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Sample records for cheaper reagents leads

  1. Removal of lead from crude antimony by using NaPo3 as lead elimination reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the shortcomings when removing lead from crude antimony in the traditional antimony smelting, a new process was provided using NaPO3 as lead elimination reagent to yield phosphate slag, and it was removed by floating on the surface of the liquid antimony. Reaction mechanism was clarified by using the TG-DTA and XRD techniques and single factor experiments of removal lead from crude antimony were engaged. The results show that PbO and NaPO3 begin endothermic reaction at 863K (590°C, and the reaction mainly form NaPb4(PO43 and NaPbPO4 below 1123K (850°C and above 1123K (850°C, respectively. Sb2O3 and NaPO3 start the reaction at 773K (500°C and generate an antimonic salt compound. The reaction product of the mixture of PbO, Sb2O3 and NaPO3 show that NaPO3 reacted with PbO prior when NaPO3 was insufficient, amorphous antimony glass will be generated only when NaPO3 was adequate. Single factor experiments were taken with NaNO3 as oxidizing agent under argon, effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of NaPO3 and NaNO3 on smelting results. The average content of lead in refined antimony was 0.05340% and 98.85% of lead were removed under optimal conditions; the content of lead in antimony have meet the requirements of commercial antimony.

  2. Application of radio-reagent method in the determination of lead trace amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for trace analysis of lead was established, based on the displacement reaction between lead and the complex cobalt - ethylenediaminetetracetate labelled with 60 Co (Co* - EDTA), which is named radioreagent. The radioactive cobalt displaced by lead is separated from the excess of radioreagent by the solvent extraction technique, using a solution of tetracycline (Tc) in benzyl alcohol. The activity of the extracted cobalt is then measured by means of a single-channel gamma-ray analyser coupled to a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, the activity being proportional to the lead concentration, in a range from 2.5 to 150 μg. The interference of several elements (V, Th, Sc, Fe, La, Yb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Al and Sn) was investigated by means of a previous separation between lead and these interfering elements. The analyses of artificial samples containing lead and the interfering elements gave a yield of 91.1 + - 3.2 %. The detection limit achieved by the method was 3.3 μg of lead. The radioreagent method was applied to lead analysis of samples from IAEA, namely: simulated air filter (Air-3), fresh water (W-3), dried animal blood (A-2) and calcinated animal bone (A-3/1). Lead was also determined in gasoline samples and air samples, these latter collected in the surroundings of the IPEN/CNEN/SP (Brazil). (Author) [pt

  3. Development of an eco-friendly material recycling process for spent lead glass using a mechanochemical process and Na2EDTA reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Kubo, Hisashi; Kamiya, Masahiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2008-06-01

    To develop a novel nonheating method with lower energy consumption and higher efficiency for recovering both lead and SiO2 glass matrix from spent lead-glass powder, we attempted to treat the spent lead glass by the mechanochemical method using the metal chelate reagent, sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na2EDTA). As a result of the wet ball-milling treatment of spent lead-glass powder sealed in a polypropylene bottle with zirconia balls, Na2EDTA, and water at room temperature, we found that more than 99 mass % of lead contained in the spentlead-glass powder was extracted as a lead-EDTA species from the solid silica glass network matrix. This separation phenomenon was accelerated by the enlargement of the solid-liquid interface area due to ball-milling atomization and by the high stability constant of lead-EDTA. High extraction yield suggests that Pb-O-Pb bonds in lead glass are weakened or are broken down by the wet ball-milling treatment, i.e., the strong mechanical energy such as the potential and/ or friction energy provided by ball-milling may be high enough to elute lead ions from silica matrix. Moreover, we succeeded in recovering both lead ions as lead sulfate, which is the main compound of anglesite, and the EDTA as sodium-EDTA, which is reusable as the metal chelate reagent in wet chemical process using the ferric sulfate.

  4. Application of cheaper materials in pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial effluents and waste water bearing toxic metal ions and hazardous organic substances including phenols and dyes need to be treated to remove such harmful materials before their safe disposal into biosphere. For this purpose a number of cheaper and waste materials like onion skin, bagasse pith, maize ob, groundnut husk, saw dust, wood, fugal and biomass, biogas waste slurry, lignite, wool fiber, fly ash, blast furnace sludge peat and charcoal, natural clays, sands and minerals, bone and glass have been used. some of these materials can also be employed to decontaminate fresh water containing these harmful substances present in very low concentrations. These cheaper materials have been reviewed and examples have been cited mostly from the recent literature. the optimal conditions for the removal of hazardous substances including metal ions form solutions utilizing these waste materials have also been given. These low cost materials have been proven to be very effective in the spheres of pollution abatement and environmental studies. (author)

  5. Nano magnetic solid phase extraction for preconcentration of lead ions in environmental samples by a newly synthesized reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshekan, Mostafa; Shariati, Shahab

    2013-01-01

    In this study, magnetite nanoparticles with particle size lower than 47 nm were synthesized and were applied for preconcentration of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions. To preconcentrate the Pb2+ ions, the surface of the synthesized nano particles was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant. A new chelating agent (2-((E)-2-amino-4,5-dinitrophenylimino)methyl)phenol) was synthesized and used to form a very stable complex with Pb2+ ions. The lead ions formed complexes and were quantitatively extracted with SDS-coated magnetite nanoparticles. After magnetic separation of adsorbent, the adsorbent was eluted with 0.5% (v/v) HC1 in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Orthogonal array design (OAD) was used to study and optimize the different experimental parameters. Under the optimum conditions, enhancement factor up to 63.5 was achieved for extraction from only 10 mL of sample solution and the relative standard deviation (RSD %) of the method was lower than 2.8%. The obtained calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-300 pg L-' with reasonable linearity (r2 > 0.998). The limit of detection (LOD) based on S/N = 3 was 0.04 microg L(-1) for 10 mL sample volumes. Finally, applicability of the proposed method was successfully confirmed by preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of lead ions in environmental samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  6. Innovations for competitiveness: European views on "better-faster-cheaper"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzei, A.; Groepper, P.; Novara, M.; Pseiner, K.

    1999-09-01

    customers and professional marketing. Having a technological lead allows industry to gain a competitive advantage in performance, cost and opportunities. Instrumental to better competitiveness is an R&D effort based on the adaptation of high technology products, capable of capturing new users, increasing production, decreasing the cost and delivery time and integrating high level of intelligence, information and autonomy. New systems will have to take in to account from the start what types of technologies are being developed or are already available in other areas outside space, and design their system accordingly. The future challenge for "faster, better, cheaper" appears to concern primarily "cost-effective", performant autonomous spacecraft, "cost-effective", reliable launching means and intelligent data fusion technologies and robust software serving mass- market real time services, distributed via EHF bands and Internet. In conclusion, it can be noticed that in the past few years new approaches have considerably enlarged the ways in which space missions can be implemented. They are supported by true innovations in mission concepts, system architecture, development and technologies, in particular for the development of initiatives based on multi-mission mini-satellites platforms for communication and Earth observation missions. There are also definite limits to cost cutting (such as lowering heads counts and increasing efficiency), and therefore the strategic perspective must be shifted from the present emphasis on cost-driven enhancement to revenue-driven improvements for growth. And since the product life-cycle is continuously shortening, competitiveness is linked very strongly with the capability to generate new technology products which enhance cost/benefit performance.

  7. Future reactors cheaper than GUD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, N.

    1999-01-01

    How does Siemens/KWU, as one of the leading manufacturers of generating stations, react to the competition among the EVU enforced by liberalisation of the energy markets, and what are the future prospects for nuclear power stations within this area? Since short-term minimisation of production costs and reduction of investments risks now have absolute priority among energy suppliers, Siemens assumes that the boom already to be observed with gas-fired GUD generating stations will continue. A further result of this fierce competition will be the ousting of smaller suppliers, and expensive plant technology. Existing generating stations, even though they may not meet the latest environmental standards, will remain in operation longer than originally planned. Investments to prolong service life and to reduce costs will be given priority. In the case of generating stations using fossil fuels, operators will make every effort to increase efficiency. In all probability, nuclear energy will not in every case represent a first choice in markets governed by considerations of competition. For existing nuclear power stations in Germany, however, Siemens foresees very good competitive opportunities even under the new overall conditions. In the case of nuclear power stations which are mostly, or even entirely amortised, only the operating costs occasioned by the fuel position are of importance for the generating costs. These, however, are lower than current gas prices. Moreover, operators are more concerned than previously to exploit existing potentials for cost reduction. The example of the British nuclear power stations reveals that, under the pressure of competition, these have increased their productivity by 100 per cent since 1994, so that the operating profit increased by 300 per cent. For new nuclear power station development, therefore, a decisive criterion, in the opinion of the author, is that these should be competive even compared with GUD stations. This is true of the

  8. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Robert; Pennington, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D and D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D and D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch

  9. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  10. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  11. A simplified in-situ electrochemical decontamination of lead from polluted soil (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.M.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, Q.M.; Chaudhry, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a simplified In-Situ electrochemical method for remediation of field soil contaminated with lead. A series of electrochemical decontamination experiments including variable conditions such as operating duration and application of enhancement reagent were performed to demonstrate the efficiency of lead removal from spiked and polluted soil samples collected from Lahore, Pakistan. The results showed that the efficiency of lead removal from the contaminated soil increased with increasing the operating duration under a set of experimental conditions. The reagent used as complexing and solubilizing agent i.e. EDTA was found to be efficient in removing lead from the polluted soil. After 15 days duration, 85 % lead removal efficiency was observed in spiked soil under enhanced conditions , however, 63 % lead removal was achieved from the polluted soil samples by the simplified In-situ electrochemical decontamination method. The method is simple, rapid, cheaper and suitable for soil remediation purposes. (author)

  12. Why is food cheaper in rich (European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Podkaminer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Relative to non-food items, food tends to be cheaper in rich, as compared with poorEuropean countries. This tendency cannot be explained in terms of cost developments or foreign-trade considerations. A positive explanation proposed focuses on demand-income-supply interaction. An analysis of a cross-country price-augmented modification of Engel Law, econometrically specified, indicates that the relative price offood is related positively to the supply of food items and negatively to that of non-food items. This finding is consistent with "agricultural price scissors", and also casts a different light on the nature of economic development and structural change.

  13. Volume reduction, a safer and cheaper way of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.P.; Storrer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of 'Volume Reduction' has demonstrated that it is a safer and cheaper radwaste management method. Safer, because of several advantages: decrease of solidified product volume, satisfactory product properties, absence of free water, better control of process parameters, increased encapsulation efficiency ... The corresponding impact on the waste management costs, results in important savings on different factors, as well as regards the operational costs as the investment expenses. Economy in the range of BF 35.000 per m 3 of incoming waste is achievable. The main volume reduction techniques readily available are briefly reviewed

  14. Diagnostic reagent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A solid phase reagent for use in radioimmunoassay of antigens and antibodies is described. The reagent is prepared by mixing specific antibody or radiolabeled antigen with polyethylene glycol (4000-6000) and gamma globulin in a buffer at pH 4-10 and lyophilizing, the antigens being thyroxine, triiodothyronine, digoxin and digitoxin (1-1000 μCi 125 I/μg). The buffer consists of a 0.08 molar sodium barbital solution containing 0.1% of ox-serum albumin and 0.35% of 8-anilino-1-naftalene sulfonic acid

  15. Who purchases cigarettes from cheaper sources in China? Findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    The availability of cigarettes from cheaper sources constitutes a major challenge to public health throughout the world, including China, because it may counteract price-based tobacco control policies. The goal of this study was to identify factors associated with purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources among adult smokers in China. Data were analysed from Waves 1 to 3 of the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in 2006-2009 among adult smokers in six cities in China (N=7980). One survey question asked, "In the last 6 months, have you purchased cheaper cigarettes than you can get from local stores for economic reasons?" We examined whether sociodemographic factors and smoking intensity were associated with purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources using the general estimating equations model. Sociodemographic factors considered were gender, age, marital status, monthly household income, education, employment status and city of residence. 15.6% of smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources. After controlling for other covariates, the associations of the behaviour of purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources with age (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.49, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.92 for age 18-24 compared with age 55+) and with income (AOR=2.93, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.79 for low income compared with high income) were statistically significant, but there was no statistically significant relationship with smoking intensity. Our findings indicate that young and low-income smokers are more likely than older and high-income smokers to purchase cigarettes from cheaper sources in China. Tobacco control policies that reduce the availability of cigarettes from cheaper sources could have an impact on reducing cigarette consumption among young and low-income smokers in China.

  16. Fast biosensor with reagent layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A detection system and a sensor chip for detecting target mols., and thus corresponding analytes in a sample is described. Typically the detection system includes a sensor chip. The sensor chip (1) comprises on its detection surface a dissolvable reagent layer. When the dissolvable reagent layer is

  17. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joe

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes, in viewgraph form, the faster, better, cheaper approach to space missions. The topics include: 1) What drives "Faster, Better, Cheaper"? 2) Why Space Programs are Costly; 3) Background; 4) Aerospace Project Management (Old Culture); 5) Aerospace Project Management (New Culture); 6) Scope of Analysis Limited to Engineering Management Culture; 7) Qualitative Analysis; 8) Some Basic Principles of the New Culture; 9) Cause and Effect; 10) "New Ways of Doing Business" Survey Results; 11) Quantitative Analysis; 12) Recent Space System Cost Trends; 13) Spacecraft Dry Weight Trend; 14) Complexity Factor Trends; 15) Cost Normalization; 16) Cost Normalization Algorithm; 17) Unnormalized Cost vs. Normalized Cost; and 18) Concluding Observations.

  18. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  19. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  20. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  1. Decontaminating reagents for radioactive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    A decontaminating reagent composition has been developed comprising EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid, and formic acid. Formic acid inhibits the decomposition of both EDTA and citric acid, and yields oxalic acid as a result of its own radiolysis. The invention includes the improvement of initially incorporating formic acid in the mixture and maintaining the presence of formic acid by at least one further addition

  2. On extraction reagents for hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental requirements to the extractants are considered. Ways of obtaining selective extractants are discussed in particular on the basis of coordination chemistry achivements. Attention is drawn to expediency of study (as extractants) of flotation reagents, additions to the oil, pesticides, accelerators of caoutchouc vulcanization

  3. Much Lower Launch Costs Make Resupply Cheaper than Recycling for Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The development of commercial launch vehicles by SpaceX has greatly reduced the cost of launching mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Reusable launch vehicles may further reduce the launch cost per kilogram. The new low launch cost makes open loop life support much cheaper than before. Open loop systems resupply water and oxygen in tanks for crew use and provide disposable lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in canisters to remove carbon dioxide. Short human space missions such as Apollo and shuttle have used open loop life support, but the long duration International Space Station (ISS) recycles water and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide with a regenerative molecular sieve. These ISS regenerative and recycling life support systems have significantly reduced the total launch mass needed for life support. But, since the development cost of recycling systems is much higher than the cost of tanks and canisters, the relative cost savings have been much less than the launch mass savings. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes development, launch, and operations. If another space station was built in LEO, resupply life support would be much cheaper than the current recycling systems. The mission most favorable to recycling would be a long term lunar base, since the resupply mass would be large, the proximity to Earth would reduce the need for recycling reliability and spares, and the launch cost would be much higher than for LEO due to the need for lunar transit and descent propulsion systems. For a ten-year lunar base, the new low launch costs make resupply cheaper than recycling systems similar to ISS life support.

  4. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.

    1999-01-01

    NASA was chartered as an independent civilian space agency in 1958 following the Soviet Union's dramatic launch of the Sputnik 1 (1957). In his state of the union address in May of 1961, President Kennedy issued to the fledging organization his famous challenge for a manned lunar mission by the end of the decade. The Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs that followed put the utmost value on high quality, low risk (as low as possible within the context of space flight), quick results, all with little regard for cost. These circumstances essentially melded NASAs culture as an organization capable of great technological achievement but at extremely high cost. The Space Shuttle project, the next major agency endeavor, was put under severe annual budget constraints in the 1970's. NASAs response was to hold to the high quality standards, low risk and annual cost and let schedule suffer. The result was a significant delay in the introduction of the Shuttle as well as overall total cost growth. By the early 1990's, because NASA's budget was declining, the number of projects was also declining. Holding the same cost and schedule productivity levels as before was essentially causing NASA to price itself out of business. In 1992, the helm of NASA was turned over to a new Administrator. Dan Goldin's mantra was "faster, better, cheaper" and his enthusiasm and determination to change the NASA culture was not to be ignored. This research paper documents the various implementations of "faster, better, cheaper" that have been attempted, analyzes their impact and compares the cost performance of these new projects to previous NASA benchmarks. Fundamentally, many elements of "faster, better, cheaper" are found to be working well, especially on smaller projects. Some of the initiatives are found to apply only to smaller or experimental projects however, so that extrapolation to "flagship" projects may be problematic.

  5. Why does the energy price increase when cheaper-than-avoided-cost DSM is added?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper systematically approaches the various cost implications of including demand-side management (DMS) in a utility's resource mix. A multidimensional cost structure is developed. The costs of DSM programmes are identified and displayed separately from the standard utility resource costs. Through the use of different marketplace conditions, likely scenarios are identified and described. Cheaper-than-avoided-cost DSM programmes are added to the cost framework, and the results are displayed and examined. The results are then generalized, and the conditions are identified wherein additions of DSM to the utility's resource mix will have a positive (or negative) effect on the utility's prices. (author)

  6. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T

    2014-09-01

    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  7. Characterization of Reagent Pencils for Deposition of Reagents onto Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyenne H. Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reagent pencils allow for solvent-free deposition of reagents onto paper-based microfluidic devices. The pencils are portable, easy to use, extend the shelf-life of reagents, and offer a platform for customizing diagnostic devices at the point of care. In this work, reagent pencils were characterized by measuring the wear resistance of pencil cores made from polyethylene glycols (PEGs with different molecular weights and incorporating various concentrations of three different reagents using a standard pin abrasion test, as well as by measuring the efficiency of reagent delivery from the pencils to the test zones of paper-based microfluidic devices using absorption spectroscopy and digital image colorimetry. The molecular weight of the PEG, concentration of the reagent, and the molecular weight of the reagent were all found to have an inverse correlation with the wear of the pencil cores, but the amount of reagent delivered to the test zone of a device correlated most strongly with the concentration of the reagent in the pencil core. Up to 49% of the total reagent deposited on a device with a pencil was released into the test zone, compared to 58% for reagents deposited from a solution. The results suggest that reagent pencils can be prepared for a variety of reagents using PEGs with molecular weights in the range of 2000 to 6000 g/mol.

  8. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  9. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Williams, Rebecca S; Gammon, Doris G; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (eg, US-based, international or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. We analysed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010 and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (OR=1.58, ponline, compared to $52.73 in US grocery stores. We estimated that in 2011, a pack-a-day smoker living in an area with high cigarette prices would save $1508 per year buying cigarettes online. ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Gammon, Doris G.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (e.g., US-based, international, or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. Methods We analyzed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010, and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. Findings The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (odds ratio (OR)=1.58, ponline, compared to $52.73 in US grocery stores. We estimated that in 2011, a pack-a-day smoker living in an area with high cigarette prices would save $1,508 per year buying cigarettes online. Conclusions ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. PMID:26490844

  11. Cheaper fuel and higher health costs among the poor in rural Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, Krishna Prasad [Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Vidhya Lane, Devnagar, Kathmandu (Nepal)], email: kppant@yahoo.com

    2012-03-15

    Biomass fuels are used by the majority of resource poor households in low-income countries. Though biomass fuels, such as dung-briquette and firewood are apparently cheaper than the modern fuels indoor pollution from burning biomass fuels incurs high health costs. But, the health costs of these conventional fuels, mostly being indirect, are poorly understood. To address this gap, this study develops probit regression models using survey data generated through interviews from households using either dung-briquette or biogas as the primary source of fuel for cooking. The study investigates factors affecting the use of dung-briquette, assesses its impact on human health, and estimates the associated household health costs. Analysis suggests significant effects of dung-briquette on asthma and eye diseases. Despite of the perception of it being a cheap fuel, the annual health cost per household due to burning dung-briquette (US$ 16.94) is 61.3% higher than the annual cost of biogas (US$ 10.38), an alternative cleaner fuel for rural households. For reducing the use of dung-briquette and its indirect health costs, the study recommends three interventions: (1) educate women and aboriginal people, in particular, and make them aware of the benefits of switching to biogas; (2) facilitate tree planting in communal as well as private lands; and (3) create rural employment and income generation opportunities.

  12. Atomic Energy of Canada study says nuclear cheaper power for oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-07-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute, an independent research organization, reports in a study sponsored by AECL, a federal Crown corporation, that nuclear power is cheaper than gas in creating steam if prices for natural gas remain above $US 3.50 per million BTU. Oil sands producers use natural gas to create steam, which is injected into the ground to melt the bitumen; gas is also used in parts of the oilsands upgrading process. According to reliable estimates some $50 billion of future oilsands investment is now on the drawing board; all of that could be jeopardized by high gas prices. AECL, which has sold only three nuclear reactors since 1996, hopes that the prospect of a continuing high price of natural gas will put it in a favorable position to displace natural gas with nuclear energy as the energy source for creating steam. Environmentalists consider AECL's suggestion of building a nuclear reactor for generating steam for oilsands production as unrealistic, and one that is based on 'nothing but a hope and a prayer'.

  13. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  14. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma... (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Toxoplasma gondii from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3220... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Entamoeba histolytica directly from clinical...

  17. Development of national immunoassay reagent programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufi, S.B.; Micallef, J.V.; Ahsan, R.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the existence of networks of fully equipped laboratories with well-trained staff, the availability of immunodiagnostic services in developing countries is often limited by the high cost of imported kits. There are a number of ways of tackling this problem, ranging from bulk purchase of kits or reagents to local development and production of assay systems. Argentina/Chile, China, Cuba/Mexico, and Thailand are amongst the countries which have established local immunoassay reagent programmes to manufacture low cost, high quality immunoassay reagents. Kits from these projects are now beginning to become available, and it is hoped that they will promote national diagnostic services and research, as well as stimulating the development of reagent programmes for other analytes. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  18. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Poliovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500 Rickettsia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rickettsia serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  3. Production of reagents for cleaning fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, I V; Korostyleva, R N; Pytel, S P; Spasskii, P I; Titarenko, N K; Trachtenberg, S I; Yushkevich, V I

    1980-10-25

    A method for producing reagents for cleaning fluids is proposed using polymerization of acrylonitril, metachrylate or a mixture of the two in water and saponification of the polymers with alakali. To reduce the consumption of monomers and increase the quality of the reagents, 0.4-1.0 parts humic substances, 0.2-1.0 parts hydrolizate from tanning waste products and 1.2-4.0 parts monomers are added to the reaction medium, followed by copolymerization in an acid medium. The proposed method ensures quality reagents which combine lower water yield with a moderate increase in viscosity when acting on clay solutions. Compared with the current method, this method lowers the consumption of an expensive and hard-to-find monomer 1.2-1.4X for one ton of reagent, which lowers the cost of raw material by 1.3-1.7X. This results in a savings of 195-385 rubles per ton of reagent, 600-1200 thousand at 3000 tons/yr.

  4. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  5. Constructing New Bioorthogonal Reagents and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, R David; Prescher, Jennifer A

    2018-05-15

    Chemical tools are transforming our understanding of biomolecules and living systems. Included in this group are bioorthogonal reagents-functional groups that are inert to most biological species, but can be selectively ligated with complementary probes, even in live cells and whole organisms. Applications of these tools have revealed fundamental new insights into biomolecule structure and function-information often beyond the reach of genetic approaches. In many cases, the knowledge gained from bioorthogonal probes has enabled new questions to be asked and innovative research to be pursued. Thus, the continued development and application of these tools promises to both refine our view of biological systems and facilitate new discoveries. Despite decades of achievements in bioorthogonal chemistry, limitations remain. Several reagents are too large or insufficiently stable for use in cellular environments. Many bioorthogonal groups also cross-react with one another, restricting them to singular tasks. In this Account, we describe our work to address some of the voids in the bioorthogonal toolbox. Our efforts to date have focused on small reagents with a high degree of tunability: cyclopropenes, triazines, and cyclopropenones. These motifs react selectively with complementary reagents, and their unique features are enabling new pursuits in biology. The Account is organized by common themes that emerged in our development of novel bioorthogonal reagents and reactions. First, natural product structures can serve as valuable starting points for probe design. Cyclopropene, triazine, and cyclopropenone motifs are all found in natural products, suggesting that they would be metabolically stable and compatible with a variety of living systems. Second, fine-tuning bioorthogonal reagents is essential for their successful translation to biological systems. Different applications demand different types of probes; thus, generating a collection of tools that span a continuum of

  6. Reagent for treating clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, P V; Leshchinskiy, P A; Shnaper, B I; Zinchuk, I F; Zlobin, V P

    1982-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for treating clay drilling muds. It contains lignite, caustic soda and modifying agent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the cost of the reagent with simultaneous decrease in the viscosity and static shear stress of the drilling mud, it additionally contains iron sulfate, and the modifying agent contained is wastes of carbonic acid production with the following ratio of components (parts by weight): lignite 10.0-15.0, caustic soda 2.0-3.0, wastes of carbonic acid production 0.5-0.75; iron sulfate 1.0-2.0.

  7. Impact of the "faster better cheaper" requirements for satellites components/subsystems on SEP organisation and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, X.

    2000-03-01

    in the early 90's in Hall propulsion through numerous partnership with Russian, American and Italian companies and/or universities. A mature knowledge of Hall thruster functioning and technologies helped SEP to recently complete a successful qualification of their first Hall thruster. "PPS 1350" which will be in flight aboard STENTOR French technological satellite in year 2000. A cost reduction research of this new product was held in parallel to the PPS 1350 qualification, taking into account all the lessons learnt during PPS 1350 development. Its major outputs are the numerous simplifications that were found leading to dramatic cost reductions without impairing thruster performances (reliability was even improved). This improved thruster is today very favorably considered by several primes for small low earth orbit satellites. Hydrazine propulsion is an other example. In this field, which SEP decided in 1996 to accompany their customers in their move from large traditional satellites (SPOT/ERS family) to smaller, cheaper ones. To do so, SEP proposed a monolithic propulsion subsystem (patented design) in which all usual propulsion subsystem assembly devices (piping, supports, brackets…) are avoided, components being directly mounted on the propellant tank. Significant costs reduction could be offered to customers thanks to this innovation. Along with the hydrazine propulsion, SEP also modernised their solar array drive mechanisms the SEPTA's® — SEPTA 31 was qualified end 1998 and will have its maiden flight aboard CNES/ALCATEL JASONI small earth observation satellite. In summary, SEP had to make important changes in order to adapt to the market evolution, which occurred in the early 90's. There efforts implied as well organization as processes as products. First outputs are significant cost reduction; in line will the objectives. First hardware of this new generation will fly in year 2000.

  8. Investigations on organolead compounds V. Lead---lead bond cleavage reactions of hexaphenyldilead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1968-01-01

    It has been shown that a number of nucleophilic and weakly electrophilic reagents (organolithium and organomagnesium compounds, metallic lithium, potassium permanganate, sodium ethoxide, diaryl disulphides, sulphur, ozone, hypochlorous acid and iodine/iodide) selectively cleave the lead---lead bond

  9. Better, faster and cheaper energy facades for transformation of multi-storey blocks built between 1960 and 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    an innovative process. The aim is to inspire clients and consultants to think smart through optimizing the planning and design process as well as the building process. Through this way of thinking we can secure a better, cheaper and faster energy renovation of the existing building stock. The project is under...... scale projects have been driven by the housing association AL2bolig, Tilst, Denmark. Author was part of the architectural discussion through planning process and the evaluation of the first frame competition. The methods used are: - participation through the development process - comparable research...

  10. Acute acromioclavicular dislocation: a cheaper, easier and all-arthroscopic system. Is it effective in nowadays economical crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Sergi; Dada, Michelle; Santos, Simon; Lozano, Lluis; Alemany, Xavier; Peidro, Lluis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to show an effective, easier and cheaper way to reduce acute acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation type III and V (Rockwood classification). Numerous procedures have been described for surgical management of acromioclavicular joint disruption. Newest devices involve an arthroscopic technique that allows nonrigid anatomic fixation of the acromioclavicular joint. Arthroscopically assisted treatment of acute AC joint dislocation is advantageous because it provides good clinical results and few complications. It also allows reviewing glenohumeral associated lesions. This surgical technique requires no specific implants to achieve a correct AC reduction. Actually, economical advantages are very important factors to decide the use of determinate surgical techniques.

  11. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History. Sujan Singh Dua. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 777-780. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/08/0777-0780. Keywords.

  12. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS A DISINFECTANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment facility were disinfected by the Fenton's Reagent of several different compositions. The pre-settled samples contained both suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 28 and 290 mg/L,...

  13. Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Phosphonates and Phosphine Oxides with Grignard Reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornillos, Valentin; Perez, Manuel; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    An efficient and highly enantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of phosphonates and phosphine oxides with Grignard reagents and Taniaphos or phosphoramidites as chiral ligands is reported. Transformation of these products leads to a variety of new phosphorus-containing chiral

  14. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  16. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent. (a...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent...

  18. Selenium and tellurium reagents in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comasseto, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contribution of the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) to the organic synthesis of selenium and tellurium reagents is made. Major reactions amoung selenium compounds and insaturated substrates, phosphorus, ester enolates as well as the use of phase transference catalysed reactions to produce arylselenolate are described. For tellurium, interactions of its compounds with organic substrates and reactive intermediates (e.g. benzino diazomethane) are reported. (C.L.B.) [pt

  19. Fenton's Reagent. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    The Fenton's Reagent DNAPL treatment process is an in situ oxidation method to destroy DNAPLs in groundwater. Residual industrial solvents, primarily Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), are currently the most significant barrier to successful completion of most large groundwater and soil cleanup efforts. DNAPL pools and residues slowly dissolve into surrounding groundwater to create large plumes of organic solvent contamination with concentration levels far above regulatory limits

  20. Faster, Better, Cheaper: News on Seeking Gaia's Astrometric Solution with AGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Bombrun, A.; O'Mullane, W.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-12-01

    Gaia is ESA’s ambitious space astrometry mission with a foreseen launch date in early 2012. Its main objective is to perform a stellar census of the 1000 Million brightest objects in our galaxy (completeness to V=20 mag) from which an astrometric catalog of micro-arcsec level accuracy will be constructed. A key element in this endeavor is the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS) - the mathematical and numerical framework for combining the ≍80 available observations per star obtained during Gaia’s 5yr lifetime into a single global astrometric solution. At last year’s ADASS XVIII we presented (O4.1) in detail the fundamental working principles of AGIS, its development status, and selected results obtained by running the system on processing hardware at ESAC, Madrid with large-scale simulated data sets. We present here the latest developments around AGIS highlighting in particular a much improved algebraic solving method that has recently been implemented. This Conjugate Gradient scheme improves the convergence behavior in significant ways and leads to a solution of much higher scientific quality. We also report on a new collaboration aiming at processing the data from the future small Japanese astrometry mission Nano-Jasmine with AGIS.

  1. Influence of reagents mixture density on the radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-zinc ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Mikhailenko, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Influence of Li2CO3-ZnO-Fe2O3 powder reagents mixture density on the synthesis efficiency of lithium-zinc ferrites in the conditions of thermal heating or pulsed electron beam heating was studied by X-Ray diffraction and magnetization analysis. The results showed that the including a compaction of powder reagents mixture in ferrite synthesis leads to an increase in concentration of the spinel phase and decrease in initial components content in lithium-substituted ferrites synthesized by thermal or radiation-thermal heating.

  2. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power

  3. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated

  4. Copper-Catalyzed Oxy-Alkynylation of Diazo Compounds with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durga Prasad; Waser, Jerome

    2016-02-24

    Alkynes have found widespread applications in synthetic chemistry, biology, and materials sciences. In recent years, methods based on electrophilic alkynylation with hypervalent iodine reagents have made acetylene synthesis more flexible and efficient, but they lead to the formation of one equivalent of an iodoarene as side-product. Herein, a more efficient strategy involving a copper-catalyzed oxy-alkynylation of diazo compounds with ethynylbenziodoxol(on)e (EBX) reagents is described, which proceeds with generation of nitrogen gas as the only waste. This reaction is remarkable for its broad scope in both EBX reagents and diazo compounds. In addition, vinyl diazo compounds gave enynes selectively as single geometric isomers. The functional groups introduced during the transformation served as easy handles to access useful building blocks for synthetic and medicinal chemistry.

  5. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's Histroy There are very few reagents ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    with bromine, (eq.1). But he failed to notice the formation of phenylmagnesium bromide, because he was using excess bromine which destroyed it. Hence, he could isolate only bromobenzene,. (eq.2). Had he used only one molar equivalent of bromine, perhaps the organomagnesium reagent would bear his name today.

  6. Glycerol as a Cheaper Carbon Source in Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azila Adnan; Nair, G.R.; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer of glucose monomers, which has unique properties including high crystallinity and high strength. It has potential to be used in biomedical applications such as making artificial blood vessel, wound dressings, and in the paper making industry. Extensive study on BC aimed to improve BC production such as by using glycerol as a cheaper carbon source. BC was produced in shake flask culture using five different concentrations of glycerol (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/ L). Using concentration of glycerol above 20 g/ L inhibited culture growth and BC production. Further experiments were performed in batch culture (3-L bioreactor) using 20 g/ L glycerol. It produced yield and productivity of 0.15 g/ g and 0.29 g/ L/ day BC, respectively. This is compared with the control medium, 50 g/ L glucose, which only gave yield and productivity of 0.05 g/ g and 0.23 g/ L/ day, respectively. Twenty g/ L of glycerol enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in batch fermentation system. (author)

  7. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to rhinovirus in serum. The...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3165... clinical specimens or from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480... respiratory syncytial viruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140.... from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3250... Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270.... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus... echoviruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320... capsulatum from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella... from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3010... this bacterium from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids...

  3. New data on masking reagents in complexometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurist, I.M.; Talmud, M.M.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent literature data on employing inorganic and organic oxygen-, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances as masking reagents (MR) in complexonometry of alkali earths, rare earths and transition elements are reviewed for the period of 1971-1983. Effectiveness of any type of MR is shown to be dependent on the electron configuration of a cation being masked. Sr, La, Th, V(6), Zr, Hf, V(5), Nb(5), Ta(5), Mo(6), W(6) a.o. are masked by oxygen-containing ligands. Zn, Cd, Fe(2, 3), Co(2, 3), Ni, etc. are masked by nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing ligands. Thiocompounds mask mainly In, Tl(3), Sn(2), Pb, Bi

  4. Competitive roles of reagent vibration and translation in the exothermic proton transfer reaction H+2+Ar→HAr++H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilotta, R.M.; Farrar, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    We present a crossed beam study of the title reaction at fixed collision energies of 1.2 and 2.3 eV with reagent H + 2 average vibrational energies of 0.44 and 0.89 eV; we also present data at fixed total energies with variable proportions of reagent vibrational and translational energy. At fixed collision energy, reagent vibrational excitation is found to have negligible effect on the total cross section for proton transfer. At fixed total energy, a decrease in reagent vibrational excitation with a corresponding increase in reagent translation leads to partial disposal of the incremental translation in product translation: At a total energy of 3.5 eV, 50% of this incremental reagent translation appears as product translation. At a total energy of 4.6 eV, 78% of the incremental translation appears in product translation. The experimental data are discussed in terms of induced attractive and repulsive energy release on an attractive potential surface. The role of noncollinear geometries and compressed reactant configurations is judged to be of substantial importance in assessing product rotational excitation and dissociation

  5. Alkylation of pyridines at their 4-positions with styrenes plus yttrium reagent or benzyl Grignard reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumori, Tomoya; Hata, Takeshi; Urabe, Hirokazu

    2015-01-02

    A new regioselective alkylation of pyridines at their 4-position was achieved with styrenes in the presence of yttrium trichloride, BuLi, and diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL-H) in THF. Alternatively, similar products were more simply prepared from pyridines and benzyl Grignard reagents. These reactions are not only a useful preparation of 4-substituted pyridines but are also complementary to other relevant reactions usually giving 2-substituted pyridines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of reagent charge on the labeling of erythrocyte membrane proteins by photoactivated reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, J.C.; Hakimian, R.; Shimer, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Leaky erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with 3 H-[2-(4-azido-2-nitroanilino)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (cationic label) or 3 H-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-β-alanine (anionic label). After the membranes were thoroughly washed, seven times as much cationic label was associated with the membranes as anionic label at 5 μM, whereas at 50 μM the cationic label was favored 15-fold. The distribution of label in the membrane proteins was ascertain by SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. At 50 μM cationic label, erythrocyte membrane protein bands 1,2,3,4.2, and 5 were intensely labeled, while band 6 was labeled weakly. At 5 μM cationic label, bands 1 and 4.2 were heavily labeled, while 2,3 and 5 were labeled less well. At both 50 μM and 5 μM anionic label, bands 1 and 6 were most prominently labeled. Bands 2,3,4.2 and 5 were labeled also at 50 μM, but they were labeled only very weakly at 5 μM. Band 4.1 was labeled very poorly if at all by either reagent. A mixture of the reagents gave an additive pattern. Thus, the charge and concentration of these reagents appear to play a major role in their ability to label membrane proteins indiscriminately. Because these reagents contain the same chromophore, 4-azido-2-nitroaniline, and differ mainly only in their charge, they may prove useful in assessing the location of charged sites on proteins in supramolecular complexes

  7. Review Article: Toxic Effects of Some Reagents Used in Electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrathin sections prepared for electron microscopy and histochemistry are indispensable in cytological, histological and histochemical studies. The paper discusses the various reagents used in these fields of study. Unfortunately, these reagents and chemicals are hazardous to health. There is wisdom in informing the ...

  8. Physically absorbable reagents-collectors in elementary flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Kondrat' ev; I.G. Bochkarev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Mining

    2007-09-15

    Based on the reviewed researches held at the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, the effect of physically absorbable reagents-collectors on formation of a flotation complex and its stability in turbulent pulp flows in flotation machines of basic types is considered. The basic requirements for physically absorbable reagents-collectors at different flotation stages are established.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  12. Reagents for the assay of cardenolide glycosides and aglycones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, S.

    1976-01-01

    Some novel reagents are described for use in the radioimmunoassay of the 3-glycone derivatives of cardenolides (cardiac glycosides) and more especially digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, periplocin and lanatosides. Using these reagents these cardenolides and their derivatives may be assayed both in aqueous solution and in urine. A method is also described for performing such assays, including a suitable kit. (U.K.)

  13. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analyte specific reagents. 864.4020 Section 864.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4020 Analyte specific...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom...

  15. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose reagent. 864.4010 Section 864.4010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose...

  16. Use of Competition Kinetics with Fast Reactions of Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    2000-01-01

    small.This is concluded from experiments in which results obtained by competition kinetics are compared with results obtained directly by flow stream procedures. A clearer picture of the reactivity ratios is obtained when the highly reactive reagent is highly diluted with its competitor. A fast reagent...

  17. IN-PLACE REGENERATION OF GAC USING FENTON'S REAGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of using Fenton’s reagents for in-place recovery of spent granular activated carbon (GAC). Fenton’s reagents are cycled through spent GAC to degrade sorbed chlorinated hydrocarbons with little loss of carbon capacity. Seven chlorinated compou...

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of tannins by phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicher, F; Sierakowski, M R; Correa, J B.C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1981-01-01

    There are several colorimetric techniques to determine tannins in plant extracts. One frequently used is the Folin method (phosphotungstic acid reagent) that procedures a blue color with phenolic compounds. However, this coloured complex is unstable. With the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, used in protein determination (Lowry et al. J.B.C. 193: 265, 1951) good results were obtained, even in the absence of cooper solution. Using phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic reagent (Folin-Denis), it was obtained maximum color with 1,0 ml of the reagent in 20 minutes, after the additon of 10 ml 20% sodium carbonate solution. Tannins samples containing 10 to 200 ..mu..g/ml were analysed. Absorbances are determined at 720 or 600 nm. Tannins of commercial preparations from Acacia negra were analysed by the phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic reagent before (A) and after (B) treatment with chromate hyde powder. By this procedure hydrolysible tannins were determined (A-B).

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of tannins by phosphotungstic-phosphomolibdic reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicher, F.; Sierakowski, M.R.; Correa, J.B.C.

    1981-01-01

    There are several colorimetric techniques to determine tannins in plant extracts. One frequently used is the Folin method (phosphotungstic acid reagent) that procedures a blue color with phenolic compounds. However, this coloured complex is unstable. With the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, used in protein determination (Lowry et al. J.B.C. 193: 265, 1951) good results were obtained, even in the absence of cooper solution. Using phosphotungstic-phosphomolibdic reagent (Folin-Denis), it was obtained maximum color with 1,0 ml of the reagent in 20 minutes, after the adition of 10 ml 20% sodium carbonate solution. Tannins samples containing 10 to 200 μg/ml were analysed. Absorbances are determined at 720 or 600 nm. Tannins of commercial preparations from Acacia negra were analysed by the phosphotungstic-phosphomolibdic reagent before (A) and after (B) treatment with chromate hyde powder. By this procedure hydrolysible tannins were determined (A-B). (Author) [pt

  20. Reagent-loaded plastic microfluidic chips for detecting homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ji Won; Jang, Jae-Young; Cho, Jun-Hyeong

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices

  1. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide: A new high specific activity tritioacetylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Than, Chit

    1996-01-01

    The authors' aim was to develop a nonvolatile, stable, and facile tritioacetylating reagent and to demonstrate its use on simple peptides. Accordingly, the authors made the synthesis of high specific activity N-(tritioacetoxy) derivatives of succinimide, phthalimide, and naphthalimide a major focus. As the preferred approach, N-(tritioacetoxy)phthalimide was prepared by radical dehalogenation of N-(iodoacetoxy)phthalimide using high specific activity tributyltin tritide. This tritiated acetylation reagent was characterized by 3 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and by radio-HPLC. Efficacy of the reagent was investigated by tritioacetylation of several peptides at their N-terminal amino group. 26 refs., 1 fig

  3. The reaction of organocerium reagents with easily enolizable ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamoto, Tsuneo; Kusumoto, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Yasushi; Suzuki, Nobuyo; Takiyama, Nobuyuki

    1985-01-01

    Organocerium (III) reagents were conveniently generated by the reaction of organolithium compounds with anhydrous cerium (III) chloride. The reagents are less basic than organolithiums and Grignard reagents, and they react readily at -78 deg C with easily enolizable ketones such as 2-tetralone to afford addition products in high yields. Cerium (III) enolates were also generated from lithium enolates and cerium (III) chloride. The cerium (III) enolates undergo aldol addition with ketones or sterically crowded aldehyde to give the corresponding β-hydroxy ketones in good to high yields. (author)

  4. determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Environmental Pollution Control Technology of Henan Province,. Henan Normal ... storage battery, drainage from lead ore mines, paints, munitions, and petroleum refining. Many .... Therefore, this sequence was adopted in subsequent experiments. .... fluorescence spectrometer by using inexpensive and safe reagents.

  5. Tetrameric DABCO™-Bromine: an Efficient and Versatile Reagent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Reagent for Bromination of Various Organic Compounds. Majid M. Heravi,a* ... aDepartment of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Azzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran. bChemistry ... Synthesis of "-bromo ketones and nitriles has also been ...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to reovirus in serum. The identification...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3850... devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680... devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza... that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to parainfluenza...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus... consist of antigens and antisera used in various serological tests to identify antibodies to Aspergillus...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125 Citrobacter... isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West Nile...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus... serological tests to identify mumps viruses from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...

  1. Reagent and process for detaching furfural in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orelup, R.B.

    1987-07-14

    A two-component liquid reagent and process is provided for detecting the presence of furfural in petroleum products. The reagent comprises two components which are stored separately from each other and are combined prior to admixture with the petroleum product. The process comprises combining the two separate components of the liquid reagent with each other prior to use, admixing the combined components with a petroleum product containing furfural, shaking the resultant mixture, allowing the mixture to separate and observing a red color characteristic of furfural in the lower layer. Alternately, the process may be carried out by combining the second component of the two-component liquid reagent with the petroleum product, followed by admixture with the first component to obtain two separate layers in which the red color characteristic of furfural is observed in the lower layer.

  2. Method for controlled introduction of reagent into a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newlove, J.C.; McDougall, L.A.

    1988-11-29

    It is an object of this invention to provide a method for using an article to enhance the production of hydrocarbons from geological reservoirs, more particularly from fractured formations. It is an additional object to devise a method for providing controlled release of a reagent downhole, in a pipeline, or in other oil-containing environments or fluids. Thus, there is provided a method for releasing a treating reagent, such as a wax crystal modifier, scale inhibitor, demulsifier, corrosion inhibitor, antioxidant, and biocide, into a liquid hydrocarbon stream. A plurality of porous, substantially wax-free, plastic particles having a softening point above 60/sup 0/C and being chemically resistant to the hydrocarbon stream are placed in the stream. The said particles contain the treating reagent in their pores, said reagent being insoluble in water and in the particles and being leachable on contact with the stream. The hydrocarbon stream is then flowed past said particles and the reagent is leached from the particle pores. In a specific aspect of this invention, a method is provided for recovering crude oil from an underground formation by means of: depositing the aforementioned particles, containing a suitable reagent, downhole in the oil-producing region of the formation; flowing the oil through the deposited particles, thereby leaching the reagent into the oil; and recovering the oil modified by the presence of an active amount of said reagent. Experiments are described to illustrate ways of producing the polymeric particles of the invention and to illustrate the processes of the invention.

  3. Evaluation of novel derivatisation reagents for the analysis of oxysterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Peter J., E-mail: p.j.crick@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Aponte, Jennifer; Bentley, T. William [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Matthews, Ian [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Wang, Yuqin [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Griffiths, William J., E-mail: w.j.griffiths@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New derivatisation reagents for LC–MS analysis of oxysterols. • New reagents based on Girard P give high ion-currents and informative LC–MS{sup n} spectra. • Permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. • New reagents offer greater scope for incorporation of isotope labels. - Abstract: Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol that are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. They are also ligands to nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors. Analysis of oxysterols in biological systems is challenging due to their low abundance coupled with their lack of a strong chromophore and poor ionisation characteristics in mass spectrometry (MS). We have previously used enzyme-assisted derivatisation for sterol analysis (EADSA) to identify and quantitate oxysterols in biological samples. This technique relies on tagging sterols with the Girard P reagent to introduce a charged quaternary ammonium group. Here, we have compared several modified Girard-like reagents and show that the permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. However, we find that the reagent can be extended to include sites for potential stable isotope labels without a loss of performance.

  4. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  5. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  6. Perché i generi alimentari sono meno costosi nei paesi (europei ricchi? (Why Is Food Cheaper in Rich [European] Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Podkaminer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Relative to non-food items, food tends to be cheaper in rich, as compared with poor European countries. This tendency cannot be explained in terms of cost developments or foreign-trade considerations. A positive explanation proposed focuses on demand-income-supply interaction. An analysis of a cross-country price-augmented modification of Engel's Law, econometrically specified, indicates that the relative price of food is related positively to the supply of food items and negatively to that of non-food items. This finding is consistent with "agricultural price scissors", and also casts a different light on the nature of economic development and structural change.

  7. Reagent conditions of the flotation of copper, copper - molybdenum and copper -zinc ores in foreing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Reagents-collectors and frothers, used abroad in reagent regimes of flotation of copper, copper-molybdenum and copper zinc ores, have been considered. Xanthogenates, aerofloats, xanthogenformiates, thionocarbamates are mainly used as reagents-collectors. Methylizobutylcarbinol and Daufros are used as reagents-frothers

  8. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  9. Treatment of laundrette wastewater using Starbon and Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Parker, Helen L; Clark, James H

    2016-09-18

    The use of grey water for a variety of purposes is gaining increased popularity as a means of preserving scarce freshwater resources. In this work, catalytic oxidation over Fenton's reagent and adsorption techniques using Starbon (mesoporous material derived from polysaccharides) has been applied. These novel techniques are used as an alternative to already studied treatments of grey water such as filtration and/or biological processes. In this study, grey water, collected from a commercial laundrette, has been used. Treatment efficiency was determined by changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water. Experiments using Fenton's reagent at optimum conditions of Fe(3+) = 40 mg L(-1); H2O2 = 400 mg L(-1) and pH 3 were very successful, resulting in a 95% COD removal after 15 min. Treatment with Starbon adsorption was also effective, reaching up to 81% COD removal at pH 3 within 1 h. The combined treatment with Fenton's reagent and Starbon resulted in a 93% COD removal at a significantly reduced concentration of Fenton's reagent compared to the treatment with solo Fenton's reagent. This lower chemical dose has the advantage of reducing costs and lowering sludge generation.

  10. Photocleavage of DNA: irradiation of quinone-containing reagents converts supercoiled to linear DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, T.; Schuster, G.B.; Ropp, J.D.; Sligar, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation (350 nm) of air-saturated solutions of reagents containing an anthraquinone group linked to quaternary alkyl ammonium groups converts supercoiled DNA to circular and to linear DNA. Generation of linear DNA does not occur by accumulation of numerous single-strand cuts but by coincident-site double-strand cleavage of DNA. Irradiation forms the triplet state of the anthraquinone, which reacts either by hydrogen atom abstraction from a sugar of DNA or by electron transfer from a base of the DNA. Subsequent reactions result in chain scission. The quinone is apparently reformed after this sequence and reirradiation leads to double-strand cleavage. (Author)

  11. Targeted Diazotransfer Reagents Enable Selective Modification of Proteins with Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Swier, Lotteke J Y M; Oudshoorn, Ruben C; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Witte, Martin D

    2017-04-19

    In chemical biology, azides are used to chemically manipulate target structures in a bioorthogonal manner for a plethora of applications ranging from target identification to the synthesis of homogeneously modified protein conjugates. While a variety of methods have been established to introduce the azido group into recombinant proteins, a method that directly converts specific amino groups in endogenous proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first biotin-tethered diazotransfer reagent DtBio and demonstrate that it selectively modifies the model proteins streptavidin and avidin and the membrane protein BioY on cell surface. The reagent converts amines in the proximity of the binding pocket to azides and leaves the remaining amino groups in streptavidin untouched. Reagents of this novel class will find use in target identification as well as the selective functionalization and bioorthogonal protection of proteins.

  12. Determination of tin(II) in reagents for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosanova, E.I.; Loginova, K. A.; Epstein, N.B.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to elaborate a procedure for rapid and simple determination of tin(II) in reagents for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals based on a system albumin-Tc-99m. Original test tools for the determination of various analytes have been suggested in our lab based on the use of small glass tubes (1-2 mm i.d. - 50-70 mm) filled with indicator powders containing suitable immobilized chromogenic reagents. An analytical signal (a length of colored zone which is proportional to the concentration of an analyte) is detected after a sample passing through the indicator tube. Heteropoly compounds are well-known analytical reagents for a photometric determination of various reductants. For elaboration of indicator tubes abilities of Mo,P-heteropoly compounds to give deeply colored blue compounds after reduction were used. (authors)

  13. Application of flotational reagents obtained from coke-industry byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.I. Nikitin; I.N. Nikitin; N.I. Toporkova [Khar' kov Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Today, the operational efficiency of coal-preparation shops at coke plants largely depends on the flotation process, since flotation is the basic method of regenerating the slurry water in the water-slurry systems and the basic enrichment process for small-grain coal slurries. At The Coal-Chemistry Institute, attempts have been made to address the growing demand for readily available and relatively inexpensive flotational reagents. In particular, a list of promising coke-industry byproducts for use as flotational reagents has been compiled, and the possibility of reducing their toxicity has been established. In addition, various industrial byproducts and wastes have been investigated in terms of flotational activity.

  14. Estimation of 239Pu in urine, influence of Sulkowich reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium is known to be co-precipitated with Sulkowich reagent as calcium ammonium oxalate. In adopting this technique for bio-assay of plutonium, its accuracy depends on the self-absorption of the resulting precipitate in each urine sample. Pu recovery experiments were carried out with varying concentration of Ca and Mg, using different volumes of Sulkowich reagent. When the sample volume is 500 ml, Pu in urine can be estimated with an accuracy and precision of 74.38%+-7.4%, with a detection limit of 0.06 Bq (1.6 pCi) per dm 3 . (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Continuing Studies on Lead/Scintillating Fibres Calorimetry (LFC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the results obtained in the framework of the LAA Project~2B, we propose a continuation of the R&D on lead/scintillating fibres calorimetry (``spaghetti calorimetry''), including further tests on the old calorimeter prototypes and the construction and testing of new prototypes. The main results we pursue concern the performances of a projective calorimeter built with new, cheaper, techniques and the radiation hardness of the scintillating fibres, the optimization of a preshower detector system is also studied.

  16. Selective Flotation of Calcite from Fluorite: A Novel Reagent Schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorite is an important strategic mineral. In general, fluorite ores will contain a certain amount of calcite gangue mineral. Thus, they need to be separated from each other. For an economic separation, a reverse flotation process is used to float calcite gangue from fluorite. However, little information on the separation is available. In this study, a novel reagent schedule using citric acid (CA as the depressant, sodium fluoride (NaF as the regulator and sulfoleic acid (SOA as the collector, was developed to separate calcite from fluorite. The results demonstrated a high selectivity for the flotation of calcite from fluorite using this new reagent schedule. The best selective separation for a single mineral and mixed binary minerals was obtained when 200 mg/L of NaF, 50 mg/L of CA, and 6 mg/L of SOA were used at pH 9. In addition, a batch flotation experiment was carried out using a run-of-mine feed material. Selective separation was achieved with 85.18% calcite removal while only 11.2% of fluorite was lost. An attempt was made to understand the effect of the new reagent schedule on the flotation of calcite. The results from both microflotation and bench scale flotation demonstrated a great potential for industrial application using this novel reagent schedule to upgrade fluorite ore.

  17. Protein-Protein Interaction Reagents | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has a library of genes used to study protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells. These genes are cloned in different mammalian expression vectors. A list of available cancer-associated genes can be accessed below. Emory_CTD^2_PPI_Reagents.xlsx Contact: Haian Fu

  18. [Thermodynamic forecasting of reagents composition for soils decontamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V P; Nikolaevskiĭ, V B; Chirkina, I V; Shcheglov, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    Based on thermodynamic studies, the authors conducted laboratory experiments on searching optimal composition of leaching reagents solution for soils decontamination, when contaminated with Cs-137, of activity coefficient for caesium sulfate microquantities in macrocomponents solutions. The method could be used for modelling the radionuclides phase equillibrium and relocations in soils.

  19. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  20. satl based lesson for teaching grignard reagents in synthetic organic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic ... knowledge, the systemic methodology of teaching and learning is the key point. Chemistry is ... chosen in particular to enlighten the students about effectiveness of systemic approach to .... Lectures through Systemic Approach to Teaching and.

  1. Investigation of cleaning reagents for calcium chromate spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning of calcium chromate spills can be a problem due to the insolubility of the material and the corrosiveness of several possible cleaning agents on the stainless steel equipment. Because of OSHA Standards for Cr(VI) exposure, it is necessary to remove spills as efficiently as possible in order to prevent the contaminant from becoming airborne. This study involved the comparison of several possible cleaning agents by studying the solubility of calcium chromate in each reagent. Two general types of reagents for dissolution of calcium chromate were investigated; those which act by conversion of the insoluble calcium chromate to a more soluble salt and to H 2 CrO 4 , and those which appear to act as complexing agents and thereby dissolve the calcium chromate. The most efficient of the reagents investigated was hydrochloric acid. However, even dilute solutions of halide acids destroy passivity of stainless steel causing pitting and stress-corrosion. Acetic acid and nitric acid were somewhat less efficient than hydrochloric acid in dissolving calcium chromate. However, both reagents are noncorrosive with stainless steel, nitric acid tending to favor passivity of the materials. Therefore, it is recommended that dilute solutions of either of these two acids be used for removal of calcium chromate spills in conjunction with mechanical methods that might be necessary, depending on the magnitude of the spill

  2. Synthesis and characterization of zwitterionic carbon dioxide fixing reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    with 13CO2 labeling and medium pressure NMR. The experiments showed that two of the three reagents were able to form carbamates and thus bind CO2. In addition we investigated this particular class of molecules for the possible formation of neutrally charged spiro compounds and we show that these did...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3145... fluorescent dye that are used to identify coxsackievirus from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of coxsackievirus...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus... Clinical Laboratory Standards': (i) 1/LA6 “Detection and Quantitation of Rubella IgG Antibody: Evaluation... Products in the Clinical Laboratory, October 1997,” (ii) 1/LA18 “Specifications for Immunological Testing...

  6. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when the li...

  7. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. 864.1860 Section 864.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1860...

  8. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  9. Radioimmunoassay reagent and its use in a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polito, A.J.; Knight, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay to detect or determine a steroid of the cortisone and aldosterone group has been developed. The invention particularly concerns a steroid derivative containing imidazole group which is radioactively labelled. The invented reagents are labelled with iodine 125. (VJ) [de

  10. SATL Based Lesson for Teaching Grignard Reagents in Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesizing new products from raw materials has been very popular aspects of research in organic chemistry. Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic procedures. Hence learning of various issues concerning with applications of Grignard reactions in synthetic organic chemistry is ...

  11. Reaction of lupane and oleanane triterpenoids with Lawesson's reagent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasnica, Miroslav; Rudovská, I.; Císařová, I.; Šarek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 17 (2008), s. 3736-3743 ISSN 0040-4020 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP203/05/P025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : terpenoids * Lawesson's reagent * ketones * sulfur Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2008

  12. Perché i generi alimentari sono meno costosi nei paesi (europei ricchi? (Why Is Food Cheaper in Rich [European] Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Podkaminer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Relative to non-food items, food tends to be cheaper in rich, as compared with poor European countries. This tendency cannot be explained in terms of cost developments or foreign-trade considerations. A positive explanation proposed focuses on demand-income-supply interaction. An analysis of a cross-country price-augmented modification of Engel's Law, econometrically specified, indicates that the relative price of food is related positively to the supply of food items and negatively to that of non-food items. This finding is consistent with "agricultural price scissors", and also casts a different light on the nature of economic development and structural change.  JEL Codes: D12, L11, L66, Q11Keywords: Food, Prices

  13. Microwave-induced electrostatic etching: generation of highly reactive magnesium for application in Grignard reagent formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kruijs, Bastiaan H P; Dressen, Mark H C L; Meuldijk, Jan; Vekemans, Jef A J M; Hulshof, Lumbertus A

    2010-04-07

    A detailed study regarding the influence of microwave irradiation on the formation of a series of Grignard reagents in terms of rates and selectivities has revealed that these heterogeneous reactions may display a beneficial microwave effect. The interaction between microwaves and magnesium turnings generates violent electrostatic discharges. These discharges on magnesium lead to melting of the magnesium surface, thus generating highly active magnesium particles. As compared to conventional operation the microwave-induced discharges on the magnesium surface lead to considerably shorter initiation times for the insertion of magnesium in selected substrates (i.e. halothiophenes, halopyridines, octyl halides, and halobenzenes). Thermographic imaging and surface characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed that neither selective heating nor a "specific" microwave effect was causing the reduction in initiation times. This novel and straightforward initiation method eliminates the use of toxic and environmentally adverse initiators. Thus, this initiation method limits the formation of by-products. We clearly demonstrated that microwave irradiation enables fast Grignard reagent formation. Therefore, microwave technology is promising for process intensification of Grignard based coupling reactions.

  14. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  15. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  16. Development of versatile universal reagent immunoradiometric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    Immunoradiometric assays, which make use of labelled antibodies, potentially offer better sensitivity and specificity than do radioimmunoassays, which use labelled antigens. In addition, they can in principle be performed in a particularly convenient scheme wherein the same labelled reagent may be used for many different analytes - thus serving as a ''universal'' labelled reagent. Thus if the specific antibody for every analyte is raised in rabbits, and an anti-rabbit antibody is labelled, the latter may be added after the specific antibody to quantify the amount of specific antibody bound to analyte and thereby the amount of analyte present. The potential greater sensitivity and specificity of the immunoradiometric procedure, coupled with the potential convenience of the ''universal'' labelled reagent, might allow such immunoradiometric techniques to be used effectively in the study of communicable diseases in developing countries. Development of these procedures was the subject of this investigation. Many components of these procedures had to be explored and provisionally optimized, including coating of assay tubes with ''extraction'' antibody, immunological purification of antibodies, labelling of antibodies, and intermediate steps toward these goals. Applications were thereupon tested using those provisionally optimized components. The ''universal'' labelled reagent, a donkey anti-rabbit antiserum, was successfully used in the assay of TSH; however, cross reactions of the reagent with non-rabbit immunoglobulins and other materials present seriously limited the sensitivity of the method. Using conventional immunoradiometric procedures, circulating TB and amoebic antibodies could be detected in patients suffering from these diseases. Similarly, circulating antigens in the same patients could also be detected, but not with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a reliable analytical system. Numerous improvements will be required before these techniques

  17. Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Pang, Yuanjie; Zhang, Bo; de Luna, Phil; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Zheng, Xueli; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Cao, Changhong; de Arquer, F. Pelayo García; Safaei, Tina Saberi; Mepham, Adam; Klinkova, Anna; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Filleter, Tobin; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) is the first step in the synthesis of more complex carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using renewable electricity. Unfortunately, the reaction suffers from slow kinetics owing to the low local concentration of CO2 surrounding typical CO2 reduction reaction catalysts. Alkali metal cations are known to overcome this limitation through non-covalent interactions with adsorbed reagent species, but the effect is restricted by the solubility of relevant salts. Large applied electrode potentials can also enhance CO2 adsorption, but this comes at the cost of increased hydrogen (H2) evolution. Here we report that nanostructured electrodes produce, at low applied overpotentials, local high electric fields that concentrate electrolyte cations, which in turn leads to a high local concentration of CO2 close to the active CO2 reduction reaction surface. Simulations reveal tenfold higher electric fields associated with metallic nanometre-sized tips compared to quasi-planar electrode regions, and measurements using gold nanoneedles confirm a field-induced reagent concentration that enables the CO2 reduction reaction to proceed with a geometric current density for CO of 22 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.35 volts (overpotential of 0.24 volts). This performance surpasses by an order of magnitude the performance of the best gold nanorods, nanoparticles and oxide-derived noble metal catalysts. Similarly designed palladium nanoneedle electrocatalysts produce formate with a Faradaic efficiency of more than 90 per cent and an unprecedented geometric current density for formate of 10 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.2 volts, demonstrating the wider applicability of the field-induced reagent concentration concept.

  18. Comparação de bulas de duas marcas de tiras reagentes utilizadas no exame químico de urina Comparison of product labelings of two marks of reagent strips for the chemical examination of urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Scotti da Silva Colombeli

    2006-04-01

    a quick, simple and economic analyze. OBJECTIVES: To compare drug labelings of two marks of reagent strips in urinalysis (Roche Combur10 Test® UX and Bayer Multistix® 10 SG. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The principles of pH, protein, glucose, ketone bodies, hemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, specific gravity and leukocytes determinations, as well as the information about possible interferences were compared. RESULTS: There were differences in the detection’s reagents of some parameters, like urobilinogen (The Ehrlich’s reagent present in Multistix is less specific and more propense to analytical interferences than diazonium salt derived of methoxybenzene, used by Roche strip; the differences in the reagents used for nitrite, protein, glucose, bilirubin and hemoglobin determinations were relatively subtle. DISCUSSION: There was diversity of information about the potential interferences, which could be justified (at least partially by differences in the reagents. Differences in the information about interferences had been detected between Spanish and Portuguese versions in the same product labeling, like the omission of some interferences in the product labeling in Portuguese. Great disparity in the reaction’s intensity and its expression in crosses were observed (e.g. for glucose, and it could lead to misunderstanding in the interpretation of laboratorial findings. CONCLUSION: These data reinforce the importance of standardizations in the urinalysis.

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopy research of interaction of alumosilicic reagent and iron dissolved in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feklistov, D Y; Filippov, V P; Kurchatov, I M; Laguntsov, N I; Salomasov, V A; Permyakov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to reveal the results of alumosilicic reagent interaction with iron compounds contained in the water. This reagent is simultaneously coagulant-flocculant and adsorbent. The iron atoms state is studied in the reagent and in reacted sediment. The valence state of iron atoms are determined in the reagents and sediments. The existence of iron containing superparamagnetic particles in the sediment is shown. (paper)

  20. Kalman filtering applied to a reagent feed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, C.D.; Croson, D.V.; Feeley, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Kalman filter solves a troublesome measurement noise problem and, at the same time, improves nuclear safety by detecting leaks to the process' feed tanks. To demonstrate how this technology of optimal estimation can be exploited, this article presents a systematic plan and example of how a Kalman filter was proven in industrial use on a reagent analyzer. A process to recycle uranium from spent fuel elements uses a reagent stream containing boron to dissolve the fuel. The boron is the neutron poison that prevents a nuclear chain reaction during the uranium dissolution. The purpose of the Kalman filter for this system is to reduce the uncertainty in the boron concentration measurement. The filter also provides incipient fault detection by estimating the unmeasured state of any unpoisoned solution, which would dilute the boron solution, entering the feed vessel

  1. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  2. Development of reagents for radioimmunoassay of: triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotrophin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado S, B.; Lavalley E, C.; Ruiz J, A.; Garcia F, C.; Zamorano A, F.

    1991-12-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of thyroid hormones it is the but it frequents of all the studies carried out by RIA in the laboratories of Nuclear Medicine, these essays are carried out with imported reagents. In the ININ the reagents and the necessary methodology have been developed for the triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH). The good titles of the antibodies (Ac) primary for each hormone were of 1:4,000; 1:750 and 1:1,500. The used separation system was of double Ac with PEG to 10%, with titles of 1:10 for the second Ac of lamb. The specific activity for 125-I-T3 and 125-I-T4 oscillate between 850 at 900 μCi / μ g: being this of 90 μ Ci /μg for TSH. To the first two hormones they were added 1-8 aniline naftalen sulfonic acid (ANS) to concentrations of 3 and 2 mg/ml respectively. As buffer for T3 and T4 it was used Tris-HCl pH 8.6 and PBS with normal serum of rabbit (SNC) for TSH. The standards got ready in buffer or free serum of thyroid hormones. The slope of the standard curves varied between -2.3 to -2.7 and the variation intra and inter assay among 4 to 10%. It is had at the moment in the ININ with standardized reagents for the RIA of T3, T4 and TSH, it is hoped to carry out tests in other laboratories and to establish the conditions of stability more appropriate to begin the preparation of pilot reagents. (Author)

  3. Rapid heteroatom transfer to arylmetals utilizing multifunctional reagent scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyin; Zhou, Zhe; Kwon, Doo-Hyun; Coombs, James; Jones, Steven; Behnke, Nicole Erin; Ess, Daniel H.; Kürti, László

    2017-07-01

    Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents. Here, we demonstrate the use of bench-stable N-H and N-alkyl oxaziridines derived from readily available terpenoid scaffolds as efficient multifunctional reagents for the direct primary amination and hydroxylation of structurally diverse aryl- and heteroarylmetals. This practical and scalable method provides one-step synthetic access to primary anilines and phenols at low temperature and avoids the use of transition-metal catalysts, ligands and additives, nitrogen-protecting groups, excess reagents and harsh workup conditions.

  4. Identification of mimotopes of Mycobacterium leprae as potential diagnostic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Silvana M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early diagnostic test for detecting infection in leprosy is fundamental for reducing patients’ sequelae. The currently used lepromin is not adequate for disease diagnosis and, so far, no antigen to be used in intradermoreaction has proved to be sensitive and specific for that purpose. Aiming at identifying new reagents to be used in skin tests, candidate antigens were investigated. Methods Random peptide phage display libraries were screened by using antibodies from leprosy patients in order to identify peptides as diagnostic reagents. Results Seven different phage clones were identified using purified antibodies pooled from sera of leprosy patients. When the clones were tested with serum samples by ELISA, three of them, 5A, 6A and 1B, allowed detecting a larger number of leprosy patients when compared to controls. The corresponding peptides expressed by selected phage clones were chemically synthesized. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the use of peptides in skin tests. The intradermal challenge with peptides in animals previously sensitized with Mycobacterium leprae induced a delayed-type hypersensitivity with peptide 5A (2/5 and peptide 1B (1/5. In positive controls, there was a 3/5 reactivity for lepromin and a 4/5 reactivity of the sensitized animals with soluble extract of M. leprae. Conclusions The preliminary data suggest that may be possible to develop reagents with diagnostic potential based on peptide mimotopes selected by phage display using polyclonal human antibodies.

  5. The adsorption of chelating reagents on oxide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, M.A.W.

    1984-06-01

    This work constitutes a fundamental study of the interaction between chelating reagents and oxide minerals. The adsorption mechanisms have been elucidated for most of the systems generated by the oxides of copper(II) or iron(III) and chelating reagents octyl hydroxamate, N-phenylbenzohydroxamate, salicylaldoxime, 5-nitro-salicylaldoxime or 8-hydroxyquinoline. In order to better understand the adsorption process associated with copper(II) oxide, the oxide was recrystallized to produce a coarser material with a more uniform surface. This allowed the oxide surface to be viewed under the scanning electron microscope. A detailed investigation of the effect of the system variables; pH, conditioning period, concentration, temperature, surface area and dispersing reagent on the rate of precipitation of the copper chelate species of general form, Cu(chel) 2 , was made. In addition the chemical nature of the adsorbed species and the structural form of the precipitates were determined with the aid of infra-red spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscope. On the basis of these results a model has been formulated for the adsorption processes. The precipitation process was examined in more detail by the study of the adsorption of chelate on copper metal. Contact angle measurements of air bubbles on copper metal conditioned with chelate were related to the adsorption results in an attempt to isolate the optimum conditions for flotation of oxide minerals

  6. Inventory management and reagent supply for automated chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzniar, E

    1999-08-01

    Developments in automated chemistry have kept pace with developments in HTS such that hundreds of thousands of new compounds can be rapidly synthesized in the belief that the greater the number and diversity of compounds that can be screened, the more successful HTS will be. The increasing use of automation for Multiple Parallel Synthesis (MPS) and the move to automated combinatorial library production is placing an overwhelming burden on the management of reagents. Although automation has improved the efficiency of the processes involved in compound synthesis, the bottleneck has shifted to ordering, collating and preparing reagents for automated chemistry resulting in loss of time, materials and momentum. Major efficiencies have already been made in the area of compound management for high throughput screening. Most of these efficiencies have been achieved with sophisticated library management systems using advanced engineering and data handling for the storage, tracking and retrieval of millions of compounds. The Automation Partnership has already provided many of the top pharmaceutical companies with modular automated storage, preparation and retrieval systems to manage compound libraries for high throughput screening. This article describes how these systems may be implemented to solve the specific problems of inventory management and reagent supply for automated chemistry.

  7. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  8. Programmable definition of nanogap electronic devices using self-inhibited reagent depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brian; Zhou, Wendi; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-04-27

    Electrodes exhibiting controlled nanoscale separations are required in devices for light detection, semiconductor electronics and medical diagnostics. Here we use low-cost lithography to define micron-separated electrodes, which we downscale to create three-dimensional electrodes separated by nanoscale gaps. Only by devising a new strategy, which we term electrochemical self-inhibited reagent depletion, were we able to produce a robust self-limiting nanogap manufacturing technology. We investigate the method using experiment and simulation and find that, when electrodeposition is carried out using micron-spaced electrodes simultaneously poised at the same potential, these exhibit self-inhibited reagent depletion, leading to defined and robust nanogaps. Particularly remarkable is the formation of fractal electrodes that exhibit interpenetrating jagged elements that consistently avoid electrical contact. We showcase the new technology by fabricating photodetectors with responsivities (A/W) that are one hundred times higher than previously reported photodetectors operating at the same low (1-3 V) voltages. The new strategy adds to the nanofabrication toolkit method that unites top-down template definition with bottom-up three-dimensional nanoscale features.

  9. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  10. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  11. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  12. EPIC: Electronic Publishing is Cheaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Willis G.

    Advocates of inexpensive publishing confront a widespread complaint that there is already an overproduction of scholarship that electronic publishing will make worse. The costs of electronic publishing correlate to a clutch of choices: speeds of access, breadth and depth of content, visibility, flexibility, durability, dependability, definition of…

  13. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  14. [An evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody test reagents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X W; Zhu, D

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody screening test reagents, including the IF and IE reagents prepared by the Institute of Virology, CAPM, the ELISA reagent prepared by the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products. Based on the results, the sensitivities of the IF and IE are from 91.2% to 96.9%; the specificities, from 94.6% to 97.3%. Due to the low HIV prevalence in China, the predictive values of negative of these reagents are up to 100%; but the predictive values of positive are very low. It is suggested that these reagents can be used for HIV antibody screen testing in China. The package of some reagents should be improved, the price of some reagents should be decreased.

  15. Performing in-situ chemical oxidation with Fenton's Reagent at a former gas work in Rotterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaisier, W.; Pancras, T. [In-situ Technieken BV, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bennen, M.; Bouwhuis, E. [Public Works Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    In-Situ Technieken BV is the first company in the Netherlands to apply full-scale in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) by means of Fenton's reagent or permanganates. The use of ISCO for soil remediation purposes originated in the USA. After three years of practical experience in the Netherlands it can be stated that ISCO has become a proven technology for source area treatment in the Netherlands as well. We present the results of a pilot ISCO treatment program with Fenton's reagent that was performed at the former gas works facility 'Feyenoord'. The site is one of the largest gas works facilities built in Rotterdam. The former gas production activities have lead to severe pollution of soil and groundwater over an area of approximately 3 hectares. Both laboratory and field observations showed that it would be very difficult to execute an efficient Fenton's reagent ISCO treatment program at this specific site for the following reasons. First of all, the contamination consisting of tar and tar-related compounds is found in an anthropogenic (man-made) soil of 9 meter in thickness. Secondly, high contents of carbonates and organic material were found in the soils, which act as a scavenger for the hydroxyl free radical in a Fenton's reagent ISCO system. The pilot test was performed in two phases with an intermediate period of 2 months. The injection of totally 24 tonnes hydrogen peroxide (50%) was anticipated. Reactions of the reagents in the soil were very strong. The presence of old (forgotten) boreholes and an intensive drainage system, in combination with the aggressive reaction resulted in short-circuiting of reagents to the surface. Out of the proposed 24 tonnes of hydrogen peroxide (50%) only 14.5 tonnes were injected. This would have effect on the amount of contamination oxidized. Nevertheless, the oxidation had a significant effect on the soil contamination. A reduction of approximately 90% for PAH was obtained. Reduction was also

  16. Conversion of coal mine drainage ochre to water treatment reagent: Production, characterisation and application for P and Zn removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, Devin; Santonastaso, Marco; Thorn, Peter; Kershaw, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Coal mine drainage ochre is a ferruginous precipitate that forms from mine water in impacted watercourses and during treatment. With thousands of tonnes per annum of such ochre arising from mine water treatment in the UK alone, management of these wastes is a substantive issue. This paper demonstrates that the ochre from both active and passive treatment of coal mine drainage can be transformed into an effective water treatment reagent by simple acid dissolution and that the reagent can be used for the removal of dissolved phosphorous from municipal wastewater and zinc from non-coal mine waters. Ochre is readily soluble in H2SO4 and HCl. Ochre is more soluble in HCl with solubilities of up to 100 g/L in 20% (w/w) HCl and 68 g/L in 10% (w/w) H2SO4. For four of the eight tested ochres solubility decreased in higher concentrations of H2SO4. Ochre compositional data demonstrate that the coal mine ochres tested are relatively free from problematic levels of elements seen by other authors from acid mine drainage-derived ochre. Comparison to British Standards for use of iron-based coagulants in drinking water treatment was used as an indicator of the acceptability of use of the ochre-derived reagents in terms of potentially problematic elements. The ochre-derived reagents were found to meet the 'Grade 3' specification, except for arsenic. Thus, for application in municipal wastewater and mine water treatment additional processing may not be required. There was little observed compositional difference between solutions prepared using H2SO4 or HCl. Ochre-derived reagents showed applicability for the removal of P and Zn with removals of up to 99% and 97% respectively measured for final pH 7-8, likely due to sorption/coprecipitation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that applying a Fe dose in the form of liquid reagent leads to a better Fe:P and Fe:Zn removal ratio compared to ochre-based sorption media tested in the literature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  17. Homologation chemistry with nucleophilic α-substituted organometallic reagents: chemocontrol, new concepts and (solved) challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Laura; Monticelli, Serena; Senatore, Raffaele; Ielo, Laura; Pace, Vittorio

    2018-05-31

    The transfer of a reactive nucleophilic CH2X unit into a preformed bond enables the introduction of a fragment featuring the exact and desired degree of functionalization through a single synthetic operation. The instability of metallated α-organometallic species often poses serious questions regarding the practicability of using this conceptually intuitive and simple approach for forming C-C or C-heteroatom bonds. A deep understanding of processes regulating the formation of these nucleophiles is a precious source of inspiration not only for successfully applying theoretically feasible transformations (i.e. determining how to employ a given reagent), but also for designing new reactions which ultimately lead to the introduction of molecular complexity via short experimental sequences.

  18. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  19. Desalting Protein Ions in Native Mass Spectrometry Using Supercharging Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassou, Catherine A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the supercharging reagents m-NBA and sulfolane on sodium ion adduction to protein ions formed using native mass spectrometry were investigated. There is extensive sodium adduction on protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions containing millimolar concentrations of NaCl, which can lower sensitivity by distributing the signal of a given charge state over multiple adducted ions and can reduce mass measuring accuracy for large proteins and non-covalent complexes for which individual adducts cannot be resolved. The average number of sodium ions adducted to the most abundant ion formed from ten small (8.6–29 kDa) proteins for which adducts can be resolved is reduced by 58% or 80% on average, respectively, when 1.5% m-NBA or 2.5% sulfolane are added to aqueous solutions containing sodium compared to without the supercharging reagent. Sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at reducing sodium ion adduction and at preserving non-covalent protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Desalting with 2.5% sulfolane enables detection of several glycosylated forms of 79.7 kDa holo-transferrin and NADH bound to the 146 kDa homotetramer LDH, which are otherwise unresolved due to peak broadening from extensive sodium adduction. Although sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at protein ion desalting, m-NBA reduces salt clusters at high m/z and can increase the signal-to-noise ratios of protein ions by reducing chemical noise. Desalting is likely a result of these supercharging reagents binding sodium ions in solution, thereby reducing the sodium available to adduct to protein ions. PMID:25133273

  20. A review of reagents for fluorescence microscopy of cellular compartments and structures, Part III: reagents for actin, tubulin, cellular membranes, and whole cell and cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Jason A; Dolman, Nick J; Davidson, Michael W

    2014-01-02

    Non-antibody commercial fluorescent reagents for imaging of cytoskeletal structures have been limited primarily to tubulin and actin, with the main factor in choice based mainly on whether cells are live or fixed and permeabilized. A wider range of options exist for cell membrane dyes, and the choice of reagent primarily depends on the preferred localization in the cell (i.e., all membranes or only the plasma membrane) and usage (i.e., whether the protocol involves fixation and permeabilization). For whole-cell or cytoplasmic imaging, the choice of reagent is determined mostly by the length of time that the cells need to be visualized (hours or days) and by fixation status. Presented here is a discussion on choosing commercially available reagents for these cellular structures, with an emphasis on use for microscopic imaging, with a featured reagent for each structure, a recommended protocol, troubleshooting guide, and example image. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Functionalization of epoxy esters with alcohols as stoichiometric reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Dona; Modec, Barbara; Dolenc, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Glycidyl esters, frequently employed as reactive groups on polymeric supports, were functionalized with alcohols as stoichiometric reagents, yielding β-alkoxyalcohols. Among the solvents studied, best results were obtained in ethers in the presence of a strong proton acid as a catalyst. Alcohols include simple alkanols, diols, protected polyols, 3-butyn-1-ol 3-hydroxypropanenitrile and cholesterol. This protocol represents a convenient way for introduction of various functionalities onto epoxy-functionalized polymers. Under the reaction conditions, some side reactions take place, mostly due to the reactive ester group and water present in the reaction mixture.

  2. Improved multiple displacement amplification (iMDA) and ultraclean reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, S Timothy; Picuri, John M; Crowder, Chris D; Minich, Jeremiah J; Hofstadler, Steven A; Eshoo, Mark W

    2014-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing sample preparation requires nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA; however, many relevant samples are comprised of only a few cells. Genomic analysis of these samples requires a whole genome amplification method that is unbiased and free of exogenous DNA contamination. To address these challenges we have developed protocols for the production of DNA-free consumables including reagents and have improved upon multiple displacement amplification (iMDA). A specialized ethylene oxide treatment was developed that renders free DNA and DNA present within Gram positive bacterial cells undetectable by qPCR. To reduce DNA contamination in amplification reagents, a combination of ion exchange chromatography, filtration, and lot testing protocols were developed. Our multiple displacement amplification protocol employs a second strand-displacing DNA polymerase, improved buffers, improved reaction conditions and DNA free reagents. The iMDA protocol, when used in combination with DNA-free laboratory consumables and reagents, significantly improved efficiency and accuracy of amplification and sequencing of specimens with moderate to low levels of DNA. The sensitivity and specificity of sequencing of amplified DNA prepared using iMDA was compared to that of DNA obtained with two commercial whole genome amplification kits using 10 fg (~1-2 bacterial cells worth) of bacterial genomic DNA as a template. Analysis showed >99% of the iMDA reads mapped to the template organism whereas only 0.02% of the reads from the commercial kits mapped to the template. To assess the ability of iMDA to achieve balanced genomic coverage, a non-stochastic amount of bacterial genomic DNA (1 pg) was amplified and sequenced, and data obtained were compared to sequencing data obtained directly from genomic DNA. The iMDA DNA and genomic DNA sequencing had comparable coverage 99.98% of the reference genome at ≥1X coverage and 99.9% at ≥5X coverage while maintaining both balance

  3. Reagents for radioimmunological determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Z.; Balbierz, H.; Breberowicz, J.

    1978-01-01

    The work was undertaken to prepare the reagents for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) radioimmunoassay with double antibody method. The CEA standard of high immunoreactivity was prepared and purified. The purified CEA was used for immunozation of goats. The goat anti - CEA sera were received. IgG fraction from normal goat serum was purified and used for the production of horse anti-goat IgG serum which was then used in the radioimmunoassay of CEA. The labelling of CEA with iodine-125 has been carried out be means of the enzymatic method.(Z.R.)

  4. Leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  5. Diagnóstico das meningites através de fitas reagentes Diagnosis of meningitis with reagent strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a utilidade de fitas reagentes para a avaliação liquórica de pleocitose, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia no diagnóstico precoce e rápido de meningites em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo amostras de líquor provenientes de 164 crianças admitidas no ambulatório de doenças infecto-contagiosas do Centro Geral de Pediatria (CGP-FHEMIG, com suspeita clínica de meningite, no período diurno de Maio/97 à Maio/99. A faixa etária dos pacientes variou de um mês a 12 anos (mediana de 12 meses, sendo obtidos resultados da citobioquímica liquórica (celularidade, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia de 154 desses pacientes. Esses achados foram comparados com reações do líquor em fitas reagentes. RESULTADOS: Através da citobioquímica líquórica foram identificados 43 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, 19 provavelmente viróticas e 83 amostras sem alterações. Pelas fitas reagentes, detectaram-se 41 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, dois casos de infecção meníngea provavelmente virótica, e em 71 exames não se verificaram alterações. Comparando os resultados obtidos por meio das fitas reagentes com a citobioquímica convencional, observou-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e acurácia (90,7; 98,1; 95,1; 96,4; 96,1%, respectivamente. Ademais, a análise estatística pelo teste de Mc Nemar não evidenciou discordância significativa no diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana obtido através de ambos os métodos (p=0,68 e, pela estatística Kappa, verificou-se elevado grau de concordância entre os testes (pOBJECTIVE: to determine the usefulness of reagent strips in the evaluation of pleocytosis, cerebrospinal fluid glucose and protein levels for early and rapid diagnosis of meningitis in children. METHODS: We included cerebrospinal fluid samples of 164 children admitted to the outpatient clinic of Communicable Diseases of the General Pediatric Center (Funda

  6. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic methyltrimethoxysilane based silica coatings without silylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavale, Mahendra S.; Mahadik, D.B.; Parale, V.G.; Wagh, P.B.; Gupta, Satish C.; Rao, A.Venkateswara; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2011-01-01

    The superhydrophobic surfaces have drawn lot of interest, in both academic and industries because of optically transparent, adherent and self-cleaning behavior. Surface chemical composition and morphology plays an important role in determining the superhydrophobic nature of coating surface. Such concert of non-wettability can be achieved, using surface modifying reagents or co-precursor method in sol-gel process. Attempts have been made to increase the hydrophobicity and optical transparency of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica coatings using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) instead of formal routes like surface modification using silylating reagents. The optically transparent, superhydrophobic uniform coatings were obtained by simple dip coating method. The molar ratio of MTMS:MeOH:H 2 O was kept constant at 1:5.63:1.58, respectively with 0.5 M NH 4 F as a catalyst and the weight percent of PMMA varied from 1 to 8. The hydrophobicity of silica coatings was analyzed by FTIR and contact angle measurements. These substrates exhibited 91% optical transmittance as compared to glass and water drop contact angle as high as 171 ± 1 deg. The effect of humidity on hydrophobic nature of coating has been studied by exposing these films at relative humidity of 90% at constant temperature of 30 deg. C for a period of 45 days. The micro-structural studies carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  7. The blocking reagent optimization for the magnetoelastic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajia; Chai, Yating; Horikawa, Shin; Wikle, Howard C.; Wang, Feng'en; Du, Songtao; Chin, Bryan A.; Hu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The wireless phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor has proven to be promising for real-time detection of pathogenic bacteria on fresh produces. The ME biosensor consists of a freestanding ME resonator as the signal transducer and filamentous phage as the biomolecular-recognition element, which can specifically bind to a pathogen of interest. Due to the Joule magnetostriction effect, the biosensors can be placed into mechanical resonance when subjected to a time-varying magnetic field alternating at the sensor's resonant frequency. Upon the attachment of the target pathogen, the mass of the biosensor increases, thereby decreasing its resonant frequency. This paper presents an investigation of blocking reagents immobilization for detecting Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh food surfaces. Three different blocking reagents (BSA, SuperBlock blocking buffer, and blocker BLOTTO) were used and compared. The optical microscope was used for bacterial cells binding observation. Student t-test was used to statistically analysis the experiment results. The results shows that SuperBlock blocking buffer and blocker BLOTTO have much better blocking performance than usually used BSA.

  8. Radiation chemical technology of industrial polymer reagents development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.; Nurkeeva, Z.; Mun, G.; Sigitov, V.; Maltzeva, R.; Petukhov, V.; Tchekushin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the technology of producing of polymeric reagents from the raw materials of Kazakstan for application in medicine, agriculture, enhanced oil recovery and ecology. To achieve the objectives the next technological lines or operations (Blocks) should be realized: 1. Rectification column and distilling apparatus for purification of monomers and solvents including analytical equipment to control the quality of the final product; 2. Irradiation of reaction mixture by either gamma-irradiation source Co-60; 3. Purification of polymer reagents; 4. Producing of commercial products. It is supposed that the power irradiation devices for producing of hydrogels will be mounted on the research atomic reactor of the Almaty Branch of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center. There are high qualification personal which has much experience in radioactive materials operating. Irradiation technologies will provide the low cost of hydrogels, approximately 250-300 US$ per 1 ton. Expected results. One can expect that the realization of this project allows to produce hydrogels in industrial scale to cover partly the requirements of medicine, agriculture, oil industry and ecology

  9. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eMaertens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the aromatic ring umpolung concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol, a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent, fortucine (antiviral and antitumor, erysotramidine (curare-like effect, platensimycin (an antibiotic, and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis. These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  10. Classical kinematic model for direct reactions of oriented reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, I.; Prisant, M.G.; Levine, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple kinematic model based on the concept of an orientation-dependent critical configuration for reaction is introduced and applied. The model serves two complementary purposes. In the predictive mode the model provides an easily implemented procedure for computing the reactivity of oriented reagents (including those actually amenable to measure) from a given potential energy surface. The predictions of the model are compared against classical trajectory results for the H + D 2 reaction. By use of realistic potential energy surfaces the model is applied to the Li + HF and O + HCl reactions where the HX molecules are pumped by a polarized laser. A given classical trajectory is deemed reactive or not according to whether it can surmount the barrier at that particular orientation. The essential difference with the model of Levine and Bernstein is that the averaging over initial conditions is performed by using a Monte Carlo integration. One can therefore use the correct orientation-dependent shape (and not only height) of the barrier to reaction and, furthermore, use oriented or aligned reagents. Since the only numerical step is a Monte Carlo sampling of initial conditions, very many trajectories can be run. This suffices to determine the reaction cross section for different initial conditions. To probe the products, they have employed the kinematic approach of Elsum and Gordon. The result is a model where, under varying initial conditions, examining final-state distributions or screening different potential energy surfaces can be efficiently carried out

  11. Tunable, Quantitative Fenton-RAFT Polymerization via Metered Reagent Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothling, Mitchell D; McKenzie, Thomas G; Reyhani, Amin; Qiao, Greg G

    2018-05-10

    A continuous supply of radical species is a key requirement for activating chain growth and accessing quantitative monomer conversions in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In Fenton-RAFT, activation is provided by hydroxyl radicals, whose indiscriminate reactivity and short-lived nature poses a challenge to accessing extended polymerization times and quantitative monomer conversions. Here, an alternative Fenton-RAFT procedure is presented, whereby radical generation can be finely controlled via metered dosing of a component of the Fenton redox reaction (H 2 O 2 ) using an external pumping system. By limiting the instantaneous flux of radicals and ensuring sustained radical generation over tunable time periods, metered reagent addition reduces unwanted radical "wasting" reactions and provides access to consistent quantitative monomer conversions with high chain-end fidelity. Fine tuning of radical concentration during polymerization is achieved simply via adjustment of reagent dose rate, offering significant potential for automation. This modular strategy holds promise for extending traditional RAFT initiation toward more tightly regulated radical concentration profiles and affords excellent prospects for the automation of Fenton-RAFT polymerization. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  13. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Kong

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. Methods A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer and THLE3 (normal liver cells after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells’ genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of “label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH” from Mirus (USA. Results The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA’s size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. Conclusions In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA

  14. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  15. Modification of the mitochondrial sulfonylurea receptor by thiol reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, A; Wójcik, G; Lobanov, N A; Nalecz, M J

    1999-08-19

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by thiol-modifying reagents on themitochondrial sulfonylurea receptor. The thiol-oxidizing agents (timerosal and 5, 5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) were found to produce a large inhibition (70% to 80%) of specific binding of [(3)H]glibenclamide to the beef heart mitochondrial membrane. Similar effects were observed with membrane permeable (N-ethylmaleimide) and non-permeable (mersalyl) thiol modifying agents. Glibenclamide binding was also decreased by oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide) but not by reducing agents (reduced gluthatione, dithiothreitol and the 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-dithiolbutane). The results suggest that intact thiol groups, facing the mitochondrial matrix, are essential for glibenclamide binding to the mitochondrial sulfonylurea receptor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  17. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  18. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed η CGOX /η CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  19. Mandelazo I as a reagent for Zr(IV) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, T.H.; Filip, P.; Stefan, N.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometric study of the reaction of the Zr(IV) ions with Mandelazo I was carried out. Absorption spectra revealed that the maximum absorption of the zirconium compound appears at a wavelength (316 nm) different from the maxima of the reagent (253 and 390 nm). Beer-Lambert law is followed for zirconium concentrations of the order of 8.8 x 10 -5 M (i.e. 8 μg Zr(IV)/mL). Possible interferences of ions such as Be(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) were investigated in connection with some masking agents such as SO 4 2- and C 2 O 4 2- . Also, the solid state Zr(IV)- Mandelazo I compound was prepared and characterized by nitrogen and thermogravimetric analyses

  20. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  1. A review of reagents for fluorescence microscopy of cellular compartments and structures, part I: BacMam labeling and reagents for vesicular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Nick J; Kilgore, Jason A; Davidson, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescent labeling of vesicular structures in cultured cells, particularly for live cells, can be challenging for a number of reasons. The first challenge is to identify a reagent that will be specific enough where some structures have a number of potential reagents and others very few options. The emergence of BacMam constructs has allowed more easy-to-use choices. Presented here is a discussion of BacMam constructs as well as a review of commercially-available reagents for labeling vesicular structures in cells, including endosomes, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes, complete with a featured reagent for each structure, recommended protocol, troubleshooting guide, and example image. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  3. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a...

  4. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporated...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. 864.9225 Section 864.9225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in...

  6. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.

    2004-01-01

    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formatio...

  7. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  8. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann Reagent from stable sulfonyl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-01-01

    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a safe and scalable approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes...

  9. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Kubiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods.

  10. Systematic trends in photonic reagent induced reactions in a homologous chemical family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Katharine Moore; Xing, Xi; Rabitz, Herschel

    2013-08-29

    The growing use of ultrafast laser pulses to induce chemical reactions prompts consideration of these pulses as "photonic reagents" in analogy to chemical reagents. This work explores the prospect that photonic reagents may affect systematic trends in dissociative ionization reactions of a homologous family of halomethanes, much as systematic outcomes are often observed for reactions between homologous families of chemical reagents and chemical substrates. The experiments in this work with photonic reagents of varying pulse energy and linear spectral chirp reveal systematic correlations between observable ion yields and the following set of natural variables describing the substrate molecules: the ionization energy of the parent molecule, the appearance energy of each fragment ion, and the relative strength of carbon-halogen bonds in molecules containing two different halogens. The results suggest that reactions induced by photonic reagents exhibit systematic behavior analogous to that observed in reactions driven by chemical reagents, which provides a basis to consider empirical "rules" for predicting the outcomes of photonic reagent induced reactions.

  11. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Focken

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents.

  12. POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) RELEASE FROM SOIL DURING TREATMENT WITH FENTON'S REAGENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton's Reagent was used to treat soil from a wood-treating site in southeastern Ohio which had been contaminated with creosote. Slurries, consisting of 10 µg of contaminated soil and 30 mL water were treated with 40 mL of Fenton's Reagent (1:1 of 30% H2O2 ...

  13. Hydrazine reagents as derivatizing agents in environmental analysis--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M; Büldt, A; Karst, U

    2000-04-01

    Hydrazine reagents are a well-known group of derivatizing agents for the determination of aldehydes and ketones in liquid and gaseous samples. Within this article, the most important hydrazine reagents are critically summarized, and their major applications in different fields, including environmental analysis, food chemistry and industrial analysis are introduced. As 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) is the basic reagent for several international standard procedures, its properties are discussed in detail. Particular focus is directed on the chemistry of the hydrazine reagents, and chemical interferences are considered. Recent methods for the determination of various oxidants using hydrazine reagents are presented as well. Due to limited space, this review does not cover the related field of carbohydrate analysis, although many chemical aspects are similar.

  14. Organic-soluble lanthanide nuclear magnetic resonance shift reagents for sulfonium and isothiouronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, T.J.; Zaia, J.

    1987-01-01

    Lanthanide complexes of the formula [Ln(fod) 4 ] - (FOD, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedione) are effective organic-soluble nuclear magnetic resonance shift reagents for sulfonium and isothiouronium salts. The shift reagent is formed in solution from Ln(fod) 3 and Ag(fod) or K(fod). The selection of Ag(fod) or K(fod) in forming the shift reagent is dependent on the anion of the organic salt. Ag(fod) is more effective with halide salts, whereas K(fod) is preferred with tetrafluoroborate salts. Resolution of diastereotopic hydrogen atoms was observed in the shifted spectra of certain substrates. Enantiomeric resolution was obtained in the spectrum of sec-butylisothiouronium chloride with a chiral shift reagent. The reagents can be employed in solvents such as chloroform and benzene

  15. A Catalyst-Free Amination of Functional Organolithium Reagents by Flow Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejin; Yonekura, Yuya; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

    2018-04-03

    Reported is the electrophilic amination of functional organolithium intermediates with well-designed aminating reagents under mild reaction conditions using flow microreactors. The aminating reagents were optimized to achieve efficient C-N bond formation without using any catalyst. The electrophilic amination reactions of functionalized aryllithiums were successfully conducted under mild reaction conditions, within 1 minute, by using flow microreactors. The aminating reagent was also prepared by the flow method. Based on stopped-flow NMR analysis, the reaction time for the preparation of the aminating reagent was quickly optimized without the necessity of work-up. Integrated one-flow synthesis consisting of the generation of an aryllithium, the preparation of an aminating reagent, and their combined reaction was successfully achieved to give the desired amine within 5 minutes of total reaction time. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of some colloid surfactants on spectrophotometric characteristics of metal chelates with chromophore organic reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernova, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical regularities and prospects of using surface active substances (SAS) in spectrophotometric determination of metal ions (including ions of rare-earth elements, transition metals, Be(3)) with chromophore chelating reagents were investigated. The chromophore reagents investigated were pyrocatechol violet, phenolcarboxylic acids of the triarylmethane series, fluorones, phthalexones and azo-compounds. As SAS certain long-chain quaternary ammonium and pyridinium salts (LQAS) were employed. From the results reported it follows that the introduction of LQAS in the system of Mesup(n+)-chromophore reagent is a rather effective method of enhancing the contrast rendition and, in some cases, the sensitivity and selectivity of the reagents. Explanations are suggested as to the factors which cause the changes observed in the contrast of the reactions in the presence of SAS; the underlying phenomena are the ligand-ligand interactions between the organic reagents and SAS and solubilization processes of the reaction products by the micelles of SAS

  17. A Perspective on Reagent Diversity and Non-covalent Binding of Reactive Carbonyl Species (RCS and Effector Reagents in Non-enzymatic Glycation (NEG: Mechanistic Considerations and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Rodnick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS, initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM. While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA and human serum albumin (HSA are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein. The generation of the glucose RCS can involve concomitantly-bound physiological species (e.g., inorganic phosphate, water, etc.; here termed effector reagents. Extant NEG schemes do not account for these recent findings. In addition, effector reagent reactions with glucose in the serum and erythrocyte cytosol can generate RCS (e.g., glyoxal, glyceraldehyde, etc.. Recent research has shown that these RCS covalently modify proteins in vivo via NECPM mechanisms. A general scheme that reflects both the reagent and mechanistic diversity that can lead to NEG and NECPM is presented here. A perspective that accounts for the relationships between RCS, NEG, and NECPM can facilitate the understanding of site selectivity, may help explain overall glycation rates, and may have implications for the clinical assessment/control of diabetes mellitus. In view of this perspective, concentrations of ribose, fructose, Pi, bicarbonate, counter ions, and the resulting RCS generated within intracellular and extracellular compartments may be of importance and of clinical relevance. Future research is also proposed.

  18. Development of IRMA reagent and methodology for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The PSA test is a solid phase two-site immunoassay. Rabbit anti PSA is coated or bound on surface of solid phase and monoclonal anti PSA labeled with 1-125. The PSA molecules present in the standard solution or serum are 'Sandwiched' between the two antibodies. After formation of coated antibody-antigen-labeled antibody complex, the unbound labeled antibody will removed by washing. The complex is measured by gamma counter. The concentration of analyte is proportional to the counts of test sample. In order to develop kits for IRMA PSA, it should be prepared three essential reagents Antibody coated solid phase, labeled antibody, standards and finally optimizing them to obtain an standard curve fit to measure specimen PSA in desired range of concentration. The type of solid phase and procedure(s) to coat or bind to antibody, is still main debatable subject in development and setting up RIA/IRMA kits. In our experiments, polystyrene beads, because of their easy to coat with antibody as well as easy to use, can be considered as a desired solid phase. Most antibodies are passively adsorbed to a plastic surface (e.g. Polystyrene, Propylene, and Polyvinyl chloride) from a diluted buffer. The antibody coated plastic surface, then acts as solid phase reagent. Poor efficiency and time required to reach equilibrium and also lack of reproducibility especially batch-to-batch variation between materials, are disadvantages in this simple coating procedure. Improvements can be made by coating second antibody on surface of beads, and reaction between second and primary antibodies. There is also possible to enhance more coating efficiency of beads by using Staphylococcus ureus-Protein A. Protein A is a major component of staphylococcus aureus cell wall which has an affinity for FC segment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of some species, including human; rabbit; and mice. This property of Staphylococcal Protein A has made it a very useful tool in the purification of classes and subclasses

  19. High throughput screening method for identification of new lipofection reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelin, A E; Fernholz, E; Krug, H F; Massing, U

    2001-08-01

    Lipofection, the transfer of genetic material into cells by means of cationic lipids, is of growing interest for in vitro and in vivo approaches. In order to identify ideal lipofection reagents in a HTS, we have developed an automated lipofection method for the transfer of reporter genes into cells and for determination of the lipofection results. The method has specifically been designed and optimized for 96-well microtiter plates and can successfully be carried out by a pipetting robot with accessory equipment. It consists of two separate parts: (1) pretransfection (preparation of liposomes, formation of lipoplexes, and lipoplex transfer to the cells) and (2) posttransfection (determination of the reporter enzyme activity and the protein content of the transfected cells). Individual steps of the lipofection method were specifically optimized - for example, lipoplex formation and incubation time as well as cell lysis, cell cultivating, and the reporter gene assay. The HTS method facilitates characterization of the transfection properties (efficiency and cytotoxicity) of large numbers of (cationic) lipids in various adherent cell types.

  20. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  1. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-01-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  2. The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Michalski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Filarial worms cause a variety of tropical diseases in humans; however, they are difficult to study because they have complex life cycles that require arthropod intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts. Research efforts in industrialized countries are further complicated by the fact that some filarial nematodes that cause disease in humans are restricted in host specificity to humans alone. This potentially makes the commitment to research difficult, expensive, and restrictive. Over 40 years ago, the United States National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH-NIAID established a resource from which investigators could obtain various filarial parasite species and life cycle stages without having to expend the effort and funds necessary to maintain the entire life cycles in their own laboratories. This centralized resource (The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center, or FR3 translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal investigators by freeing up personnel costs on grants and allowing investigators to divert more funds to targeted research goals. Many investigators, especially those new to the field of tropical medicine, are unaware of the scope of materials and support provided by the FR3. This review is intended to provide a short history of the contract, brief descriptions of the fiilarial species and molecular resources provided, and an estimate of the impact the resource has had on the research community, and describes some new additions and potential benefits the resource center might have for the ever-changing research interests of investigators.

  3. Evaluation of the resin oxidation process using Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro G.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2013-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is considered radioactive waste after its final useful life in nuclear reactors. Usually, this type of waste is treated with the immobilization in cement Portland, in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, reducing the possibility of radionuclides release in to environment. Because of the characteristic of expansion and contraction of the resins in presence of water, its incorporation in the common Portland cement is limited in 10% in direct immobilization, causing high costs in the final product. A pre-treatment would be able to reduce the volume, degrading the resins and increasing the load capacity of this material. This paper is about a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Fenton's reagent. The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic and anionic resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25 to 80 mM), with and without external heat. The time of reaction was two hours. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%. The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of CaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. It was possible to degrade the resins without external heating. The calcium carbonates showed no correlation with the residual resin mass. (author)

  4. Deep soil mixing for reagent delivery and contaminant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Gardner, F.G.; Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.

    1997-01-01

    Deep soil mixing was evaluated for treating clay soils contaminated with TCE and its byproducts at the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant. The objective of the project was to evaluate the extent of limitations posed by the stiff, silty-clay soil. Three treatment approaches were tested. The first was vapor stripping. In contrast to previous work, however, laboratory treatability studies indicated that mixing saturated, clay soil was not efficient unless powdered lime was added. Thus, powder injection of lime was attempted in conjunction with the mixing/stripping operation. In separate treatment cells, potassium permanganate solution was mixed with the soil as a means of destroying contaminants in situ. Finally, microbial treatment was studied in a third treatment zone. The clay soil caused operational problems such as breakage of the shroud seal and frequent reagent blowouts. Nevertheless, treatment efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved in the saturated zone with chemical oxidation. Although expensive ($1128/yd 3 ), there are few alternatives for soils of this type

  5. Lipid-based Transfection Reagents Exhibit Cryo-induced Increase in Transfection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sork

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of lipid-based transfection reagents have permitted their widespread use in molecular biology and gene therapy. This study outlines the effect of cryo-manipulation of a cationic lipid-based formulation, Lipofectamine 2000, which, after being frozen and thawed, showed orders of magnitude higher plasmid delivery efficiency throughout eight different cell lines, without compromising cell viability. Increased transfection efficiency with the freeze-thawed reagent was also seen with 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide delivery and in a splice-correction assay. Most importantly, a log-scale improvement in gene delivery using the freeze-thawed reagent was seen in vivo. Using three different methods, we detected considerable differences in the polydispersity of the different nucleic acid complexes as well as observed a clear difference in their surface spreading and sedimentation, with the freeze-thawed ones displaying substantially higher rate of dispersion and deposition on the glass surface. This hitherto overlooked elevated potency of the freeze-thawed reagent facilitates the targeting of hard-to-transfect cells, accomplishes higher transfection rates, and decreases the overall amount of reagent needed for delivery. Additionally, as we also saw a slight increase in plasmid delivery using other freeze-thawed transfection reagents, we postulate that freeze-thawing might prove to be useful for an even wider variety of transfection reagents.

  6. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.Y. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); MagQu Co., Ltd., Sindian Dist., New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Hong, Y.W. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E., E-mail: phyfv001@ntnu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2-8 Degree-Sign C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  7. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C.; Yang, S.Y.; Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao; Hong, Y.W.; Horng, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2–8 °C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: ► The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. ► The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. ► No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. ► High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  8. [Research of regional medical consumables reagent logistics system in the modern hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjiong; Zhang, Yanwen; Luo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    To explore the modern hospital and regional medical consumable reagents logistics system management. The characteristics of regional logistics, through cooperation between medical institutions within the region, and organize a wide range of special logistics activities, to make reasonable of the regional medical consumable reagents logistics. To set the regional management system, dynamic management systems, supply chain information management system, after-sales service system and assessment system. By the research of existing medical market and medical resources, to establish the regional medical supplies reagents directory and the initial data. The emphasis is centralized dispatch of medical supplies reagents, to introduce qualified logistics company for dispatching, to improve the modern hospital management efficiency, to costs down. Regional medical center and regional community health service centers constitute a regional logistics network, the introduction of medical consumable reagents logistics services, fully embodies integrity level, relevance, purpose, environmental adaptability of characteristics by the medical consumable reagents regional logistics distribution. Modern logistics distribution systems can increase the area of medical consumables reagent management efficiency and reduce costs.

  9. Efficacy comparative of different laboratory test reagents for hepatitis C virus antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Feibo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of different laboratory test reagents for hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody through a comparative analysis. Methods A total of 207 samples which tested positive by four anti-HCV screening reagents commonly used in the laboratories in China (Kehua, Xinchuang, Wantai, and Abbott were included. HCV RNA nucleic acid amplification (NAT was performed, and if NAT results were negative, recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA was performed for further confirmation. The test results of these four screening reagents were compared, and their S/CO values and true positive rates were analyzed. Results Of all the 205 samples testing positive by any one reagent, 191 (93.2% tested positive by the four reagents, and 14 (6.8% were tested inconsistently by the four reagents. The positive predictive values of Xinchuang, Kehua, Wantai, and Abbott reagents were 88.2% (180/204, 93.8% (180/192, 91.4% (180/197, and 90.0% (180/200, respectively. The S/CO thresholds with a positive predictive value of ≥95% for Xinchuang, Kehua, Wantai, and Abbott reagents were 9.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0, respectively. Conclusion Xinchuang, Kehua, Wantai, and Abbott reagents have significantly different S/CO thresholds with a positive predictive value of ≥95%, which are significantly different from those in other domestic laboratories. Each laboratory should establish an applicable S/CO threshold with a positive predictive value of ≥95%, in order to reduce the sample size for confirmatory test.

  10. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent; Degradacao da resina de troca ionica utilizando o reagente de Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  11. Diazo Reagents with Small Steric Footprints for Simultaneous Arming/SAR Studies of Alcohol-Containing Natural Products via O–H Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamni, Supakarn; He, Qing-Li; Dang, Yongjun; Bhat, Shridhar; Liu, Jun O.; Romo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products are essential tools for basic cellular studies leading to the identification of medically relevant protein targets and the discovery of potential therapeutic leads. The development of methods that enable mild and selective derivatization of natural products continues to be of significant interest for mining their information-rich content. Herein, we describe novel diazo reagents for simultaneous arming and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of alcohol-containing natural products with a small steric footprint, namely an α-trifluoroethyl (HTFB) substituted reagent. The Rh(II)-catalyzed O–H insertion reaction of several natural products, including the potent translation inhibitor lactimidomycin, was investigated and useful reactivity and both chemo- and site (chemosite) selectivities were observed. Differential binding to the known protein targets of both FK506 and fumagillol was demonstrated, validating the advantage of the smaller steric footprint of trifluoroethyl derivatives. A p-azidophenyl diazo reagent is also described that will prove useful for photoaffinity labeling of low affinity small molecule protein receptors. PMID:21894934

  12. Reagent precipitation of copper ions from wastewater of machine-building factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porozhnyuk, L. A.; Lupandina, N. S.; Porozhnyuk, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of reagent removal of copper ions from wastewater of machine-building factories. The urgency of the study is conditioned by the widening of the range of effective reagents through the implementation of industrial waste. The investigation covers mineralogical and fractional composition of chalk enrichment waste. In the work, the conditions of thermal activation of chalk enrichment waste used for reagent removal of copper ions from wastewater were elaborated. It was shown that the thermal activation of waste facilitates the increased treatment efficacy up to the set sanitation, hygiene and technological standards.

  13. Computer-Assisted Design and Synthetic Applications of Chiral Enol Borinates: Novel, Highly Enantioselective Aldol Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennari Cesare

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently described the development of a quantitative transition state model for the prediction of stereoselectivity in the boron-mediated aldol reaction. This model provides qualitative insights into the factors contributing to the stereochemical outcome of a variety of reactions of synthetic importance. The force field model was used to assist the design and preparation of new chiral boron ligands derived from menthone. The chiral boron enolates were employed in various stereoselective processes, including the addition to chiral aldehydes and the reagent-controlled total synthesis of (3S,4S-statine. The chiral enolates derived from alpha-halo and alpha-oxysubstituted thioacetates were added to aldehydes and imines. Addition to imines leads to the enantioselective synthesis of chiral aziridines, a formal total synthesis of (+-thiamphenicol, and a new highly efficient synthesis of the paclitaxel (taxol® C-13 side-chain and taxol semisynthesis from baccatin III. The stereochemical outcome of the addition to imines was rationalised with the aid of computational studies. Enantioselective addition reactions of the chiral boron enolate derived from thioacetate have successfully been applied to solid phase bound aldehydes to give aldol products in comparable yields and enantioselectivities to the usual solution conditions.

  14. Environmentally safe oil-field reagents for development and operation of oil-gas deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreeva, A. V.; Manaure, D. A.; Dokichev, V. A.; Voloshin, A. I.; Telin, A. G.; Tomilov, Yu V.; Nifantiev, N. E.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium-carboxymethylcellulose and arabinogalactane inhibits the crystallization of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated aqueous solution at 80°C. The sizes of formed crystals CaCO3 in the presence of arabinogalactane, sodium-carboxymethylcellulose and neonol AF 9-10 decrease on an average 7-12 μm and a change of their structure. It is expected, that the mechanism of inhibitionis in specific adsorption polysaccharides and neonol on occurring crystalline surface of the calcium carbonate, both at the expense of electrostatic interaction of functional groups with Ca2+ ions, located on the surface of the crystal, and due to coordination and hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms and HO-groups of additives. Oil-water emulsion rheology in the presence of neonol AF 9-10 has been studied. It is shown that neonol AF 9-10 decrease viscosity natural water-oil emulsion by 25 times. Addition of 5% neonol to water-oil emulsion leads to formation more than 20 stable emulsion forms of different density and composition. New highly effective “green” oilfield reagents have been developed on the basis of neonol and natural polysaccharides.

  15. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  16. Toxic reagents and expensive equipment: are they really necessary for the extraction of good quality fungal DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate a fungal DNA extraction procedure with the lowest inputs in terms of time as well as of expensive and toxic chemicals, but able to consistently produce genomic DNA of good quality for PCR purposes. Two types of fungal biological material were tested - mycelium and conidia - combined with two protocols for DNA extraction using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide as extraction buffers and glass beads for mechanical disruption of cell walls. Our results showed that conidia and SDS buffer was the combination that lead to the best DNA quality and yield, with the lowest variation between samples. This study clearly demonstrates that it is possible to obtain high yield and pure DNA from pigmented conidia without the use of strong cell disrupting procedures and of toxic reagents. There are numerous methods for DNA extraction from fungi. Some rely on expensive commercial kits and/or equipments, unavailable for many laboratories, or make use of toxic chemicals such as chloroform, phenol and mercaptoethanol. This study clearly demonstrates that it is possible to obtain high yields of pure DNA from pigmented conidia without the use of strong and expensive cell disrupting procedures and of toxic reagents. The method herein described is simultaneously inexpensive and adequate to DNA extraction from several different types of fungi. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Lead thickness in shielding in the protection of radiodiagnostic staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.G.B.; Hufton, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors indicate the principles which can be used to apply cost-benefit analysis to radiation protection of staff in an X-ray department. The cost of saving radiation exposure to staff by varying the lead equivalence of lead gowns and lead protective screens is calculated. The cost is compared with the financial values of the detriment as assessed by the National Radiological Protection Board. The expenditure required to avoid a man-Sv for staff protection in diagnostic departments is suggested. In the examples taken it is found that the larger staff dose reductions, and often the cheaper reductions, can be obtained by reducing the radiation dose to the patient. There are, of course, major additional advantages to the patient in reducing this dose. (author)

  18. Radiometric trace analysis quantitative paper chromatography of lead with phosphate-32P

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for the selective determination of lead in paper chromatograms, down to 1 μg (standard deviation 11%). After development and drying, the lead spot is sprayed with a Na2H32PO4 solution and dried. Excess reagent and alkaline earth phosphates are eluted with a borax—oxalate buffer

  19. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  20. Small-scale one -pot reductive alkylation of unprotected aminocyclitols with supported reagents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíša, Miroslav; Trapero, A.; Llebaria, A.; Delgado, A.

    -, č. 19 (2008), s. 3167-3170 ISSN 0039-7881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alkylation s * aldehydes * supported reagents * aminocyclitols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2008

  1. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3390... Neisseria spp. directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused...

  2. Improvements to parallel plate flow chambers to reduce reagent and cellular requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Richard S

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parallel plate flow chamber has become a mainstay for examination of leukocytes under physiologic flow conditions. Several design modifications have occurred over the years, yet a comparison of these different designs has not been performed. In addition, the reagent requirements of many designs prohibit the study of rare leukocyte populations and require large amounts of reagents. Results In this study, we evaluate modifications to a newer parallel plate flow chamber design in comparison to the original parallel plate flow chamber described by Lawrence et al. We show that modifications in the chamber size, internal tubing diameters, injection valves, and a recirculation design may dramatically reduce the cellular and reagent requirements without altering measurements. Conclusions These modifications are simple and easily implemented so that study of rare leukocyte subsets using scarce or expensive reagents can occur.

  3. TAPIR: a device for automatic titration with incremental weighing of the titration reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganivet, Michel

    TAPIR is a titration device enabling automatic analyses with weighting of the titration reagent. The titration method used can be based on potentiometry, amperometry, color indicator change... The reproducibility is about 3.10 -4 [fr

  4. Evaluation of Tropaeolin 000-1 as a Colorimetric Reagent for Assay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Assay of Duloxetine and Escitalopram in Solid Dosage ... Purpose: To explore the application of tropaeolin 000-1 reagent for the rapid, ..... The effects of placebo interference testing are ... oppositely charged TL and TO ions form a stable.

  5. Reagents and fractions impact on sulphide ore heap bioleaching at Smolnik mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, L. M.; Zavada, J.

    2017-10-01

    Mine Smolnik is one of the oldest sulphide ore mines in Europe and it is also an important part of bioleaching development. This paper follows previous attempts to extract residual metals from nearby heaps via variations in bioleaching reagents with regard to recent findings and needs in the related industry. Furthermore, economic and process relations between reagents and chosen heap fractions were also investigated in this case study.

  6. Measurement of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase using reflectance spectroscopy and reagent strips.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, J F; Tsang, W; Newall, R G

    1983-01-01

    Two new methods for the assay of total activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase are described, in which the enzyme activities are measured from a solid-state reagent strip during a kinetic reaction, the reaction being monitored in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum by reflectance spectroscopy. The performances of these methods are evaluated, and compared to conventional "wet" chemistry methods. The solid-phase reagent methods demonstrated precision and accuracy acceptable ...

  7. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  8. Optimal lipofection reagent varies with the molecular modifications of the DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A H; Behlke, M A; Jaffredo, T; Conrad, G W

    1998-10-01

    Cationic lipid reagents differ in their cytofection efficacy with different cell types. No evidence has addressed whether the same lipid reagent is best for different DNAs in a single cell line. Immortalized avian embryonic cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro were tested with 15 cationic lipid reagents using (A) a beta-gal expression plasmid, (B) a fluorescein-tagged, phosphorothioate-modified ODN B, (C) a fluorescein-tagged, ethoxy-modified ODN C with the same nucleotide sequence as ODN B, and (D) a fluorescein-tagged, phosphorothioate-modified ODN D with a different nucleotide sequence from ODNs B and C. Cytofection was scored as percent of cells expressing beta-gal activity or showing diffuse cellular fluorescence. The best lipid reagents for the phosphorothioate-modified ODNs were ODN-specific and markedly different from the best lipid reagents for the expression plasmid or for the ethoxy-modified ODN. These results suggest that the best cationic lipid reagent for a particular cell type varies with the physical and chemical form of the DNA being transfected into the cells.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide deactivates common nitrobenzofurazan-based fluorescent thiol labeling reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-06-17

    Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including thiols and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), play important but differential roles in biological structure and function. One major challenge in separating the biological roles of thiols and H2S is developing tools to effectively separate the reactivity of these sulfhydryl-containing compounds. To address this challenge, we report the differential responses of common electrophilic fluorescent thiol labeling reagents, including nitrobenzofurazan-based scaffolds, maleimides, alkylating agents, and electrophilic aldehydes, toward cysteine and H2S. Although H2S reacted with all of the investigated scaffolds, the photophysical response to each scaffold was significantly different. Maleimide-based, alkylating, and aldehydic thiol labeling reagents provided a diminished fluorescence response when treated with H2S. By contrast, nitrobenzofurazan-based labeling reagents were deactivated by H2S addition. Furthermore, the addition of H2S to thiol-activated nitrobenzofurazan-based reagents reduced the fluorescence signal, thus establishing the incompatibility of nitrobenzofurazan-based thiol labeling reagents in the presence of H2S. Taken together, these studies highlight the differential reactivity of thiols and H2S toward common thiol-labeling reagents and suggest that sufficient care must be taken when labeling or measuring thiols in cellular environments that produce H2S due to the potential for both false-positive and eroded responses.

  10. Maternal urogenital schistosomiasis; monitoring disease morbidity by simple reagent strips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunde T Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Urine analysis is one of the recommended antenatal guidelines for early diagnosis of pregnancy-associated complications. While in practice, urine analysis by dipstick had been used to provide useful information on other urinary tract infections, its applications for early detection of urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women is often times not given due attention in most endemic areas. Our study therefore assessed the performance of some common urinalysis parameters in the diagnosis of maternal urogenital schistosomiasis in endemic rural communities of Nigeria.The cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically examined for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, visually observed for macrohematuria, and screened for microhematuria and proteinuria using standard urine chemical reagent strips. Of 261 volunteered participants, 19.9% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The proportion of microhematuria (23.8% was significantly higher than that of macrohematuria (3.8% and proteinuria (16.8% (P<0.05. Microhematuria with sensitivity (82.7% and specificity (89.0% was the best diagnostic indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis. Macrohematuria with the least sensitivity (11.8% was however the most specific (98.1% for diagnosing urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women. Maximum microhematuria sensitivity (100.0% was observed in women between 15-19 years but sensitivity was consistently low in older age groups. Maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (100.0% were recorded for microhematuria in first trimester women. Diagnostic efficiency of proteinuria and macrohematuria was also better in the first trimester women except the 25.0% specificity recorded for proteinuria. The overall diagnostic performance of microhematuria and proteinuria was better in secundigravidae.Microhematuria can be

  11. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Polymer-supported reagents with enhanced metal ion recognition: Application to separations science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    The design and development of polymer-supported reagents with ever-increasing specificities for targeted metal ions remains an important areas of research. The need for efficient separation schemes for both ions and molecules has been outlined in a report by the National Research Council (King) and will gain increased emphasis as environmental restoration is pursued. Polymer-supported reagents are unique in their ability to be applied in an environmentally benign manner to a host of challenges. Such reagents, in the form of beads, can be applied to continuous separation processes ranging from the removal of metal ions in water to the recovery of medicinal drugs produced through biotechnological means. The application of polymer-supported reagents to metal ion separations still requires developing a fundamental understanding of ligand-metal interactions, the role of the polymer in those interactions, and the methods of synthesizing such polymeric reagents in a readily applicable form. Ion exchange resins with sulfonic acid ligands are the prototypical polymer-supported reagents, and their properties have been exhaustively studied (Helfferich). The high acidity of the sulfonic acid group, however, precludes much selectivity, and it displays a very limited range of reaction free energy values with different metal ions (Boyd et al.). The carboxylic acid ligand, present in the acrylate resins, is more selective, though its weak acidity requires relatively high pH solutions for it to be effective. Research has thus been focused on the preparation of polymer-supported reagents with high levels of specificity for targeted metal ions

  13. Sorption-reagent treatment of brines produced by reverse osmosis unit for liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V. A.; Zheleznov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. I.; Chizhevsky, I. Yu

    2003-01-01

    The results of the pilot plant tests (2002-2003) of the sorption-reagent decontamination of high salinity radioactive waste (brines) remaining after the low-salinity liquid radioactive waste (LRW) treatment in the reverse-osmosis unit from long-lived radionuclides are presented. The sorption-reagent materials used in this work were developed in the Institute of Chemistry FEDRAS. They enable one to decontaminate brines with total salt content up to 50 g/l from long-lived radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Co. At joint application of the reverse-osmosis and sorption-reagent technologies total volume of solid radioactive waste (SRW) decreases up to 100-fold as compared to the technology of cementation of reverse osmosis brines. In this case total cost of LRW treatment and SRW disposal decreases more than 10-fold. Brines decontaminated from radionuclides are then diluted down to the ecologically safe total salts content in water to be disposed of. Tests were performed to compare the efficiency of technologies including evaporation of brines remaining after reverse osmosis process and their decontamination by means of the sorption-reagent method. It was shown that, as compared to evaporation, the sorption-reagent technology provides substantial advantages as in regard to radioactive waste total volume reduction as in view of total cost of the waste management

  14. Remotely controlled reagent feed system for mixed waste treatment Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Bowers, J.S.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    LLNL has developed and installed a large-scale. remotely controlled, reagent feed system for use at its existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). LLNL's Tank Farm is used to treat aqueous low-level and mixed wastes prior to vacuum filtration and to remove the hazardous and radioactive components before it is discharged to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) via the sanitary sewer in accordance with established limits. This reagent feed system was installed to improve operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need for manual handling of various reagents used in the aqueous waste treatment processes. This was done by installing a delivery system that is controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The system consists of a pumping station, four sets of piping to each of six 6,800-L (1,800-gal) treatment tanks, air-actuated discharge valves at each tank, a pH/temperature probe at each tank, and the PLC-based control and monitoring system. During operation, the reagents are slowly added to the tanks in a preprogrammed and controlled manner while the pH, temperature, and liquid level are continuously monitored by the PLC. This paper presents the purpose of this reagent feed system, provides background related to LLNL's low-level/mixed waste treatment processes, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  15. Decolorizing textile wastewater with Fenton's reagent electrogenerated with a solar photovoltaic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Sandra; Vázquez, Leticia; Alvarez-Gallegos, A

    2009-02-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that Fenton's reagent can be electroproduced with abundant and cheap feedstock: oxygen saturated wastewater and solar energy. Experiments were carried out in a divided electrochemical flow cell using two electrodes: a three dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and stainless steel anode. Fenton's reagent is produced by oxygen reduction on the cathode in the presence of 1mM Fe(2+). The influence of electrolyte nature and its concentration and potential difference on the current efficiency, as well as the rate of Fenton's reagent electroproduction is discussed and it is concluded that over this extended range of conditions the current efficiency, for Fenton's reagent production, fell within the range 50-70%. It is possible to electroproduce a stoichiometric amount of Fenton reagent for the oxidation of 0.061mM Reactive Black 5 (in tap water+0.05M Na(2)SO(4), approximately pH 2.8). Similar results were obtained for solutions containing 0.1mM Acid Green 25. Some practical applications in the field of water treatment are included. The energy required for drive electrochemical reaction is supplied to the flow cell by means of a commercial solar panel.

  16. Accurate quantitation of D+ fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry using a novel reagent to eliminate granulocytes from analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Belinda; Hazell, Matthew; Guest, Alan; Dixey, Jonathan; Mushens, Rosey; Bishop, Debbie; Wreford-Bush, Tim; Lee, Edmond

    2014-05-01

    Quantitation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is performed to determine the dose of prophylactic anti-D (RhIG) required to prevent D immunization of D- women. Flow cytometry (FC) is the most accurate method. However, maternal white blood cells (WBCs) can give high background by binding anti-D nonspecifically, compromising accuracy. Maternal blood samples (69) were sent for FC quantitation of FMH after positive Kleihauer-Betke test (KBT) analysis and RhIG administration. Reagents used were BRAD-3-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC; anti-D), AEVZ5.3-FITC (anti-varicella zoster [anti-VZ], negative control), anti-fetal hemoglobin (HbF)-FITC, blended two-color reagents, BRAD-3-FITC/anti-CD45-phycoerythrin (PE; anti-D/L), and BRAD-3-FITC/anti-CD66b-PE (anti-D/G). PE-positive WBCs were eliminated from analysis by gating. Full blood counts were performed on maternal samples and female donors. Elevated numbers of neutrophils were present in 80% of patients. Red blood cell (RBC) indices varied widely in maternal blood. D+ FMH values obtained with anti-D/L, anti-D/G, and anti-HbF-FITC were very similar (r = 0.99, p < 0.001). Correlation between KBT and anti-HbF-FITC FMH results was low (r = 0.716). Inaccurate FMH quantitation using the current method (anti-D minus anti-VZ) occurred with 71% samples having less than 15 mL of D+ FMH (RBCs) and insufficient RhIG calculated for 9%. Using two-color reagents and anti-HbF-FITC, approximately 30% patients had elevated F cells, 26% had no fetal cells, 6% had D- FMH, 26% had 4 to 15 mL of D+ FMH, and 12% patients had more than 15 mL of D+ FMH (RBCs) requiring more than 300 μg of RhIG. Without accurate quantitation of D+ FMH by FC, some women would receive inappropriate or inadequate anti-D prophylaxis. The latter may be at risk of immunization leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. The development of a neutralizing amines based reagent for maintaining the water chemistry for medium and high pressures steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakova, M. V.; Orlov, K. A.; Guseva, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    An overview of the development for neutralizing amine based reagent for water chemistry of steam boilers for medium and high pressures was given. Total values of the neutralization constants and the distribution coefficients of the compositions selected as a main criteria for reagent composition. Experimental results of using this new reagent for water chemistry in HRSG of power plant in oil-production company are discussed.

  18. APPLICATION OF FENTON’S REAGENT ON REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONs (PAHs IN SPIKED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursiah La Nafie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem associated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. To resolve such problems, innovative in situ methods are urgently required. This work investigated the feasibility of using Fenton's Reagent to remediate PAHs in spiked soil. PAHs were spiked into soil to simulate contaminated soil. Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+ and surfactant were very efficient in destruction of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(apyrene from spiked soil. It was indicated by the fact that more than 96% of PAHs were degraded in the solution and the spiked soil.   Keywords: Environmental, Fenton's Reagent, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Spiked soil.

  19. A community standard format for the representation of protein affinity reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Orchard, Sandra; Bertinetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Protein affinity reagents (PARs), most commonly antibodies, are essential reagents for protein characterization in basic research, biotechnology, and diagnostics as well as the fastest growing class of therapeutics. Large numbers of PARs are available commercially; however, their quality is often...... that facilitates easy comparison of their cost and quality. However, in contrast to, for example, nucleotide databases among which data are synchronized between the major data providers, current PAR producers, quality control centers, and commercial companies all use incompatible formats, hindering data exchange....... Here we propose Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI)-PAR as a global community standard format for the representation and exchange of protein affinity reagent data. The PSI-PAR format is maintained by the Human Proteome Organisation PSI and was developed within the context of Proteome...

  20. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  1. Evaluation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Inhibitors as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Quenching Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Sternberg, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents...... which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea...... epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent...

  2. Interaction of Celestine Concentrate and Reagent Grade SrSO4 with Oxalate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Obut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of reagent grade strontium sulphate and celestine concentrate with aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, sodiumoxalate and ammonium oxalate for the production of strontium carbonate were investigated for different oxalate compound:SrSO4 moleratios and reaction times using x-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution tests. Under the same experimental conditions, it was foundthat aqueous oxalic acid and sodium oxalate solutions had no or little effect on reagent grade strontium sulphate or celestineconcentrate, but aqueous ammonium oxalate solution converted them into strontium oxalate hydrate. Strontium carbonate was obtainedat conversion ratios of 74.7% for the celestine concentrate and 84.6 % for the reagent grade strontium sulphate by the decompositionof the obtained strontium oxalate hydrate at 600 °C under air atmosphere.

  3. Organophosphorus reagents in actinide separations: Unique tools for production, cleanup and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K. L.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions of actinide ions with phosphate and organophosphorus reagents have figured prominently in nuclear science and technology, particularly in the hydrometallurgical processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Actinide interactions with phosphorus-containing species impact all aspects from the stability of naturally occurring actinides in phosphate mineral phases through the application of the bismuth phosphate and PUREX processes for large-scale production of transuranic elements to the development of analytical separation and environment restoration processes based on new organophosphorus reagents. In this report, an overview of the unique role of organophosphorus compounds in actinide production, disposal, and environment restoration is presented. The broad utility of these reagents and their unique chemical properties is emphasized

  4. Sperm cell purification from mock forensic swabs using SOMAmer™ affinity reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Carmel, Andrew B; Koss, Heidi; O'Connell, Dan; Smith, Breanna C; Sanders, Glenn M; LaBerge, Greggory S

    2018-03-27

    We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection. The quality of sperm DNA isolated from samples purified using SOMAmers is comparable to existing commercially available differential extraction-based methods at higher sperm concentrations. This purification method is simple, offers relatively rapid (forensic casework. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Oxidative Degradation of Phenol containing Wastewater using Fenton Reagent, Permanganate and Ultraviolet Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.M.; Talaat, H.A.; Sorour, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Phenol containing wastewaters are generated by numerous industrial units including integrated steel mills, textile mills, plastic production, etc. The present work is targeted to explore the viable oxidation techniques for degradation of phenolic wastewater. Three modes of treatment have been adopted in this study, namely, sole oxidant mode using Fenton reagent or permanganate, UV-assisted oxidation and two consequent chemical oxidation steps. Results indicated the superiority of fenton reagent over KMnO 4 oxidation in the sole oxidant mode. On the other hand, UV-assisted KMnO 4 oxidation enables almost complete COD reduction. Dual chemical oxidation mode employing KMnO 4 oxidation followed by Fenton reagent is also an efficient oxidative degradation system

  6. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guifang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Gang [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yin, Pinghe, E-mail: tyinph@jnu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analysis and Test, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Ling, E-mail: zhaoling@jnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jimmy Yu, Qiming [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guifang; Lu, Gang; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Jimmy Yu, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  8. Stability of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Reagents and its Amplification Efficiency on Crude Trypanosome DNA Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Thekisoe, Oriel M. M; Bazie, Raoul S. B; Coronel-Servian, Andrea M; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the stability of LAMP reagents when stored at 25C and 37C, and also assessed its detection efficiency on different DNA template preparations. Accordingly, LAMP using reagents stored at 25C and 37C amplified DNA of in vitro cultured T. b. brucei (GUTat 3.1) from day 1 to day 15 of reagent storage. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in detection sensitivity of LAMP among the reagents stored at 25C, 37C and –20C (recommended storage temperature). LAMP usin...

  9. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifang; Lu, Gang; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming Jimmy

    2016-04-15

    Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient generation of megakaryocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells using food and drug administration-approved pharmacological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yongxing; Forbes, Jessica A; Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Lewis; Cheng, Linzhao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-04-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are rare hematopoietic cells in the adult bone marrow and produce platelets that are critical to vascular hemostasis and wound healing. Ex vivo generation of MKs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides a renewable cell source of platelets for treating thrombocytopenic patients and allows a better understanding of MK/platelet biology. The key requirements in this approach include developing a robust and consistent method to produce functional progeny cells, such as MKs from hiPSCs, and minimizing the risk and variation from the animal-derived products in cell cultures. In this study, we developed an efficient system to generate MKs from hiPSCs under a feeder-free and xeno-free condition, in which all animal-derived products were eliminated. Several crucial reagents were evaluated and replaced with Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacological reagents, including romiplostim (Nplate, a thrombopoietin analog), oprelvekin (recombinant interleukin-11), and Plasbumin (human albumin). We used this method to induce MK generation from hiPSCs derived from 23 individuals in two steps: generation of CD34(+)CD45(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) for 14 days; and generation and expansion of CD41(+)CD42a(+) MKs from HPCs for an additional 5 days. After 19 days, we observed abundant CD41(+)CD42a(+) MKs that also expressed the MK markers CD42b and CD61 and displayed polyploidy (≥16% of derived cells with DNA contents >4N). Transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing revealed that megakaryocytic-related genes were highly expressed. Additional maturation and investigation of hiPSC-derived MKs should provide insights into MK biology and lead to the generation of large numbers of platelets ex vivo. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Precipitation of yellowcake from pregnant regenerate by various reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychkov, V.N.; Smirnov, A.L.; Skripchenko, S.Yu.; Pastukhov, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The application of an ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide solution and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solution as agents for the uranium precipitation from industrial pregnant regenerate was investigated. The effect various process parameters on the composition and properties of obtained uranium compounds was studied. According to the results, only the yellowcake obtained by precipitation using ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solution is a high-purity product and meets the specification requirements. The uranium content in this concentrate is 69-72%. The particle mean diameter is 12-16 µm. The use of other neutralizing agents leads to decrease purity of the final product. (author)

  12. A New Achiral Linker Reagent for the Incorporation of Multiple Amino Groups Into Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new functionalized achiral linker reagent for incorporating multiple primary amino groups or reporter groups into oligonucleotides following the phosphoramidite methodology. It is possible to substitute any ribodeoxynucleotide, deoxynucleotide, or nucleotide......-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine), TEMPO (N-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), dinitrophenyl, texas red, tetramethyl rhodamine, 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1-diazole (NBD), or pyrene. The present invention also relates to a solid phase support, e.g. a Controlled Pore Glass (CPG), immobilized linker reagent...

  13. Measurement of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase using reflectance spectroscopy and reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J F; Tsang, W; Newall, R G

    1983-01-01

    Two new methods for the assay of total activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase are described, in which the enzyme activities are measured from a solid-state reagent strip during a kinetic reaction, the reaction being monitored in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum by reflectance spectroscopy. The performances of these methods are evaluated, and compared to conventional "wet" chemistry methods. The solid-phase reagent methods demonstrated precision and accuracy acceptable for diagnostic purposes, and were easy to use by trained operators. PMID:6655069

  14. Determination оf Optimum Constructive Parameters for Circulating-Reagent Regeneration Sector Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sheiko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of equation analysis for velocity distribution in near filter mudded zone optimal constructional parameters of sector apparatus for circulating-reagent well filter regeneration have been evaluated via angle ratio of forcing and section sectors and number of sectors. The method for determination of sector apparatus length of а selected pump that provides dissolution of mud formation in filter and near filter zone is proposed in the paper. The obtained data would promote upgrading of circulating-reagent water well regeneration technology and it permits to carry out high quality and even rehabilitation of pore space penetration along the full well filter length.

  15. Reagents Activity in a Copper Droplets / Post-Processing Slag Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Wołczyński W.; Karwan-Baczewska J.; Najman K.; Bydałek A.W.

    2016-01-01

    The suspension of the copper droplets in the post-processing slag taken directly from the KGHM-Polska Miedź S.A. Factory (from the direct-to-blister technology as performed in the flash furnace) was subjected to the special treatment with the use of the one of the typical industrial reagent and with the complex reagent newly patented by the authors. This treatment was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company in the semi-industrial conditions. The result of the CaCO3, and Na2CO3 chemicals influenc...

  16. Oxytetracycline as a new analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, G L

    1984-05-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, Terramycin, is introduced as a new reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of trace quantities of boron in concentrated sulphuric acid medium. The reagent has an absorption maximum at 430 nm, and that of the boron complex at 520 nm. The colored system conformed to Beer's law between 2 and 10 ..mu..g of boron at 520 nm. The molar absorptivity calculated on the basis of boron is 10,800 1 mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The composition of the complex has been shown to be 1:1 both by the slope ratio and molar ratio methods. 16 references.

  17. Oxytetracycline as a new analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, Terramycin, is introduced as a new reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of trace quantities of boron in concentrated sulphuric acid medium. The reagent has an absorption maximum at 430 nm, and that of the boron complex at 520 nm. The coloured system conformed to Beer's law between 2 and 10 μg of boron at 520 nm. The molar absorptivity calculated on the basis of boron is 10,800 1 mol -1 cm -1 . The composition of the complex has been shown to be 1:1 both by the slope ratio and molar ratio methods. (author)

  18. [A stable reagent for the-single stage determination of inorganic phosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupyshev, A B

    1991-01-01

    A recipe of a simple reagent for phosphorus detection has been developed, consisting of ammonium molybdate (4 mM), sulfuric acid (0.2 N), and Tween-80 (0.2%). The developing phosphate staining may be registered in 15 min at a wavelength of 350 nm. The product molar extinction is equal to 1.20.10(4) M-1.cm-1, this being close to that of molybdic blue. Phosphate staining is characterized by the stability of results and insensitivity to the presence of a number of substances used in enzymology. The prepared reagent is fit for experiments within a fortnight if stored in the cold.

  19. Functions of chalcogenide electrodes in solutions of complexing reagents and interfering ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanskij, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility to modify chalcogenide electrodes and their behaviour in solutions of complexing reagents for the development of new methods of potentiometric titration has been studied. It is shown that complexing reagents (EDTA, cupferron, 8-hydroxyquinoline, sodium dithiocarbaminate) and Cu(2), Hg(2) produce a strong effect on the functions of Ag, Cu, Cd, Pb - selective electrodes, which is used for titration of potential-determining and non-potential-determining ions ions (Sr 2+ , La 3+ etc.) and also for modification of sulfide-selecting electrode. A method of potentiometric titration of sulfates and chlorides with modified Cd- and Ag-selective electrodes is suggested

  20. Copper(I) mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived organozinc reagents with acid chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Tanner, David Ackland

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a straightforward experimental protocol for copper-mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived beta-amido-alkylzinc iodides 1 and 3 with a range of acid chlorides. The present method uses CuCN center dot 2LiCl as the copper source and for organozinc reagent...... 1 the methodology appears to be limited to reaction with more stable acid chlorides, providing the desired products in moderate yields. When applied to organozinc reagent 3, however, the protocol is more general and provides the products in good yields in all but one of the cases tested....

  1. ETAC reagents: A new class of sulfhydryl site-specific radiolabelling probes for antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    del Rosario, R.B.; Brocchini, S.J.; Baron, L.A.; Smith, R.H.; Lawton, R.G.; Wahl, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of bis-alkylating Michael reagents, equilibrium transfer crosslink reagents, 'ETAC', which combine the techniques of crosslinking with tethering have been synthesized. Following a succession of Michael and retro-Michael additions and elimination of the arylsulfone groups, reduced heavy-heavy and heavy-light disulfide links of an anti-ovarian IgG2a monoclonal antibody, 5G6.4, were site-specifically re-annealed via a 3-carbon bridge having a tether branch containing a designated label

  2. Use of toxicity assays for evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater remediation with Fenton’s reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bennedsen, Lars; Christophersen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    evaluates in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using modified Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + chelated Fe2+) as a groundwater remedy. Three injections were performed over a period to test treatment efficacy. Performance monitoring samples were collected from two depths both prior to and during treatment, and analyzed...... treatment with Fenton’s reagent the toxicity had increased and now needed 7100 times dilution to reduce toxicity to the LC10 probably due to mobilization of metals. It is concluded that toxicity assay is a useful tool for evaluating samples from contaminated sites and that toxicity assays and chemical...

  3. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  4. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  5. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  6. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  7. Organic acids as analytical reagent: Part 1. Estimation of zirconium by gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, C.S.; Singh, A.K.; Kumar, Ashok

    1975-01-01

    Gallic acid has been found to be a selective reagent for the estimation of zirconium. The acid gives crystalline precipitate at pH of 4.8. The precipitate is ignited and weighed as ZrO 2 . Cations like Ca +2 , Ba +2 , Sr +2 , Mn +2 , Co +2 , Ni +2 , Fe +3 do not interfere in the estimation. (author)

  8. Reagent strip testing is not sensitive for the screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Chumworathayee, Bundit; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the reagent strip in screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women using urine culture as a gold standard. This study comprised 204 asymptomatic pregnant women who attended their first antenatal care at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University from April 1, 1999 to June 30, 1999. Women with symptoms of urinary tract infection, antibiotic treatment within the previous 7 days, pregnancy-induced hypertension, bleeding per vagina and history of urinary tract diseases were excluded. Urine specimens were collected by clean catched midstream urine technique for urinalysis, reagent strip test and urine culture. Diagnostic performance of reagent strip in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was analyzed. Urine reagent strip test had a sensitivity of 13.9 per cent, a specificity of 95.6 per cent, a positive predictive value of 46.1 per cent, a negative predictive value of 80.6 per cent in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  9. Mild copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of terminal alkynes using an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang

    2012-03-01

    A catalytic process for trifluoromethylation of terminal alkynes with Togni\\'s reagent has been developed, affording trifluoromethylated acetylenes in good to excellent yields. The reaction is conducted at room temperature and exhibits tolerance to a range of functional groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Comparative measurement of urine specific gravity: reagent strips, refractometry and hydrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Christian Elías; Bettendorff, Carolina; Bupo, Sol; Ayuso, Sandra; Vallejo, Graciela

    2010-06-01

    The urine specific gravity is commonly used in clinical practice to measure the renal concentration/dilution ability. Measurement can be performed by three methods: hydrometry, refractometry and reagent strips. To assess the accuracy of different methods to measure urine specific gravity. We analyzed 156 consecutive urine samples of pediatric patients during April and May 2007. Urine specific gravity was measured by hydrometry (UD), refractometry (RE) and reagent strips (TR), simultaneously. Urine osmolarity was considered as the gold standard and was measured by freezing point depression. Correlation between different methods was calculated by simple linear regression. A positive and acceptable correlation was found with osmolarity for the RE as for the UD (r= 0.81 and r= 0.86, respectively). The reagent strips presented low correlation (r= 0.46). Also, we found good correlation between measurements obtained by UD and RE (r= 0.89). Measurements obtained by TR, however, had bad correlation when compared to UD (r= 0.46). Higher values of specific gravity were observed when measured with RE with respect to UD. Reagent strips are not reliable for measuring urine specific gravity and should not be used as an usual test. However, hydrometry and refractometry are acceptable alternatives for measuring urine specific gravity, as long as the same method is used for follow-up.

  11. Nanoporous magnesium aluminometasilicate tablets for precise, controlled, and continuous dosing of chemical reagents and catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhland, T.; Nielsen, S.D.; Holm, P.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanically robust tablets of nanoporous magnesium aluminometasilicate with high surface area and porosity can be loaded with a variety of organic and inorganic reagents and catalysts. The scope of this novel dosing methodology is demonstrated through the evaluation of 14 diverse organic reactions...

  12. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric ring opening of oxabicyclic alkenes with organolithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Pieter H.; Rudolph, Alena; Pérez, Manuel; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient method is reported for the asymmetric ring opening of oxabicyclic alkenes with organolithium reagents. Using a copper/chiral phosphoramidite complex together with a Lewis acid (BF3·OEt2), full selectivity for the anti isomer and excellent enantioselectivities were obtained for the

  13. Ring-opening of cyclic ethers with carbon–carbon bond formation by Grignard reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The ring-opening of cyclic ethers with concomitant C–C bond formation was studied with a number of Grignard reagents. The transformation was performed in a sealed vial by heating to ∼160 °C in an aluminum block or at 180 °C in a microwave oven. Good yields of the product alcohols were obtained...

  14. The application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent for conducting Appel reactions in flow microreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Roper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent to the Appel reaction in flow-chemistry processing, to generate various brominated products with high purity and in excellent yields, and with no requirement for further off-line purification.

  15. The application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent for conducting Appel reactions in flow microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kimberley A; Lange, Heiko; Polyzos, Anastasios; Berry, Malcolm B; Baxendale, Ian R; Ley, Steven V

    2011-01-01

    Herein we describe the application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent to the Appel reaction in flow-chemistry processing, to generate various brominated products with high purity and in excellent yields, and with no requirement for further off-line purification.

  16. Evaluation of Tropaeolin 000-1 as a Colorimetric Reagent for Assay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the application of tropaeolin 000-1 reagent for the rapid, precise and accurate determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX) and escitalopram maleate (ECT). Methods: Determination of DX and ECT was based on the formation of complexes between the dye, DX and ECT in 0.1 M HCl. The resulting ...

  17. Fluorographene Modified by Grignard Reagents: A Broad Range of Functional Nanomaterials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánek, V.; Libánská, A.; Šturala, J.; Bouša, D.; Sedmidubský, D.; Pumera, M.; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Plutnar, Jan; Sofer, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2017), s. 1956-1964 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09001S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alkylation * click chemistry * fluorine * graphene * Grignard reagents Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 5.317, year: 2016

  18. Collagen proteins exchange O with demineralisation and gelatinisation reagents and also with atmospheric moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein, Isabella; von Tersch, Matthew; Coutu, Ashley N; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Makarewicz, Cheryl A; Collins, Matthew J

    2018-01-23

    The oxygen isotope composition of collagen proteins is a potential indicator of adult residential location, useful for provenancing in ecology, archaeology and forensics. In acidic solution, proteins can exchange O from carboxylic acid moieties with reagent O. This study investigated whether this exchange occurs during demineralisation and gelatinisation preparation of bone/ivory collagen. EDTA and HCl demineralisation or gelatinisation reagents were made up in waters with different δ 18 O values, and were used to extract collagen from four skeletal tissue samples. Aliquots of extracted collagen were exposed to two different atmospheric waters, at 120°C and ambient temperature, and subsequently dried in a vacuum oven at 40°C or by freeze drying. Sample δ 18 O values were measured by HT/EA pyrolysis-IRMS using a zero-blank autosampler. Collagen samples exchanged O with both reagent waters and atmospheric water, which altered sample δ 18 O values. Exchange with reagent waters occurred in all extraction methods, but was greater at lower pH. Damage to the collagen samples during extraction increased O exchange. The nature of exchange of O with atmospheric water depended on the temperature of exposure: kinetic fractionation of O was identified at 120°C but not at ambient temperature. Exchange was difficult to quantify due to high variability of δ 18 O value between experimental replicates. Studies of δ 18 O values in collagen proteins should avoid extraction methods using acid solutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of John Cunningham Virus serological reagents. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying John Cunningham Virus (JCV) serological reagents into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  20. Effects of humidity and filter material on diffusive sampling of isocyanates using reagent-coated filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, H.; Vogel, M.; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusive sampling of methyl isocyanate (MIC) on 4-nitro-7-piperazinobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDPZ)-coated glass fibre (GF) filters is strongly affected by high relative humidity (RH) conditions. It is shown that the humidity interference is a physical phenomenon, based on displacement of reagent

  1. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY... storage of reagents and specimens, accurate and reliable test system operation, and test result reporting...

  2. Reagent Target Request for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Antibody Characterization Program provides reagents and other critical resources to support protein/peptide measurements and analysis. In an effort to produce and distribute well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, the program is seeking cancer related protein targets for antibody production and characterization for distribution to the research community. Submission Period: May 20, 2011 - July 1, 2011.

  3. Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis Using Benign Reaction Medium and Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Account of chemical reactions expedited by microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermediates via enamines or using hypervalent iodine reagents will be described that can be adapted for ...

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-5 - Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances. 101-42.1102-5 Section 101-42.1102-5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...

  5. Reactivity of lignin and problems of its oxidative destruction with peroxy reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, Valerii A; Shereshovets, Valerii V; Monakov, Yurii B

    1999-01-01

    Published data on reactivity and oxidation of lignin and model compounds with hydrogen peroxide, ozone and chlorine dioxide as well as on oxidative destruction of the sulfate pulp lignin with various reagents during bleaching are systematised and generalised. Concepts of lignin activation towards its selective oxidation and kinetic features of sulfate pulp oxidative delignification are considered. The bibliography includes 157 references.

  6. Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger's Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottishaw, Jeffery D.; Erck, Adam R.; Kramer, Jordan H.; Sun, Haoran; Koppang, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Frederick Sanger's early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S[subscript N]Ar) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger's reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this S[subscript…

  7. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON reg-sign Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON reg-sign. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or open-quotes super sack.close quotes Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON reg-sign scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals

  8. Validity and interobserver agreement of reagent strips for measurement of glucosuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhof, Jolita; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Groot-Jebbink, Liesbeth J. M.; Deiman, Corrie; Van de Leur, Sjef J. C. M.; Van Straaten, Henrica L. M.

    Background. Measurement of glucosuria by means of a visually readable reagent test strip is frequently used in a wide variety of clinical settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of this semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria compared to laboratory

  9. Palladium-Catalysed Direct Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Reagents with Aryl and Vinyl Triflates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentin; Giannerini, Massimo; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Bernard L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Carbon-carbon bond formation by the cross-coupling of highly reactive organolithium reagents is a major challenge. Recently, it was demonstrated that palladium catalysts are able to couple organic halides with various organolithium species under mild conditions in a

  10. Oxygen Activated, Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyzed, Ultrafast Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Dorus; Tosi, Filippo; Vila, Carlos; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of an ultrafast cross-coupling of alkyland aryllithium reagents with a range of aryl bromides is presented. The essential role of molecular oxygen to form the active palladium catalyst was established; palladium nanoparticles that are highly active in cross-coupling reactions with

  11. Palladium-catalysed direct cross-coupling of secondary alkyllithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Giannerini, Massimo; Hornillos, Valentin; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-coupling of secondary C(sp(3)) organometallic reagents has been a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis, due to the problems associated with undesired isomerisation or the formation of reduction products. Based on our recently developed catalytic C-C bond formation

  12. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H.L. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign} Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign}. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or {open_quotes}super sack.{close_quotes} Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON{reg_sign} scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals.

  13. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinate salts using an electrophilic trifluoromethylation reagent

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiaoxi

    2013-03-01

    A copper-catalyzed method for the trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinates with Togni\\'s reagent has been developed, affording aryltrifluoromethylsulfones in moderate to good yields. A wide range of functional groups in arylsulfinates are compatible with the reaction conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organometallic reagents to N-formylimines using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriella; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    [GRAPHICS] The asymmetric synthesis of protected amines via the copper/phosphoramidite-catalyzed addition of organozine and organoaluminum reagents to N-acylimines, generated in situ from aromatic and aliphatic alpha-amidosulfones, is reported. High yields of optically active N-formyl-protected

  15. Catalytic Enantioselective Addition of Organometallic Reagents to N-Formylimines Using Monodentate Phosphoramidite Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriella; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of protected amines via the copper/phosphoramidite-catalyzed addition of organozinc and organoaluminum reagents to N-acylimines, generated in situ from aromatic and aliphatic α-amidosulfones, is reported. High yields of optically active N-formyl-protected amines and

  16. A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2008-01-01

    This demonstration is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent in a spectacular way. Via a series of experiments where the amount of vinegar is fixed and the amount of NaHCO[subscript 3] is gradually increased, the volume of CO[subscript 2] generated from the reaction varies corresponding to the amount of NaHCO[subscript 3] until it…

  17. Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlford, Annika; Kjeldsen, Bastian; Reimers, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    was carried out with freeze-dried reagents stored in reaction chambers fabricated by micromilling in a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate. The results reported in this study are a key step towards the development of an integrated microfluidic device for point-of-care DNA-based diagnostics....

  18. The performance of the 'CentrifiChem' parallel fast analyser using packaged reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P; Saunders, R A

    1975-05-01

    The CentrifiChem system was used with packaged reagent kits for the following determinations: albumin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatinine, glucose, and alpha-hydroxybutyrate and lactate dehydrogenases. The linearity obtainable for each assay was investigated, and particular attention was paid to finding the most suitable instrument settings.

  19. Pre-storage of gelified reagents in a lab-on-a-foil system for rapid nucleic acid analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Høgberg, Jonas; Christine, Thanner

    2013-01-01

    Reagent pre-storage in a microfluidic chip can enhance operator convenience, simplify the system design, reduce the cost of storage and shipment, and avoid the risk of cross-contamination. Although dry reagents have long been used in lateral flow immunoassays, they have rarely been used for nucle...... for fast and cost-effective POC analysis....

  20. Reliability of Reagent Strips for Semi-quantitative Measurement of Glucosuria in a Neonatal Intensive Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Bekhof

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The reliability of the semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in newborn infants using reagent strips is good, even under the conditions of a NICU. Changes in the rating of reagent strips of more than one category are most likely to be beyond measurement error.

  1. 9 CFR 130.18 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding FADDL). 130.18 Section 130.18 Animals and... § 130.18 User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site...

  2. New sorption-reagent materials for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.A.; Golikov, A.P.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Kaplun, E.V.; Marinin, D.V.; Sokolnitskaya, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Use of selective sorbents in liquid radioactive waste (LRW) management is widely spread in the field of nuclear power objects liquid waste decontamination, since the main objective there is to remove long-lived radionuclides of the nuclear cycle. The latter include, first of all, cesium-137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 and a number of α-irradiators. In this case LRW composition for most of the nuclear power objects is rather simple, except acidic deactivation solutions. At the same time, liquid radioactive wastes of different research centers have a variable chemical and radiochemical composition depending on objectives and tasks of a given center research activities. As a result, application of sorption technologies in such waste decontamination determines special requirements to these sorbents selectivity: a wide spectrum of radionuclides that can be removed and fairly high selectivity enabling to remove radionuclides from solutions of complex chemical composition (containing surfactants, complexing agents etc.). This paper is concerned with studying properties of new materials selective to different radionuclides. These materials are capable to interact with solution components whether already contained in the waste or deliberately added into resulting solution. Such sorption-reagent materials combine universal character of co-precipitation methods with simplicity of sorption methods. In this work we studied sorption-reagent inorganic ion-exchange materials interacting with sulfate-, carbonate-, oxalate-, sulfide-, and permanganate-ions. Insoluble compounds formed as a result of this interaction increase tens- and hundreds-fold the sorption selectivity of different radionuclides - strontium, cobalt, mercury, iron, and manganese as compared to conventional ion-exchange system. By means of X-ray phase analysis, IR-spectroscopy, chemical and radiochemical analysis, we have studied the mechanism of radionuclide sorption on different sorption-reagent

  3. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation

  4. Small modular reactors: Simpler, safer, cheaper?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujić, Jasmina; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Škoda, Radek; Miletić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a very significant long-term role for meeting the world’s increasing energy demands, while simultaneously addressing challenges associated with global climate and environmental impact. Many nations of the world, particularly the Asia/Pacific Rim countries, are actively engaged in a major expansion of their nuclear energy complex. The degree to which nuclear energy can address long-term energy needs, either globally or regionally, will be dictated by the pace and adequacy of technical and policy solutions for waste, safety, security, and non-proliferation issues, as well as the capital cost of construction. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) could successfully address several of these issues. SMRs offer simpler, standardized, and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having shorter construction times. The SMRs could be small enough to be transportable, could be used in isolated locations without advanced infrastructure and without power grid, or could be clustered in a single site to provide a multi-module, large capacity power plant. This paper summarizes some of the basic features of SMRs for early deployment, several advanced SMR concepts, and points out the benefits and challenges in regulatory, economical, safety and security issues. -- Highlights: ► We held a summer forum on SMR technologies at UC Berkeley in July 2010. ► Advantages and disadvantages, technical and economic, of each design were discussed. ► Further literature searches were also done and this paper summarizes prominent designs. ► We conclude SMRs have no large problems preventing their introduction into the nuclear market.

  5. Control Is Good, But Trust Is Cheaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Keld; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    -detailed contracts, all to the end of tightening control. Control over employees, control over clients and customers, control over business processes and outcomes. But with what results? Does Lenin’s little management maxim work out well in practice? Or have managements overestimated and overemphasized control......’s virtues, to the detriment of productivity, profits and even social progress?...

  6. Cheaper energy at lower risks in LDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, A.

    1992-01-01

    Capital-thirsty developing countries need to reduce non-commercial risks in order to attract more private foreign investment. The World Bank sponsored Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) can ensure direct investments in developing countries. By subscribing to MIGA's Convention developing countries would adhere to international arbitration of commercial disputes and thus increase their leverage to attract foreign investment. MIGA would also enhance South-South cooperation and provide a better legal framework to encourage cooperation between developing countries themselves. Lack of effective conflict resolution frequently hampers development of boundary energy resources or the pooling of resources only useful at a regional but not national scale. (Author)

  7. We can forget about cheaper electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has happened again. At the end of the year as a kind of Christmas present the 2008 energy prices were published. But not everyone will benefit from the cabinet's interventions during negotiations with Slovak producers and major electricity suppliers. This year, households benefited from the zero price increase and in 2008 it will once again be households that will benefit from a lower increase rate. For companies, electricity prices will rise by over 10% next year. This is a paradoxical situation as in the corporate sector the traditional regional suppliers already have competition. But in the future the number of competitors should decrease. Mainly the smaller ones may disappear as the Ministry of Economy keeps changing the rules and these changes cost money. The newly introduced export charge or supervision over auctions organized by commercial electricity producers will not help to increase the trust of investors. And under these circumstances the Ministry's criticism of auctions that established the basis for a part of the electricity price for 2008 sounds strange especially as a state-owned company also took part in the auction. (authors)

  8. Is electricity generated by nuclear power cheaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1983-01-01

    The author critically discusses the contents of the book written by Traube and Ullrich. He criticizes mainly the arbitrary use of quotations and the polemic presentation. The four postulates by Traube and Ullrich, stating that by intensified energy conservation we could do without atomic energy are examined for their validity. (UA) [de

  9. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  10. Statistical validation of reagent lot change in the clinical chemistry laboratory can confer insights on good clinical laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Chul; Kim, So Young; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-11-01

    Verification of new lot reagent's suitability is necessary to ensure that results for patients' samples are consistent before and after reagent lot changes. A typical procedure is to measure results of some patients' samples along with quality control (QC) materials. In this study, the results of patients' samples and QC materials in reagent lot changes were analysed. In addition, the opinion regarding QC target range adjustment along with reagent lot changes was proposed. Patients' sample and QC material results of 360 reagent lot change events involving 61 analytes and eight instrument platforms were analysed. The between-lot differences for the patients' samples (ΔP) and the QC materials (ΔQC) were tested by Mann-Whitney U tests. The size of the between-lot differences in the QC data was calculated as multiples of standard deviation (SD). The ΔP and ΔQC values only differed significantly in 7.8% of the reagent lot change events. This frequency was not affected by the assay principle or the QC material source. One SD was proposed for the cutoff for maintaining pre-existing target range after reagent lot change. While non-commutable QC material results were infrequent in the present study, our data confirmed that QC materials have limited usefulness when assessing new reagent lots. Also a 1 SD standard for establishing a new QC target range after reagent lot change event was proposed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Trifluoromethanesulfonic Anhydride as a Low-Cost and Versatile Trifluoromethylation Reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yao; Xu, Xiu-Hua; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2018-04-19

    A large number of reagents have been developed for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated compounds. However, an ongoing challenge in trifluoromethylation reaction is the use of less expensive and practical trifluoromethyl sources. We report herein the unprecedented direct trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes using trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride as a radical trifluoromethylation reagent by merging photoredox catalysis and pyridine activation. Furthermore, introduction of both the CF 3 and OTf groups of the trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride into internal alkynes to access tetrasubstituted trifluoromethylated alkenes was achieved. Since trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride is a low-cost and abundant chemical, this method provides a cost-efficient and practical route to trifluoromethylated compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A convenient method to synthesize N-[3H]methyl-N-nitrosocarbamate transfer reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, P.; Gold, B.; Konakahara, T.

    1992-01-01

    Activated N-alkyl-N-nitrosocarbamates are useful acyl transfer reagents that are employed in the synthesis of N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas and related N-nitroso compounds. The nitrosourea products are of chemical and biological interest because they provide access to the in situ generation of highly reactive carbonium type intermediates, which, depending on their structure, can be powerful carcinogens or antineoplastic agents. The availability of radiolabeled nitrosoureas greatly facilitates studies on their chemical and biological activities. Generally, the synthesis of activated nitrosocarbamates requires condensation of radiolabeled alkylisocyanates with the appropriate alcohol. Because radiolabeled alkylisocyanates are not commercially available and/or troublesome to synthesize, we have developed an easy and economical method for preparing N-[ 3 H]methyl-N-nitrosocarbamates suitable for use as transfer reagents utilizing 1,2,2,2-tetrachloroethyl chloroformate and [ 3 H]methylamine hydrochloride as starting materials. (author)

  13. Field-Portable Immunoassay Instruments and Reagents to Measure Chelators and Mobile Forms of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Diane A.

    2003-01-01

    The goals for the 3-year project period are (1) to test and validate the present uranium sensor and develop protocols for its use at the NABIR Field Research Center; (2) to develop new reagents that will provide superior performance for the present hand-held immunosensor; and (3) to develop new antibodies that will permit this sensor to also measure other environmental contaminants (chromium, mercury, and/or DTPA). Sensor design modifications are underway via international collaborations. New reagents that will provide superior performance for the present hand-held immunosensor are being prepared and tested. New methods have been developed, to produce recombinant forms of metal-specific monoclonal antibodies for use with the sensor. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments are underway to determine the mechanisms of binding. Immunization experiments with sheep and rabbits to develop new recombinant forms of antibodies to metal-chelate complexes (chromium, mercury, and/or DTPA) have been initiated

  14. Labelling of HBV-DNA probe using reagent made in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanshi

    1991-01-01

    The labelling hepatitis Bvirus DNA (HBV-DNA) probe was studied by using reagent made in China. The results showed that: (1) The dNTPs with high specific activity was necessary for the labelling of nigh specific activity HBV-DNA probe; (2) reaction of labelling HBV-DNA probe was completed in a few minutes; (3) 0.37 MBq 3 H dTTP (specific activity 1.554TBq/mmol) was enough to label 1 μg HBV-DNA and the specific activity of probe reached 3.4 x 10 cpm/μg; (4) 7 MBqα- 32 P dATP (specific activity > 111 TBq/mmol) can label HBV-DNA probe to specific activity 1.35 x 10 cpm/μg. It was concluded that the reagent made in China can be used for the study in molecular biology

  15. Data on final calcium concentration in native gel reagents determined accurately through inductively coupled plasma measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Viviano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM over the blank. Keywords: Neuronal calcium sensor proteins, Electrophoresis, Mobility shift, Calcium, Magnesium

  16. Glutarimidedioxime. A complexing and reducing reagent for plutonium recovery from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.; Tian, Guoxin [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Shuh, David K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    2016-04-04

    Efficient separation processes for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel are essential to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The performance characteristics of a new salt-free complexing and reducing reagent, glutarimidedioxime (H{sub 2}A), are reported for recovering plutonium in a PUREX process. With a phase ratio of organic to aqueous of up to 10:1, plutonium can be effectively stripped from 30 % tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene into 1M HNO{sub 3} with H{sub 2}A. The complexation-reduction mechanism is illustrated with the combination of UV/Vis absorption spectra and the crystal structure of a Pu{sup IV} complex with the reagent. The fast stripping rate and the high efficiency for stripping Pu{sup IV}, through the complexation-reduction mechanism, is suitable for use in centrifugal contactors with very short contact/resident times, thereby offering significant advantages over conventional processes.

  17. New methods and reagents to improve the ferret model for human influenza infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Kirkeby, Svend; Aasted, Bent

    The ferret has been extensively used to study human influenza infections. However, its value as a model has suffered from the limited set of reagents and methods available for this animal. We have recently tested a large number of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with ferret CD markers (CD8, ...... improvements of the model will aim at establishing a reliable RT-PCR for ferret cytokines, as well as investigating the location of influenza receptors and viral particles in the upper and lower respiratory tract via immunohistochemistry......The ferret has been extensively used to study human influenza infections. However, its value as a model has suffered from the limited set of reagents and methods available for this animal. We have recently tested a large number of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with ferret CD markers (CD8, CD...

  18. 2-Hydro-4-n-But oxypropiophenone Oxime as a spectrophotometric reagent for Fe (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, K.; Desai, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    2-Hydro-4-n-But oxypropiophenone Oxime [Hipbone] has been synthesized and used for the spectrophotometric determination of Fe (III). The reagent gives purple coloured complex with Fe (III) in 50% alcoholic medium in pH range of 2.5-4.5. Beer's law is obeyed up to 23.1 ppm of Fe (III). Molar absorptivity and sandell's sensitivity at 500 nm of complex were found to be 7.062x 10 power2 lit.mol.cm and 0.079 ug of Fe (III)/cm respectively. Composition and stability constant have been determined. The reagent is successfully used for determination of Fe (III) in dolomite and in pharmaceutical sample. It is also used for the indirect determination of fluoride in tap water sample. (author)

  19. Application of Fenton's reagent as a pretreatment step in biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, R.L.; Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 and Fe ++ ) has been used for chemical oxidation of numerous organic compounds in water treatment schemes. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) applied Fenton's treatment to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-contaminated soils. Fenton's treatment was very reactive with PAHs, causing rapid modification of the parental compounds to oxidized products and complete degradation to CO 2 . This treatment was more effective on chemically reactive PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene. Important parameters and conditions for Fenton's treatment of PAHs in solution and soil matrices have been identified. As much as 99% of the PAHs on soil matrices can be removed by treatment with Fenton's reagent

  20. Study of effect of slime processed by ultrasonic on flotation reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, W.; Wang, H.; Hu, J. [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China)

    2006-12-15

    The changes of wetting heat, oil film thickness, contact angle and absorptive capacity of slime and kerosene before and after ultrasonic treatment were studied by Setaram calorimeter, DCAT21 gauge and a light meter. Batch flotation tests were made. The results show that: the wetting heat from slime and kerosene increases after ultrasonic treatment by 45.85%; the average oil film thickness is reduced by 38.84%; the contact angle of slime and kerosene decreases by 33.56{sup o}; and the absorptive capacity of slime in kerosene decreases by 30.40%. The consumption of flotation reagent after ultrasonic treatment was reduced by 75% while the yield of clean coal was the same. The study shows that ultrasonic treatment decreases the consumption of reagent and increases the efficiency and selectivity of flotation. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Flotation of copper-bearing shale in solutions of inorganic salts and organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation data on copper-bearing shale in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, Na2SO4, KPF6, NH4Cl and organic reagents (ethylamine, propylamine as frothers were presented and discussed. The relationships between shale flotation, surface tension of aqueous solution and foam height during bubbling with air in the flotation system were presented. It has been found that flotation of shale in the presence of inorganic salts the yield was directly proportional to the surface tension of the aqueous solution of salt and inversely proportional to the height of the foam. On the other hand, for organic reagents solutions (short chain amines, a reverse effect has been observed in relation to the inorganic compounds studied, that is the yield of copper-bearing shale flotation and the foam height were inversely proportional to the surface tension of the amine solution.

  2. A convenient method to synthesize N-[[sup 3]H]methyl-N-nitrosocarbamate transfer reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, P.; Gold, B. (Nebraska Univ., Omaha, NE (United States). Eppley Inst. for Research in Cancer); Konakahara, T. (Science Univiversity of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1992-11-01

    Activated N-alkyl-N-nitrosocarbamates are useful acyl transfer reagents that are employed in the synthesis of N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas and related N-nitroso compounds. The nitrosourea products are of chemical and biological interest because they provide access to the in situ generation of highly reactive carbonium type intermediates, which, depending on their structure, can be powerful carcinogens or antineoplastic agents. The availability of radiolabeled nitrosoureas greatly facilitates studies on their chemical and biological activities. Generally, the synthesis of activated nitrosocarbamates requires condensation of radiolabeled alkylisocyanates with the appropriate alcohol. Because radiolabeled alkylisocyanates are not commercially available and/or troublesome to synthesize, we have developed an easy and economical method for preparing N-[[sup 3]H]methyl-N-nitrosocarbamates suitable for use as transfer reagents utilizing 1,2,2,2-tetrachloroethyl chloroformate and [[sup 3]H]methylamine hydrochloride as starting materials. (author).

  3. Winery wastewater treatment by a combined process: long term aerated storage and Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Mouta, Maria; Pirra, António; Peres, José A

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of the organic pollutants present in winery wastewater was carried out by the combination of two successive steps: an aerobic biological process followed by a chemical oxidation process using Fenton's reagent. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the temporal characteristics of solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) present in winery wastewater in a long term aerated storage bioreactor. The performance of different air dosage daily supplied to the biologic reactor, in laboratory and pilot scale, were examined. The long term hydraulic retention time, 11 weeks, contributed remarkably to the reduction of COD (about 90%) and the combination with the Fenton's reagent led to a high overall COD reduction that reached 99.5% when the mass ratio (R = H(2)O(2)/COD) used was equal to 2.5, maintaining constant the molar ratio H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)=15.

  4. NMR-based Enantiodifferentiation of Chiral trans-2-Phenylcyclopropane Derivatives Using a Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Sook; Kim, Hyun Sook; Song, Mi Sook

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with optical methods, there is no need to characterize the pure enantiomers. Instead, the NMR method makes use of chiral reagents that convert a mixture of enantiomers into a mixture of diastereomeric complexes. Integration of the resulting NMR spectra yields a direct measurement of enantiomeric purity as long as there is a sufficiently large difference between the chemical shifts of the two diastereoisomeric complexes to produce baseline-resolved peaks. Absolute enantiomeric configurations can also be determined using this method. Chiral lanthanide shift reagents have been used since the 1970s to form addition complexes with various compounds through interactions with electron donor sites. Lanthanide-induced, pseudo-contact shifts (LIS) are a function of the distance, r, between the nuclei under observation and the lanthanide center, and the angle, θ, between the line connecting the metal ion with the observed nucleus and the line representing the CLSR magnetic axis

  5. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Lipid Oxidation Using the Reagent Kit Based on Spectrophotometry (FOODLABfat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Woo Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and availability of FOODLABfat system for determining acid value (AV and peroxide value (POV were assessed during the hydrolytic rancidification and lipid oxidation of edible oils. This reagent kit based on spectrophotometry was compared to the official methods (ISO 660 and 3960 protocols based on manual titration employing the standard mixture for the simulated oxidation models and edible oils during the thermally induced oxidation at 180°C. The linear regression line of standard mixture and the significant difference of thermally oxidized time course study determined between them showed high correlations (R2=0.998 and p<0.05 in both AVs and POVs. Considering ISO protocols with a probability of human error in manual titration, the rapidness and simplicity of the reagent kit based on spectrophotometry make it a promising alternative to monitor the lipid oxidation of edible oils and lipid-containing foods.

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate by Fenton's reagent in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Choi, H.J.; Huang, C.-P.

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of landfill leachate by Fenton process was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The effect of operating conditions such as reaction time, hydraulic retention time, pH, H 2 O 2 to Fe(II) molar ratio, Fenton's reagent dosage, initial COD strength, and temperature on the efficacy of Fenton process was investigated. It is demonstrated that Fenton's reagent can effectively degrade leachate organics. Fenton process reached the steady state after three times of hydraulic retention. The oxidation of organic materials in the leachate was pH dependent and the optimal pH was 2.5. The favorable H 2 O 2 to Fe(II) molar ratio was 3, and organic removal increased as dosage increased at the favorable H 2 O 2 to Fe(II) molar ratio. Temperature gave a positive effect on organic removal

  7. Alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for an immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo-Deok; Lee, Joong-jae [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu Jung [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hantschel, Oliver [School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Lee, Seung-Goo [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: hskim76@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Enzyme-linked immunoassays based on an antibody-antigen interaction are widely used in biological and medical sciences. However, the conjugation of an enzyme to antibodies needs an additional chemical process, usually resulting in randomly cross-linked molecules and a loss of the binding affinity and enzyme activity. Herein, we present the development of an alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for immunoassays. A repebody specifically binding to human TNF-α (hTNF-α) was selected through a phage display, and its binding affinity was increased up to 49 nM using a modular engineering approach. A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP), which was previously isolated from a metagenome library, was genetically fused to the repebody as a signal generator, and the resulting repebody-mAP fusion protein was used for direct and sandwich immunoassays of hTNF-α. We demonstrate the utility and potential of the repebody-mAP fusion protein as an immuno-reagent by showing the sensitivity of 216 pg mL{sup −1} for hTNF-α in a sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, this repebody-mAP fusion protein enabled the detection of hTNF-α spiked in a serum-supplemented medium with high accuracy and reproducibility. It is thus expected that a mAP-fused repebody can be broadly used as an immuno-reagent in immunoassays. - Highlights: • A human TNF-α (hTNF-α)-specific repebody was selected using a phage display. • A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP) was genetically fused to the repebody. • mAP-fused repebody enabled detection of hTNF-α with high sensitivity and accuracy. • mAP-fused repebody can be widely used as a new immuno-reagent in immunoassays.

  8. An air-stable copper reagent for nucleophilic trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl halides

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang; He, Weiming; Chen, Chaohuang; Lee, Richmond; Tan, Davin; Lai, Zhiping; Kong, Dedao; Yuan, Yaofeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A series of copper(I) trifluoromethyl thiolate complexes have been synthesized from the reaction of CuF2 with Me3SiCF 3 and S8 (see scheme; Cu red, F green, N blue, S yellow). These air-stable complexes serve as reagents for the efficient conversion of a wide range of aryl halides into the corresponding aryl trifluoromethyl thioethers in excellent yields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Utilization of organic reagents in the volumetric determination of micro-quantities of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, N.; Kireva, A.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed for the titrimetric determination of micro-quantities of iodine by means of the organic reagents: Chrompyrazol I and Methylene blue. The recommended method is based on the combination of the extraction and volumetric methods and permits the titration of as little as 1 μg of I-/ml. The determination is not impaired by the ions: Br-, Cl-, NO 3 - and SO 4 2 -. (author)

  10. The use of permanganate as a sequencing reagent for identification of 5-methylcytosine residues in DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzsche, E; Hayatsu, H; Igloi, G L; Iida, S; Kössel, H

    1987-01-01

    The use of permanganate as a reagent for DNA sequencing by chemical degradation has been studied with respect to its specificity for 5-methylcytosine residues. At weakly acidic pH and room temperature, 0.2 mM potassium permanganate reacts preferentially with thymine, 5-methylcytosine, and to a lesser extent with purine residues, while cytosine remains essentially intact. Permanganate oxidation is, therefore, a suitable DNA sequencing reaction for positive discrimination between 5-methylcytosi...

  11. [Substantiation of maximum permissible water level of the flotation reagent EFK-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinskiĭ, V V

    1991-12-01

    Threshold concentrations of the flotation reagent EFK-1 in the water of reservoirs at 0.8 mg/l and 10.0 mg/l for organoleptic and total sanitary indices, respectively, were reported. Dl50 was 7469 mg/kg. The MAC of 0.8 mg/l for EFK-1 in the water of reservoirs (the limiting sign is organoleptic) was proposed.

  12. Flotation of copper-bearing shale in solutions of inorganic salts and organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Flotation data on copper-bearing shale in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, Na2SO4, KPF6, NH4Cl) and organic reagents (ethylamine, propylamine) as frothers were presented and discussed. The relationships between shale flotation, surface tension of aqueous solution and foam height during bubbling with air in the flotation system were presented. It has been found that flotation of shale in the presence of inorganic salts the yield was directly proportional to the surface tensio...

  13. Organic acids as analytical reagent: Part 1. Estimation of zirconium by gallic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, C S; Singh, A K; Kumar, Ashok [Lucknow Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-07-01

    Gallic acid has been found to be a selective reagent for the estimation of zirconium. The acid gives a crystalline precipitate at pH of 4.8 which is ignited and weighed as ZrO/sub 2/. Cations like Ca/sup +2/, Ba/sup +2/, Sr/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/, Co/sup +2/, Ni/sup +2/, Fe/sup +3/ do not interfere in the estimation.

  14. Enantioselective Addition of Allyltin Reagents to Amino Aldehydes Catalyzed with Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III Aqua Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishiyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III aqua complexes, (PheboxRhX2(H2O [X = Cl, Br], were found to be efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the enantioselective addition of allyl- and methallyltributyltin reagents to amino aldehydes. The reactions proceed smoothly in the presence of 5–10 mol % of (PheboxRhX2(H2O complex at ambient temperature to give the corresponding amino alcohols with modest to good enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee.

  15. An air-stable copper reagent for nucleophilic trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl halides

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang

    2012-12-12

    A series of copper(I) trifluoromethyl thiolate complexes have been synthesized from the reaction of CuF2 with Me3SiCF 3 and S8 (see scheme; Cu red, F green, N blue, S yellow). These air-stable complexes serve as reagents for the efficient conversion of a wide range of aryl halides into the corresponding aryl trifluoromethyl thioethers in excellent yields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Kinetics of catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S.; Ahmed, El-Sadat I.; Gaber, M.; Hussein, Mohamed M.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2011-09-01

    The kinetics of chemical hydrolysis including neutral, acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent were studied at different temperatures. The rate constants and activation parameters were determined by following the build-up of fluorescence peak of the hydrolysis product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The time scale of esterase enzyme hydrolysis caused by salmonella was compared with chemical hydrolysis as a background process.

  17. 125I-labeled crosslinking reagent that is hydrophilic, photoactivatable, and cleavable through an azo linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, J.B.; Blobel, G.

    1984-01-01

    A radioactive crosslinking reagent, N-[4-(p-azido-m-[ 125 I]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-N'-oxysulfosuccinimide ester, has been synthesized. The reagent is photoactivatable, water-soluble, cleavable through an azo linkage, and labeled with 125 I at the carrier-free specific activity of 2000 Ci/mmol. Any protein derivatized with the reagent is thus converted into an 125 I-labeled photoaffinity probe. Crosslinks are formed following photolysis with 366-nm light, and cleavage by sodium dithionite results in the donation of radioactivity to the distal partner in crosslinked complexes. The newly labeled proteins are then analyzed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The compound was prepared by iodination of N-[4-(p-aminophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropionic acid using carrier-free Na 125 I and chloramine-T, followed by azide formation and conversion to the water-soluble sulfosuccinimide ester. As a model system, protein A-Sepharose was derivatized with the reagent under subdued light. Each derivatized protein A molecule contained only one crosslinker. The derivatized protein A-Sepharose was then photolyzed in the presence of human serum and subsequently treated with sodium dithionite. Analysis of the serum by gel electrophoresis revealed that 1.1% of the radioactive label originally present on the protein A-Sepharose was transferred to the heavy chain of IgG, which was the most intensely labeled protein in the gel. The next most intensely labeled protein was IgG light chain, which incorporated radioactivity that was lower by a factor of 3.6 than that of the heavy chain. 36 references, 3 figures

  18. A highly efficient dual-diazonium reagent for protein crosslinking and construction of a virus-based gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dejun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Changyu; Men, Yuwen; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Lu-Yuan; Yi, Long; Xi, Zhen

    2018-05-09

    A new bench-stable reagent with double diazonium sites was designed and synthesized for protein crosslinking. Based on the highly efficient diazonium-Tyr coupling reaction, a direct mixture of the reagent and tobacco mosaic virus led to the formation of a new hydrogel, which could be degraded by chemicals and could be used to encapsulate small molecules for sustained release. Because plant viruses exhibit many chemical characteristics like protein labelling and nucleic acid packaging, the virus-based hydrogel will have large chemical space for further functionalization. Besides, this dual-diazonium reagent should be a generally useful crosslinker for chemical biology and biomaterials.

  19. Inactivation and stability of viral diagnostic reagents treated by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.A.; Freeman, C.Y.; Hall, H.E.; Forrester, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the pertinent findings from gamma inactivation of virus infectivity to the production of high quality diagnostic reagents. A Gammacell 220 was used to subject 38 viruses grown in either susceptible tissue cultures or embryonated chicken eggs to various doses of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The radiation required to reduce viral infectivity was 0.42 to 3.7 megarads (Mrad). The effect of gamma treatment on the antigenic reactivity of reagents for the complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminadase assays was determined. Influenza antigens inactivated with 1.7 Mrad displayed comparable potency, sensitivity, specificity and stability to those inactivated by standard procedures with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Significant inactivation of influenza N1 and B neuraminidase occurred with >2.4 Mrad radiation at temperatures above 4 0 C. All 38 viruses were inactivated, and CF or HA antigens were prepared successfully. Antigenic potency remained stable with all antigens for 3 years and with 83% after 5 years storage. Influenza HA antigens evaluated after 9 years of storage demonstrated 86% stability. Gamma radiation is safer than chemical inactivation procedures and is a reliable and effective replacement for BPL in preparing diagnostic reagents. (author)

  20. Flow injection spectrophotometry using natural reagent from Morinda citrifolia root for determination of aluminium in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontrong, Sopa; Khonyoung, Supada; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method with using natural reagent extracted from Morinda citrifolia root has been developed for determination of aluminium. The extract contained anthraquinone compounds which could react with Al(3+) to form reddish complexes which had maximum absorption wavelength at 499.0nm. The extract could be used as a reagent in FI system without further purification to obtain pure compound. A sensitive method for determination of aluminium in concentration range of 0.1-1.0mgL(-1), with detection limit of 0.05mgL(-1) was achieved. Relative standard deviations of 1.2% and 1.7% were obtained for the determination of 0.1 and 0.6mgL(-1) Al(3+) (n=11). Sample throughput of 35h(-1) was achieved with the consumption of 3mL each of carrier and reagent solutions per injection. The developed method was successfully applied to tea samples, validated by the FAAS standard method. The method is simple, fast, economical and could be classified as a greener analytical method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Employing natural reagents from turmeric and lime for acetic acid determination in vinegar sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-ang Supharoek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and environmentally friendly sequential injection analysis system employing natural extract reagents was developed for the determination of acetic acid following an acid–base reaction in the presence of an indicator. Powdered lime and turmeric were utilized as the natural base and indicator, respectively. Mixing lime and turmeric produced an orange to reddish-brown color solution which absorbed the maximum wavelength at 455 nm, with absorbance decreasing with increasing acetic acid concentration. Influential parameters including lime and turmeric concentrations, reagent and sample aspirated volumes, mixing coil length and dispensing flow rate were investigated and optimized. A standard calibration graph was plotted for 0–5.0 mmol/L acetic acid with r2 = 0.9925. Relative standard deviations (RSD at 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/L acetic acid were less than 3% (n = 7, with limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ at 0.12 and 0.24 mmol/L, respectively. The method was successfully applied to assay acetic acid concentration in cooking vinegar samples. Results achieved were not significantly different from those obtained following a batchwise standard AOAC titration method. Keywords: Acetic acid assay, Natural reagent, Turmeric, Lime, Sequential injection analysis

  2. Inactivation and stability of viral diagnostic reagents treated by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, L A; Freeman, C Y; Hall, H E; Forrester, B D [Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the pertinent findings from gamma inactivation of virus infectivity to the production of high quality diagnostic reagents. A Gammacell 220 was used to subject 38 viruses grown in either susceptible tissue cultures or embryonated chicken eggs to various doses of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The radiation required to reduce viral infectivity was 0.42 to 3.7 megarads (Mrad). The effect of gamma treatment on the antigenic reactivity of reagents for the complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminadase assays was determined. Influenza antigens inactivated with 1.7 Mrad displayed comparable potency, sensitivity, specificity and stability to those inactivated by standard procedures with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Significant inactivation of influenza N1 and B neuraminidase occurred with >2.4 Mrad radiation at temperatures above 4{sup 0}C. All 38 viruses were inactivated, and CF or HA antigens were prepared successfully. Antigenic potency remained stable with all antigens for 3 years and with 83% after 5 years storage. Influenza HA antigens evaluated after 9 years of storage demonstrated 86% stability. Gamma radiation is safer than chemical inactivation procedures and is a reliable and effective replacement for BPL in preparing diagnostic reagents. (author).

  3. Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.Z.; Zhou, J.F.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z.P.; Xu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine were demonstrated. The results indicate that the netlike gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent. ► Excellent repeatability and reproducibility of netlike gold nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode. ► The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticle for dopamine. -- Abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The netlike gold nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, infrared spectrometer, UV spectrophotometer, powder X-ray diffractometer and electrochemical analyzer. The catalysis of the netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine was demonstrated. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility.

  4. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  5. The behavior of thiourea and flotation reagents in zinc electrowinning circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, D. J.; Dutrizac, J. E.; Brannen, J. M.; Hardy, D. J.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of thiourea and flotation reagents on the electrowinning of zinc from industrial electrolytes was studied, and all the compounds were found to reduce the zinc deposition current efficiency and to change the properties of the zinc deposits. The effectiveness of activated carbon, two-stage cementation, and hot acid leaching on the destruction/removal of the organic compounds also was addressed. Activated carbon pretreatment of thiourea-containing electrolytes restored the current efficiency for 1-hour zinc deposits to values comparable to those obtained for thiourea-free electrolytes. The activated carbon pretreatment, however, altered the deposit morphology and orientation, but produced a cyclic voltammogram similar to that of the thiourea-free solution. Two-stage cementation did not counteract the harmful effects of thiourea. Hot acid leaching destroyed the thiourea but generated large concentrations of ferrous ion that reduced the current efficiency. The ferrous concentrations, however, were readily controlled by KMnO4 or MnO2 oxidation. None of the treatment options (activated carbon, two-stage cementation, or hot acid leaching) was effective in controlling the flotation reagents, and their moderately harmful effect on zinc electrowinning persisted. Even low concentrations of these reagents polarized zinc deposition, and this resulted in a “glue-type” zinc deposit.

  6. The influence of reagent type on the kinetics of ultrafine coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, R.B.; Camp, L.R.; Summers, M.S.; Rapp, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A kinetic study has been conducted to determine the influence of reagent type on flotation rates of ultrafine coal. Two ultrafine coal samples, the Illinois No. 5 (Springfield) and Pittsburgh No. 8, have been evaluated with various reagent types in order to derive the rate constants for coal (kc), ash (ka), and pyrite (kc). The reagents used in the study include anionic surfactants, anionic surfactant-alcohol mixtures, and frothing alcohols. In general, the surfactant-alcohol mixtures tend to float ultrafine coal at a rate three to four times faster than either pure alcohols or pure anionic surfactants. Pine oil, a mixture of terpene alcohols and hydrocarbons, was an exception to this finding; it exhibited higher rate constants than the pure aliphatic alcohols or other pure anionic surfactants studied; this may be explained by the fact that the sample of pine oil used (70% alpha-terpineol) acted as a frother/collector system similar to alcohol/kerosene. The separation efficiencies of ash and pyrite from coal, as evidenced by the ratios of kc/ka or kc/kp, tend to indicate, however, that commercially available surfactant-alcohol mixtures are not as selective as pure alcohols such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol or methylisobutylcarbinol. Some distinct differences in various rate constants, or their ratios, were noted between the two coals studied, and are possibly attributable to surface chemistry effects. ?? 1989.

  7. Candidate reagents and procedures for the dissolution of Hanford Site single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    At least some of the waste in the 149 single-shell tanks (SST) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be retrieved, treated, and disposed of. Although the importance of devising efficient and cost-effective sludge dissolution procedures has long been recognized, a concerted bench-scale effort to devise and test such procedures with actual solids representative of those in Hanford Site SSTs has not been performed. Reagents that might be used, either individually or serially, to dissolve sludges include HNO 3 , HNO 3 -oxalic acid, and HNO 3 -HF. This report consolidates and updates perspectives and recommendations concerning reagents and procedures for dissolving Hanford Site SST and selected double-shell tank (DST) sludges. The principal objectives of this report are as follows: (1) Compile and review existing experimental data on dissolution of actual Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. (2) Further inform Hanford Site engineers and scientists concerning the utility of combinations of thermally unstable complexants (TUCS) reagents and various reducing agents for dissolving SST and DST sludges. (This latter technology has recently been explored at the Argonne National Laboratory.) (3) Provide guidance in laying out a comprehensive experimental program to develop technology for dissolving all types of Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Bio-sample detection on paper-based devices with inkjet printer-sprayed reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wun-Hong; Chu, Chien-Hung; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2015-12-01

    The reagent required for bio-sample detection on paper-based analytical devices is generally introduced manually using a pipette. Such an approach is time-consuming; particularly if a large number of devices are required. Automated methods provide a far more convenient solution for large-scale production, but incur a substantial cost. Accordingly, the present study proposes a low-cost method for the paper-based analytical devices in which the biochemical reagents are sprayed onto the device directly using a modified commercial inkjet printer. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by performing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) tests using simple two-dimensional (2D) paper-based devices. In both cases, the reaction process is analyzed using an image-processing-based colorimetric method. The experimental results show that for AST detection within the 0-105 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is around four minutes, while for ALT detection in the 0-125 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is approximately one minute. Finally, for both samples, the detection performance of the sprayed-reagent analytical devices is insensitive to the glucose concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Directions for Use Compatibility Between Different Brands Strips Urine Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Oliveira Cezar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the urine test we can measure kidney function and identify pathologies of the urinary tract. The urine test strips are a fast, easy and increasingly used method of analysis. It is extremely important to check compatibility between the different brands assuring a better understanding of the diagnosis. We compared the package inserts of eight different brands of urine test strips and the reagents used in the urinary determination, besides information concerning the detection of limit ranges, reading intervals and possible interferences. A comparison of the leaflets showed differences among them. Concerning the reagents used, in general, all brands use similar ones but in different quantities. The patient information leaflets have several interferences, but it was observed that some brands do not mention the interferences that are mentioned in other brands. As for the legends of semiquantitative measurements, most brands do not include this information on the product leaflet. Among the brands that could be analyzed with this parameter was observed that the analytes glucose, bilirubin, ketones and blood did not have the same correlation between concentration and label brands. We stress the importance of ensuring a greater standardization of the information contained in the leaflets of the reagent strips.

  10. Assessment and identification of some novel NOx reducing reagents for SNCR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Javed, M.T.; Irfan, N.; Hamid, A. and K.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are one of the most hazardous air pollutants arising from the combustion processes. Because of the implementation of strict emission limits many NOx removal technologies have been developed. In the present work post combustion NOx removal technique that is Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) has been investigated in a pilot scale 150 kW combustion rig facility. Investigation has been performed using some novel NOx reducing reagents like urea, ammonium carbonate and mixture of their 50%-50% aqueous solution within the temperature range of 700 to 1200 deg. C., at 1.1% excess oxygen and background NOx level of 500 ppm. The effects of these reagents were determined in term of their temperature characteristics and molar ratio. Among the reducing reagents used urea solution gave the highest NOx removal efficiency (81%) and was attractive due to its superior high temperature (1000 to 1150 deg. C) performance, ammonium carbonate was more effective at lower temperature range (850 to 950 deg. C) though its efficiency (32%) was lower than urea, while 50-50% solution of urea and ammonium carbonate gave higher efficiency than ammonium carbonate but slightly lesser than urea within a wide temperature range (875 to 1125 deg. C). It was also observed that the NOx removal efficiency was increased with increasing the molar ratio. (author)

  11. Chemical bonding and the equilibrium composition of Grignard reagents in ethereal solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André M; Barbosa, André G H

    2011-11-10

    A thorough analysis of the electronic structure and thermodynamic aspects of Grignard reagents and its associated equilibrium composition in ethereal solutions is performed. Considering methylmagnesium halides containing fluorine, chlorine, and bromine, we studied the neutral, charged, and radical species associated with their chemical equilibrium in solution. The ethereal solvents considered, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and ethyl ether (Et(2)O), were modeled using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) and also by explicit coordination to the Mg atoms in a cluster. The chemical bonding of the species that constitute the Grignard reagent is analyzed in detail with generalized valence bond (GVB) wave functions. Equilibrium constants were calculated with the DFT/M06 functional and GVB wave functions, yielding similar results. According to our calculations and existing kinetic and electrochemical evidence, the species R(•), R(-), (•)MgX, and RMgX(2)(-) must be present in low concentration in the equilibrium. We conclude that depending on the halogen, a different route must be followed to produce the relevant equilibrium species in each case. Chloride and bromide must preferably follow a "radical-based" pathway, and fluoride must follow a "carbanionic-based" pathway. These different mechanisms are contrasted against the available experimental results and are proven to be consistent with the existing thermodynamic data on the Grignard reagent equilibria.

  12. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  13. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... billion people had toxic (poisonous) blood lead levels. Food Sources Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the ... to bottled water for drinking and cooking. Avoid canned goods from foreign ... cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil ...

  14. Polymeric reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, C.

    1979-01-01

    The system polymer-bound triphenyl phosphine/carbon tetrachloride was used for preparation of 14 C-labelled organic compounds. 7- 14 C-benzyl chloride, 7- 14 C-benzoyl chloride and 7- 14 C-N-butyl benzamide have been prepared in this way. The reaction conditions were optimized using inactive compounds. Using the results of this optimization, radiochemical yields of 90% could be obtained for the first time for the preparation of 14 C-labelled alkyl chlorides and carboxylic acid chlorides from the corresponding alcohols and acids on the carrier. Polymer-bound triphenylphosphine was further studied as a catalyst for Beckmann rearrangement on the example of the rearrangement of cyclohexanoneoxime into epsilon-caprolactam. Yields exceeding 90% could be obtained with polymer-bound triphenylphosphine. However, regeneration of the catalyst could only be achieved by the already known method using trichlorosilane, in part also with methyldichlorosilane. Other reducing agents were unsuccessful in regenerating the catalyst. (G.G.)

  15. The establishment of a WHO Reference Reagent for anti-malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Donna; Silva, Nilupa; Rigsby, Peter; Dougall, Thomas; Corran, Patrick; Bowyer, Paul W; Ho, Mei Mei

    2017-08-05

    At a World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored meeting it was concluded that there is an urgent need for a reference preparation that contains antibodies against malaria antigens in order to support serology studies and vaccine development. It was proposed that this reference would take the form of a lyophilized serum or plasma pool from a malaria-endemic area. In response, an immunoassay standard, comprising defibrinated human plasma has been prepared and evaluated in a collaborative study. A pool of human plasma from a malaria endemic region was collected from 140 single plasma donations selected for reactivity to Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and merozoite surface proteins (MSP-1 19 , MSP-1 42 , MSP-2 and MSP-3). This pool was defibrinated, filled and freeze dried into a single batch of ampoules to yield a stable source of naturally occurring antibodies to P. falciparum. The preparation was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a collaborative study with sixteen participants from twelve different countries. This anti-malaria human serum preparation (NIBSC Code: 10/198) was adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in October 2014, as the first WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) human serum with an assigned arbitrary unitage of 100 units (U) per ampoule. Analysis of the reference reagent in a collaborative study has demonstrated the benefit of this preparation for the reduction in inter- and intra-laboratory variability in ELISA. Whilst locally sourced pools are regularly use for harmonization both within and between a few laboratories, the presence of a WHO-endorsed reference reagent should enable optimal harmonization of malaria serological assays either by direct use of the reference reagent or calibration of local standards against this WHO reference. The intended uses of this reference reagent, a multivalent preparation, are (1) to allow cross

  16. Risk-based Strategy to Determine Testing Requirement for the Removal of Residual Process Reagents as Process-related Impurities in Bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Li, Kim; Miller, Karen; Raghani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to recommend a risk-based strategy for determining clearance testing requirements of the process reagents used in manufacturing biopharmaceutical products. The strategy takes account of four risk factors. Firstly, the process reagents are classified into two categories according to their safety profile and history of use: generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and potential safety concern (PSC) reagents. The clearance testing of GRAS reagents can be eliminated because of their safe use historically and process capability to remove these reagents. An estimated safety margin (Se) value, a ratio of the exposure limit to the estimated maximum reagent amount, is then used to evaluate the necessity for testing the PSC reagents at an early development stage. The Se value is calculated from two risk factors, the starting PSC reagent amount per maximum product dose (Me), and the exposure limit (Le). A worst-case scenario is assumed to estimate the Me value, that is common. The PSC reagent of interest is co-purified with the product and no clearance occurs throughout the entire purification process. No clearance testing is required for this PSC reagent if its Se value is ≥1; otherwise clearance testing is needed. Finally, the point of the process reagent introduction to the process is also considered in determining the necessity of the clearance testing for process reagents. How to use the measured safety margin as a criterion for determining PSC reagent testing at process characterization, process validation, and commercial production stages are also described. A large number of process reagents are used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing to control the process performance. Clearance testing for all of the process reagents will be an enormous analytical task. In this article, a risk-based strategy is described to eliminate unnecessary clearance testing for majority of the process reagents using four risk factors. The risk factors included

  17. Peptide bond-forming reagents HOAt and HATU are not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolette, John; Neft, Robin E; Vanosdol, Jessica; Murray, Joel

    2016-04-01

    The peptide bond-forming reagents 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt, CAS 39968-33-7) and O-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU, CAS 148893-10-1) either have structural alerts, unclassified features or are considered out of domain when evaluated for potential mutagenicity with in silico programs DEREK and CaseUltra. Since they are commonly used reagents in pharmaceutical drug syntheses, they may become drug substance or drug product impurities and would need to be either controlled to appropriately safe levels or tested for mutagenicity. Both reagents were tested in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test at Covance, under GLP conditions, following the OECD test guideline and ICH S2(R1) recommendations and found to be negative. Our data show that HOAt and HATU-common pharmaceutical synthesis reagents-are not mutagenic, and can be treated as ordinary drug impurities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  19. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  20. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  1. On some investigation features of sorption of flotation reagents labelled by soft β-emitters on mineral surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobochkin, V.P.; Gladyshev, V.P.; Latypova, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    A correction for self-absorption, taking into account concrete dimensions of mineral grain during sorption of flotation reagents on mineral surface is deduced. On the basis of the regularity obtained problems of the sensitivity of the determination method of reagent activity sorbed by minerals which are labelled by radioactive isotopes are considered. Improved technique is described and statistical analysis of the experimental data obtained is carried out

  2. Specific Reagent for Cr(III): Imaging Cellular Uptake of Cr(III) in Hct116 Cells and Theoretical Rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Firoj; Saha, Sukdeb; Maity, Arunava; Taye, Nandaraj; Si, Mrinal Kanti; Suresh, E; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava

    2015-10-15

    A new rhodamine-based reagent (L1), trapped inside the micellar structure of biologically benign Triton-X 100, could be used for specific recognition of Cr(III) in aqueous buffer medium having physiological pH. This visible light excitable reagent on selective binding to Cr(III) resulted in a strong fluorescence turn-on response with a maximum at ∼583 nm and tail of that luminescence band extended until 650 nm, an optical response that is desired for avoiding the cellular autofluorescence. Interference studies confirm that other metal ions do not interfere with the detection process of Cr(III) in aqueous buffer medium having pH 7.2. To examine the nature of binding of Cr(III) to L1, various spectroscopic studies are performed with the model reagent L2, which tend to support Cr(III)-η(2)-olefin π-interactions involving two olefin bonds in molecular probe L1. Computational studies are also performed with another model reagent LM to examine the possibility of such Cr(III)-η(2)-olefin π-interactions. Presumably, polar functional groups of the model reagent LM upon coordination to the Cr(III) center effectively reduce the formal charge on the metal ion and this is further substantiated by results of the theoretical studies. This assembly is found to be cell membrane permeable and shows insignificant toxicity toward live colon cancer cells (Hct116). Confocal laser scanning microscopic studies further revealed that the reagent L1 could be used as an imaging reagent for detection of cellular uptake of Cr(III) in pure aqueous buffer medium by Hct116 cells. Examples of a specific reagent for paramagnetic Cr(III) with luminescence ON response are scanty in the contemporary literature. This ligand design helped us in achieving the turn on response by utilizing the conversion from spirolactam to an acyclic xanthene form on coordination to Cr(III).

  3. Field method for estimation of fluoride in drinking groundwater by photometric measurement of spot on aluminium quinalizarin reagent paper

    OpenAIRE

    Zaher Barghouthi; Sameer Amereih

    2017-01-01

    A simple field method for determination of fluoride in drinking water using handmade fluoride reagent paper impregnated by aluminium quinalizarin complex was developed. Fluoride reacts with the impregnated reagent paper to release the free ligand with new colour, orange different from that of the complex. The change in the colour, which is proportional to the amount of fluoride, was measured by the Arsenator. The functionality of the Arsenator which is based on a photometric measurement of sp...

  4. Towars a chemical reagents and residues management at the teaching laboratories of the Chemistry School of the Universidad Nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Benavides Benavides; Xinia Vargas González; Gustavo Chaves Barboza; José Ángel Rodríguez Corrales

    2016-01-01

    The academic activities carried out at the School of Chemistry make indispensable to develop actions oriented toward the consolidation of a reagent and residue management system, especially in the teaching laboratories. The project “Management of reagents and residues in the teaching laboratories of the School of Chemistry” works under the Green Chemistry values which designs products and chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and production of dangerous substances, to benefit th...

  5. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent from stable sulfonyl azide: scalable synthesis of alkynes from aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-10-03

    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench-stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a scalable and convenient approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes. The method features an easier workup compared to the existing in situ protocol due to increased aqueous solubility of waste products.

  6. Protein assisted fluorescence enhancement of a dansyl containing fluorescent reagent: detection of Hg+ ion in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Shahid, Mohammad; Misra, Arvind

    2011-07-21

    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) based fluorescent reagents containing a dansyl fluorophore have been synthesized and characterized. The reagent 1 and its complex, 1+Hg(2+) in sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.7) revealed considerable fluorescence enhancement (switched-on) in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 10 ppb detection sensitivity. (1)H NMR spectral analysis suggests complexation between 1 and Hg(2+) ion involving the N,N-dimethylamino and carboxylic functions.

  7. Reagent' sets for the concentration of sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco de Salas, G.N.; Arciprete, J.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-10-01

    A simple technique for the concentration of the eluates from 99 Mo/sup(99m)Tc and 113 Sn/sup(113m)In generators is described. The reagents' sets provided by the C.N.E.A. for the labelling of different radiopharmaceuticals can be used by only reducing their volumes proportionally. Both concentration techniques for Tc-99m and In-113m will be supplied to users as reagents' sets. (author) [es

  8. Short communication: Adverse effect of surface-active reagents on the bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, G; Escobar, B; Rubio, J; Badilla-Ohlbaum, R

    1995-09-01

    Oxidation of Fe(II) iron and bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was adversely affected by isopropylxanthate, a flotation agent, and by LIX 984, a solvent-extraction agent, each at ≤ 1 g/l. The reagents/l were adsorbed on the bacterial surface, decreasing the bacteria's development and preventing biooxidation. Both reagents inhibited the bioleaching of pyrite and LIX 984 also inhibited the bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

  9. Stability of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) reagents and its amplification efficiency on crude trypanosome DNA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Bazie, Raoul S B; Coronel-Servian, Andrea M; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the stability of LAMP reagents when stored at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C, and also assessed its detection efficiency on different DNA template preparations. Accordingly, LAMP using reagents stored at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C amplified DNA of in vitro cultured T. b. brucei (GUTat 3.1) from day 1 to day 15 of reagent storage. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in detection sensitivity of LAMP among the reagents stored at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C and -20 degrees C (recommended storage temperature). LAMP using the reagents stored at above-mentioned temperatures amplified serially diluted DNAs (genomic DNA extracted by phenol-chloroform method, FTA card and hemolysed blood) of T. b. gambiense (IL2343) with high sensitivity. Reactions were conducted on the reagents stored from 1 day to 30 days. LAMP detection sensitivity was poor when fresh blood as DNA template was added directly into reactive solution. Results of this study demonstrated that LAMP has the potential to be used in field conditions for diagnosis of trypanosome infections without being affected by ambient temperatures of tropical and sub-tropical countries where trypanosomosis is endemic.

  10. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Roelant, David; Kumar, Sachin

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  11. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  12. Uranium-lead systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    The method of Levchenkov and Shukolyukov for calculating age and time disturbance of minerals without correction for original lead is generalized to include the cases when (1) original lead and radiogenic lead leach differently, and (2) the crystals studied consist of a core and a mantle. It is also shown that a straight line obtained from the solution of the equations is the locus of the isotopic composition of original lead. (Auth.)

  13. The Management of Lead Concentrate Acquisition in "Trepca"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiaj, Ahmet; Fan, Maoming; Haxhiaj, Bajram

    Based on the placement of lead and its consumption in industry branches, the paper deals with the composition of lead in the ores of Kopaonik, grinding and flotation recovery of galena. In the flotation process, the flotation machine, the flotation reagents, chemical composition of the flotation concentrates and tailings were discussed in this paper. Verification of the chemical composition of Pb concentrates with Pb, Zn, and Ag, etc. was conducted in this study. It is special that the ratio of Pb to Zn in Kopaonik massive composition is 1.4:1.0. During the flotation, lead tends to float with concentrate more than allowed. In this investigation, effects have been made to minimize the loss of Pb to concentrates. This paper as such gave the first effects in optimizing of these parameters with positive effects in the flotation process in Trepca.

  14. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  15. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  16. Superconductivity in nanostructured lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.

  17. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  18. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaung, S.R.; Mangena, S.J.; de Korte, G.J. [Syngas & Coal Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2007-10-15

    The difference in the physical properties, particularly the water resistance or wet strength, of the binderless coal briquettes produced from flotation feed and concentrate was investigated using six bituminous coals from two collieries in the Witbank Coalfield. The coal samples were analyzed for their proximate, petrographic, and mineralogical properties. The presence, in the flotation concentrates, of the reagents used during the froth flotation process was also investigated using gas chromatography. Pillow-shaped binderless briquettes were produced from coal samples at various moisture contents and a pressure of approximately 17 MPA using a Komarek B-100A double-roll press. The briquettes were tested for some physical properties (i.e., dry- and wet-compressive strengths), which were thereafter compared with the properties determined for the coal samples. The binderless briquettes produced from the flotation concentrates were more water-resistant than those produced from the flotation feed. The flotation feed and concentrates of the coals tested were found to have similar petrographic properties. As expected, the ash and kaolinite contents were found to be lower in the flotation concentrates than in the flotation feed. Flotation reagents were detected in the flotation concentrates from both collieries. From the results obtained it is concluded that the increased water resistance of the binderless briquettes produced from flotation concentrates of the coals tested is due to a combination of the fineness of the coal particles, assisted by the amount of reactive macerals (most particularly vitrinite) with the lower ash and kaolinite contents, together with the presence of the flotation reagents, particularly the collector, in the flotation concentrate.

  19. Organization of a system of guarantee of quality for the control of specifications of chemical reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante Gutierrez, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Analytic methods were implemented based on valuations acid-base and redox for the quantitative determination of sodium hidroxid, iodine and iron chloride III, like part of a system of quality for the technical specifications of these reagents. The planning of its system of quality includes two fundamental parts: insurance and control of quality. In the insurance part the state of operation of the team that you uses settled down, gauges the one that achieve to maintain under the supervision of a single operator (electronic equip and glassware) and the design of the appropriate documents settled down to carry out the periodic supervision of the acting of the same ones and other aspects characteristic of the system (experimental results). Also protocolized and validated the analytic methods to use following the approaches of precision given by ASTM, organism whose methodologies are recognized in the country like official; other procedures, as that of calibration of the volumetric equipments, they were also protocolized. In the part of control of quality, the limits settled down and procedures were applied the scales and used other, to the necessary distilled water to carry out the determinations and to the used chemical reagents. With base in the obtained results you determines that the analyzed reagents fulfill the specifications of ACS (and with those reported by the maker) at the same time settled down that the laboratory 09 of the Chemistry School, used in a large part of development of this project, it didn't fulfill the necessary requirements so that it works as laboratory of control of quality. As an alternative, the administration of the School outlines as solution the use of the Laboratory of Insurance of the Quality from the Unit of Service to the Industry for such end [es

  20. Reagent-Free Quantification of Aqueous Free Chlorine via Electrical Readout of Colorimetrically Functionalized Pencil Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasebi, Amirmasoud; Broomfield, Andrew D; Chowdhury, Tanzina; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Kruse, Peter

    2017-06-21

    Colorimetric methods are commonly used to quantify free chlorine in drinking water. However, these methods are not suitable for reagent-free, continuous, and autonomous applications. Here, we demonstrate how functionalization of a pencil-drawn film with phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) can be used for quantitative electric readout of free chlorine concentrations. The functionalized film can be implemented in a simple fluidic device for continuous sensing of aqueous free chlorine concentrations. The sensor is selective to free chlorine and can undergo a reagent-free reset for further measurements. Our sensor is superior to electrochemical methods in that it does not require a reference electrode. It is capable of quantification of free chlorine in the range of 0.1-12 ppm with higher precision than colorimetric (absorptivity) methods. The interactions of PCAT with the pencil-drawn film upon exposure to hypochlorite were characterized spectroscopically. A previously reported detection mechanism relied on the measurement of a baseline shift to quantify free chlorine concentrations. The new method demonstrated here measures initial spike size upon exposure to free chlorine. It relies on a fast charge built up on the sensor film due to intermittent PCAT salt formation. It has the advantage of being significantly faster than the measurement of baseline shift, but it cannot be used to detect gradual changes in free chlorine concentration without the use of frequent reset pulses. The stability of PCAT was examined in the presence of free chlorine as a function of pH. While most ions commonly present in drinking water do not interfere with the free chlorine detection, other oxidants may contribute to the signal. Our sensor is easy to fabricate and robust, operates reagent-free, and has very low power requirements and is thus suitable for remote deployment.

  1. A new procedure for the treatment of an industrial waste containing flotation reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Milutin M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation reagents can be transformed to industrial waste if they are stored for a long period of time. Also, if synthesis or drying process is not performed under defined conditions in industrial plants, which produce flotation reagents, batch of waste may arise and be stored as a waste. The chemical composition of this waste depends on the phase in which it was created, but typically includes: unreacted alkali hydroxide, solvent - alcohol and trithiocarbonate and oxidation product - dixanthogenate. In this paper a new laboratory procedure for the treatment of such wastes is described. The identification and separation of industrial waste components is also included. From the separated dixantogenate and xanthate a laboratory synthesis of thioncarbamates is given. In addition, a semi-industrial treatment of waste xanthate is presented. Synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-isobutylthioncarbamates were obtained from the filtrate obtained in the first step. As a by-product, sodium thioglycolate was produced. This by-product is transformed to a thioglycolic acid by the addition of an acid. Also, the synthesis of thioncarbamates from dixanthogenates, isolated from industrial waste as a cake, is desribed. Described waste treatment is additionally interesting due to the production of sulphur as another by-product. Laboratory synthesis gave thioncarbamates in yields from 69.7 to 87.7 %, while the semi-industrial process for the selected batches produced thioncarbamates in yields from 74.2 to 80.5 %. Taking into account the importance of the synthesized compounds as selective flotation reagents, a new procedure of their synthesis from industrial waste is characterized by good yields and purity of the obtained compounds, the simplicity of process, low environmental impact and short reaction times of synthesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43007

  2. First two-reagent vitamin D assay for general clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Padilla-Chee, Mario; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid-soluble molecule that plays key physiological roles in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate and magnesium. Recent studies show that deficiency in vitamin D is linked to cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. As a result, regular monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D (the main circulating form of vitamin D) is becoming essential. Current 25-OH vitamin D testing methodologies are cumbersome (too many reagents, long incubation times, phase separation) and are not compatible with general clinical chemistry platforms. Here, we report on a novel method to detect 25-OH vitamin D that is fast (results in 10 min or less), simple (two reagents) and compatible with virtually all general clinical chemistry analyzers. An immunoturbidimetric assay for 25-OH vitamin D (the Diazyme EZ Vitamin D Assay) has been developed using nanoparticles and vitamin D-specific antibodies. The performance of the assay kit, which consists of two reagents and five calibrators, was tested on the Beckman AU680 analyzer (AU680). The new assay was precise, sensitive (LOD = 7.2 nmol/L), linear (up to 390.1 nmol/L) and correlated strongly (R 2  > 0.95) with major commercial 25-OH vitamin D assays. Additionally, the assay was found to be the fastest to date, with the first results obtained within 10 min. Throughput on the AU680 was estimated at over 300 tests per hour. The newly developed 25-OH vitamin D assay is fast, precise and accurate. It can be run on most general chemistry analyzers. This assay aims at providing vitamin D-testing capabilities to all clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  4. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  5. Photonic reagents for concentration measurement of flu-orescent proteins with overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goun, Alexei; Bondar, Denys I.; Er, Ali O.; Quine, Zachary; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2016-05-01

    By exploiting photonic reagents (i.e., coherent control by shaped laser pulses), we employ Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) as a novel means for quantitatively characterizing mixtures of fluorescent proteins with a large spectral overlap. To illustrate ODD, we simultaneously measured concentrations of in vitro mixtures of Enhanced Blue Fluorescent Protein (EBFP) and Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP). Building on this foundational study, the ultimate goal is to exploit the capabilities of ODD for parallel monitoring of genetic and protein circuits by suppressing the spectral cross-talk among multiple fluorescent reporters.

  6. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie

    2016-04-13

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  7. Amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as new crystallization reagents for lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, amino acids and amino-acid derivatives have been applied in various fields of protein chemistry. The potential use of amino acids and their derivatives as new precipitating agents is described. Several amino acids and their derivatives are prominent additives in the field of protein chemistry. This study reports the use of charged amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as precipitants in protein crystallization, using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model. A discussion of the crystallization of HEWL using these reagents as precipitating agents is given

  8. Derivatization reagents in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) is one of the most prominent analytical techniques owing to its inherent selectivity and sensitivity. In LC/ESI-MS/MS, chemical derivatization is often used to enhance the detection sensitivity. Derivatization improves the chromatographic separation, and enhances the mass spectrometric ionization efficiency and MS/MS detectability. In this review, an overview of the derivatization reagents which have been applied to LC/ESI-MS/MS is presented, focusing on the applications to low molecular weight compounds. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Trans-Selective Rhodium Catalysed Conjugate Addition of Organoboron Reagents to Dihydropyranones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah J. Edwards

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The selective synthesis of 2,6-trans-tetrahydropyran derivatives employing the rhodium catalysed addition of organoboron reagents to dihydropyranone templates, derived from a zinc-catalysed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction, is reported. The addition of both arylboronic acids and potassium alkenyltrifluoroborates have been accomplished in high yields using commercially-available [Rh(cod(OH]2 catalyst. The selective formation of the 2,6-trans-tetrahydropyran stereoisomer is consistent with a mechanism involving alkene association and carbometalation on the less hindered face of the dihydropyranone.

  10. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie; Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Zhongxing; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  11. Remediation of polluted soils contaminated with Linear Alkyl Benzenes using Fenton's reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas do Nascimento Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear Alkyl Benzenes (LABs are used as insulating oil for electric cables. When it happens a spill, LABs they are basically sorbed in the soil, because, these compounds have high hidrophobicity and low vapor pressure. The conventional methods of treatment of soils are not efficient. The Fenton's reaction (reaction between a solution of iron II and hydrogen peroxide it generates hydroxyl radicals, not selective, and capable of oxidize a great variety of organic compounds. A study was conducted to evaluate the viability of use of the Fenton's reagents to promote the remediation of polluted soils with Linear Alkyl Benzenes. A column was especially projected for these experiments, packed with a sandy and other soil loamy. The pH of the soil was not altered. The obtained results demonstrated the technical viability of the process of injection of the Fenton's reagents for the treatment of polluted areas with LABs.Os Linear Alquilbenzenos (LABs são usados como fluido refrigerante de cabos elétricos. Quando ocorre um vazamento, os LABs ficam basicamente adsorvidos no solo, pois, são compostos bastante hidrofóbicos e com baixa pressão de vapor. Os métodos convencionais de tratamento de solos não são eficientes. A reação de Fenton (solução de ferro II e peróxido de hidrogênio gera radicais hidroxila, não seletivos, e capazes de oxidar uma grande variedade de compostos orgânicos, chegando a mineralização dos mesmos. Neste trabalho foi estudada a viabilidade de utilização dos reagentes de Fenton para promover a remediação de solos contaminados com LABs. Utilizou-se uma coluna especialmente projetada para estes experimentos, empacotada com um solo arenoso e outro argiloso. O pH do solo não foi alterado. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a viabilidade técnica do processo de injeção dos reagentes de Fenton para o tratamento de áreas contaminadas com LABs.

  12. Iron-Catalyzed Dehydration of Aldoximes to Nitriles Requiring Neither Other Reagents Nor Nitrile Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kengo; Kitagawa, Saki; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Uchida, Kingo

    2016-05-06

    The dehydration of aldoximes is an environmentally benign reaction affording the desired nitrile and water as a by-product. However, most of the reported catalytic dehydration reactions of aldoximes require a solvent containing nitrile to synthesize the corresponding nitrile compounds. Inspired by recent reports on the enzymatic synthesis under nitrile-free conditions, we here describe that a simple iron salt catalyzes the dehydration of aldoximes requiring neither other reagents nor nitrile media. Our method can be applied to the one-pot synthesis of nitiriles from aldehydes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Transformations of diaziridines and their fused analogues induced by electrophilic reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhova, Nina N; Shevtsov, Alexander V; Petukhova, Vera Yu

    2011-01-01

    The review deals with transformations of mono- and bicyclic diaziridine derivatives with different types of substitution induced by electrophilic reagents (protic acids, Lewis acids, alkylating and acylating agents, carbonyl compounds, heterocumulenes, activated alkenes and alkynes and transition metal salts). The characteristic features of the reactions are considered as functions of the structures of the starting diaziridines and the nature of the reaction medium (organic solvents, ionic liquids). Prospects of the use of diaziridine derivatives as readily available precursors for the synthesis of various nitrogen-containing heterocyclic systems based on the diaziridine ring expansion reactions are considered. The bibliography includes 136 references.

  14. Phenylmercuric hydroxide. A highly selective reagent for the hydration of nonconjugated terminal alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janout, V.; Regen, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes an unusual and highly selective method for hydrating nonconjugated terminal alkynes based on the use of phenylmercuric hydroxide as a reagent. Unlike classical mercury catalyzed procedures, sigma-bonded mercury acetylides are formed initially as stable intermediates and subsequently reacted with water under neutral pH to form the corresponding methyl ketone. Isolated yields which have been obtained by using this approach lie in the range of 49-65%. The high selectivity toward nonconjugated terminal alkynes which characterizes the procedure described herein should make it a useful supplement to existing hydration methods

  15. Chromatographic methods for determination of metals as chelate compounds with heterocyclic azo reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, E.M.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Shpigun, O.A.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for separation and concentration of transition metals as well as cadmium in form of chelates with heterocyclic azo compounds namely, PAN(1-(2-pyridylaso)-2-naphthol), PAR(4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcin), Br-PAAP (2-(5-bromine-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol) are considered. The Br-PAAP reagent is the most sensitive and widely-applied one in extraction and highly-efficient liquid chromatography. Methods of sorption concentration with subsequent element determination directly on the sorbent without microelements separation or destruction are the most promissing ones

  16. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  17. Manganese-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Halides and Grignard Reagents by a Radical Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Ahlburg, Andreas; Fristrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The substrate scope and the mechanism have been investigated for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and Grignard reagents. The transformation proceeds rapidly and in good yield when the aryl halide component is an aryl chloride containing a cyano or an ester group....... Two radical-clock experiments were carried out, and in both cases an intermediate aryl radical was successfully trapped. The cross-coupling reaction is therefore believed to proceed by an SRN1 mechanism, with a triorganomanganate complex serving as the most likely nucleophile and single-electron donor...

  18. Evaluation of a portable urinary pH meter and reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Vincent; Keller, Etienne Xavier; Rodríguez-Monsalve, María; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate a portable electronic pH meter and to put its accuracy in perspective with reagent strips read by a layperson, a healthcare professional and an electronic reading device. Based on a pre-analysis on 20 patients, a sample size of 77 urine aliquots from healthy volunteers was necessary to obtain sufficient study power. Measurements of urinary pH were obtained by use of reagent strips, a portable pH meter and a laboratory pH meter (gold standard). Reagents strips were read by a professional experienced in interpreting strips, a layperson, and an electronic strip reader. The mean matched pair difference between measurement methods was analyzed by the paired t-test. The degree of correlation and agreement were evaluated by the Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots, respectively. The mean matched pair difference between the gold standard and all other pH measurement methods was the smallest with the portable electronic pH meter (bias 0.01, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.08; p=0.89), followed by strips read by a professional (bias -0.09, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.02; p=0.10), layperson (bias -0.17, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.04; p=0.015) and electronic strip reader (bias -0.29, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16; pmeter achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficient and narrowest 95% limits of agreement, followed by strip interpretation by a professional, the electronic strip reader and the layperson. In order to quantify the ability of pH measurement methods to correctly classify values within a predefined urinary pH target range, we performed classification tests for several stones. The portable electronic pH meter outperformed all other measurement methods for negative predictive values. Findings of the current study support that the portable electronic pH meter is a reliable pH measuring device. It seems to be more accurate compared to reagent strips readings.

  19. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.

    1990-10-16

    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  20. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  1. Azidoimidazolinium Salts: Safe and Efficient Diazo-transfer Reagents and Unique Azido-donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2017-07-01

    2-Azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride (ADMC) and its corresponding hexafluorophosphate (ADMP) were found to be efficient diazo-transfer reagents to various organic compounds. ADMC was prepared by the reaction of 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride (DMC) and sodium azide. ADMP was isolated as a crystal having good thermal stability and low explosibility. ADMC and ADMP reacted with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds under mild basic conditions to give 2-diazo-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in high yields, which were easily isolated in virtue of the high water solubility of the by-products. ADMP showed high diazo-transfer ability to primary amines even in the absence of metal salt such as Cu(II). Using this diazotization approach, various alkyl/aryl azides were directly obtained from their corresponding primary amines in high yields. Furthermore, naphthols reacted with ADMC to give the corresponding diazonaphthoquinones in good to high yields. In addition, 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium salts were employed as azide-transfer and migratory amidation reagents. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. OPTIMIZING CONDITIONS FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS IN WINES USING FOLIN-CIOCALTEU REAGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex beverage that obtains its properties mainly due to synergistic effect of alcohol, organic acids, arbohydrates, as well as the phenolic and aromatic substances. At present days, we can observe an increased interest in the study of polyphenols in wines that have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and many other beneficial effects. Moderate and regular consumption of the red wine especially, with a high content of phenolic compounds, has a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for pectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in wine using Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent. Based on several studies, in order to minimize chemical use and optimize analysis time, we have proposed a method for the determination of total polyphenols using 0.25 ml Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent, 3 ml of 20% Na2CO3 solution and time of coloring complex 1.5 hour. We f

  3. Employing natural reagents from turmeric and lime for acetic acid determination in vinegar sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supharoek, Sam-Ang; Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Siriangkhawut, Watsaka; Grudpan, Kate

    2018-04-01

    A simple, rapid and environmentally friendly sequential injection analysis system employing natural extract reagents was developed for the determination of acetic acid following an acid-base reaction in the presence of an indicator. Powdered lime and turmeric were utilized as the natural base and indicator, respectively. Mixing lime and turmeric produced an orange to reddish-brown color solution which absorbed the maximum wavelength at 455 nm, with absorbance decreasing with increasing acetic acid concentration. Influential parameters including lime and turmeric concentrations, reagent and sample aspirated volumes, mixing coil length and dispensing flow rate were investigated and optimized. A standard calibration graph was plotted for 0-5.0 mmol/L acetic acid with r 2  = 0.9925. Relative standard deviations (RSD) at 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/L acetic acid were less than 3% (n = 7), with limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) at 0.12 and 0.24 mmol/L, respectively. The method was successfully applied to assay acetic acid concentration in cooking vinegar samples. Results achieved were not significantly different from those obtained following a batchwise standard AOAC titration method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Inhibition of Urease by Disulfiram, an FDA-Approved Thiol Reagent Used in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel Gabriel; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Aguirre-Reyes, Luis; Orozpe-Olvera, Jesica Aline; Ramos-Soto, Miguel Armando; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; Alvarado-Tenorio, Bonifacio; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra

    2016-11-26

    Urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction that constitutes an important source of nitrogen for bacteria, fungi and plants. It is recognized as a potential antimicrobial target with an impact on medicine, agriculture, and the environment. The list of possible urease inhibitors is continuously increasing, with a special interest in those that interact with and block the flexible active site flap. We show that disulfiram inhibits urease in Citrullus vulgaris (CVU), following a non-competitive mechanism, and may be one of this kind of inhibitors. Disulfiram is a well-known thiol reagent that has been approved by the FDA for treatment of chronic alcoholism. We also found that other thiol reactive compounds (l-captopril and Bithionol) and quercetin inhibits CVU. These inhibitors protect the enzyme against its full inactivation by the thiol-specific reagent Aldrithiol (2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide, DPS), suggesting that the three drugs bind to the same subsite. Enzyme kinetics, competing inhibition experiments, auto-fluorescence binding experiments, and docking suggest that the disulfiram reactive site is Cys592, which has been proposed as a "hinge" located in the flexible active site flap. This study presents the basis for the use of disulfiram as one potential inhibitor to control urease activity.

  5. Glutarimidedioxime: a complexing and reducing reagent for plutonium recovery from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Liang [Radiochemistry Department, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Tian, Guoxin [Radiochemistry Department, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, David K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Efficient separation processes for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel are essential to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The performance characteristics of a new salt-free complexing and reducing reagent, glutarimidedioxime (H{sub 2}A), are reported for recovering plutonium in a PUREX process. With a phase ratio of organic to aqueous of up to 10:1, plutonium can be effectively stripped from 30 % tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene into 1 m HNO{sub 3} with H{sub 2}A. The complexation-reduction mechanism is illustrated with the combination of UV/Vis absorption spectra and the crystal structure of a Pu{sup IV} complex with the reagent. The fast stripping rate and the high efficiency for stripping Pu{sup IV}, through the complexation-reduction mechanism, is suitable for use in centrifugal contactors with very short contact/resident times, thereby offering significant advantages over conventional processes. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Factors involved in the selection of limestone reagents for use in wet FGD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, J.B.; Roothaan, E.S.; Meserole, F.B.; Owens, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    With recent activity in the design and construction of retrofit flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, many utilities are faced with the task of selecting limestones which will allow FGD systems to function as designed, and at the same time, provide cost-effective operation. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored research to identify factors which should be considered in the reagent selection process. A set of capabilities has been developed which is currently being employed to assist six utilities in selecting cost-effective reagent sources. The major elements in the selection package consist of an analytical characterization of candidate limestones; grindability, reactivity, and magnesium availability testing; and performance modeling utilizing EPRI's FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM). The results from these measurements are used to perform a site-specific economic analysis which can be used to rank the candidate limestones and quantify the impact of various limestone properties on plant operating costs. This paper includes a description of each element in the selection package along with a review of current research activities aimed at improving predictions of limestone reactivity and magnesium availability. An example is presented which illustrates how reactivity and magnesium availability affect both the performance of an FGD system and plant operating costs

  7. N-m-nitrocinnamoylphenylhydroxyl-amine as reagent for amperometric determination of yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliferenko, G.L.; Gallaj, Z.A.; Sheina, N.M.; Shvedene, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Possibility of using organic reagent of unsaturated N-arylsubstituted derivatives class of hydroxamic acids N-m-nitrocinnamoyl phenylhydroxylamire (NCPHA) for amperometric titration of yttrium using indication of e.t.p. by current of reagent oxidation on graphite electrode is investigated. Metal and the NCPHA form difficultly soluble complex with ratio of yttrium to the NCPHA, which is equal to 1:3. Buffer mixtures of 0.1MNH 3 +0.1MCH 3 COOH composis tion with pH 6.3-7.5 are optimal background solutions for amperometric titration of yttrium. The proposed method permits to determine 10-600 μkg of yttrium in the volume of 10 ml. Effect of the series of strange elements on titration of yttrium with NCPHA (Ca, Mg, Mn (2), Al, CU (2), Fe (3) REE and others) is studied. The developed method is used for yttrium determination in luminophores of Casub(n)-- Ysub(m)Fsub(z)xMn(2) (1-10%) composition

  8. Analogs of N-cynnamoylphenylhydroxylamine as reagents for amperometric determination of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedene, N.V.; Gallaj, Z.A.; Sheina, N.M.; Zujkova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    To decrease the detection limit of scandium and increase selectivity of amperometric determination, oxidation of 2-furylacryloyl-N-p-chlorophenylhydroxylamine (FACPhHA) and 3-styrylacryloyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (SAPhHA) on a graphite electrode has been studied by volt-amperometry. The possibility has been established of using the oxidation current of the reagent for plotting the titration curves. The solubility of scandium complexes with FACPhHA and SAPhHA under conditions of titration against the background with pH 6.0 has been determined and equals (2.1+-0.3)x10 -6 and (5.3+-0.3)x10 -7 , respectively. The methods have been developed of amperometric determination of scandium with the use of the considered reagents against backgrounds with pH 5.5-6.5. The use of SAPhHA has decreased the limit of scandium detection down to 0.1 mgk/ml. Besides, the amperometric method makes it possible to titrate in turbid and coloured media what is an advantage of this method. The developed method is used for determination of scandium in scandium silicide

  9. Bacteriophage Mediates Efficient Gene Transfer in Combination with Conventional Transfection Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Amanda; Yata, Teerapong; Bentayebi, Kaoutar; Suwan, Keittisak; Hajitou, Amin

    2015-12-08

    The development of commercially available transfection reagents for gene transfer applications has revolutionized the field of molecular biology and scientific research. However, the challenge remains in ensuring that they are efficient, safe, reproducible and cost effective. Bacteriophage (phage)-based viral vectors have the potential to be utilized for general gene transfer applications within research and industry. Yet, they require adaptations in order to enable them to efficiently enter cells and overcome mammalian cellular barriers, as they infect bacteria only; furthermore, limited progress has been made at increasing their efficiency. The production of a novel hybrid nanocomplex system consisting of two different nanomaterial systems, phage vectors and conventional transfection reagents, could overcome these limitations. Here we demonstrate that the combination of cationic lipids, cationic polymers or calcium phosphate with M13 bacteriophage-derived vectors, engineered to carry a mammalian transgene cassette, resulted in increased cellular attachment, entry and improved transgene expression in human cells. Moreover, addition of a targeting ligand into the nanocomplex system, through genetic engineering of the phage capsid further increased gene expression and was effective in a stable cell line generation application. Overall, this new hybrid nanocomplex system (i) provides enhanced phage-mediated gene transfer; (ii) is applicable for laboratory transfection processes and (iii) shows promise within industry for large-scale gene transfer applications.

  10. A multiple-well method for immunohistochemical testing of many reagents on a single microscopic slide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P E; Letica, L H; Shakui, P; Averill, D R

    1988-09-01

    Multiple wells (M-wells) have been made over tissue sections on single microscopic slides to simultaneously localize binding specificity of many antibodies. More than 20 individual 4-microliter wells over tissue have been applied/slide, representing more than a 5-fold improvement in wells/slide and a 25-fold reduction in reagent volume over previous methods. More than 30 wells/slide have been applied over cellular monolayers. To produce the improvement, previous strategies of placing specimens into wells were changed to instead create wells over the specimen. We took advantage of the hydrophobic properties of paint to surround the wells and to segregate the various different primary antibodies. Segregation was complete on wells alternating with and without primary monoclonal antibody. The procedure accommodates both frozen and paraffin sections, yielding slides which last more than a year. After monoclonal antibody detection, standard histologic stains can be applied as counterstains. M-wells are suitable for localizing binding of multiple reagents or sample unknowns (polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma supernatants, body fluids, lectins) to either tissues or cells. Their small sample volume and large number of sample wells/slide could be particularly useful for early screening of hybridoma supernatants and for titration curves in immunohistochemistry (McKeever PE, Shakui P, Letica LH, Averill DR: J Histochem Cytochem 36:931, 1988).

  11. Nanofiltration-Enabled In Situ Solvent and Reagent Recycle for Sustainable Continuous-Flow Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodi, Tamas; Didaskalou, Christos; Kupai, Jozsef; Balogh, Gyorgy T; Huszthy, Peter; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-09-11

    Solvent usage in the pharmaceutical sector accounts for as much as 90 % of the overall mass during manufacturing processes. Consequently, solvent consumption poses significant costs and environmental burdens. Continuous processing, in particular continuous-flow reactors, have great potential for the sustainable production of pharmaceuticals but subsequent downstream processing remains challenging. Separation processes for concentrating and purifying chemicals can account for as much as 80 % of the total manufacturing costs. In this work, a nanofiltration unit was coupled to a continuous-flow rector for in situ solvent and reagent recycling. The nanofiltration unit is straightforward to implement and simple to control during continuous operation. The hybrid process operated continuously over six weeks, recycling about 90 % of the solvent and reagent. Consequently, the E-factor and the carbon footprint were reduced by 91 % and 19 %, respectively. Moreover, the nanofiltration unit led to a solution of the product eleven times more concentrated than the reaction mixture and increased the purity from 52.4 % to 91.5 %. The boundaries for process conditions were investigated to facilitate implementation of the methodology by the pharmaceutical sector. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bromopyrogallol red: a new microanalytical reagent for amperometric estimation of Dy (III) and Gd (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, G.P.; Lavale, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Bromopyrogallol red (BPR) has been extensively used as an indicator but its electro-reducibility has proved it to be a very useful amperometric reagent. BPR reduces on a DME in KNO 3 in the entire pH range 2.4 to 9.5. It produces single stage reduction wave below pH 4, but a two stage reduction wave in the basic range. Progressive ionization of hydroxyl group and distinct colour species of BPR, have also been studied using a Bausch and Lomb spectronic-20 spectrophotometer in order to support electroanalytical studies. On performing amperometric titrations of Dy(III) and Gd(III) with BPR at its plateau potential 1.0 V at pH 2.6 and μ = 0.4, reversed L-shaped titration curves have been observed indicating metal to BPR ratio 1:1 and the colour changes from claret red to orange yellow. The reagents have been tested in presence of various diverse ions and tolerance limits have been computed. Na + , K + , Li + , Cl - , ClO 4 - , CH 3 COO - , Pd 2+ , Fe 3+ ions did not interfere in the titrimetric procedure. However, small amounts of Bi 3+ , Pb 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mg 2+ and rare earth metals have hampered the titrimetric estimations. (author)

  13. A Field-Portable Cell Analyzer without a Microscope and Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongmin; Oh, Sangwoo; Lee, Moonjin; Hwang, Yongha; Seo, Sungkyu

    2017-12-29

    This paper demonstrates a commercial-level field-portable lens-free cell analyzer called the NaviCell (No-stain and Automated Versatile Innovative cell analyzer) capable of automatically analyzing cell count and viability without employing an optical microscope and reagents. Based on the lens-free shadow imaging technique, the NaviCell (162 × 135 × 138 mm³ and 1.02 kg) has the advantage of providing analysis results with improved standard deviation between measurement results, owing to its large field of view. Importantly, the cell counting and viability testing can be analyzed without the use of any reagent, thereby simplifying the measurement procedure and reducing potential errors during sample preparation. In this study, the performance of the NaviCell for cell counting and viability testing was demonstrated using 13 and six cell lines, respectively. Based on the results of the hemocytometer ( de facto standard), the error rate (ER) and coefficient of variation (CV) of the NaviCell are approximately 3.27 and 2.16 times better than the commercial cell counter, respectively. The cell viability testing of the NaviCell also showed an ER and CV performance improvement of 5.09 and 1.8 times, respectively, demonstrating sufficient potential in the field of cell analysis.

  14. Interfacial reaction using particle-immobilized reagents in a fluidized reactor. Determination of glycerol in biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishov, Andrey, E-mail: andrey.shishov.rus@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU–198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zabrodin, Andrey; Moskvin, Leonid [Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU–198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Andruch, Vasil [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of P.J. Šafárik, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); Bulatov, Andrey [Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU–198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    A novel fluidized beads strategy for utilization of particle-immobilized reagents in flow analysis was developed in this study. The performance of the suggested strategy was demonstrated by the determination of glycerol in biodiesel. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. The method is based on on-line extraction of glycerol from biodiesel into aqueous stationary phase of extraction-chromatographic column, followed by elution and spectrophotometric determination in the form of copper glycerate formed in a fluidized reactor of stepwise injection system. The floating of cation exchange resin Dowex{sup ®} 50WX4, saturated with Cu(II) ions in liquid phase, was accomplished by air-bubbling. The linear range was from 100 to 1000 mg kg{sup −1}, and the limit of detection, calculated as 3s of a blank test (n = 5), was found to be 30 mg kg{sup −1}. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel and biodiesel-blend (B 20) samples. - Highlights: • Novel fluidized beds strategy for utilization of particle-immobilized reagents. • First application of fluidized beds condition in SWIA. • Novel approach based on interfacial formation of copper glycerate. • Automated method for glycerol determination in biodiesel.

  15. Reagent-free bacterial identification using multivariate analysis of transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer M.; Huffman, Debra E.; Acosta, Dayanis; Serebrennikova, Yulia; García-Rubio, Luis; Leparc, German F.

    2012-10-01

    The identification of bacterial pathogens from culture is critical to the proper administration of antibiotics and patient treatment. Many of the tests currently used in the clinical microbiology laboratory for bacterial identification today can be highly sensitive and specific; however, they have the additional burdens of complexity, cost, and the need for specialized reagents. We present an innovative, reagent-free method for the identification of pathogens from culture. A clinical study has been initiated to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this approach. Multiwavelength transmission spectra were generated from a set of clinical isolates including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Spectra of an initial training set of these target organisms were used to create identification models representing the spectral variability of each species using multivariate statistical techniques. Next, the spectra of the blinded isolates of targeted species were identified using the model achieving >94% sensitivity and >98% specificity, with 100% accuracy for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results from this on-going clinical study indicate this approach is a powerful and exciting technique for identification of pathogens. The menu of models is being expanded to include other bacterial genera and species of clinical significance.

  16. COMPARAÇÃO DE TIRAS REAGENTES PARA URINÁLISE VETERINÁRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudison da Silva Florêncio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No exame de urina é possível identificar parâmetros como pH, glicose, cetona, proteína, bilirrubina, urobilinogênio, densidade, hemoglobina, leucócitos, ácido ascórbico, outros e o exame do sedimento urinário. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para comparar as marcas de tiras reagentes de urina Roche Combur10 Test® UX, Labtest Uriquest Plus VET® e Inlab Uri-test11® com a marca utilizada na rotina do Laboratório de Análises Clínicas, a Labtest Uriquest Plus®. Foi observada discrepâncias entre os resultados das marcas desenvolvidas para a medicina humana com a marca desenvolvida para a medicina veterinária e entre elas, nos exames da urina de cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário. Foi possível observar que os parâmetros de pH, densidade e proteína urinária apresentaram maiores discrepâncias entre as fitas quando comparado com padrões para dosagens da densidade por refratometria e da proteína por espectrofotometria. Há necessidade de padronização do exame de urina com tiras reagentes, pois é um valioso auxílio ao diagnóstico de doenças renais e extra-renais.

  17. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

  18. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent; Degradacao da resina de troca ionica utilizando o reagente de Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase by 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine: protection by the hydrolyzed reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (FSO 2 BzAdo) at pH 8.0 and 25 0 C results in the loss of enzyme activity, which is not restored by the addition of β-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol. The FSO 2 BzAdo concentration dependence of the inactivation kinetics is described by a mechanism that includes the equilibrium binding of the reagent to the enzyme prior to a first-order inactivation reaction in addition to effects of reagent hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of the reagent has two effects on the observed kinetics. The first effect is deviation from pseudo-first-order kinetic behavior due to depletion of the reagent. The second effect is the novel protection of the enzyme from inactivation due to binding of the sulfonate hydrolysis product. Determinations of the reaction stoichiometry with 3 H-labeled FSO 2 BzAdo show that the inactivation is associated with the covalent incorporation of 1.08 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme subunit. Ligand protection experiments show that ATP, AMP, dAMP, NADH, 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, and the sulfonate hydrolysis product of FSO 2 BzAdo provide protection from inactivation. The protection obtained with ATMP is not dependent on Mg 2+ . The results are consistent with modification by FSO 2 BzAdo of a single adenine nucleotide binding site per enzyme subunit

  20. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R

    1949-01-01

    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  1. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  2. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  3. A importância da qualidade da água reagente no laboratório clínico The importance of water quality in clinical laboratory reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabete Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A água é um reagente utilizado na maioria dos testes laboratoriais e por isso deve seguir um padrão de controle de qualidade rigoroso. O fornecimento urbano de água apresenta moléculas orgânicas, íons inorgânicos, partículas, coloides, gases, bactérias e seus produtos, que podem alterar os resultados dos exames laboratoriais e causar eventuais erros e falhas mecânicas em equipamentos analíticos. Para remover essas impurezas, é necessário recorrer a uma combinação de tecnologias de purificação. Há várias organizações que especificam normas sobre a água reagente, a fim de minimizar sua interferência nos ensaios laboratoriais. A maioria dos laboratórios utiliza as normas estabelecidas pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI que classifica a água em: clinical laboratory reagent water (CLRW, special reagent water (SRW e instrumental feed water (IFW. O monitoramento da qualidade é realizado pela determinação de resistividade, condutividade, carbono orgânico total (TOC, controle microbiológico e endotoxinas. Os parâmetros são avaliados de acordo com a periodicidade estabelecida pela norma utilizada. Neste artigo, discutem-se a importância da água utilizada nos procedimentos laboratoriais, o controle da qualidade e as interferências nos ensaios laboratoriais.Water is a reagent used in most laboratory tests and, therefore, must follow stringent quality control standards. The urban water supply has organic molecules, inorganic ions, particles, colloids, gases, bacteria and their products, which may alter laboratory test results and cause occasional errors and mechanical failures in diagnostic equipment. To remove these impurities, it is necessary to use a combination of purification technologies. There are several organizations that specify reagent water standards to minimize its interference in laboratory assays. Most laboratories set standards established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards

  4. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  5. Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisti, C.; Grigoletto, T.

    1990-08-01

    Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H 2 O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author) [pt

  6. A two-reagent neutralization scheme for controlling the migration of contaminants from a uranium mill tailing disposal pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for reducing contaminant migration from tailings liquor impoundments and evaporation ponds are being investigated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Uranium Research and Recovery Program. Building upon previous studies investigating single-reagent neutralization, laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of a two-reagent neutralization scheme for the treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings liquors. Acidic tailings liquor, pH 3 neutralization to pH 4.0 followed by continued neutralization with lime to pH 7.3, resulted in the highest solution quality with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's water quality guidelines. Furthermore, the two-reagent neutralization scheme is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested to date

  7. Two-reagent neutralization scheme for controlling the migration of contaminants from a uranium mill tailings disposal pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1984-11-01

    Techniques for reducing contaminant migration from tailings liquor impoundments and evaporation ponds are being investigated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Uranium Research and Recovery Program. Building upon previous studies investigating single-reagent neutralization, laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of a two-reagent neutralization scheme for the treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings liquors. Acidic tailings liquor, pH 3 neutralization to pH 4.0 followed by continued neutralization with lime to pH 7.3, resulted in the highest solution quality with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's water quality guidelines. Furthermore, the two-reagent neutralization scheme is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested to date. 13 references, 1 table

  8. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  9. Studies on synthesis of a kind of new colour reagents bromophosphonobisazo derivatives of chromotropic acid and the effect of their constitution on colour behaviours with rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bincai, W.; Yuxin, Q.; Hengchuan, L.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the previous systematic studies, this paper reports to the original constitution of chlorophosphonazo type of colour reagents, has been reformed, and a kind of 14 new asymmetrical bromophosphonobisazo colour reagents of chromotropic acid have been designed and synthesized. In the meanwhile, the relationship between constitution of colour reagents and its behaviour in colour reaction with rare earth elements has been investigated. In addition, the general colour behaviours of these reagents and the influence of organic solvents and surfactants have been preliminarily studied

  10. Multielement analysis of reagents used in chemical identification of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, A.; Brigido Flores, O.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    For more than 40 years, chemical identification of transuranic elements has been used at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Join Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, as a secondary method of identification. Chlorination of transuranic elements obtained by nuclear reactions is an important step of the procedure in order to obtain volatile compounds able to pass through a thermo chromatographic process. To access the quality of the reagents TiCl 4 and SOCl 2 multielement analysis was carried out using both X-rays fluorescence and gamma activation. It was followed the simplest procedure for reagents samples pretreatment, so further interferences from other chemical products were avoided. X-rays fluorescence analysis was performed in a spectrometer with Si(Li) detector with a resolution for Fe (K?) of 190 eV. Both Cd-109 and Am-241 were used as isotopic sources of excitation. Gamma activation analysis was carried out using the compact electron accelerator MT-25, where gamma rays are produced in a stopping target. Among the parameters of the MT-25 are the following: energy range-10-25 MeV, gamma-ray flux-10 14 photon/s, power consumption-20 kw. Measurements of the induced activity were performed with the help of a HPGe detector, thin and coaxial Ge(Li) detectors. There were identified two elements in SOCl 2 -Nickel (3*10 -6 g/g) and Antimony (2*10 -7 g/g), while there were identified three elements in TiCl 4 - Zirconium (8*10 -7 g/g), Arsenic (9*10 -7 g/g) and Antimony (5*10 -7 g/g). Only five elements were detected in trace concentrations in the two analyzed reagents, that is for more than 57 elements capable of being detected using gamma activation analysis with the MT-25 only 5 had concentrations above the detection limits of the method. Not being chemical analogs of the synthesized transuranic elements (Z-104 and 106) and not being able to alpha or fission disintegrations there is not expected any interference from them in the chemical

  11. Systematic Evaluation of Protein Reduction and Alkylation Reveals Massive Unspecific Side Effects by Iodine-containing Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Torsten; Winter, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Reduction and alkylation of cysteine residues is part of virtually any proteomics workflow. Despite its frequent use, up to date no systematic investigation of the impact of different conditions on the outcome of proteomics studies has been performed. In this study, we compared common reduction reagents (dithiothreitol, tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and alkylation reagents (iodoacetamide, iodoacetic acid, acrylamide, and chloroacetamide). Using in-gel digests as well as SAX fractionated in-solution digests of cytosolic fractions of HeLa cells, we evaluated 13 different reduction and alkylation conditions resulting in considerably varying identification rates. We observed strong differences in offsite alkylation reactions at 7 amino acids as well as at the peptide N terminus, identifying single and double adducts of all reagents. Using dimethyl labeling, mass tolerant searches, and synthetic peptide experiments, we identified alkylation of methionine residues by iodine-containing alkylation reagents as one of the major factors for the differences. We observed differences of more than 9-fold in numbers of identified methionine-containing peptide spectral matches for in-gel digested samples between iodine- and noniodine-containing alkylation reagents. This was because of formation of carbamidomethylated and carboxymethylated methionine side chains and a resulting prominent neutral loss during ESI ionization or in MS/MS fragmentation, strongly decreasing identification rates of methionine-containing peptides. We achieved best results with acrylamide as alkylation reagent, whereas the highest numbers of peptide spectral matches were obtained when reducing with dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol for the in-solution and the in-gel digested samples, respectively. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Single-reagent one-step procedures for the purification of ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab antivenoms by caprylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2014-01-15

    Antivenoms are typically produced in horses or sheep and often purified using salt precipitation of immunoglobulins or F(ab')2 fragments. Caprylic (octanoic) acid fractionation of antiserum has the advantage of not precipitating the desired antibodies, thereby avoiding potential degradation that can lead to the formation of aggregates, which may be the cause of some adverse reactions to antivenoms. Here we report that when optimising the purification of immunoglobulins from ovine antiserum raised against snake venom, caprylic acid was found to have no effect on the activity of the enzymes pepsin and papain, which are employed in antivenom manufacturing to digest immunoglobulins to obtain F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, respectively. A "single-reagent" method was developed for the production of F(ab')2 antivenom whereby whole ovine antiserum was mixed with both caprylic acid and pepsin and incubated for 4h at 37°C. For ovine Fab antivenom production from whole antiserum, the "single reagent" comprised of caprylic acid, papain and l-cysteine; after incubation at 37°C for 18-20h, iodoacetamide was added to stop the reaction. Caprylic acid facilitated the precipitation of albumin, resulting in a reduced protein load presented to the digestion enzymes, culminating in substantial reductions in processing time. The ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab products obtained using these novel caprylic acid methods were comparable in terms of yield, purity and specific activity to those obtained by multi-step conventional salt fractionation with sodium sulphate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  14. Radiation shielding lead shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei, Shoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns lead shields for radiation shielding. Shield boxes are disposed so as to surround a pipeline through which radioactive liquids, mists or like other objects are passed. Flanges are formed to each of the end edges of the shield boxes and the shield boxes are connected to each other by the flanges. Upon installation, empty shield boxes not charged with lead particles and iron plate shields are secured at first at the periphery of the pipeline. Then, lead particles are charged into the shield boxes. This attains a state as if lead plate corresponding to the depth of the box is disposed. Accordingly, operations for installation, dismantling and restoration can be conducted in an empty state with reduced weight to facilitate the operations. (I.S.)

  15. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  16. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  17. Radioimmunoassay of human homologous prolactin in serum with commercially available reagents. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, P.C.; Jiang, N.S.; Abboud, C.F.

    1977-09-01

    A clinically useful and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human homologous prolactin, established with commercially available reagents, was studied and validated. We present detailed conditions for iodination and purification of labeled prolactin and the optimal conditions for the assay. By the method, we found values (..mu..g/liter) as follows for serum prolactin: normal men, 8.9 +- 5.2 (mean +- SD); normal women, 11.8 +- 5.5; normal women taking contraceptive pills, 9.2 +- 5.0; pregnant women in the third trimester, 188 +- 69.5; patients with various diseases other than of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, 9.3 +- 6.3; in some patients with amenorrhea and galactorrhea of diverse origin, 78.2 +- 87.4; and in some patients with surgically proven pituitary tumor, 1414 +- 1980. Results under provocative testing are also presented for a patient with normal hypothalamic-pituitary function.

  18. Reporter-nanobody fusions (RANbodies) as versatile, small, sensitive immunohistochemical reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

    2018-02-27

    Sensitive and specific antibodies are essential for detecting molecules in cells and tissues. However, currently used polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are often less specific than desired, difficult to produce, and available in limited quantities. A promising recent approach to circumvent these limitations is to employ chemically defined antigen-combining domains called "nanobodies," derived from single-chain camelid antibodies. Here, we used nanobodies to prepare sensitive unimolecular detection reagents by genetically fusing cDNAs encoding nanobodies to enzymatic or antigenic reporters. We call these fusions between a reporter and a nanobody "RANbodies." They can be used to localize epitopes and to amplify signals from fluorescent proteins. They can be generated and purified simply and in unlimited amounts and can be preserved safely and inexpensively in the form of DNA or digital sequence.

  19. Determination of the normal range of thyroid hormones in Sudanese by locally produced reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Nagi Ibrahim

    1999-05-01

    In this study serum samples have been collected from 100 volunteers in order to measure serum thyroxine (T 4 ) and serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ). The volunteers were selected carefully in the bases of the thyroid history as they should not complain of any thyroid disorders, no history of thyroid problems. They were males and females covering the range of 10-60 years old. Blood samples were collected, separated and the serum samples were kept frozen in (-20 degree C). Analysis of serum (T 4 and T 3 ) were carried out using sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods. The reagents were locally produced. The results were analysed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer program, which specially used for the determination of normal ranges and other medical statistics purposes

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of metformin in pharmaceutical preparations, serum and urine using benzoin as derivatizing reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Hayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric procedure is described for the determination of Metformin based on derivatization with benzoin. The Beers law was obeyed with 2.50-12.50 meu mol L-1 at 290 nm with coefficient of determination (r2) 0.997. The experimental conditions in term of pH, reaction time and temperature, and addition of derivatizing reagent were examined. The pure metformin-benzoin derivative was prepared and characterized by FT-IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The method was applied for the determination of metformin from pharmaceutical preparations and serum and urine of volunteers after spiking with metformin. The results were checked by standard addition method. A number of pharmaceutical additives and serum or urine matrix did not affect the determination of metformin. (author)

  1. Small-scale extraction and radioiodination of human hormones for the substitution of imported radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Schwarz, I.; Morganti, L.; Araujo, E.A.; Bartolini, P.

    1988-01-01

    The methods for national production of radioimmunoassay reagents to substitute imported kits of: highly purified unlabelled hormones for radioiodination; 125 I-labelled hormones; and specific high titre antisera are presented. The extraction and purification of human growth hormone (hGH) and human luteinizing hormone (hGH) were done from human pituitaries. The 125 I-labelled hormones are obtained by stoichiometric methods. The 125 I-hGH, 125 I-hLH, I-hTSH and 125 I- h calcitonin were prepared and tested in internal and external quality control, in comparison with imported products. The parameters such as: maximum binding to specific antiserum (Bo), nonspecific binding (NSB), mean effective dose (ED 50), sensitivity and accuracy were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. A Novel Property of DNA – As a Bioflotation Reagent in Mineral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthakumar, Balasubramanian; Ravishankar, Honnavar; Subramanian, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns regarding the use of certain chemicals in the froth flotation of minerals have led investigators to explore biological entities as potential substitutes for the reagents in vogue. Despite the fact that several microorganisms have been used for the separation of a variety of mineral systems, a detailed characterization of the biochemical molecules involved therein has not been reported so far. In this investigation, the selective flotation of sphalerite from a sphalerite-galena mineral mixture has been achieved using the cellular components of Bacillus species. The key constituent primarily responsible for the flotation of sphalerite has been identified as DNA, which functions as a bio-collector. Furthermore, using reconstitution studies, the obligatory need for the presence of non-DNA components as bio-depressants for galena has been demonstrated. A probable model involving these entities in the selective flotation of sphalerite from the mineral mixture has been discussed. PMID:22768298

  3. A novel property of DNA - as a bioflotation reagent in mineral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthakumar, Balasubramanian; Ravishankar, Honnavar; Subramanian, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns regarding the use of certain chemicals in the froth flotation of minerals have led investigators to explore biological entities as potential substitutes for the reagents in vogue. Despite the fact that several microorganisms have been used for the separation of a variety of mineral systems, a detailed characterization of the biochemical molecules involved therein has not been reported so far. In this investigation, the selective flotation of sphalerite from a sphalerite-galena mineral mixture has been achieved using the cellular components of Bacillus species. The key constituent primarily responsible for the flotation of sphalerite has been identified as DNA, which functions as a bio-collector. Furthermore, using reconstitution studies, the obligatory need for the presence of non-DNA components as bio-depressants for galena has been demonstrated. A probable model involving these entities in the selective flotation of sphalerite from the mineral mixture has been discussed.

  4. Small scale extraction and purification of human prolactin for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, L.E.M.F.

    1989-01-01

    Purification of human prolactin from pituitaries was carried out in our laboratory to obtain a pure reagent for use in RIA. The extraction and purification procedure was adapted from the method of Mc. Lean et al., and it involves the following steps: 1. Extraction of frozen pituitaries in buffers 0.14M phosphate/citrate pH 4.0 and 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 10.0. 2. Purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B in the presence of acetonitrile. 3. Purification by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Cl-68. The purification method is considered effective for obtaining a hPrl of the purity needed for radioassay purposes, having the advantage of rapidity and relative simplicity. (author) [pt

  5. A specific Tween-80-Rhodamine S-MWNTs phosphorescent reagent for the detection of trace calcitonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jiaming, E-mail: zzsyliujiaming@163.com [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal College, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Huang Xiaomei; Zhang Lihong; Zheng Zhiyong [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal College, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Department of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhangzhou Institute of Technology, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Lin Xuan; Zhang Xiaoyang; Jiao Li; Cui Malin [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal College, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Jiang Shulian [Fujian Provincial Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Lin Shaoqin [Department of Biochemistry, Fujian Education College, Fuzhou 350001 (China)

    2012-09-26

    Graphical abstract: A new Tween-80-Rhodamine S-water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Tween-80-Rhod.S-MWNTs-EDC-NHS, TRMEN) phosphorescent labelling reagent was developed. High sensitive solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence immunoassay (SSRTPIA) for the determination of calcitonin (CT) in human serum and the prediction of human diseases based on the TRMEN could be used to label anti-calcitonin antibody (Ab{sub CT}) to form the TRMEN-Ab{sub CT} labelling product, which could take high specific immunoreaction with CT causing that the {Delta}I{sub p} of the system was linear to the content of CT. Moreover, the reaction mechanisms of both labelling Ab{sub CT} by TRMEN and SSRTPIA for the determination of trace CT were discussed. This research not only provides a new hormones analysis method, but also expands the application field of MWNTs and promotes the development of SSRTP and IA. --Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Tween-80-Rhodamine S-multi-walled carbon nanotubes labelling reagent was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorescence immunoassay was established for the determination of calcitonin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method has been applied to determine CT and the prediction of diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of MWNTs was characterized with SEM and IR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms for both determining trace CT and labelling Ab{sub CT} were discussed. - Abstract: The present study proposed a simple sensitive and specific immunoassay for the quantification of calcitonin (CT) in human serum with water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The -COOH group of MWNTs could react with the -NH- group of rhodamine S (Rhod.S) molecules to form Rhod.S-MWNTs, which could emit room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on acetate cellulose membrane (ACM) and react with Tween-80 to form micellar compound. Tween-80-Rhod.S-MWNTs (TRM), as a phosphorescent labelling reagent, could

  6. Rate coefficients of exchange reactions accounting for vibrational excitation of reagents and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Kunova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models for the vibrational state-resolved Zeldovich reaction are assessed by comparison with the results of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. An error in the model of Aliat is corrected; the model is generalized taking into account NO vibrational states. The proposed model is fairly simple and can be easily implemented to the software for non-equilibrium flow modeling. It provides a good agreement with the QCT rate coefficients in the whole range of temperatures and reagent/product vibrational states. The developed models are tested in simulations of vibrational and chemical relaxation of air mixture behind a shock wave. The importance of accounting for excitated NO vibrational states and accurate prediction of Zeldovich reactions rates is shown.

  7. Effects of latent fingerprint development reagents on subsequent forensic DNA typing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Gupta, Ritika; Singh, Rajinder; Jasuja, Om Prakash

    2015-05-01

    Successful development of latent fingerprints can be helpful in solving the case but in case where fingerprints are smudged, distorted or overlapped, the question arises whether it is still possible to identify the person apart from dermatoglyphic features. Sweat residue present in the latent prints is supposed to have quite good quantity of cellular material which if analyzed properly can be used to generate forensic DNA profile of the individual and may answer the queries related to the effect of reagents used to develop the prints, as they may have a significant effect on the process of examination of this evidentiary material. In the present work an effort has been made to summarize the published review of literature on this aspect of personal identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Fly ash as a potential starting reagent for the synthesis of ultramarine blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, A.A.; De Waal, D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-02

    The traditional starting reagent for the synthesis of ultramarine blue, namely kaolin, has to be heated before the synthesis to weaken the structure of the kaolin. Two batches of fine fly ash (an aluminosilicate waste product from the combustion of coal) were successfully used to synthesize ultramarine blue. Infrared, Raman and X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of the product. Fly ash has the advantage over kaolin of being amorphous. The results further showed that the transition from the green ultramarine species to the blue species coincided with an increase in the ratio of the amount of S-3{sup -1} species relative to the amount of S-2{sup -1} species.

  9. Rapid and efficient extraction of genomic DNA from different phytopathogenic fungi using DNAzol reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Rong; Schnieder, F; Abd-Elsalam, K A; Verreet, J A

    2005-01-01

    A modified procedure using the commercial DNAzol reagent was successfully applied to extract genomic DNA from 25 fungal species. The DNA yield varied from 306 to 1,927 microg g(-1) dry mycelia and the A(260)/A(280) ratio from 1.59 to 1.93. Compared with the method of J.L. Cenis (Nucleic Acids Res. 1992, 20: 2380) this procedure generated a higher DNA yield from 17 species and a higher A(260)/A(280) ratio from 23 species. But for four species, Cenis (1992) method was more suitable. No inhibitor of polymerase chain reaction was evident for the DNA extracted by the modified procedure, whereas some inhibitors remained in DNA of eight species extracted by the previous method.

  10. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  11. Application and equivalence assessment for determining ethamsylate by using potassium ferricyanide as spectroscopic probe reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Litao; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method has been established to determine ethamsylate using potassium ferricyanide as a spectroscopic probe reagent. It has been demonstrated that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) by ethamsylate, and that the formed Fe(II) reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form soluble prussian blue (KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)(6)]). Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0.16 - 24.00 µg mL(-1) with the molar absorption coefficient of 2.1 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The detection limit (3 σ/k) is 0.11 µg mL(-1). This method has been successfully applied to determine ethamsylate in pharmaceutical and serum samples with satisfactory results, and presented quite satisfactory credibility during method equivalence assessment.

  12. Animal-Friendly Affinity Reagents: Replacing the Needless in the Haystack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A C; Sidhu, S S; Chandrasekera, P C; Hendriksen, C F M; Borrebaeck, C A K

    2016-12-01

    The multibillion-dollar global antibody industry produces an indispensable resource but that is generated using millions of animals. Despite the irrefutable maturation and availability of animal-friendly affinity reagents (AFAs) employing naïve B lymphocyte or synthetic recombinant technologies expressed by phage display, animal immunisation is still authorised for antibody production. Remarkably, replacement opportunities have been overlooked, despite the enormous potential reduction in animal use. Directive 2010/63/EU requires that animals are not used where alternatives exist. To ensure its implementation, we have engaged in discussions with the EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM) and the Directorate General for Environment to carve out an EU-led replacement strategy. Measures must be imposed to avoid outsourcing, regulate commercial production, and ensure that antibody producers are fully supported. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the material produced using marble waste and reagents aiminig production of rock wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Girley Ferreira; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Alves, Joner Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize materials produced from the mixture of marble waste and chemical reagents. The materials were homogenized, melted and cooled in order to obtain materials with similar characteristics of rock wools. The batch was poured in a water-filled recipient and also in a Herty viscometer at three temperatures. Samples of produced materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. Results of this study indicate that it is possible the incorporation of marble waste in the production process of rock wool, replacing approximately 15% of the raw material used to fabricate this material. This process represents a technological breakthrough since it allows the reuse of marble waste, and also represents a possible decrease in rock wool production cost, which is a material with a growing market as thermo acoustic insulator. (author)

  14. A novel property of DNA - as a bioflotation reagent in mineral processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Vasanthakumar

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns regarding the use of certain chemicals in the froth flotation of minerals have led investigators to explore biological entities as potential substitutes for the reagents in vogue. Despite the fact that several microorganisms have been used for the separation of a variety of mineral systems, a detailed characterization of the biochemical molecules involved therein has not been reported so far. In this investigation, the selective flotation of sphalerite from a sphalerite-galena mineral mixture has been achieved using the cellular components of Bacillus species. The key constituent primarily responsible for the flotation of sphalerite has been identified as DNA, which functions as a bio-collector. Furthermore, using reconstitution studies, the obligatory need for the presence of non-DNA components as bio-depressants for galena has been demonstrated. A probable model involving these entities in the selective flotation of sphalerite from the mineral mixture has been discussed.

  15. Determination of U(VI) using novel reagent by extractive spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvardhan, K.; Subrahmanyam, P.; Dilip Kumar, J.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and spectrophotometric method for the determination of U(VI) using a 5-(4-pyridyl azo)-8-quinolinol (PAQ) is developed the reagent was synthesized and used for extraction of uranium. At pH 7.0 ±0.2 uranium forms a yellowish orange colored complex with PAQ, which was then quantitatively extracted from chloroform showing maximum absorbance at wavelength of 485 nm. The proposed method obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.2-10.0 μg ml -1 . Molar absorptivity and Sandelson's sensitivity of extracted species was calculated to be 1.325x10 4 lmol -1 cm -1 and 0.421 x10 -4 μg cm -2 respectively. The method was applied for the determination of uranium in food and plant samples. It was found that the newly developed method is competent to those of standard methods. (author)

  16. Radioimmunoassay of human homologous prolactin in serum with commercially available reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.C.; Jiang, N.S.; Abboud, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    A clinically useful and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human homologous prolactin, established with commercially available reagents, was studied and validated. We present detailed conditions for iodination and purification of labeled prolactin and the optimal conditions for the assay. By the method, we found values (μg/liter) as follows for serum prolactin: normal men, 8.9 +- 5.2 (mean +- SD); normal women, 11.8 +- 5.5; normal women taking contraceptive pills, 9.2 +- 5.0; pregnant women in the third trimester, 188 +- 69.5; patients with various diseases other than of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, 9.3 +- 6.3; in some patients with amenorrhea and galactorrhea of diverse origin, 78.2 +- 87.4; and in some patients with surgically proven pituitary tumor, 1414 +- 1980. Results under provocative testing are also presented for a patient with normal hypothalamic-pituitary function

  17. Green Imidazolium Ionics-From Truly Sustainable Reagents to Highly Functional Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröger-Müller, Steffen; Brandt, Jessica; Antonietti, Markus; Liedel, Clemens

    2017-09-04

    We report the synthesis of task-specific imidazolium ionic compounds and ionic liquids with key functionalities of organic molecules from electro-, polymer-, and coordination chemistry. Such products are highly functional and potentially suitable for technology applications even though they are formed without elaborate reactions and from cheap and potentially green reagents. We further demonstrate the versatility of the used synthetic approach by introducing different functional and green counterions to the formed ionic liquids directly during the synthesis or after metathesis reactions. The influence of different cation structures and different anions on the thermal and electrochemical properties of the resulting ionic liquids is discussed. Our goal is to make progress towards economically competitive and sustainable task-specific ionic liquids. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Visual identification of alkaloids in some medicinal plants: common alkaloid reagents versus bromocresol green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa F, Esfahani HR, Gamooshi RA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: Alkaloids are a group of nitrogenous compounds with potential effects on the physiological behavior of human and animals. Some of these compounds are considered important drugs in modern medicine, such as atropine and morphine. Plants are considered the most important source of alkaloids. Therefore, investigating the presence of alkaloids in different plants is very important. Usually, alkaloids in plants are identified by methods such as those of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer, among others, which require milligrams of alkaloids for identification. In the present study, a fast and sensitive procedure for detecting of alkaloids in plants is presented.   "n"nMethods: Twelve dried plants samples were investigated for the presence alkaloids. After extracting the total alkaloid into methanol using a Soxhlet extractor, a few milligrams of the extract was transferred to a separatory funnel, buffered to pH 4.7, the bromocresol green (BCG solution (10-4 M was added, mixed and extracted with CHCl3 until a yellow color was observed in the CHCl3 layer, indicating the presence of the alkaloid. The crude extracts were also investigated by the standard methods of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer for the presence of alkaloids.   "n"nResults: Investigation of the 12 plant samples for the presence of alkaloids by the standard reagents of Dragendorf, Wagner, and Meyer showed that only Camelia sinensis (flowers, Echium amoenum Fisch & Mey (flowers, and Stachys (aerial parts are devoid

  19. Selective-Reagent-Ionization Mass Spectrometry: New Prospects for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Jordan, Alfons; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Jürschik, Simone; Herbig, Jens; Märk, Lukas; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2014-05-01

    Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), which was introduced to the scientific community in the 1990's, has quickly evolved into a well-established technology for atmospheric research and environmental chemistry [1]. Advantages of PTR-MS are i) high sensitivities of several hundred cps/ppbv, ii) detection limits at or below the pptv level, iii) direct injection sampling (i.e. no sample preparation), iv) response times in the 100 ms regime and v) online quantification. However, one drawback is a somehow limited selectivity, as in case of quadrupole mass filter based instruments only information about nominal m/z are available. In Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass analyzer based instruments selectivity is drastically increased by a high mass resolution of up to 8000 m/Δm, but e.g. isomers still cannot be separated. In 2009 we introduced an advanced version of PTR-MS, which permits switching the reagent ions from H3O+ to NO+ and O2+, respectively [2]. This novel type of instrumentation was called Selective-Reagent-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SRI-MS) and has been successfully used to separate isomers, e.g. the biogenic compounds isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol as shown by Karl et al. [3]. Switching the reagent ions dramatically increases selectivity and thus applicability of SRI-MS in atmospheric research. Here we report on the latest results utilizing an even more advanced embodiment of SRI-MS enabling the use of the additional reagent ions Kr+ and Xe+ [4]. With this technology important atmospheric compounds, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O2, etc. can be quantified and selectivity is increased even further. We present comparison data between diesel and gasoline car exhaust gases and quantitative data on indoor air for these compounds, which are not detectable with classical PTR-MS. Additionally, we show very recent examples of isomers which cannot be separated with PTR-MS but can clearly be distinguished with SRI-MS. Finally, we give an overview of ongoing SRI

  20. Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

    2012-11-01

    Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges.

  1. Cyclopropanes and hypervalent iodine reagents: high energy compounds for applications in synthesis and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Davinia; De Simone, Filippo; Brand, Jonathan P; Nicolai, Stefano; Waser, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges faced by organic chemistry is the efficient synthesis of increasingly complex molecules. Since October 2007, the Laboratory of Catalysis and Organic Synthesis (LCSO) at EPFL has been working on the development of catalytic reactions based on the Umpolung of the innate reactivity of functional groups. Electrophilic acetylene synthons have been developed using the exceptional properties of ethynyl benziodoxolone (EBX) hypervalent iodine reagents for the alkynylation of heterocycles and olefins. The obtained acetylenes are important building blocks for organic chemistry, material sciences and chemical biology. The ring-strain energy of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes was then used in the first catalytic formal homo-Nazarov cyclization. In the case of aminocyclopropanes, the method could be applied in the synthesis of the alkaloids aspidospermidine and goniomitine. The developed methods are expected to have a broad potential for the synthesis and functionalization of complex organic molecules, including carbocycles and heterocycles.

  2. Fast method to determine the elements in maize flour: reduction in preparation time and reagent consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Kelte Filho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to develop and validate methodology to reduce the digestion time and reagent consumption in the determination of minerals in maize flour. The standard methodology employed in Brazil is that described by AOAC. It consists of the calcination of the sample at high temperatures for a long period of time, making the process expensive and slow. In this work, a wet sample digestion method using HNO3 was employed, heating on a block digester with final dissolution in an ultrasonic bath. The validation tests involved linearity and working range studies, and the determination of the detection and quantification limits, accuracy and precision. The sample digestion time was 1:30 h and the percent recoveries for the metals were 93% for Ca, 98% for Cu, 110% for Fe, 97% for Mg, 101% for Mn and 106% for Zn.

  3. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  4. A new method for quasi-reagent-free biomonitoring of mercury in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlathauer, Maria; Reitsam, Verena; Schierl, Rudolf; Leopold, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    A novel analytical method for sampling and extraction of mercury (Hg) from human urine is presented in this work. The method is based on selective accumulation and separation of Hg from fresh urine sample onto active nanogold-coated silica material by highly efficient solid-phase extraction. After thermal desorption of Hg from the extractant, detection is performed by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The feasibility and validity of the optimized, quasi-reagent-free approach was confirmed by recovery experiments in spiked real urine (recovery rate 96.13 ± 5.34%) and by comparison of found Hg concentrations in real urine samples - originating from occupationally exposed persons - with values obtained from reference methods cold vapor - atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) and cold vapor - atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). A very good agreement of the found values reveals the validity of the proposed approach. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be as low as 0.004 μg Hg L -1 and a high reproducibility with a relative standard deviations ≤4.2% (n = 6) is given. Moreover, storage of the samples for up to one week at an ambient temperature of 30 °C reveals no analyte losses or contamination. In conclusion, the proposed method enables easy-to-handle on-site extraction of total Hg from human urine ensuring at the same time reagent-free sample stabilization, providing quick and safe sampling, which can be performed by untrained persons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a ''closed'' digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a 'closed' digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using gaseous

  6. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  7. Mechanism and Parameter Optimization of Fenton's Reagent Integrated with Surfactant Pretreatment to Improve Sludge Dewaterability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xing

    Full Text Available Sludge dewatering can effectively reduce the volume and mass of sludge for subsequent treatment and disposal. The work validated the potential of Fenton's reagent combined with dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC in improving sludge dewaterability and proposed the mechanism of joint conditioning. The composite conditioner dosage was optimized using response surface methodology. Results indicated the good conditioning capability of the composite conditioners. The optimum dosages for H2O2, Fe2+, and DDBAC were 44.6, 39.6, and 71.0 mg/g, respectively, at which a sludge cake water content of 59.67% could be achieved. Moreover, a second-order polynomial equation was developed to describe the behavior of joint conditioning. Analysis of the reaction mechanism showed that Fenton oxidation effectively decomposed extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS, into dissolved organics, such as proteins and polysaccharides. The process facilitated the conversion of the bound water into free water. Furthermore, DDBAC further released the bound water through solubilization of TB-EPS and LB-EPS after the Fenton reaction. The bound water content of the sludge conditioned with Fenton's reagent decreased from 3.15 to 1.36 g/g and further decreased to 1.08 g/g with the addition of DDBAC. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis verified that the composite conditioning could oxidize and hydrolyze EPS into low-molecular-mass organics (e.g., formic and acetic acid, thereby facilitating the release of bound water.

  8. Biological characterization of a new radioactive labeling reagent for bacterial penicillin-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.A.; Wu, C.Y.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Seitz, D.E.; Halligan, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    Radiolabeled penicillin G is widely used as the imaging agent in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) assays. The disadvantages of most forms of labeled penicillin G are instability on storage and the long exposure times usually required for autoradiography or fluorography of electrophoretic gels. We investigated the utility of radioiodinated penicillin V as an alternative reagent. Radioiodination of p-(trimethylstannyl)penicillin V with [ 125 I]Na, using a modification of the chloramine-T method, is simple, high yielding, and site specific. We demonstrated the general equivalence of commercially obtained [ 3 H]penicillin G and locally synthesized [ 125 I]penicillin V (IPV) in their recognition of bacterial PBPs. Profiles of PBPs in membranes from Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Providencia rettgeri, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium labeled with IPV or [3H]penicillin G were virtually identical. Use of IPV as the imaging agent in competition experiments for determination of the affinities of various beta-lactam antibiotics for the PBPs of E. coli yielded results similar to those obtained in experiments with [ 3 H]penicillin G. Dried electrophoretic gels from typical PBP experiments, using IPV at 37.3 Ci/mmol and 30 micrograms/ml, exposed X-ray film in 8 to 24 h. The stability of IPV on storage at 4 degrees C was inversely proportional to specific activity. At 37.3 Ci/mmol and 60 micrograms/ml, IPV retained useful activity for at least 60 days at 4 degrees C. IPV represents a practical and stable reagent for rapid PBP assays

  9. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  10. Extraction of uranium(6), transuranium elements and europium by bidentate neutral phosphorus- and phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reagents with substituent in methylene bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.E.; Kojro, O.Eh.; Nesterova, N.P.; Medved', T.Ya.; Chmutova, M.K.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Kabachnik, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of substituents in methylene bridge on solubility, extractivity and selectivity of bidentate neutral phosphorus- and phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reagents in the process of U(6), TUE, Eu extraction has been studied. It is ascertained that hydrogen substitution in the bridge of tetraphenylmethylenediphosphine dioxide (1) causes a decrease in the extractivity of reagent as to TPE, uranium (6) and europium. There is no visible regular relation between basicity and extractivity of substituted reagents. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of diphenyl[diethylcarbamoylmethyl]phosphine oxide (2) causes a decrease in extractivity of the reagent as to TPE, uranium (6) and europium. In contrast to monodentate neutral reagents, when bidentate neutral reagents are used, sometimes no increase in the reagent extractivity with an increase in its basicity is observed. When fragments restricting the conformation mobility of bidentate reagent molecule are introduced in it (here substituents in methylene bridge), it may result in the violation of the regularity, since of all the factors affecting the reagent extractivity the spatial factor may become the prevailing one. On hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 1 separation factors of practically all (with few exceptions) studied pairs of elements increase. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 2 causes an increase in separation factor of U (6) /Am pair and it does not affect the separation factor of Am/Eu pair. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 1 and 2 does not result in the preparation of more efficient and considerably more selective reagents for extractive isolation and separation of the elements, but some of the substituted reagents (Cl-substituted 1, for instance) may turn out useful for the element separation

  11. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  12. Water chemistry of Ignalina NPP. Optimisation of purification system and non-reagent decontamination of Primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oryshaka, A.; Safronov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Modifications implemented at Ignalice nuclear power plant are not expensive, however their performance resulted in the following: 1. Improvement of coolant quality, 2. Cost reduction for reagents and ion-exchange resin, 3. Significant decrease of the amount of liquid radioactive wastes (more than twice), 4. Improvement of equipment reliability and reduction of water chemistry impact to the IGSCC in downcomers. (authors)

  13. Water chemistry of Ignalina NPP. Optimisation of purification system and non-reagent decontamination of Primary cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oryshaka, A.; Safronov, V. [Ignalina NPP (Lithuania)

    2002-07-01

    Modifications implemented at Ignalice nuclear power plant are not expensive, however their performance resulted in the following: 1. Improvement of coolant quality, 2. Cost reduction for reagents and ion-exchange resin, 3. Significant decrease of the amount of liquid radioactive wastes (more than twice), 4. Improvement of equipment reliability and reduction of water chemistry impact to the IGSCC in downcomers. (authors)

  14. Enrichment of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Bean Sprouts: Exploring Biosynthesis of Plant Metabolite Using Common Household Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2018-01-01

    The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based…

  15. Simplified syntheses of the water-soluble chiral shift reagents Sm-(R)-pdta and Sm-(S)-pdta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubá, L.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pícha, Jan; Jiráček, Jiří; Vaněk, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 47 (2013), s. 6296-6297 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR * chiral shift reagents * Sm-pdta * PDTA * samarium * 1,2-diaminopropane Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2013

  16. Reliability of reagent strips for semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in a neonatal intensive care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhof, Jolita; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van de Leur, Sjef; Kok, Joke H.; van Straaten, Irma H. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosuria in preterm infants is often measured using a visually readable reagent strip, e.g., when monitoring total parenteral nutrition or during sepsis or when treating with corticosteroids. However, the specific circumstances in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as the use of diapers

  17. Reliability of Reagent Strips for Semi-quantitative Measurement of Glucosuria in a Neonatal Intensive Care Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhof, Jolita; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van de Leur, Sjef; Kok, Joke H.; van Straaten, Irma H. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucosuria in preterm infants is often measured using a visually readable reagent strip, e.g., when monitoring total parenteral nutrition or during sepsis or when treating with corticosteroids. However, the specific circumstances in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as the use

  18. One-pot three-component route for the synthesis of S-trifluoromethyl dithiocarbamates using Togni's reagent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halimehjani, A. Z.; Dračínský, Martin; Beier, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, Nov 24 (2017), s. 2502-2508 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : dithiocarbamates * electrophilic trifluoromethylation * Togni reagents Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2016 https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/articles/13/247

  19. The HLA-DP polymorphism in Denmark investigated by local and international PLT reagents. Definition of two "new" DP antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hartzman, R; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocytes from highly selected donors were primed for 10 days and subsequently bulk-expanded in IL 2 (TCGF) containing cultures. Two well-discriminatory PLT (CDP = Copenhagen DP) reagents against each of the DPw1-w6 specificities and one against each of the two "new" specificities, CDP4s...

  20. Microfluidics in the selection of affinity reagents for the detection of cancer: paving a way towards future diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lien-Yu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Fu, Chien-Yu; Gopinathan, Priya; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-08-07

    Microfluidic technologies have miniaturized a variety of biomedical applications, and these chip-based systems have several significant advantages over their large-scale counterparts. Recently, this technology has been used for automating labor-intensive and time-consuming screening processes, whereby affinity reagents, including aptamers, peptides, antibodies, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and a variety of small molecules, are used to probe for molecular biomarkers. When compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic approaches are faster, more compact, require considerably smaller quantities of samples and reagents, and can be automated. Furthermore, they allow for more precise control of reaction conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, and shearing forces) such that more efficient screening can be performed. A variety of affinity reagents for targeting cancer cells or cancer biomarkers are now available and will likely replace conventional antibodies. In this review article, the selection of affinity reagents for cancer cells or cancer biomarkers on microfluidic platforms is reviewed with the aim of highlighting the utility of such approaches in cancer diagnostics.