on-a-chip devices. Its planar architecture allows monolithic definition of its components in a single step and potential integration with previously reported PCR, electrophoresis and flow-sensing SU8 microdevices. Pneumatic actuation is applied on a PDMS diaphragm, which is bonded to the SU8 body at wafer level, further enhancing its integration and mass production capabilities. The cantilever check valves move synchronously with the diaphragm, feature fast response (10ms), low dead volume (86nl) and a 94% flow blockage up to 300kPa. The micropump achieves a maximum flow rate of 177 μl min(-1) at 6 Hz and 200 kPa with an effective area of 10 mm(2). The device is reliable, self-priming and tolerant to particles and big bubbles. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first micropump in SU8 with monolithically integrated cantilever check valves. PMID:21853192

  20. Low complexity Reed-Solomon-based low-density parity-check design for software defined optical transmission system based on adaptive puncturing decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Jianglong; Tian, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a low complexity Reed-Solomon-based low-density parity-check (RS-LDPC) code with adaptive puncturing decoding algorithm for elastic optical transmission system. Partial received codes and the relevant column in parity-check matrix can be punctured to reduce the calculation complexity by adaptive parity-check matrix during decoding process. The results show that the complexity of the proposed decoding algorithm is reduced by 30% compared with the regular RS-LDPC system. The optimized code rate of the RS-LDPC code can be obtained after five times iteration.

  1. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  2. Formalizing Real-Time Embedded System into Promela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukvanich Punwess

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an alternative of formalization of the real-time embedded system into Promela model. The proposed formal model supports the essential features of the real-time embedded system, including system resource-constrained handling, task prioritization, task synchronization, real-time preemption, the parallelism of resources via DMA. Meanwhile, the model is also fully compatible with the partial order reduction algorithm for model checking. The timed automata of the real-time embedded system are considered and transformed into Promela, in our approach, by replacing time ticking into the repeated cycle of the timed values to do the conditional guard to enable the synchronization among the whole system operations. Our modeling approach could satisfactorily verify a small real-time system with parameterized dependent tasks and different scheduling topologies.

  3. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Costa, D.P.; Estes, J.A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  4. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. T.; Costa, D. P.; Estes, J. A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-02-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  5. New In Situ Capture Quantitative (Real-Time) Reverse Transcription-PCR Method as an Alternative Approach for Determining Inactivation of Tulane Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dapeng; Xu, Shuxia; Yang, David; Young, Glenn M.; Tian, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Although quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used for detecting HuNoVs, it only detects the presence of viral RNA and does not indicate viral infectivity. Human blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been identified as receptors/co-receptors for both HuNoVs and Tulane virus (TV) and are crucial for viral infection. We propose that viral infectivity can be evaluated with a mol...

  6. Life-time integration using Monte Carlo Methods when optimizing the design of concentrated solar power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Olivier; Bézian, Jean Jacques; Bru, Hélène; El Hafi, Mouna; Fournier, Richard; Spiesser, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Rapidity and accuracy of algorithms evaluating yearly collected energy are an important issue in the context of optimizing concentrated solar power plants (CSP). These last ten years, several research groups have concentrated their efforts on the development of such sophisticated tools: approximations are required to decrease the CPU time, closely checking that the corresponding loss in accuracy remains acceptable. Here we present an alternative approach using the Monte Carlo Methods (MCM). T...

  7. Check Point瞄准新的市场和方向%Check Point Aims at New Market and New Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁

    2007-01-01

    互联网安全解决方案供应商Check Point软件技术有限公司市场运营及技术服务副总裁Amnon Bar-Lev日前来京,他负责Checkpoint产品的全球销售、合作伙伴计划、国际市场营销以及技术服务管理。Bar-Lev表示,中国市场对安全方案的需求日益扩大,已经成为Check Point锁定的4大重点新兴市场之一,此外,该公司今后将以网络安全、数据安全及统一管理架构3个方面,进一步巩固Check Point在安全市场的领导地位。

  8. Laparoscopic real-time en-face differential optical topography of near-surface heterogeneity by using an applicator probe with the maximum-density radially alternating illumination and detection fiber-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Piao, Daqing; Holyoak, G Reed; Patel, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a laparoscopic applicator probe and a method thereof for real-time en-face topographic mapping of near-surface heterogeneity for potential use in intraoperative margin assessment during minimally invasive oncological procedures. The probe fits in a 12mm port and houses at its maximum 128 copper-coated 750um fibers that form radially alternating illumination (70 fibers) and detection (58 fibers) channels. By simultaneously illuminating the 70 source channels of the probe that is in contact with a scattering medium and concurrently measuring the light diffusely propagated to the 58 detector channels, the presence of near-surface optical heterogeneities can be resolved in an en-face 9.5mm field-of-view in real-time. Visualization of a subsurface margin of strong attenuation contrast at a depth up to 3mm is demonstrated at one wavelength at a frame rate of 1.25Hz.

  9. Method and computer product to increase accuracy of time-based software verification for sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo Kune, Denis; Mahadevan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-25

    A recursive verification protocol to reduce the time variance due to delays in the network by putting the subject node at most one hop from the verifier node provides for an efficient manner to test wireless sensor nodes. Since the software signatures are time based, recursive testing will give a much cleaner signal for positive verification of the software running on any one node in the sensor network. In this protocol, the main verifier checks its neighbor, who in turn checks its neighbor, and continuing this process until all nodes have been verified. This ensures minimum time delays for the software verification. Should a node fail the test, the software verification downstream is halted until an alternative path (one not including the failed node) is found. Utilizing techniques well known in the art, having a node tested twice, or not at all, can be avoided.

  10. Automatic Verification of Biochemical Network Using Model Checking Method%基于模型校核的生化网络自动辨别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Il Moon

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on automatic searching and verifying methods for the reachability, transition logics and hierarchical structure in all possible paths of biological processes using model checking. The automatic search and verification for alternative paths within complex and large networks in biological process can provide a consid-erable amount of solutions, which is difficult to handle manually. Model checking is an automatic method for veri-fying if a circuit or a condition, expressed as a concurrent transition system, satisfies a set of properties expressed ina temporal logic, such as computational tree logic (CTL). This article represents that model checking is feasible in biochemical network verification and it shows certain advantages over simulation for querying and searching of special behavioral properties in biochemical processes.

  11. LEMming: A Linear Error Model to Normalize Parallel Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR Data as an Alternative to Reference Gene Based Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Feuer

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis is an essential part of biological and medical investigations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is characterized with excellent sensitivity, dynamic range, reproducibility and is still regarded to be the gold standard for quantifying transcripts abundance. Parallelization of qPCR such as by microfluidic Taqman Fluidigm Biomark Platform enables evaluation of multiple transcripts in samples treated under various conditions. Despite advanced technologies, correct evaluation of the measurements remains challenging. Most widely used methods for evaluating or calculating gene expression data include geNorm and ΔΔCt, respectively. They rely on one or several stable reference genes (RGs for normalization, thus potentially causing biased results. We therefore applied multivariable regression with a tailored error model to overcome the necessity of stable RGs.We developed a RG independent data normalization approach based on a tailored linear error model for parallel qPCR data, called LEMming. It uses the assumption that the mean Ct values within samples of similarly treated groups are equal. Performance of LEMming was evaluated in three data sets with different stability patterns of RGs and compared to the results of geNorm normalization. Data set 1 showed that both methods gave similar results if stable RGs are available. Data set 2 included RGs which are stable according to geNorm criteria, but became differentially expressed in normalized data evaluated by a t-test. geNorm-normalized data showed an effect of a shifted mean per gene per condition whereas LEMming-normalized data did not. Comparing the decrease of standard deviation from raw data to geNorm and to LEMming, the latter was superior. In data set 3 according to geNorm calculated average expression stability and pairwise variation, stable RGs were available, but t-tests of raw data contradicted this. Normalization with RGs resulted in distorted data contradicting

  12. Fault Tolerance Approach in Mobile Agents for Information Retrieval Applications Using Check Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Hans

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents have emerged as major programming paradigm for distributed applications. Mobile agents are the intelligent programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user and can migrate from one host to another host in a network in order to satisfy the requests made by their clients. A prerequisite for their use, however, is that they should be executed reliably independent of failures. Improving the survivability of mobile agents in presence of agent server failures is an important issue in order to guarantee continuous execution of mobile agents. Thus it is very important to make mobile agents fault tolerant. In this paper, we propose fault tolerance mechanism for the scenarios where the agent stops its execution due to fault on any server in the itinerary. Our approach makes use of check pointing, partial results or data retrieved and the address of last host visited is saved prior before the agent visits the next host in the itinerary .The proposed mechanism has been implemented on the Aglets mobile agent system and evaluated in terms of parameters such as round trip time, Reliable migration time, Check point time. The results show the improvement in reliability and performance, especially for mobile agents in Internet application.

  13. Functional consistency checking module for signal validation: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the basic principles of a functional consistency checking module for signal validation in nuclear plants. This module will add additional features to the signal validation system currently being designed at the University of Tennessee. The goals of the functional consistency module are to provide solutions to the common mode features and single or dual sensor failures. The basic principle lies in the comparison of the actual outputs and outputs derived from reference static or dynamics models. The only requirement needed for this method is that the plant must be decomposed into subsystems with observable inputs and outputs. The reference models can be either empirical or derived from physical laws. The main feature of this module is its capability to separate component failures from sensor failures. The failures which can be isolated are bias, drifts, absormal noise or changes in the dynamic sensor characteristics. The decision-making process relies basically on truth table look-up. The truth table contents are derived from an apriori knowledge of the failure causes. More elaborate decision making processes based on pattern recognition techniques or expert systems are proposed to improve the reliability of the decisions. A modified sequential probability ratio test is suggested to handle adequately the modeling errors. The proposed functional consistency checking is valid for both steady state and transient conditions. In the latter case, the transfer functions of the instrumentation channels must be taken into account for a fast and accurate failure identification. To conclude the report, anticipated benefits of the functional consistency checking are listed

  14. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  15. Halo White Dwarfs, Thick Disks and a Sanity Check

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The discovery of a population of high proper motion white dwarfs by Oppenheimer et al (2001) has caused a lot of speculation as to the origin of these stars. I show that the age distribution of the white dwarfs offers a kind of sanity check in these discussions. In particular, this population appears to have a similar age distribution to those in the standard, thin disk white dwarf population. This is not what is expected for either the halo or thick disk, which are thought to be old populati...

  16. An efficient decoding for low density parity check codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Manjie

    2009-12-01

    Low density parity check (LDPC) codes are a class of forward-error-correction codes. They are among the best-known codes capable of achieving low bit error rates (BER) approaching Shannon's capacity limit. Recently, LDPC codes have been adopted by the European Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB-S2) standard, and have also been proposed for the emerging IEEE 802.16 fixed and mobile broadband wireless-access standard. The consultative committee for space data system (CCSDS) has also recommended using LDPC codes in the deep space communications and near-earth communications. It is obvious that LDPC codes will be widely used in wired and wireless communication, magnetic recording, optical networking, DVB, and other fields in the near future. Efficient hardware implementation of LDPC codes is of great interest since LDPC codes are being considered for a wide range of applications. This paper presents an efficient partially parallel decoder architecture suited for quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes using Belief propagation algorithm for decoding. Algorithmic transformation and architectural level optimization are incorporated to reduce the critical path. First, analyze the check matrix of LDPC code, to find out the relationship between the row weight and the column weight. And then, the sharing level of the check node updating units (CNU) and the variable node updating units (VNU) are determined according to the relationship. After that, rearrange the CNU and the VNU, and divide them into several smaller parts, with the help of some assistant logic circuit, these smaller parts can be grouped into CNU during the check node update processing and grouped into VNU during the variable node update processing. These smaller parts are called node update kernel units (NKU) and the assistant logic circuit are called node update auxiliary unit (NAU). With NAUs' help, the two steps of iteration operation are completed by NKUs, which brings in great hardware resource reduction. Meanwhile

  17. Performance checking of an indigenously fabricated TIMS: evaluation of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance checking of the indigenously fabricated multi-collector Thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) was continued prior to commissioning it for the determination of isotopic composition of plutonium. In an earlier paper, results of the precision obtained for Nd isotopes (142-146) were reported. Thereafter, a number of changes were made for improving the precision. In the present paper, results obtained for 235U/238U ratios for SRM standard are reported along with the results for precision and accuracy obtained by the TIMS

  18. Energy Audit Checks - A socioeconomic assessment; Energikartlaeggningscheckar - En samhaellsekonomisk utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    This review is part of the Swedish Energy Agency's work with skills and methodology development on economic analyzes. The present socioeconomic analysis is the first of its kind to evaluate the current support for energy audit checks and is based on the instrument's purpose, goals and obstacles. Cost effectiveness is the main focus, as well as a description of the instrument's benefits and costs. The evaluation also aims to further develop the instrument in conjunction with the implementation of energy efficiency directive. Proposals for new instruments have however not been part of the mission.

  19. Android Security (Decompilation of APK File to Check Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world wide revolution in Android technology is changing our lives in term of the way we learn and use. Android Security fits into this because the technology has been around long enough and can provide various benefits for security in this area. The main objective of this paper is to Decompile the Android App And Check the permissions Used By That App (What The permissions any app is accessing Like reading messages, Using our internet data, reading our call logs. This Research Paper Helps Peoples To aware About the Un necessary Applications and Their Permissions That Are in Our Phone Stealing Our Credit Card details, secret details etc.

  20. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can...... compactly represent program families with infinite integers as so-called (finite-state) featured symbolic automata. Specifically designed model checking algorithms are then employed to verify safety of all programs from a family at once and pinpoint those programs that are unsafe (respectively, safe). We...