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  1. Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation approach for pesticide residue analysis using traditional detectors in chromatography: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Shin, Sung Chul; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-01-01

    In pesticide residue analysis, relatively low-sensitivity traditional detectors, such as UV, diode array, electron-capture, flame photometric, and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors, have been used following classical sample preparation (liquid-liquid extraction and open glass column cleanup); however, the extraction method is laborious, time-consuming, and requires large volumes of toxic organic solvents. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method was introduced in 2003 and coupled with selective and sensitive mass detectors to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks. Compared to traditional detectors, mass spectrometers are still far more expensive and not available in most modestly equipped laboratories, owing to maintenance and cost-related issues. Even available, traditional detectors are still being used for analysis of residues in agricultural commodities. It is widely known that the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method is incompatible with conventional detectors owing to matrix complexity and low sensitivity. Therefore, modifications using column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction instead of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup have been applied in most cases to compensate and enable the adaptation of the extraction method to conventional detectors. In gas chromatography, the matrix enhancement effect of some analytes has been observed, which lowers the limit of detection and, therefore, enables gas chromatography to be compatible with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method. For liquid chromatography with a UV detector, a combination of column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction was found to reduce the matrix interference and increase the sensitivity. A suitable double-layer column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction might be the perfect solution, instead of a time-consuming combination of column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction and

  2. Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine as adsorbent and its application in pesticide residue analysis.

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    Zheng, Hao-Bo; Zhao, Qin; Mo, Jie-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Qing; Luo, Yan-Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-07-26

    By using magnetic graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA/MNPs) as adsorbent, a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was proposed for pesticide residue analysis in vegetables. The magnetic adsorbent was fabricated via simple co-mixing method based on an "aggregate warp" mechanism. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS toward target analytes, several parameters, including the composition of analyte protectants and the amount of the adsorbents were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 10 pesticide residues in vegetables was established by coupling modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The detection limits of the proposed method for 10 pesticides ranged from 0.39 to 8.6ng/g. Good linearity (R value≥0.990) was achieved at concentration levels of 10-200ng/g, and acceptable method reproducibility was found as intra- and inter-day precisions, yielding the relative standard deviations less than 10.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 69.9-125.0% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of a large number of samples, the proposed method has the advantage of less time-consuming in clean-up procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of multiresidue analysis of β-agonists in muscle and viscera using liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry with Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The official analytical method of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare for testing for veterinary drug residues in foods is the multiresidue analysis of β-agonists. Samples are pretreated through liquid–liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. This method is time consuming and requires the intensive use of solvents. To improve analytical efficiency and reduce costs, our study incorporated QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe techniques to establish a new method of multiresidue analysis of β-agonists in animal muscle and viscera. The pretreatment time was shortened and solvent usage was minimized. The modified analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring. The results demonstrated that the correlation coefficients of the tissue calibration curve were higher than 0.99 and the limit of quantification (LOQ was 1 ppb. The average recoveries in spiked samples varied from 70% to 120%, and the relative difference between duplicated analysis results was lower than 10%. On the basis of the results, the proposed method was concluded to be an appropriate procedure for determining the presence of β-agonists, and demonstrated the advantages of high recovery rates in spiked samples, high precision, reduced analysis time and solvent usage, and lower costs.

  4. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction and determination of pharmaceuticals in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Boyd, Stephen A; Li, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Land application of biosolids and irrigation with reclaimed water in agricultural production could result in accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetable produce. To better assess the potential human health impact from long-term consumption of pharmaceutical-contaminated vegetables, it is important to accurately quantify the amount of pharmaceuticals accumulated in vegetables. In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed and optimized to extract multiple classes of pharmaceuticals from vegetables, which were subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. For the eleven target pharmaceuticals in celery and lettuce, the extraction recovery of the QuEChERS method ranged from 70.1 to 118.6% with relative standard deviation solvent extraction (ASE) method for extraction of pharmaceuticals from plants. The two optimized extraction methods were applied to quantify the uptake of pharmaceuticals by celery and lettuce growing hydroponically. The results showed that all the eleven target pharmaceuticals could be absorbed by the vegetables from water. Compared to the ASE method, the QuEChERS method offers the advantages of short time and reduced costs of sample preparation, and less amount of organic solvents used. The established QuEChERS method could be used to determine the accumulation of multiple classes of pharmaceutical residues in vegetables and other plants, which is needed to evaluate the quality and safety of agricultural produce consumed by humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zheng; Feng, Zhihong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhihui; Wu, Yongjiang; Wu, Aibo

    2014-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most cultivated edible fungi in the world, are usually neglected for mycotoxins contamination due to the initial thinking of its resistance to mycotoxingenic molds. In the present study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in L. edodes. Targeted mycotoxins were extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure without any further clean-up step, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 2.7 μm) with a linear gradient elution program using water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol as the mobile phase. After validation by determining linearity (R(2) > 0.99), sensitivity (LOQ ≤ 20 ng/kg), recovery (73.6-117.9%), and precision (0.8-19.5%), the established method has been successfully applied to reveal the contamination states of various mycotoxins in L. edodes. Among the 30 tested samples, 22 were contaminated by various mycotoxins with the concentration levels ranging from 3.3-28,850.7 μg/kg, predicting that the edible fungus could be infected by the mycotoxins-producing fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about real mycotoxins contamination in L. edodes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Determination of multiple pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic nanoparticles and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Lu-Qin; Li, Fang-Wei; Ding, Yi; Yang, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ming-Lin

    2014-09-26

    Based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the adsorbing material and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we established a new method for the determination of multiple pesticides in vegetables and fruits. It was determined that bare MNPs have excellent function as adsorbent when purified, and it is better to be separated from the extract. The amount of MNPs influenced the clean-up performance and recoveries. To achieve the optimum performance of modified QuEChERS towards the target analytes, several parameters including the amount of the adsorbents and purification time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, recoveries were evaluated in four representative matrices (tomato, cucumber, orange and apple) with the spiked concentrations of 10 μg kg(-1), 50 μg kg(-1)and 200 μg kg(-1) in all cases. The results showed that the recovery of 101 pesticides ranged between 71.5 and 111.7%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10.5%. The optimum clean-up system improved the purification efficiency and simultaneously obtained satisfactory recoveries of multiple pesticides, including planar-ring pesticides. In short, the modified QuEChERS method in addition to MNPs used for removing impurities improved the speed of sample pre-treatment and exhibited an enhanced performance and purifying effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Revisiting quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe parameters for sample preparation in pesticide residue analysis of lettuce by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Begnini Konatu, Fernanda; Breitkreitz, Márcia Cristina; Sales Fontes Jardim, Isabel Cristina

    2017-01-27

    A new analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 16 multiclass pesticides in five different types of lettuce was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The QuEChERS procedure was optimized in terms of extractor solvent, partitioning salts and clean-up salts, through recovery, gravimetric analysis and matrix-effect studies. Microwave extraction and the use of disposable pipette extraction in the clean-up step were also tested, providing interesting alternatives to the traditional QuEChERS method, depending on the pesticides properties. The use of a laboratory-made phenyl-type sorbent, based on silica and poly(2-phenylpropyl)methylsiloxane, was studied in the clean-up step, presenting promising results as a substitute for primary secondary amine (PSA). The optimized QuEChERS method was defined employing acetonitrile, citrate buffer and clean-up with PSA, MgSO4 and graphitized carbon black. The method developed was validated according to Document SANTE/11945/2015 and proved to be selective, accurate and precise, obtaining limits of quantification from 5μgkg-1 and recoveries in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviation≤20%. The method was applied on 14 real samples from commercial markets in Brazil and 21% of the samples analyzed presented irregularities, according to local pesticides regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Timm, Anne; Blaney, Lee

    2017-08-04

    Ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) and estrogens have attracted increased attention as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) due to their widespread occurrence in the environment. Most of these CECs are hydrophobic and have the potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms. To date, co-analysis of UV-filters and estrogens has not been reported due, in part, to the complex environmental matrices. Here, a multi-residue method has been developed for simultaneous determination of five UV-filters and three estrogens in tissue from aquatic and marine organisms. The procedure involved a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction with a novel reverse-solid-phase extraction (reverse-SPE) cleanup in place of dispersive-SPE, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The tissue mass, acetonitrile content, and salt conditions for QuEChERS extraction, along with the reverse-SPE cartridge material and elution conditions, were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Five UV-filters (i.e., 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, benzophenone-3, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, homosalate, and octocrylene) and three estrogens (i.e., estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were simultaneously analyzed by taking advantage of wrong-way-round ionization in LC-MS/MS. The optimized analytical protocol exhibited good recoveries (>80%) for target compounds and enabled their detection at concentrations as low as 0.2ng/g in 50mg tissue samples. The method was applied to determine concentrations of target analytes in four invertebrates (i.e., Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, Crassostrea virginica, and Ischadium recurvum). All eight target analytes were detected at least once in the tissue samples, with the highest concentration being 399ng/g of homosalate in O. virilis. These results highlight the ubiquitous bioaccumulation of CECs in aquatic and marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Pesticide analysis in coffee leaves using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Optimization of the clean-up step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Owen, Robert Wyn; Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Breuer, Andrea; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-08-25

    An analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 52 pesticides in coffee leaf extractshas been developed and validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. Different sorbent combinations for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up as well as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) were tested. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the recovery of 87-94% of pesticides added to coffee leaf extracts,was ≤20% for samples spiked at concentrations up to 50ng*g -1 depending on the clean-up procedures. However, samples spiked with a 100ng*g -1 pesticide mixture gave RSDs>20% for most pesticides when d-SPE was carried out adding Supelclean ENVI-Carb 120/400. To explain this fact,the secondary metabolic profile was analyzed in all the extraction and clean-up procedures. Only in the clean-up procedure with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+, does caffeine show a constant adsorption between blank and spiked samples. In other clean-up procedures, the amount of caffeine was higher in those samples spiked with pesticides. This indicates competition between caffeine and pesticides for adsorption to the sorbent. Addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ to the procedure revealed only a 32% matrix effect, whereas using PSA+ C18 the matrix effect was close to 97%. The process efficiency is up to 54% with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ and just up to 7% for the other clean-up procedures. The method was successfully tested in coffee leaves from different types of cultivars. Pesticides were not detected in organic coffee leaf extracts, but thiametoxan was clearly detected in 50% of coffee leaf extracts harvested from coffee trees grown under traditional conditions as determined by UHPLC-TOFMSLC/QqTOF-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry to determine benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pol; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa M

    2014-04-25

    A Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five benzotriazole, four benzothiazole and five benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge. While the method was being developed, several buffers and dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up (dSPE) sorbents were tested. Citrate buffer and Z-sep+ (zirconium-based sorbent) were the most effective extraction buffer and dSPE clean-up material. The absolute recoveries were higher than 80% for all compounds (100ng/g (d.w.)) and the matrix effect was less than -20% for most compounds. The limits of detection were between 0.5 and 10ng/g (d.w.) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 1 and 25ng/g (d.w.). Repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 15% (%RSD, n=5). Several sludge samples from five sewage treatment plants in Catalonia were analysed and the most abundant compounds were 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (181.2ng/g (d.w.)) and 4-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole (

  11. Multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of 16 acaricides by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Pang, Junxiao; Jiao, Bining; Zhao, Qiyang; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2015-09-10

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 16 acaricides in citrus based on an optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe strategy. Good linearities of the standard curve of 5-1000 μg/kg was obtained with regression coefficients higher than 0.9967. Recoveries for all compounds ranged from 72 to 111% with relative standard deviations lower than 14.4% at spiked levels of 5, 50, and 500 μg/kg. Low limits of detection and quantification were readily achieved ranging from 0.05 to 2.7 and 0.10 to 4.3 μg/kg, respectively. Matrix effects were also evaluated for 16 targets with most compounds achieved signal enhancement. Citrus peel gave the highest extent matrix effects, followed by whole citrus and pulp. Finally, this method was successfully applied to detect acaricides residues in real citrus samples. The results showed that pyridaben and quinalphos were the two most frequent and high-concentration compounds with concentrations exceeding the maximum residue limits in five samples, suggesting that the use of these acaricides should be regulated in China in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A really quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure for the analysis of particle-bound PAHs in ambient air and emission samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, A; Tomaz, S; Lestremau, F

    2013-04-15

    A quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) like extraction procedure is presented for the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated to particulate matter from ambient air or combustion process. The procedure is based on a short mechanical agitation (vortex during 90 s) using a small volume of acetonitrile (7 ml) as extraction solvent. Equivalent extraction efficiencies were obtained when comparing the QuEChERS and the traditional pressurized solvent extraction (ASE) procedures for ambient air and emission (wood combustion) filter samples. The developed QuEChERS extraction protocol was validated with the analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1649a, urban dust). By comparison to other extraction methods including ASE, the simplicity of the QuEChERS protocol allows to minimize experimental errors, to decrease about a factor 5 the cost per extraction and to increase the productivity per working day by a 10-fold factor. This paper constitutes the first report on the applicability of a QuEChERS-like approach for the quantification of PAHs or other organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous determination of five plant growth regulators in fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaomei; Jin, Fen; Huang, Yuting; Du, Xinwei; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Miao; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-11

    An effective method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized to obtain a complete separation of five representative plant growth regulators (PGRs) [gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron, forchlorfenuron, and paclobutrazol] in fruits. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid, applying modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methodology. LC-MS/MS conditions including composition of mobile phases and mass spectrometry (MS) conditions were evaluated to achieve the highest sensitivity in MS detection. All of the data acquisition was employed in the segmented multiple-reaction monitoring mode for the selected negative and positive transition ions. The octadecylsilyl (C18) dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was found to provide the more satisfied recoveries than primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) for five target PGRs. The optimized method allowed for recoveries of 76-112% for the five PGRs from fruit samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 10%. Limits of quantification (0.5-16.5 μg/kg) were lower than the maximum limit of residues established for PGRs. The results demonstrated that the developed LC-MS/MS and QuEChERS extraction method is highly effective for analyzing trace amounts of target PGRs in fruit samples. Finally, the method was successfully used to detect residual PGRs in Beijing, China, in 2010. The concentrations of 2,4-D (5.1-1503 μg/kg) and paclobutrazol (1-1381 μg/kg) found in orange and peach, respectively, suggesting that the use of these PGRs in these fruits should be regulated in China in the future.

  15. Comparison of micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochu; Bian, Yanli; Liu, Fengmao; Teng, Peipei; Sun, Pan

    2017-10-06

    Two simple sample pretreatment for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea was developed including micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (ME-IL-VALLME) prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled with HPLC-MS/MS. In ME-IL-VALLME method, the target analyte was extracted by surfactant Tween 20 micellar solution, then the supernatant was diluted with 3mL water to decrease the solubility of micellar solution. Subsequently, the vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was performed in the diluted extraction solution by using the ionic liquid of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM]PF6) as the extraction solvent and Tween 20 as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible ionic liquid into the aqueous phase. Parameters that affect the extraction have been investigated in both methods Under the optimum conditions, the limits of quantitation were 0.10 and 0.05mgkg(-1), respectively. And good linearity was achieved with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.9941. The relative recoveries ranged from 78.6 to 94.8% and 92.0 to 118.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 7.9-9.6% and 1.2-3.2%, respectively. Both methods were quick, simple and inexpensive. However, the ME-IL-VALLME method provides higher enrichment factor compared with conventional QuEChERS method. The ME-IL-VALLME method has a strong potential for the determination of difenoconazole in complex vegetable matrices with HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and evaluation of microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted methods based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation approach for the determination of bisphenol analogues in serum and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanjun; Shao, Mingwu; Wang, Weihua; He, Yajuan; Dai, Xinhua; Wang, Huiyu; Liu, Liliang; Guo, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Microwave- and ultrasound-assisted methods based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation approach followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were developed for the simultaneous determination of eight bisphenol analogues in serum and sediment. The developed methods provided satisfactory extraction efficiency for the energy provided by microwaves and ultrasound. Compositions of commercial sorbents (primary secondary amine, MgSO4 , octadecyl-modified silica, and graphitized carbon black) were evaluated. The ultrasound-assisted method was suited for serum using primary secondary amine, MgSO4 , and octadecyl-modified silica as sorbents and a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The microwave-assisted method worked better for sediment with tetrahydrofuran and methanol as solvents and primary secondary amine, MgSO4 , octadecyl-modified silica, and graphitized carbon black as sorbents. Other experimental parameters, such as extraction temperature and time, were also optimized. The inter- and intraday relative standard deviations ranged from 2.7 to 5.5%. The limits of detection were between 0.1 and 1.0 ng/mL for serum and between 0.1 and 0.5 ng/g dry weight for sediment. The proposed methods were successfully applied to seven sediment and 20 human serum samples. The results showed that the developed methods were practical for the analysis and biomonitoring of bisphenols in sera and sediment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing, E-mail: lijing2011@gmail.com [Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100193 (China); Dong Fengshou; Xu Jun; Liu Xingang; Li Yuanbo [Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100193 (China); Shan Weili [Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125 (China); Zheng Yongquan, E-mail: yongquan_zheng@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {center_dot} Simeconazole enantiomers were baseline separated by gas chromatography. {center_dot} Optical pure enantiomer was prepared and their elution order was distinguished. {center_dot} Clean-up/enrichment procedure was based on the modification of QuEChERS method. {center_dot} Cleanup step was further improved by solid phase extraction (SPE) technology. {center_dot} Analysis of samples was accomplished by GC-MS/MS. - Abstract: A rapid and effective method for enantioselective determination of simeconazole enantiomers in food products (cucumber, tomato, apple, pear, wheat and rice) has been developed. The enantiomers were resolved by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using a commercial chiral column (BGB-172) and a temperature program from 150 deg. C (held for 1 min) and then raised at 10 deg. C min{sup -1} to 240 deg. C (held for 10 min). This enantioselective gas chromatographic separation was combined with a clean-up/enrichment procedure based on the modification of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. Co-extractives were removed with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) with electron ionization (EI) was then used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the simeconazole enantiomers. Two precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z 121-101 and 195-153) with the best signal intensity were chosen to build the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition method. The limits of detection for each enantiomer of simeconazole in six food products ranged between 0.4 and 0.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, which were much lower than maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Japan. The methodology was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of simeconazole enantiomers in real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental

  18. Large multiresidue analysis of pesticides in edible vegetable oils by using efficient solid-phase extraction sorbents based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe methodology followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla Vázquez, P; Hakme, E; Uclés, S; Cutillas, V; Martínez Galera, M; Mughari, A R; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2016-09-09

    The aim of this research was to adapt the QuEChERS method for routine pesticide multiresidue analysis in edible vegetable oil samples using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Several clean-up approaches were tested: (a) D-SPE with Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid (EMR-Lipid™); (b) D-SPE with PSA; (c) D-SPE with Z-Sep; (d) SPE with Z-Sep. Clean-up methods were evaluated in terms of fat removal from the extracts, recoveries and extraction precision for 213 pesticides in different matrices (soybean, sunflower and extra-virgin olive oil). The QuEChERS protocol with EMR-Lipid d-SPE provided the best reduction of co-extracted matrix compounds with the highest number of pesticides exhibiting mean recoveries in the 70-120% range, and the lowest relative standard deviations values (4% on average). A simple and rapid (only 5min) freeze-out step with dry ice (CO2 at -76°C) prior to d-SPE clean-up ensured much better removal of co-extracted matrix compounds in compliance of the necessity in routine analysis. Procedural Standard Calibration was established in order to compensate for recovery losses of certain pesticides and possible matrix effects. Limits of quantification were 10μgkg(-1) for the majority of the pesticides. The modified methodology was applied for the analysis of different 17 oil samples. Fourteen pesticides were detected with values lower than MRLs and their concentration ranged between 10.2 and 156.0μgkg(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing the effect of a short cheap talk script in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Bonnichsen, Ole

    as hypothetical bias. The present paper attempts to frame the description of the hypothetical market so as to induce more “true market behaviour” in the respondents by including a short Cheap Talk script. The script informs respondents that in similar studies using stated preference methods, people have...... a tendency to overestimate how much they are willing to pay compared to their actual (true) willingness to pay. Applying a two-split sample approach to a Choice Experiment study focusing on preferences for reducing visual disamenities from offshore wind farms, the Cheap Talk script is found...... to be a preference mover, but does not affect preferences significantly. Significant effects are found when relating the effect of the Cheap Talk script to the cost levels of the alternatives, in that female respondents are found to choose higher cost alternatives less frequently when presented with the Cheap Talk...

  1. Cold-induced aqueous acetonitrile phase separation: A salt-free way to begin quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Gang; Agar, Jeffrey; Giese, Roger W

    2017-07-14

    Cooling a 1:1 (v/v) solution of acetonitrile and water at -16° C is known to result in two clear phases. We will refer to this event as "cold-induced aqueous acetonitrile phase separation (CIPS)". On a molar basis, acetonitrile is 71.7% and 13.6% in the upper and lower phases, respectively, in our study. The phase separation proceeds as a descending cloud of microdroplets. At the convenient temperature (typical freezer) employed here the lower phase is rather resistant to solidification, although it emerges from the freezer as a solid if various insoluble matter is present at the outset. In a preliminary way, we replaced the initial (salting-out) step of a representative QuEChERS procedure with CIPS, applying this modified procedure ("CIPS-QuEChERS") to a homogenate of salmon (and partly to beef). Three phases resulted, where only the upper, acetonitrile-rich phase is a liquid (that is completely clear). The middle phase comprises ice and precipitated lipids, while the lower phase is the residual matrix of undissolved salmon or meat. Treating the upper phase from salmon, after isolation, with anhydrous MgSO4 and C18-Si (typical QuEChERS dispersive solid phase extraction sorbents), and injecting into a GC-MS in a nontargeted mode, gives two-fold more preliminary hits for chemicals, and also number of spiked pesticides recovered, relative to that from a comparable QuEChERS method. In part, this is because of much higher background signals in the latter case. Further study of CIPS-QuEChERS is encouraged, including taking advantage of other QuERChERS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the effect of a short cheap talk script in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Bonnichsen, Ole; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav

    2011-01-01

    as hypothetical bias. The present paper attempts to frame the description of the hypothetical market so as to induce more “true market behaviour” in the respondents by including a short Cheap Talk script. The script informs respondents that in similar studies using stated preference methods, people have...... a tendency to overestimate how much they are willing to pay compared to their actual (true) willingness to pay. Applying a two-split sample approach to a Choice Experiment study focusing on preferences for reducing visual disamenities from offshore wind farms, the Cheap Talk script is found to reduce...... the demand for visual impact mitigation, but does not affect preferences significantly. Significant effects are found when relating the effect of the Cheap Talk script to the cost levels of the alternatives, in that female respondents are found to choose higher cost alternatives less frequently when...

  3. Bithionol residue analysis in animal-derived food products by an effective and rugged extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weijia; Park, Jin-A; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Min; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; El-Banna, H A; Shim, Jae-Han; Chang, Byung-Joon; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we developed a simple analytical procedure for the quantitation of bithionol residues in animal-derived food products such as porcine muscle, eggs, milk, eel, flatfish, and shrimp using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI + /MS-MS). Samples were extracted with 0.1% solution of formic acid in acetonitrile and the extract was purified using a C18 sorbent. Separation was performed on a Waters XBridge™ C18 reversed-phase analytical column using 0.1% solution of formic acid/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Six-point matrix-matched calibration indicated good linearity, with the calculated coefficients of determination (R 2 ) being≥0.9813. Intra- and inter-day recoveries (determined at spiking levels equivalent to 1×and 2×the limit of quantitation (0.25μg/kg)) ranged between 80.0 and 94.0%, with the corresponding relative standard deviations (RSDs) being≤8.2%. The developed experimental protocol was applied to different samples purchased from local markets in Seoul, which were tested negative for bithionol residues. In conclusion, the proposed method proved to be versatile and precise, being ideally suited for the routine detection of bithionol residues in animal-derived food products with various protein and fat contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of Local Policy Efforts to Increase the Price of Cheap Cigars in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of novel policies designed to increase cheap cigar prices by setting minimum prices at the local level. Between June 2013 and July 2015, we conducted assessments at tobacco retailers in Minnesota cities of Brooklyn Center (n = 26 in sample; n = 18 assessed before and after policy implementation), Saint Paul (n = 25 in sample; n = 14 assessed pre- and postpolicy), and Maplewood (n = 22 in sample; n = 18 assessed pre- and postpolicy), before and after the adoption of policies setting minimum cigar pricing. After policy implementation across all cities (n = 50), significantly fewer retailers sold single cigars (46% vs 80%; P Saint Paul and Maplewood, the average price of the cheapest available single cigars increased significantly by $1.17 (P = .03) and $1.27 (P Saint Paul and by $3.08 (P < .01) in Maplewood. Policy compliance was high in all cities. This study highlights the potential of policies setting minimum cigar prices to decrease cigar availability and increase price through nontax approaches. Results indicate that these policies are successful in cities of various sizes.

  5. ZnO as a cheap and effective filler for high breakdown strength elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this article, we explore the use of a cheap and abundant metal oxide filler, namely ZnO, as a filler in silicone-based dielectric elastomers. The electro-mechanical properties of the elastomer composites are investigated, and their performance is evaluated by means of figures of merit. Various commercial...

  6. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  7. Automatic single-step quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe sample preparation devices for analysis of pesticide residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jishi; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Xu, Yaping; Peng, Yi; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-10-27

    In this research, the manual two-step QuEChERS approach has been streamlined and automated into a one-step method using a cleanup tube fitted within an extraction tube. A novel automatic QuEChERS combination have been developed to simplify the QuEChERS procedures and improve sample preparation efficiency. This combination integrates QuEChERS procedures into a single run via the use of a vortex vibration-centrifuge device and a centrifuge filtration tube. To validate the efficiency of our automatic QuEChERS device, 270 pesticides were analyzed in plant origined foods including celery, tomatoes, leeks, eggplants, grapes, corn, green tea, and soybean oil using this automatic platform. The results were then compared with those obtained using the manual QuEChERS method. Different parameters were validated and compared including recovery, linearity, repeatability and limits of quantification (LOQ). Satisfactory results, comparable to results obtained using the manual QuEChERS method were obtained. The average recoveries ranged between 70% and 120% for most pesticides with associated relative standard deviations (RSDs) 0.990 within a linearity range of 2-500μg/kg. Compared to manual QuEChERS, this novel automatic QuEChERS device and combination could significantly improve the sample preparation efficiency for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Rugged Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed walking-beam robot simpler and more rugged than articulated-leg walkers. Requires less data processing, and uses power more efficiently. Includes pair of tripods, one nested in other. Inner tripod holds power supplies, communication equipment, computers, instrumentation, sampling arms, and articulated sensor turrets. Outer tripod holds mast on which antennas for communication with remote control site and video cameras for viewing local and distant terrain mounted. Propels itself by raising, translating, and lowering tripods in alternation. Steers itself by rotating raised tripod on turntable.

  9. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  10. Minimum Data Set RUGs by Assessment Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table displays national frequencies and percentages for the RUG III categories from MDS Medicare assessment records. The RUG groups are classified using the...

  11. Search on Rugged Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billinger, Stephan; Stieglitz, Nils; Schumacher, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a laboratory experiment on human decision-making in a complex combinatorial task. We find strong evidence for a behavioral model of adaptive search. Success narrows down search to the neighborhood of the status quo, while failure promotes gradually more explorative...... search. Task complexity does not have a direct effect on behavior, but systematically affects the feedback conditions that guide success-induced exploitation and failure-induced exploration. The analysis also shows that human participants were prone to over-exploration, since they broke off the search...... for local improvements too early. We derive stylized decision rules that generate the search behavior observed in the experiment and discuss the implications of our findings for individual decision-making and organizational search....

  12. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is ...

  13. Simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid residue in rice and soil by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xixi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Fengshou

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in rice including straw, bran, brown rice and soil was developed by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The fungicide trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid were extracted using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid v/v and subsequently cleaned up by primary secondary amine, octadecylsilane or graphitized carbon black prior to ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The determination of two target compounds was achieved in less than 3 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The limits of detection were below 0.22 μg/kg and the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.74 μg/kg in all matrices, which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The overall average recoveries in four matrix at three levels (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) ranged from 74.2 to 107.4% with a relative standard deviations of less than 7.8% (n = 5) for both analytes. The method was demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of degradation study samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in fruit and vegetables by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method using gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Wang, Xu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-10-01

    A new analytical method using QuEChERS procedure by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) and ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) for the quantitative determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid has been developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from five fruit and vegetable matrices using acetonitrile and subsequently cleaned up using primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18) as sorbent prior to GC analysis. The present methods provided sufficient sensitivity as reflected by the values of limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.4-7 and 1.2-20 µg/kg for GC-IT-MS/MS and GC-NPD. The recoveries were, on average, 68-117 and 68-121%, respectively, for three compounds by GC-NPD and GC-IT-MS/MS with intra-day precision achieved with an RSD of 2.7-19.1%. The inter-day precision was better than 15.1% as determined by GC-NPD. The QuEChERS procedure, by using two sorbents (PSA and C18) and the matrix-matched standards, gave satisfactory recoveries and RSD values in different matrices. IT-MS acquisition provided higher specificity and selectivity for pesticides and better limit of detection and quantification. However, the repeatability and precision of NPD method were better compared with IT-MS. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Garlick, Dean; Goldfinger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS) consists of a large constellation of small, disposable satellites in a near polar orbit. CATS is designed to collect stereoscopic views of the earth environment that will be used for tomographical and earth environmental research. Each satellite will be identical and constructed of high-grade commercial parts, thus significantly reducing the cost of design, fabrication and components. The CATS constellation will be a significant step toward the de...

  16. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  17. A closer look at 'Cheap White' cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Vellios, Nicole; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-09-01

    Given the prominence of Cheap Whites in illicit tobacco discussions, we examined various definitions, market presence, brand proliferation, manufacturers, production locations, trademark ownership, prices and compliance with tax stamp and warning labels. Data from peer-reviewed and grey literature, newspapers, trademark registries, governments/international organisation reports, and the tobacco industry were contrasted with two visual legal requirements (tax stamps and warning labels) and prices from the Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS). Multiple sources identified 82 Cheap White brands and 53 manufacturers operating at least 82 production facilities. One-third of these manufacturers are in the free zones of Russia, Cyprus and the UAE. Two-thirds of the 37 Cheap White brands in the TPackSS had neither the correct health warning nor the required tax stamp in at least one country where they were purchased. Cheap Whites are on average less expensive than all other brands, but the price gap is often not as large as anecdotally reported. The cheapest Cheap White cigarettes purchased in one of the TPackSS countries irrespective of the presence of legal signs were still more expensive than the least expensive other brands satisfying both legal requirements. We confirmed that many Cheap White brands do not comply with the legal requirements in countries where they are sold, but also found that some of these cigarettes appear to be sold legally even outside their country of origin. The presence of untaxed Cheap Whites undermines tobacco tax policies, while the availability of legal cheap cigarettes is a public health concern. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  19. Cheap electricity from French tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, H.

    1980-02-01

    A tidal power plant built in Saint-Malo, France is examined, and some of the problems that have resulted in recent years are analyzed. These include mechanical problems due to turbine runner-blade seal failure and electrical problems involving electroerosion and structural station difficulties. the effects of tidal power plants on the environment are discussed, and it is noted that all possible side effects of the operations are very limited. Attention is given to the basic requirements for constructing power sites.

  20. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...

  1. Rugged Ozone Sterilization System Model M1 (ROSS M1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-13

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0021 Rugged Ozone Sterilization System Model M1 (ROSS M1) Daniel Taggart Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake...July 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rugged Ozone Sterilization System Model M1 (ROSS M1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-C-6376 5b. GRANT NUMBER...complications ranging from surgical site infection to death. Consequently, military surgeons need dependable and modern sterilization equipment to ensure

  2. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Hypothetical bias remains a major problem when valuing non-market goods with stated preference methods. Originally developed for Contingent Valuation studies, Cheap Talk has been found to effectively reduce hypothetical bias in some applications, though empirical results are ambiguous. We discuss......-Out Reminder. This suggests that rather than merely adopting the Cheap Talk practice directly from Contingent Valuation, it should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment format. Our results further suggest that augmenting Cheap...

  3. A cheap, simple high throughput method for screening native Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors using a recombinant Escherichia coli, its validation and demonstration of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract effectivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Natalie; Peretz, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most frequent and persistent bacterial infection worldwide, and a risk factor for active gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Although combined antibiotics treatment is effective cases of antibiotic resistance are reported at an alarming rate. The H. pylori urease enzyme is essential for the bacteria establishment in the gastric mucosa, resulting urease inhibitors being sought after as effective and specific anti- H. pylori treatment. To-date, screening assays are based mostly on the analog plant urease enzyme but difference in properties of the plant and bacterial enzymes hamper these efforts. We have developed a screening assay based on recombinant Escherichia coli expressing native H. pylori urease, and validated this assay using thiourea and a methanolic extract of Pistacia atlantica. The assay demonstrated the thiourea and the extract to be potent urease inhibitors, with the extract having strong bacteriostatic activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori, including such with antibiotic resistance. The extract was also found to be neutral toward common probiotic bacteria, supporting its specificity and compatibility with digestive system desired microflora and suggesting it could be a good source for anti-H. pylori compounds. The assay has proven to be cheap, simple and native alternative to the plant enzyme based assay and could allow for high throughput screening for new urease inhibitors and could expedite screening and development of novel, better H. pylori remedies helping us to combat this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Multi-Scale Validation Strategy for Albedo Products over Rugged Terrain and Preliminary Application in Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue for the validation of land surface remote sensing albedo products over rugged terrain is the scale effects between the reference albedo measurements and coarse scale albedo products, which is caused by the complex topography. This paper illustrates a multi-scale validation strategy specified for coarse scale albedo validation over rugged terrain. A Mountain-Radiation-Transfer-based (MRT-based albedo upscaling model was proposed in the process of multi-scale validation strategy for aggregating fine scale albedo to coarse scale. The simulated data of both the reference coarse scale albedo and fine scale albedo were used to assess the performance and uncertainties of the MRT-based albedo upscaling model. The results showed that the MRT-based model could reflect the albedo scale effects over rugged terrain and provided a robust solution for albedo upscaling from fine scale to coarse scale with different mean slopes and different solar zenith angles. The upscaled coarse scale albedos had the great agreements with the simulated coarse scale albedo with a Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE of 0.0029 and 0.0017 for black sky albedo (BSA and white sky albedo (WSA, respectively. Then the MRT-based model was preliminarily applied for the assessment of daily MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Albedo Collection V006 products (MCD43A3 C6 over rugged terrain. Results showed that the MRT-based model was effective and suitable for conducting the validation of MODIS albedo products over rugged terrain. In this research area, it was shown that the MCD43A3 C6 products with full inversion algorithm, were generally in agreement with the aggregated coarse scale reference albedos over rugged terrain in the Heihe River Basin, with the BSA RMSE of 0.0305 and WSA RMSE of 0.0321, respectively, which were slightly higher than those over flat terrain.

  5. Rugged microelectronic module package supports circuitry on heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Rugged module package for thin film hybrid microcircuits incorporated a rigid, thermally conductive support structure, which serves as a heat sink, and a lead wire block in which T-shaped electrical connectors are potted. It protects the circuitry from shock and vibration loads, dissipates internal heat, and simplifies electrical connections between adjacent modules.

  6. The retrieval of land surface albedo in rugged terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.

    2012-01-01

    Land surface albedo may be derived from the satellite data through the estimation of a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and angular integration. However many BRDF models do not consider explicitly the topography. In rugged terrain, the topography influences the observed

  7. Key issues review: evolution on rugged adaptive landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolski, Uri; Ram, Yoav; Hadany, Lilach

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive landscapes represent a mapping between genotype and fitness. Rugged adaptive landscapes contain two or more adaptive peaks: allele combinations with higher fitness than any of their neighbors in the genetic space. How do populations evolve on such rugged landscapes? Evolutionary biologists have struggled with this question since it was first introduced in the 1930s by Sewall Wright. Discoveries in the fields of genetics and biochemistry inspired various mathematical models of adaptive landscapes. The development of landscape models led to numerous theoretical studies analyzing evolution on rugged landscapes under different biological conditions. The large body of theoretical work suggests that adaptive landscapes are major determinants of the progress and outcome of evolutionary processes. Recent technological advances in molecular biology and microbiology allow experimenters to measure adaptive values of large sets of allele combinations and construct empirical adaptive landscapes for the first time. Such empirical landscapes have already been generated in bacteria, yeast, viruses, and fungi, and are contributing to new insights about evolution on adaptive landscapes. In this Key Issues Review we will: (i) introduce the concept of adaptive landscapes; (ii) review the major theoretical studies of evolution on rugged landscapes; (iii) review some of the recently obtained empirical adaptive landscapes; (iv) discuss recent mathematical and statistical analyses motivated by empirical adaptive landscapes, as well as provide the reader with instructions and source code to implement simulations of evolution on adaptive landscapes; and (v) discuss possible future directions for this exciting field.

  8. E-books bij de RUG : Een update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Alie; van Laarhoven, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Twee jaar gelden schreven we op deze plaats: “E-books bij de RUG: dat zijn er al meer dan je denkt...”. Inmiddels hebben we nog veel méér e-books in de bibliotheekcollectie, is het aanbod uitgebreid en heeft de iPad de wereld veroverd. Tijd voor een update.

  9. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  10. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo.

  11. Ue Project "cheap GSHPs": the Geoexchange Fieldlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Dalla Santa, Giorgia; Bertermann, David; Muller, Johannes; De Carli, Michele; Emmi, Giuseppe; Zarrella, Angelo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Tuccio, Maria; Vivarelli, Arianna; Pockelé, Luc; Mezzasalma, Giulia; Psyk, Mario; Righini, Davide; Bernini, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The CHEAP - GSHPs Horizon 2020 project (No. 657982) focuses on the development of more efficient and safe shallow geothermal systems and the reduction of time consuming and installation costs. One of its most important objectives is the development of the design of new coaxial steel GSHEs and of newly designed helical heat basket type GSHE by means of innovative installation methodologies and drilling machines. For this purpose, in Molinella test site (Bologna, Italy) several types of borehole heat exchangers have been built. The Molinella test site is the open-air laboratory where several types of ground heat exchangers, such as helical heat basket and double-U and coaxial probes, can be directly compared by means of GRT tests, cores thermal measurement, and optical fibers measurements. Moreover, in this test site, new drilling machines and techniques are being tested. Given a geological setting and thermal load, the heat exchange capacity of a ground heat exchanger depends on the used materials and probe dimensions (length, diameter and thickness). In Molinella, in an area of 300m2, 7 different probes are installed: 4 coaxial probes of different materials and different length (96 and 50m) and diameters of internal and external tubes, 2 heat baskets (15m length, different diameter and different pitch) and a traditional double-U (50 m length). The monitoring equipment is constituted by a piezometer 25m long, a monitoring point instrumented with a hybrid fibre optical cable 100m long, and a standard GRT device. The local stratigraphy is known from a 100m core sample, made on purpose. The lithological sequence is typical of a quaternary floodplain deposition environment, rich in silt and silty clay deposits, alternated with sandy layers. For all the main recognized layers, the thermal properties (conductivity and capacity) have been directly measured on the collected core samples on site in order to maintain their natural water content. The thermal exchange

  12. Cheap talk and spiteful preferences in ultimatum games : Experiments and evolutionary rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyrastekova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Does the possibility to talk to people we interact with change the outcomes of our interactions? Communication as a coordination device is the topic of the first part of this thesis. We study the effect of "cheap talk", where sending a particular message does not affect the material outcomes of the

  13. Applying Resource Utilization Groups (RUG-III) in Hong Kong Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris; Leung, Joe C. B.

    2008-01-01

    Resource Utilization Groups III (RUG-III) is a case-mix system developed in the United States for categorization of nursing home residents and the financing of residential care services. In Hong Kong, RUG-III is based on several board groups of residents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the RUG-III in Hong Kong…

  14. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  15. Fast and cheap fabrication of molding tools for polymer replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Christiane; Kirschner, Nadine; Worgull, Matthias; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-02-01

    Polymer replication is a prerequisite for low-cost microstructure components for consumer and end user market. The production of cost-effective microstructure in polymers requires metal molding tools which are often fabricated by direct structuring methods like milling or laser machining both of which are time-consuming and cost-intensive. We present an alternative fabrication method based on replication processes which allows the cheap ( 50 €) and fast ( 12 h) replication of complex microstructures into metal. The process comprises three steps: 1. Generation of the microstructure in a photoresist via lithography. 2. Casting of the structure into a high-temperature silicone which serves as original mold for creation of the metal molding tool. 3. Melting of an eutectic alloy of Sn, Ag and Cu under light pressure directly inside of the silicone within an oven. After cooling to room temperature the metal molding tool can be used for polymer replication into conventional thermoplastic polymers. As a first example we structured polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) foils with a thickness of 1 mm via hot embossing and feature sizes of 100 μm could be replicated with high fidelity.

  16. 16 CFR 1631.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wool or hair attached to the hide with no synthetic fibers and (2) have been treated with a fire...: DO NOT WASH OR DRY CLEAN This rug has been treated with a flame retardant. To keep rug attractive and clean use the following methods: To eliminate loose dirt or dust, vacuum or shake pelt outdoors. For...

  17. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wool or hair attached to the hide with no synthetic fibers and (2) have been treated with a fire...: DO NOT WASH OR DRY CLEAN This rug has been treated with a flame retardant. To keep rug attractive and clean use the following methods: To eliminate loose dirt or dust, vacuum or shake pelt outdoors. For...

  18. Fire spread predictions: Sweeping uncertainty under the rug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, Akli; Sá, Ana C L; Ervilha, Ana R; Trigo, Ricardo M; Fernandes, Paulo M; Pereira, José M C

    2017-08-15

    Predicting fire spread and behavior correctly is crucial to minimize the dramatic consequences of wildfires. However, our capability of accurately predicting fire spread is still very limited, undermining the utility of such simulations to support decision-making. Improving fire spread predictions for fire management purposes, by using higher quality input data or enhanced models, can be expensive, unfeasible or even impossible. Fire managers would benefit from fast and inexpensive ways of improving their decision-making. In the present work, we focus on i) understanding if fire spread predictions can be improved through model parameter calibration based on information collected from a set of large historical wildfires in Portugal; and ii) understanding to what extent decreasing parametric uncertainty can counterbalance the impact of input data uncertainty. Our results obtained with the Fire Area Simulator (FARSITE) modeling system show that fire spread predictions can be continuously improved by 'learning' from past wildfires. The uncertainty contained in the major input variables (wind speed and direction, ignition location and fuel models) can be 'swept under the rug' through the use of more appropriate parameter sets. The proposed framework has a large potential to improve future fire spread predictions, increasing their reliability and usefulness to support fire management and decision making processes, thus potentially reducing the negative impacts of wildfires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical characterization of rugged propagation paths with application to Rg scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Rong-Song

    1993-11-01

    Motivated by many observations of correlation between the free-surface topography and the coda generation at teleseismic and regional distances, seven simple statistics have been tested whether they can fully characterize the roughness of an arbitrary rugged free-surface topography. Based on 2-dimensional finite-difference simulations, the normalized arc length and Durbin-Watson number are identified as the best and the poorest, respectively, roughness measures, in terms of correlating with the propagation behavior of Rg. The numerical experiments show that rougher topography causes stronger attenuation (as expected), that reflection is an efficient process, and that the bulk of the energy which is not transmitted across the topography is either converted to body waves or reflected back. The scattered P and S waves are radiated as coda to teleseismic distances and some P-SV energy could be trapped in the crustal waveguide. The scattered body waves appear to radiate from the changes in slope and to first order can be visualized as from point diffractors along the rugged free-surface. Rg-to-S conversion is more efficient than that of Rg-to-P. The spatial Q values associated with rough topographic profiles range from 15 to 80, which are in excellent agreement with Q(Beta) of the uppermost crust in many places of the world. The attenuation coefficient, gamma, and the scattering loss can be asymptotically represented as linear functions of the roughness parameters. This work offers a promising approach to quantify effects of scattering by topography and heterogeneity upon other regional phases.

  20. A Theory of Cheap Control in Embodied Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montúfar, Guido; Ghazi-Zahedi, Keyan; Ay, Nihat

    2015-09-01

    We present a framework for designing cheap control architectures of embodied agents. Our derivation is guided by the classical problem of universal approximation, whereby we explore the possibility of exploiting the agent's embodiment for a new and more efficient universal approximation of behaviors generated by sensorimotor control. This embodied universal approximation is compared with the classical non-embodied universal approximation. To exemplify our approach, we present a detailed quantitative case study for policy models defined in terms of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines. In contrast to non-embodied universal approximation, which requires an exponential number of parameters, in the embodied setting we are able to generate all possible behaviors with a drastically smaller model, thus obtaining cheap universal approximation. We test and corroborate the theory experimentally with a six-legged walking machine. The experiments indicate that the controller complexity predicted by our theory is close to the minimal sufficient value, which means that the theory has direct practical implications.

  1. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  2. Rugged Low Temperature Actuators for Tunable Fabry Perot Optical Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Why are rugged, low temperature actuator materials important? By themselves, they are useless; however, when fabricated into thin films and integrated into optical...

  3. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at NASA and...

  4. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost, high vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at...

  5. User's Guide To CHEAP0 II-Economic Analysis of Stand Prognosis Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Horn; E. Lee Medema; Ervin G. Schuster

    1986-01-01

    CHEAP0 II provides supplemental economic analysis capability for users of version 5.1 of the Stand Prognosis Model, including recent regeneration and insect outbreak extensions. Although patterned after the old CHEAP0 model, CHEAP0 II has more features and analytic capabilities, especially for analysis of existing and uneven-aged stands....

  6. Preventing distortion of quick couplers of hoses of central pipe lines--a cheap and simple method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A cheap and practical approach of steel chains attached to the station outlet quick couplers helps in maintaining the shape of the quick couplers and ensures their effective functioning over a long period of time and avoids mishap of connection due to damage of these couplers.

  7. Cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses for residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian architectural practice for individual houses in residential areas, designing the architectural object in order to function together with the nature is neglected in the majority of the situations. This happens despite of a great variety of the solar bioclimatic solutions materialized in the traditional houses of all the Romanian geographical regions in a history of over 2000 years of traditional architecture. Unfortunately, in the local real estate realities, other choices are preferred in instead those of the solar bioclimatic architecture. The approach starts with a historical approach, analyzing several examples of traditional houses from all the regions of Romania, in order to identify the traditional bioclimatic solutions used to better adapt to the environment. This constitutes the source of inspiration for the modern cheap type solar bioclimatic houses presented. But a way of thinking should be changed for it, with the help of the Romanian state transformed in financial and legislative realities. These cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses are destined for the middle class families and involve minimum costs for building and living, creating the best premises to efficiently use one or all of the complementary systems for producing, storage and/or transforming the energy from the environment (using solar, wind, water and/or earth energy.

  8. Microbial diversity and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in cheap and junk foods consumed by primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kang, Y S; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens were tested in 1008 cheap and junk foods, including candies, dried cakes, chewing gum, chocolate, dried and seasoned seafood, ice cream, and sugary foods. APCs were positive for 342 samples (33·9%), and the majority of the counts were 2-3 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) (average: 1·10 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Most samples (97·3%) contained no coliforms (average: 0·07 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Bacillus cereus was detected in 68 samples (average: 0·14 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 6 and 1 samples, respectively, whereas other foodborne pathogens were not isolated. The highest bacterial counts were associated with dried and seasoned seafood products and dried cakes, suggesting that appropriate regulations of these food types should be considered. Cheap and junk foods were produced mainly in developing countries, but there were no significant differences in the bacterial counts among different countries of origin. The presence of foodborne pathogens may pose a risk for children. These results suggest that there is cause for deeper concern about the safety of these foods and that effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. Food safety is especially important for children, but only limited information is available about the microbiological quality of cheap and junk foods that are consumed frequently by primary schoolchildren (e.g. dried cakes, candies and chocolates). The present study investigated the microbial quality of cheap and junk foods, and our results indicate that these foods are a potential health risk for children, therefore, deeper concern about the safety of these foods and effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. The present study may contribute to the development of an appropriate child food

  9. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    , inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... model using a battery of Grade 0 tests, including phoneme awareness, rapid naming, and paired associate learning, 2) a late, comprehensive model adding reading measures from January of Grade 1, and 3) a late, inexpensive model using only group-administered reading measures from January of Grade 1......Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely...

  10. Groningen start steeds meer student-ondernemingen uit RUG en Hanzehogeschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Donders

    2014-01-01

    Het streven van Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RUG) en Hanzehogeschool om meer economische spin-off te halen uit haar kennis, begint nu echt vruchten af te werpen. Er komen steeds meer studenten-ondernemingen. Vanuit de Hanzehogeschool alleen al startten er in 2013 al 268 nieuwe bedrijven. Maar in de

  11. Designing Rugged Single Molecule Detectors for Stochastic Sensing: A Biological Surface Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-19

    This project involved the use of supported phospholipid bilayers to design a new generation of highly rugged single molecule sensors devices. The...devices employed alpha-hemolysin, a pore forming protein, as a single molecule transducer element. Our studies demonstrated that this ion channel could

  12. Mathematics Student Teachers' Modelling Approaches While Solving the Designed Esme Rug Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Dede, Ayse Tekin; Ünver, Semiha Kula; Güzel, Esra Bukova

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the mathematics student teachers' solutions on the Esme Rug Problem through 7-stage mathematical modelling process. This problem was designed by the researchers by considering the modelling problems' main properties. The study was conducted with twenty one secondary mathematics student teachers. The data were…

  13. 16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Brushing While Damp This Flokati carpet or rug has been treated with a flame retardant. To... rinsed again in cool water to improve appearance of face if desired. Line dry. Shake while damp to... while damp to restore surface and fluff up fibers. 4. Commercial cleaning: Use Roll-A-Jet equipment (or...

  14. 16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Brushing While Damp This flokati carpet or rug has been treated with a flame retardant. To... rinsed again in cool water to improve appearance of face if desired. Line dry. Shake while damp to... while damp to restore surface and fluff up fibers. 4. Commercial cleaning: Use Roll-A-Jet equipment (or...

  15. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  16. Why Does Deep and Cheap Learning Work So Well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry W.; Tegmark, Max; Rolnick, David

    2017-09-01

    We show how the success of deep learning could depend not only on mathematics but also on physics: although well-known mathematical theorems guarantee that neural networks can approximate arbitrary functions well, the class of functions of practical interest can frequently be approximated through "cheap learning" with exponentially fewer parameters than generic ones. We explore how properties frequently encountered in physics such as symmetry, locality, compositionality, and polynomial log-probability translate into exceptionally simple neural networks. We further argue that when the statistical process generating the data is of a certain hierarchical form prevalent in physics and machine learning, a deep neural network can be more efficient than a shallow one. We formalize these claims using information theory and discuss the relation to the renormalization group. We prove various "no-flattening theorems" showing when efficient linear deep networks cannot be accurately approximated by shallow ones without efficiency loss; for example, we show that n variables cannot be multiplied using fewer than 2^n neurons in a single hidden layer.

  17. Usability Study and Usability Tests for CheapSleep Finland Oy Website

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Friendly usability of the website is indispensable. Although companies understand the importance of usability, there are only small numbers of companies conducting usability tests on their business websites. CheapSleep Finland Oy requested to test usability of its business website. Thus one objective of this thesis is to carry out usability tests for business website of CheapSleep Finland Oy.

  18. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  19. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L-1 starch, 30 g L-1 soya bean and 9g L-1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch. Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  20. Modeling Top of Atmosphere Radiance over Heterogeneous Non-Lambertian Rugged Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijafar Mousivand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Topography affects the fraction of direct and diffuse radiation received on a pixel and changes the sun–target–sensor geometry, resulting in variations in the observed radiance. Retrieval of surface–atmosphere properties from top of atmosphere radiance may need to account for topographic effects. This study investigates how such effects can be taken into account for top of atmosphere radiance modeling. In this paper, a system for top of atmosphere radiance modeling over heterogeneous non-Lambertian rugged terrain through radiative transfer modeling is presented. The paper proposes an extension of “the four-stream radiative transfer theory” (Verhoef and Bach 2003, 2007 and 2012 mainly aimed at representing topography-induced contributions to the top of atmosphere radiance modeling. A detailed account for BRDF effects, adjacency effects and topography effects on the radiance modeling is given, in which sky-view factor and non-Lambertian reflected radiance from adjacent slopes are modeled precisely. The paper also provides a new formulation to derive the atmospheric coefficients from MODTRAN with only two model runs, to make it more computationally efficient and also avoiding the use of zero surface albedo as used in the four-stream radiative transfer theory. The modeling begins with four surface reflectance factors calculated by the Soil–Leaf–Canopy radiative transfer model SLC at the top of canopy and propagates them through the effects of the atmosphere, which is explained by six atmospheric coefficients, derived from MODTRAN radiative transfer code. The top of the atmosphere radiance is then convolved with the sensor characteristics to generate sensor-like radiance. Using a composite dataset, it has been shown that neglecting sky view factor and/or terrain reflected radiance can cause uncertainty in the forward TOA radiance modeling up to 5 (mW/m2·sr·nm. It has also been shown that this level of uncertainty can be translated

  1. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  2. Mountain Biking: Does Rough Terrain Make Rugged Riders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Chris

    1987-01-01

    No formal research has been conducted on the training effects and injury risks of all-terrain bicycles in mountain biking, but experience indicates they are apparently safe and may provide greater fitness benefits than traditional bicycles. The bicycles are described, and their apparent benefits are discussed. (MT)

  3. Catalytic water oxidation: Rugged water-oxidation anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, Antoni

    2010-10-01

    The efficient catalytic oxidation of water to dioxygen in the solid state is one of the challenges to be overcome to build sun-driven and/or electrocatalytic water-splitting devices. Now, an effective water-oxidation hybrid catalyst system has been made by attaching a ruthenium-polyoxometallate complex to a carbon nanotube.

  4. Cheap in situ voltammetric copper determination from freshwater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. G.

    2013-04-01

    standard SR ISO 11885-09. The sensor used in this work has shown some important advantages such being cheap, sensitive and able to generate reproducible results using a simple and direct electrochemical protocol. By using this type of disposable working electrodes and a portable electrochemical analysis system the developed method can be applied to the determination of copper ions directly at the sampling point.

  5. A soluble model of evolution and extinction dynamics in a rugged fitness landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sibani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We consider a continuum version of a previously introduced and numerically studied model of macroevolution (PRL 75, 2055, (1995)) in which agents evolve by an optimization process in a rugged fitness landscape and die due to their competitive interactions. We first formulate dynamical equations for the fitness distribution and the survival probability. Secondly we analytically derive the $t^{-2}$ law which characterizes the life time distribution of biological genera. Thirdly we discuss other...

  6. Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deep (>50 m) rugged habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-sea depths. Although habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern Caribbean, numerous rugged seafloor features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to examine demersal fish communities across various seafloor features. Also in this region, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across seafloor features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern Caribbean. We conducted 26 ROV dives across 18 sites, yielding 156 species; 42% of which had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While fewer species were observed at seamounts than at other habitats in the NE Caribbean, assemblage structure was similar among habitat features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other rugged, topographic features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths <1200 m, and is driven by changes in water mass characteristics including temperature (4.8-24.4 ºC) and dissolved oxygen (2.2-9.5 mg per l). Our study demonstrates the importance of water masses in shaping community structure of benthic fauna, while considerably adding to the knowledge of mesophotic and deep-sea fish

  7. Evolution and Extinction Dynamics in Rugged Fitness Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, Paolo; Brandt, Michael; Alstrøm, Preben

    After an introductory section summarizing the paleontological data and some of their theoretical descriptions, we describe the "reset" model and its (in part analytically soluble) mean field version, which have been briefly introduced in Letters.1,2 Macroevolution is considered as a problem of stochastic dynamics in a system with many competing agents. Evolutionary events (speciations and extinctions) are triggered by fitness records found by random exploration of the agents' fitness landscapes. As a consequence, the average fitness in the system increases logarithmically with time, while the rate of extinction steadily decreases. This non-stationary dynamics is studied by numerical simulations and, in a simpler mean field version, analytically. We also consider the effect of externally added "mass" extinctions. The predictions for various quantities of paleontological interest (life-time distribution, distribution of event sizes and behavior of the rate of extinction) are robust and in good agreement with available data.

  8. Formulation of cheap prawn diets and their biological evaluation on some penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    While using the cheap locally available wastes and raw materials, two compound diets have been formulated and prepared. Three species of penaeid prawns viz. Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis and Penaeus indicus were fed on these diets...

  9. Soluble Model of Evolution and Extinction Dynamics in a Rugged Fitness Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, Paolo

    1997-08-01

    We consider a continuum version of a previously introduced and numerically studied model of macroevolution [P. Sibani, M. R. Schimdt, and P. Alstrøm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2055 (1995)] in which agents evolve by an optimization process in a rugged fitness landscape and die due to their competitive interactions. We first formulate dynamical equations for the fitness distribution and the survival probability. Secondly, we analytically derive the t-2 law which characterizes the lifetime distribution of biological genera. Thirdly, we discuss other dynamical properties of the model as the rate of extinction and conclude with a brief discussion.

  10. Predictable and predictive emotions: explaining cheap signals and trust re-extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniter, Eric; Sheremeta, Roman M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and an emotion survey to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended. PMID:25477797

  11. Predictable and Predictive Emotions:Explaining Cheap Signals and Trust Re-Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eSchniter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and emotion surveys to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended.

  12. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly

  13. Availability and use of cheap tobacco in the UK 2002 - 2014: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partos, Timea R; Gilmore, Anna B; Hitchman, Sara C; Hiscock, Rosemary; Branston, J Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the UK between 2002-2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses. Analyses contrasted 1) product type: roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, factory made packs (FM-P), and cartons (FM-C); 2) purchase source: UK store-based sources (e.g. supermarkets, convenience stores) with non-UK/ non-store sources representing tax avoidance/ evasion (e.g. outside the UK, duty free, informal sellers); and 3) prices paid (inflation-adjusted to 2014 values). Generalised Estimating Equations tested linear changes over time. 1) RYO use increased significantly over time as FM decreased. 2) UK store-based sources constituted approximately 80% of purchases over time, with no significant increases in tax avoidance/ evasion. 3) Median RYO prices were less than half that of FM, with FM-C cheaper than FM-P. Non-UK/ non-store sources were cheapest. Price increases of all three product types from UK store-based sources from 2002 - 2014 were statistically significant, but not substantial. Wide (and increasing for FM-P) price ranges meant each product type could be purchased in 2014 at prices below their 2002 medians from UK store-based sources. Options exist driving UK smokers to minimise their tobacco expenditure; smokers do so largely by purchasing cheap tobacco products from UK stores. The effectiveness of price increases as a deterrent to smoking is being undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco such as roll-your-own tobacco and cartons of packs of factory-made cigarettes. Wide price ranges allowed smokers in 2014 to easily obtain

  14. Rugged large volume injection for sensitive capillary LC-MS environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Abele, Silvija; Demir, Deniz; Dzabijeva, Diana; Amundsen, Sunniva F.; Wilson, Steven R.; Bartkevics, Vadims; Lundanes, Elsa

    2017-08-01

    A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC) LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL) solid phase extraction (SPE) for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g. injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples would did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 µm). In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD) in the 0.05 - 12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were RSD.

  15. Modularity enhances the rate of evolution in a rugged fitness landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Chen, Man; Wang, Dong; Deem, Michael W

    2015-03-19

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity affects the evolution of biological systems over time and in different environments. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of evolution in a rugged, modular fitness landscape. We show analytically how horizontal gene transfer couples to the modularity in the system and leads to more rapid rates of evolution at short times. The model, in general, analytically demonstrates a selective pressure for the prevalence of modularity in biology. We use this model to show how the evolution of the influenza virus is affected by the modularity of the proteins that are recognized by the human immune system. Approximately 25% of the observed rate of fitness increase of the virus could be ascribed to a modular viral landscape.

  16. Modularity Enhances the Rate of Evolution in a Rugged Fitness Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Park, Jeong-Man; Chen, Man; Deem, Michael

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity affects the evolution of biological systems over time and in different environments. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of evolution in a rugged, modular fitness landscape. We show analytically how horizontal gene transfer couples to the modularity in the system and leads to more rapid rates of evolution at short times. The model, in general, analytically demonstrates a selective pressure for the prevalence of modularity in biology. We use this model to show how the evolution of the influenza virus is affected by the modularity of the proteins that are recognized by the human immune system. A modular model of the fitness landscape of the virus better fits the observed virus evolution data.

  17. Modularity Enhances the Rate of Evolution in a Rugged Fitness Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Chen, Man; Wang, Dong; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity affects the evolution of biological systems over time and in different environments. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of evolution in a rugged, modular fitness landscape. We show analytically how horizontal gene transfer couples to the modularity in the system and leads to more rapid rates of evolution at short times. The model, in general, analytically demonstrates a selective pressure for the prevalence of modularity in biology. We use this model to show how the evolution of the influenza virus is affected by the modularity of the proteins that are recognized by the human immune system. Approximately 25% of the observed rate of fitness increase of the virus could be ascribed to a modular viral landscape. PMID:25786859

  18. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  19. COMPARISON OF A SIMPLE AND CHEAP IMMEDIATE POSTOPERATIVE PROSTHESIS WITH SOFT DRESSING IN LOWER LIMB AMPUTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Yeshwant Kothari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Removal of a part of a limb through one or more bones termed amputation is done for various causes. Properly performed amputation is a reconstructive procedure. Effective postoperative rehabilitation reduces disability and helps in proper shaping of the residual limb leading to final prosthetic fitment. The aim of the study is to compare effect of rigid dressing and Immediate Postoperative Prosthesis (IPOP using a simple and cheap pylon developed by the first author with soft dressing in respect of stump maturation and function in lower limb amputees. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty one patients with lower limb amputations were included in the study and randomised into two groups. Twenty four patients completed follow-up in the study group of rigid dressing with early postoperative prosthetic fitting while twenty patients completed with soft dressing. Stump maturation as measured by girth and volumetric assessment and complications of residual pain and phantom pain were compared at six weeks and twelve weeks with baseline data. Statistical Analysis- Done with SPSS for Windows version 17. Independent-T test was used for comparison of continuous variables and Chi-square and Fischer exact test was used for comparison of dichotomous responses. Settings and Design- The study was done in a multispecialty teaching hospital of a metro city. It was a well-structured comparative study done after addressing all safety and ethical issues. RESULTS Stump maturation was significantly better and the stump complications reduced in the study group. CONCLUSION Rigid dressing with IPOP has proven to be significantly superior to soft dressing in terms of maturation of stump and residual complications in lower limb amputations.

  20. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  1. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  2. Doubling the Performance-Cost Ratio of PV by Using Cheap Mirrors - a Secondary School Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, H.; van Herwaarden, S.; Keijsers, B.; van Dijk, V.A.P.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of cost is a major issue in the photovoltaics field. We have addressed this issue in a secondaryschool science project by considering the use of cheap mirrors in combination with solar panels, for application in developing countries. We have confirmed that it is possible to increase the

  3. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available conventional alkaline electrolyser and advanced polymer membrane electrolysers for water electrolysis are quite expensive. Taking into account this aspect, a very simple and cheap water electrolyser has been designed and fabricated utilising easily available economical materials for small scale production of hydrogen using renewable energy from photovoltaic panel. The construction details of the electrolyser with a schematic drawing of the experimental set...

  4. My School Makes Me Sick: Cheap Solutions to Environmental Problems in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert

    This paper presents 19 solutions to problems within the school environment: (1) ventilation (e.g., keep the thermostat fan on whenever the room is occupied); (2) filters (e.g., get rid of 20 percent cheap filters); (3) clean the ductwork; (4) avoid car and bus fumes by keeping vehicles 50 feet from the building; (5) sewer vents (vents must…

  5. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-03

    Jul 3, 2007 ... The potential of cassava starch as an alternative and cheap gelling agent for potato in vitro culture micro-propagation media was investigated. A two-factor experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted. Four levels of gelling agents; 10% (w/v) cassava starch, 8% cassava starch.

  6. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of cassava starch as an alternative and cheap gelling agent for potato in vitro culture micro-propagation media was investigated. A two-factor experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted. Four levels of gelling agents; 10% (w/v) cassava starch, 8% cassava starch mixed with 0.25% agar, ...

  7. Bioinformatics: Cheap and robust method to explore biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo

    2015-02-01

    Indonesia has a huge amount of biodiversity, which may contain many biomaterials for pharmaceutical application. These resources potency should be explored to discover new drugs for human wealth. However, the bioactive screening using conventional methods is very expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we developed a methodology for screening the potential of natural resources based on bioinformatics. The method is developed based on the fact that organisms in the same taxon will have similar genes, metabolism and secondary metabolites product. Then we employ bioinformatics to explore the potency of biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity by comparing species with the well-known taxon containing the active compound through published paper or chemical database. Then we analyze drug-likeness, bioactivity and the target proteins of the active compound based on their molecular structure. The target protein was examined their interaction with other proteins in the cell to determine action mechanism of the active compounds in the cellular level, as well as to predict its side effects and toxicity. By using this method, we succeeded to screen anti-cancer, immunomodulators and anti-inflammation from Indonesia biodiversity. For example, we found anticancer from marine invertebrate by employing the method. The anti-cancer was explore based on the isolated compounds of marine invertebrate from published article and database, and then identified the protein target, followed by molecular pathway analysis. The data suggested that the active compound of the invertebrate able to kill cancer cell. Further, we collect and extract the active compound from the invertebrate, and then examined the activity on cancer cell (MCF7). The MTT result showed that the methanol extract of marine invertebrate was highly potent in killing MCF7 cells. Therefore, we concluded that bioinformatics is cheap and robust way to explore bioactive from Indonesia biodiversity for source of drug and another

  8. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg-1 does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  9. Testing spatial preferences response patterns in Choice experiments: A comparison between Cheap Talk, Opt-Out Reminder and a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Casper; Ladenburg, Jacob

    Economic theory predicts a spatial response in the demand for improving environmental goods and reducing environmental bads. The theoretical expect ations have largely been supported by field studies, with Sutherland and Walsh, 1985;).as the first study. Subsequent studies have examined how spatial...... responses are related to the use of hypothetical bias mitigation reminders, such as budget reminders, cheap talk (Cummings and Taylor 1999; Loomis et al. 1994). The relevance of this is particularly evident as increasing studies find evidence of the Cheap Talk reminders are less effective in CE (Ladenburg...... & Olsen 2014; Bosworth and Taylor 2012). Such ineffectiveness could be related to a weak spatial response motivation in the CT script, though it has not been specifically been addressed in the literature. In the present paper, we make a novel attempt at addressing this issue by comparing spatial responses...

  10. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    R. Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available conventional alkaline electrolyser and advanced polymer membrane electrolysers for water electrolysis are quite expensive. Taking into account this aspect, a very simple and cheap water electrolyser has been designed and fabricated utilising easily available economical materials for small scale production of hydrogen using renewable energy from photovoltaic panel. The construction details of the electrolyser with a schematic drawing of the experimental set-up for PV pro...

  11. Nonexponential Kinetics of Loop Formation in Proteins and Peptides: A Signature of Rugged Free Energy Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, James; Batchelor, Matthew; Neelov, Igor; Paci, Emanuele

    2017-10-19

    The kinetics of loop formation, i.e., the occurrence of contact between two atoms of a polypeptide, remains the focus of continuing interest. One of the reasons is that contact formation is the elementary event underlying processes such as folding and binding. More importantly, it is experimentally measurable and can be predicted theoretically for ideal polymers. Deviations from single exponential kinetics have sometimes been interpreted as a signature of rugged, protein-like, free energy landscapes. Here we present simulations, with different atomistic models, of short peptides with varied structural propensity, and of a structured protein. Results show exponential contact formation kinetics (or relaxation) at long times, and a power law relaxation at very short times. At intermediate times, a deviation from either power law or simple exponential kinetics is observed that appears to be characteristic of polypeptides with either specific or nonspecific attractive interactions but disappears if attractive interactions are absent. Our results agree with recent experimental measurements on peptides and proteins and offer a comprehensive interpretation for them.

  12. Reciprocal sign epistasis between frequently experimentally evolved adaptive mutations causes a rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kvitek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape captures the relationship between genotype and evolutionary fitness and is a pervasive metaphor used to describe the possible evolutionary trajectories of adaptation. However, little is known about the actual shape of fitness landscapes, including whether valleys of low fitness create local fitness optima, acting as barriers to adaptive change. Here we provide evidence of a rugged molecular fitness landscape arising during an evolution experiment in an asexual population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify the mutations that arose during the evolution using whole-genome sequencing and use competitive fitness assays to describe the mutations individually responsible for adaptation. In addition, we find that a fitness valley between two adaptive mutations in the genes MTH1 and HXT6/HXT7 is caused by reciprocal sign epistasis, where the fitness cost of the double mutant prohibits the two mutations from being selected in the same genetic background. The constraint enforced by reciprocal sign epistasis causes the mutations to remain mutually exclusive during the experiment, even though adaptive mutations in these two genes occur several times in independent lineages during the experiment. Our results show that epistasis plays a key role during adaptation and that inter-genic interactions can act as barriers between adaptive solutions. These results also provide a new interpretation on the classic Dobzhansky-Muller model of reproductive isolation and display some surprising parallels with mutations in genes often associated with tumors.

  13. Cheap and easy modification of glassy carbon electrode for voltammetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Naseri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Different methods have been proposed to modify glassy carbon electrode in order to determine dopamine (DA, as one of the most important neurotransmitters in central nervous systems of mammalian. These methods are time comsuming and in some cases expensive. In this work, a very simple and cheap pretreatment method is developed for the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE to determine DA in the presence of Ascorbic acid (AA.   Methods: Cyclic voltammetry as an electrochemical activation procedure was used for activation of glassy carbon electrode in order to separate diffrential pulse peaks of DA and AA. The effect of different parameters such as pH for supporting electrolyte, range of potential and the number of cycles were investigated. Finally, differential pulse voltammetry was used to determine DA in the presence of AA. Results: On the activated electrode under optimum condition, anodic peak of AA shifted to negative potentials and peak current decreased, but the peak current of DA increased. The peak current was linearly proportional to the bulk concentration of DA in the range of 6.5×10-7- 1.8×10-5 mol l-1. The limit of detection was 6.2×10-7 mol l-1. Conclusion: A simple and cheap method was developed for the activation of glassy carbon electrode. It was possible to determine DA in the presence of AA on the treated electrode. The proposed method was used to determine DA in pharmacutical samples.      

  14. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  15. 21-in. technology-independent common display set (CLADS) design for rugged workstation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, Ronald L.; Hermann, David J.

    1997-07-01

    Battelle is under contract with Warner Robins Air Logistics Center to design a Common Large Area Display Set (CLADS) for use in multiple command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence applications that currently use 19-inch cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Battelle engineers have now demonstrated that the modular CLADS design is applicable to a large number of existing and future rugged workstation applications, and that the design is technology independent. Any display technology that can be packaged to meet the form, fit, and function requirements defined by the common large area display head assembly performance specification is a candidate for CLADS applications. This has already reduced the risk of CLADS development, permits life long technology insertion upgrades without unnecessary redesign, and addresses many of the obsolescence problems associated with COTS technology-based acquisition. For each platform, only the unique form and fit requirements are included in a CLADS application integration kit, while the unique functional interfaces are provided by an application video interface module. All other parts of the design are common to all CLADS installations and are therefore required in higher quantities which means lower costs. A performance specification tree lists the specifications for each of the platforms as well as the specifications for the modules used for each platform. Detailed specifications have been drafted and will be released to potential display integrators and manufacturers for review in the coming weeks. Initial USAF applications include replacements for the E-3 AWACS color monitor assembly, E-8 Joint STARS graphics display unit, and ABCCC airborne color display. Initial US Navy applications include the E-2C ACIS display. For these applications, reliability and maintainability are key objectives. The common design will reduce the cost of operation and maintenance by an estimated 3.3 million dollars per year on E-3 AWACS alone. As

  16. Urban hydrology in a rugged, old place: emerging lessons from Pittsburgh (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, D. J.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil McCullough, E. K.

    2013-12-01

    Cities on rugged landscapes mantled by clay-rich soils are rare, and therefore under-characterized, despite the rich challenges in the management of coupled human-hydrologic systems. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania inherits a high relief landscape imparted by mega-drainage following the last glacial maximum. Since European occupation, and throughout the growth of Pittsburgh, simply finding sufficient flat areas to inhabit have led to radical changes to the landscape with clear implications for hydrological function. Over the last several years, examination of these coupled topographical-hydrological changes with particular attention to reconstruction of historical processes has revealed interesting dynamics. In particular, the tendency to utilize flat ridgelines has created fluvial systems with unusual burial pattens in Pittsburgh. This burial exacerbates changes to urban hydrographs and likely requires extensive engineering in the uplands to re-establish sustainable flow regimes, challenges that will grow as urban re-population processes continue and urban lands grow scarcer. Further, these historical patterns of development can create negative feedbacks to the human-hydrologic system during natural disturbances of forest, as intact forests are disproportionately located on steep slopes. Additionally, both the use of available fill materials to flatten the landscape and changes to riparian geomorphology resulting from increased sediment supplies impart structural legacies to the system resulting in unexpected changes to surface water chemistry. Continued examination and synthesis of interactions between landscape modification and hydrology in Pittsburgh will ultimately characterize an important end-member of urban systems, providing clarity in our efforts to manage urban human-hydrological systems.

  17. A Practical and Cheap Circuit for ECG Sensing and Heart Frequency Alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; González-García, A. E.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Sánchez-Yáñez, R.; Ayala-Ramírez, V.

    2006-09-01

    A practical electronic circuit for ECG sensing, using high gain instrumentation amplifiers, a PIC microcontroller and two electrodes is presented. It allows to identify and to amplify a well-delimited ECG signal for a further wave analysis, and using a zero crossing detector a heart frequency detector is also implemented. By the moment, the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) configurations making use of separate electrical connections to the arms and legs (bipolar limb lead 1) is exploited. This device is a practical and cheap way to monitoring ECG signal and some heart anomalies (e.g., arrhythmias, tachycardia) that can be used in a network to communicate anytime with a far health supervisor.

  18. A Simple and Cheap 3D Reconstruction System of Embryonic Structures from Serial Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Suárez-Rairán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explaines how to setup and use a very cheap and simple 3D reconstruction system, for embryonic structures, using as an example the innervation of E19 hindlimb rat embryo. It also shows how results of good level can be achieved, such as, form, location and distribution of the structures of interest, obtaining additionally quantitative data of the size (volume and superficial area, and form. All the results mentioned above were obtained from the operation of free software available at the Internet.

  19. Simple and cheap monitoring unit for solar installations; Einfache und kostenguenstige Ueberwachungseinheit fuer Solaranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderegg, E.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy describes a simple and cheap monitoring unit for photovoltaics (PV) installations. The functions of the unit are described, which can monitor the operation of a PV installation and send alarms via short text messages. Its construction, which features analog and digital inputs, digital outputs and a separate GSM antenna is discussed. The communication of the alarms using mobile phone GSM technology and the components used are described. Future developments in this sector are discussed. The parametrisation of the unit is described and the results of laboratory and field tests are presented. Several suggestions for further development are made.

  20. A Rapid and Cheap Methodology for CRISPR/Cas9 Zebrafish Mutant Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Ylenia; Locascio, Annamaria; Ristoratore, Filomena; Sordino, Paolo; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Borra, Marco; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new genome editing tools such as ZFNs, TALENs and, more recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system, has greatly expanded the ability to knock-out genes in different animal models, including zebrafish. However, time and costs required for the screening of a huge number of animals, aimed to identify first founder fishes (F0), and then carriers (F1) are still a bottleneck. Currently, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is the most efficient technology for large-scale InDels detection, but the very expensive equipment demanded for its application may represent a limitation for research laboratories. Here, we propose a rapid and cheap method for high-throughput genotyping that displays efficiency rate similar to the HRM. In fact, using a common ViiA™7 real-time PCR system and optimizing the parameters of the melting analysis, we demonstrated that it is possible to discriminate between the mutant and the wild type melting curves. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cheapness, our method can be used as a preliminary one-step approach for massive screening, in order to restrict the scope at a limited number of embryos and to focus merely on them for the next sequencing step, necessary for the exact sequence identification of the induced mutation. Moreover, thanks to its versatility, this simple approach can be readily adapted to the detection of any kind of genome editing approach directed to genes or regulatory regions and can be applied to many other animal models.

  1. Introducing students to digital geological mapping: A workflow based on cheap hardware and free software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Marko; Dolžan, Erazem

    2016-04-01

    The undergraduate field course in Geological Mapping at the University of Ljubljana involves 20-40 students per year, which precludes the use of specialized rugged digital field equipment as the costs would be way beyond the capabilities of the Department. A different mapping area is selected each year with the aim to provide typical conditions that a professional geologist might encounter when doing fieldwork in Slovenia, which includes rugged relief, dense tree cover, and moderately-well- to poorly-exposed bedrock due to vegetation and urbanization. It is therefore mandatory that the digital tools and workflows are combined with classical methods of fieldwork, since, for example, full-time precise GNSS positioning is not viable under such circumstances. Additionally, due to the prevailing combination of complex geological structure with generally poor exposure, students cannot be expected to produce line (vector) maps of geological contacts on the go, so there is no need for such functionality in hardware and software that we use in the field. Our workflow therefore still relies on paper base maps, but is strongly complemented with digital tools to provide robust positioning, track recording, and acquisition of various point-based data. Primary field hardware are students' Android-based smartphones and optionally tablets. For our purposes, the built-in GNSS chips provide adequate positioning precision most of the time, particularly if they are GLONASS-capable. We use Oruxmaps, a powerful free offline map viewer for the Android platform, which facilitates the use of custom-made geopositioned maps. For digital base maps, which we prepare in free Windows QGIS software, we use scanned topographic maps provided by the National Geodetic Authority, but also other maps such as aerial imagery, processed Digital Elevation Models, scans of existing geological maps, etc. Point data, like important outcrop locations or structural measurements, are entered into Oruxmaps as

  2. Geometric and radiometric preprocessing of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data in rugged terrain for quantitative data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter; Green, Robert O.; Staenz, Karl; Itten, Klaus I.

    1994-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulence, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography. The current investigation was carried out with an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene of central Switzerland (Rigi) from NASA's Multi Aircraft Campaign (MAC) in Europe (1991). The parametric approach reconstructs for every pixel the observation geometry based on the flight line, aircraft attitude, and surface topography. To utilize the data for analysis of materials on the surface, the AVIRIS data are corrected to apparent reflectance using algorithms based on MODTRAN (moderate resolution transfer code).

  3. Compact, rugged in-chamber transmission spectrometers (7-28 keV) for the Sandia Z facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinars, D B; Wenger, D F; Pikuz, S A; Jones, B; Geissel, M; Hansen, S B; Coverdale, C A; Ampleford, D J; Cuneo, M E; McPherson, L A; Rochau, G A

    2011-06-01

    We describe a pair of time-integrated transmission spectrometers that are designed to survey 7-28 keV (1.9 to 0.43 Å) x-ray photons produced by experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed power facility. Each spectrometer uses a quartz 10-11 crystal in a Cauchois geometry with a slit to provide spatial resolution along one dimension. The spectrometers are located in the harsh environment of the Z vacuum chamber, which necessitates that their design be compact and rugged. Example data from calibration tests and Z experiments are shown that illustrate the utility of the instruments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  5. An innovative experimental sequence on electromagnetic induction and eddy currents based on video analysis and cheap data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Sapia, P.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a coherent sequence of experiments on electromagnetic (EM) induction and eddy currents, appropriate for university undergraduate students, based on a magnet falling through a drilled aluminum disk. The sequence, leveraging on the didactical interplay between the EM and mechanical aspects of the experiments, allows us to exploit the students’ awareness of mechanics to elicit their comprehension of EM phenomena. The proposed experiments feature two kinds of measurements: (i) kinematic measurements (performed by means of high-speed video analysis) give information on the system’s kinematics and, via appropriate numerical data processing, allow us to get dynamic information, in particular on energy dissipation; (ii) induced electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements (by using a homemade multi-coil sensor connected to a cheap data acquisition system) allow us to quantitatively determine the inductive effects of the moving magnet on its neighborhood. The comparison between experimental results and the predictions from an appropriate theoretical model (of the dissipative coupling between the moving magnet and the conducting disk) offers many educational hints on relevant topics related to EM induction, such as Maxwell’s displacement current, magnetic field flux variation, and the conceptual link between induced EMF and induced currents. Moreover, the didactical activity gives students the opportunity to be trained in video analysis, data acquisition and numerical data processing.

  6. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available conventional alkaline electrolyser and advanced polymer membrane electrolysers for water electrolysis are quite expensive. Taking into account this aspect, a very simple and cheap water electrolyser has been designed and fabricated utilising easily available economical materials for small scale production of hydrogen using renewable energy from photovoltaic panel. The construction details of the electrolyser with a schematic drawing of the experimental set-up for PV production of H2 are given. In order to fabricate the compact electrolyser, two coaxial tubular PVC pipes were used. The lower part of the inner pipe has fine perforations for the transport of ions through electrolyte between the electrodes. Two cylindrical electrodes, cathode and anode are kept in inner and outer pipes respectively. The performance of hydrogen production was measured using a photovoltaic panel directly connected to the electrolyser under atmospheric pressure and in 27wt% KOH solution. Flow rates of hydrogen and oxygen were measured using a digital flow meter. High purity fuel cell grade hydrogen (99.98% and oxygen (99.85% have been produced. The experimental results confirm that the present electrolyser has eligible properties for hydrogen production in remote areas. No such electrolyser has been reported prior to this work. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 May 2009, Revised: 14 August 2009, Accepted: 19 August 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad. (2009. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 10-15.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7113.10-15][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7113.10-15 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7113 ] 

  7. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available conventional alkaline electrolyser and advanced polymer membrane electrolysers for water electrolysis are quite expensive. Taking into account this aspect, a very simple and cheap water electrolyser has been designed and fabricated utilising easily available economical materials for small scale production of hydrogen using renewable energy from photovoltaic panel. The construction details of the electrolyser with a schematic drawing of the experimental set-up for PV production of H2 are given. In order to fabricate the compact electrolyser, two coaxial tubular PVC pipes were used. The lower part of the inner pipe has fine perforations for the transport of ions through electrolyte between the electrodes. Two cylindrical electrodes, cathode and anode are kept in inner and outer pipes respectively. The performance of hydrogen production was measured using a photovoltaic panel directly connected to the electrolyser under atmospheric pressure and in 27wt% KOH solution. Flow rates of hydrogen and oxygen were measured using a digital flow meter. High purity fuel cell grade hydrogen (99.98% and oxygen (99.85% have been produced. The experimental results confirm that the present electrolyser has eligible properties for hydrogen production in remote areas. No such electrolyser has been reported prior to this work. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 May 2009, Revised: 14 August 2009, Accepted: 19 August 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad. (2009. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 10-15. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.21.10-15][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.21.10-15

  8. Development of a rugged handheld device for real-time analysis of heart rate: entropy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejaddam, Ali Y; van der Wilden, Gwendolyn M; Chang, Yuchiao; Cropano, Catrina M; Sideris, Antonis C; Hwabejire, John O; Velmahos, George C; Alam, Hasan B; de Moya, Marc A; King, David R

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC) analysis as a potential triage tool has been limited by the inability to perform real-time analysis on a portable, handheld monitoring platform. Through a multidisciplinary effort of academia and industry, we report on the development of a rugged, handheld and noninvasive device that provides HRV and HRC analysis in real-time in critically ill patients. After extensive re-engineering, real-time HRV and HRC analyses were incorporated into an existing, rugged, handheld monitoring platform. Following IRB approval, the prototype device was used to monitor 20 critically ill patients and 20 healthy controls to demonstrate real-world discriminatory potential. Patients were compared to healthy controls using a Student?s t test as well as repeated measures analysis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for HRV and HRC. Critically ill patients had a mean APACHE-2 score of 15, and over 50% were mechanically ventilated and requiring vasopressor support. HRV and HRC were both lower in the critically ill patients compared to healthy controls (p analysis. The area under the ROC for HRV and HRC was 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. This is the first demonstration of real-time, handheld HRV and HRC analysis. This prototype device successfully discriminates critically ill patients from healthy controls. This may open up possibilities for real-world use as a trauma triage tool, particularly on the battlefield. 2013.

  9. Evaluacion de diferentes estrategias para extraer y preconcentrar penicilinas presentes en leche previa determinacion por Electroforesis Capilar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ysabel Pinero, Maria; Jurado, Natividad; Bauza, Roberto; Arce, Lourdes; Valcarcel, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    ... (llamada asi por sus siglas en ingles: Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged y Safe). En general, el tratamiento de la muestra de leche incluyo la precipitacion de proteinas previo a la preconcentracion...

  10. Statistical evaluation and modeling of cheap substrate-based cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance microalgae lipid as new potential feedstock for biolubricant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-05-18

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalga was investigated as a new potential feedstock for the production of biodegradable lubricant. In order to enhance microalgae lipid for biolubricant production, mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was optimized using statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodology (RSM). A cheap substrate-based medium of molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used instead of expensive mineral salts to reduce the total cost of microalgae production. The effects of molasses and CSL concentration (cheap substrates) and light intensity on the growth of microalgae and their lipid content were analyzed and modeled. Designed models by RSM showed good compatibility with a 95% confidence level when compared to the cultivation system. According to the models, optimal cultivation conditions were obtained with biomass productivity of 0.123 g L(-1) day(-1) and lipid dry weight of 0.64 g L(-1) as 35% of dry weight of C. vulgaris. The extracted microalgae lipid presented useful fatty acid for biolubricant production with viscosities of 42.00 cSt at 40°C and 8.500 cSt at 100°C, viscosity index of 185, flash point of 185°C, and pour point of -6°C. These properties showed that microalgae lipid could be used as potential feedstock for biolubricant production.

  11. Compact, rapid, and rugged detector of military and improvised explosives based on external grating cavity quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekoun, Alexei; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Maulini, Richard; Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo; Lyakh, Arkadiy; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-08-01

    Early detection of explosive substances is the first and most difficult step in defeating explosive devices. Many currently available methods suffer from fundamental failure modes limiting their realworld suitability. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for reliable identification of explosives since it probes the chemical composition of molecules. Quantum cascade lasers rapidly became the light source of choice of IR spectroscopy due to their wavelength agility, relatively high output power, and small size and weight. Our compact, rapid, and rugged multi-explosives sensor based on external grating cavity QCLs simultaneously detects TNT, TATP, and acetone while being immune to ammonium nitrate interference. The instrument features low false alarm rate, and low probability of false negatives. Receiver operation characteristics curves are presented.

  12. Sago pith residue as an alternative cheap substrate for fermentable sugars production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linggang, S; Phang, L Y; Wasoh, M H; Abd-Aziz, S

    2012-05-01

    Sago pith residue is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass which can serve as an alternative cheap substrate for fermentable sugars production. This residue is the fibrous waste left behind after the starch extraction process and contains significant amounts of starch (58%), cellulose (23%), hemicellulose (9.2%) and lignin (3.9%). The conversion of sago pith residue into fermentable sugars is commonly performed using cellulolytic enzymes or known as cellulases. In this study, crude cellulases were produced by two local isolates, Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus, UPM2 using sago pith residue as substrate. A. fumigatus UPM2 gave the highest FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase activities of 0.39, 23.99 and 0.78 U/ml, respectively, on day 5. The highest activity of FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase by T. asperellum UPM1 was 0.27, 12.03 and 0.42 U/ml, respectively, on day 7. The crude enzyme obtained from A. fumigatus UPM2 using β-glucosidase as the rate-limiting enzyme (3.9, 11.7 and 23.4 IU) was used for the saccharification process to convert 5% (w/v) sago pith residue into reducing sugars. Hydrolysis of sago pith residue using crude enzyme containing β-glucosidase with 23.4 IU, produced by A. fumigatus UPM2 gave higher reducing sugars production of 20.77 g/l with overall hydrolysis percentage of 73%.

  13. Google Searches for "Cheap Cigarettes" Spike at Tax Increases: Evidence from an Algorithm to Detect Spikes in Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L

    2017-06-22

    Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status 1-8. Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase 9-10. However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists. Publicly available data from Google Trends is used to observe standardized search volumes for the term, "cheap cigarettes." Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate and E-Divisive with Means tests were performed to observe spikes and mean level shifts in search volume. Of the twelve cigarette tax increases studied, ten showed spikes in searches for "cheap cigarettes" within two weeks of the tax increase. However, the mean level shifts did not occur for any cigarette tax increase. Searches for "cheap cigarettes" spike around the time of a cigarette tax increase, but the mean level of searches does not shift in response to a tax increase. The SHESD and EDM tests are unbiased methodologies that can be used to identify spikes and mean level shifts in time series data without an a priori date to be studied. SHESD and EDM affirm spikes in interest are related to tax increases. Applies improved statistical techniques (SHESD and EDM) to Google search data related to cigarettes, reducing bias and increasing powerContributes to the body of evidence that state and federal tax increases are associated with spikes in searches for cheap cigarettes and may be good dates for increased online health messaging related to tobacco.

  14. Embedded audio without beeps: synthesis and sound effects from cheap to steep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbius, Nikolaj; Overholt, Dan

    2015-01-01

    , and wireless devices for the control of sound or music generated remotely. For example, studio creations can synthesize sound directly with an Arduino or a more powerful "Create USB Interface" board via Direct Digital Synthesis. Alternatively, they can control a program such as Pure Data (or other common...

  15. Characterization and application of bioflocculant prepared by Rhodococcus erythropolis using sludge and livestock wastewater as cheap culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lanyan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Lu; Dai, Chuanhua; Long, Zhiyong; Liu, Hongyu; Zhong, Yuanyuan

    2014-08-01

    A new bioflocculant was produced by culturing Rhodococcus erythropolis in a cheap medium. When culture pH was 7.0, inoculum size was 2 % (v/v), Na2HPO4 concentration was 0.5 g L(-1), and the ratio of sludge/livestock wastewater was 7:1 (v/v), a maximum flocculating rate of 87.6 % could be achieved. Among 13 different kinds of pretreatments for sludge, the optimal one was the thermal-alkaline pretreatment. Different from a bioflocculant produced in a standard medium, this bioflocculant was effective over a wide pH range from 2 to 12 with flocculating rates higher than 98 %. Approximately, 1.6 g L(-1) of crude bioflocculant could be harvested using cold ethanol for extraction. This bioflocculant showed color removal rates up to 80 % when applied to direct and disperse dye solutions, but only 23.0 % for reactive dye solutions. Infrared spectrum showed that the bioflocculant contained functional groups such as -OH, -NH2, and -CONH2. Components in the bioflocculant consisted of 91.2 % of polysaccharides, 7.6 % of proteins, and 1.2 % of DNA. When the bioflocculant and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were used together for decolorization in actual dye wastewater, the optimum decolorization conditions were specified by the response surface methodology as pH 11, bioflocculant dosage of 40 mg/L, and CuSO4 80 mg/L, under which a decolorization rate of 93.9 % could be reached.

  16. Rugged passively cooled high power laser fiber optic connectors and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.; McKay, Ryan P.

    2016-06-07

    There are provided high power laser connectors and couplers and methods that are capable of providing high laser power without the need for active cooling to remote, harsh and difficult to access locations and under difficult and harsh conditions and to manage and mitigate the adverse effects of back reflections.

  17. Modeling Top of Atmosphere Radiance over Heterogeneous Non-Lambertian Rugged Terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousivand, A.; Verhoef, W.; Menenti, M.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Topography affects the fraction of direct and diffuse radiation received on a pixel and changes the sun–target–sensor geometry, resulting in variations in the observed radiance. Retrieval of surface–atmosphere properties from top of atmosphere radiance may need to account for topographic effects.

  18. The importance of topographic corrections on magnetotelluric response data from rugged regions of Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerer, A.; Ilkisik, O.M. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Geophysical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    Topographic irregularities cause some distortions of magnetotelluric (MT) fields. In the vicinity of a topographic feature, the TM-mode distortion increases with the height and inclination of the slope. It is well-known that TM-mode topographic effects are much greater than TE-mode distortions. The authors have made a study of MT anomalies in TM-mode due to two-dimensional topography. In order to reduce these effects, the distortion tensor stripping technique was used. After corrections, the resulting data can be interpreted as if they were obtained over a flat surface and depend only on the subsurface structure. However, this technique sometimes causes some geometrical distortions of the real subsurface structure. One of the aims is to overcome this failure. The authors have modified the correction coefficients by considering the actual one-dimensional geology. Model studies showed that this approach is especially useful in removing the terrain effects on complex 2D subsurface structures. The other purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of a proper terrain correction for data from sites having mountainous topography over complex geology, e.g., strike-slip faults, suture zones and rift valleys. Some examples of MT data sets collected from the North Anatolian Fault Zone and from the thrust regions of the Western Taurides will be presented.

  19. Small, Smart, Fast, and Cheap: Microchip-Based Sensors to Estimate Air Pollution Exposures in Rural Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Ajay; Allen, Tracy; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Edwards, Rufus; Chowdhury, Zohir; Garland, Charity; Johnson, Michael; Litton, Charles D.; Lam, Nicholas L.; Pennise, David; Smith, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the Kirk R. Smith research group at the University of California Berkeley—in collaboration with Electronically Monitored Ecosystems, Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and other academic institutions—has developed a suite of relatively inexpensive, rugged, battery-operated, microchip-based devices to quantify parameters related to household air pollution. These devices include two generations of particle monitors; data-logging temperature sensors to assess time of use of household energy devices; a time-activity monitoring system using ultrasound; and a CO2-based tracer-decay system to assess ventilation rates. Development of each system involved numerous iterations of custom hardware, software, and data processing and visualization routines along with both lab and field validation. The devices have been used in hundreds of studies globally and have greatly enhanced our understanding of heterogeneous household air pollution (HAP) concentrations and exposures and factors influencing them. PMID:28812989

  20. Adaptive finite volume methods with well-balanced Riemann solvers for modeling floods in rugged terrain: Application to the Malpasset dam-break flood (France, 1959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of advancing flood waves over rugged topography, by solving the shallow-water equations with well-balanced high-resolution finite volume methods and block-structured dynamic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), is described and validated in this paper. The efficiency of block-structured AMR makes large-scale problems tractable, and allows the use of accurate and stable methods developed for solving general hyperbolic problems on quadrilateral grids. Features indicative of flooding in rugged terrain, such as advancing wet-dry fronts and non-stationary steady states due to balanced source terms from variable topography, present unique challenges and require modifications such as special Riemann solvers. A well-balanced Riemann solver for inundation and general (non-stationary) flow over topography is tested in this context. The difficulties of modeling floods in rugged terrain, and the rationale for and efficacy of using AMR and well-balanced methods, are presented. The algorithms are validated by simulating the Malpasset dam-break flood (France, 1959), which has served as a benchmark problem previously. Historical field data, laboratory model data and other numerical simulation results (computed on static fitted meshes) are shown for comparison. The methods are implemented in GEOCLAW, a subset of the open-source CLAWPACK software. All the software is freely available at. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation and prevention of the negative matrix effect of terpenoids on pesticides in apples quantification by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacinti, Géraldine; Raynaud, Christine; Capblancq, Sophie; Simon, Valérie

    2017-02-03

    The sample matrix can enhance the gas chromatography signal of pesticide residues relative to that obtained with the same concentration of pesticide in solvent. This paper is related to negative matrix effects observed in coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC/MS2) quantification of pesticides in concentrated extracts of apple peel prepared by the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. It is focused on the pesticides most frequently used on the apple varieties studied, throughout the crop cycle, right up to harvest, to combat pests and diseases and to improve fruit storage properties. Extracts from the fleshy receptacle (flesh), the epiderm (peel) and fruit of three apple varieties were studied by high-performance thin-layer chromatography hyphenated with UV-vis light detection (HPTLC/UV visible). The peel extracts had high concentrations of triterpenic acids (oleanolic and ursolic acids), reaching 25mgkg-1, whereas these compounds were not detected in the flesh extracts (matrix effects in GC/MS2. The differences in the behavior of pesticides with respect to matrix effects can be accounted for by the physicochemical characteristics of the molecules (lone pairs, labile hydrogen, conjugation). The HPTLC/UV visible method developed here for the characterization of QuEChERS extracts acts as a complementary clean-up method, aimed to decrease the negative matrix effects of such extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Matrix effect in guava multiresidue analysis by QuEChERS method and gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jhonyson Arruda Carvalho; Silva, Renata de Oliveira; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2016-05-15

    "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS)-GC/MS analytical technique was used to evaluated matrix effect of twenty-two pesticides in guava. Validation parameters (selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined for multiresidue analysis. Statistical test (t-student) was applied to the coefficients of the curves obtained for the guava matrix. The matrix effect (ME) for each pesticide was evaluated through the study of slope ratios obtained of solvent and guava matrix curves. Most of the compounds had positive ME. The rates of recovery were satisfactory (73.97-119.38%), with a coefficient of variation (CV) less than 20%. Analysis of commercial guava samples showed the presence of 5 types of pesticides residues at levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg·kg(-1). The results reveal the presence of unauthorized pesticides for cultivation of guava. This data can assist government agencies to ensure food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  4. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  5. Cheap-GSHPs, an European project aiming cost-reducing innovations for shallow geothermal installations. - Geological data reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertermann, David; Müller, Johannes; Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Sipio, Eloisa

    2016-04-01

    The success and widespread diffusion of new sustainable technologies are always strictly related to their affordability. Nowadays the energy price fluctuations and the economic crisis are jeopardizing the development and diffusion of renewable technologies and sources. With the aim of both reduce the overall costs of shallow geothermal systems and improve their installation safety, an European project has took place recently, under the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The acronym of this project is Cheap-GSHPs, meaning "cheap and efficient application of reliable ground source heat exchangers and pumps"; the CHEAP-GSHPs project involves 17 partners among 9 European countries such Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland. In order to achieve the planned targets, an holistic approach is adopted, where all involved elements that take part of shallow geothermal activities are here integrated. In order to reduce the drilling specific costs and for a solid planning basis the INSPIRE-conformal ESDAC data set PAR-MAT-DOM ("parent material dominant") was analysed and reinterpreted regarding the opportunities for cost reductions. Different ESDAC classification codes were analysed lithologically and sedimentologically in order to receive the most suitable drilling technique within different formations. Together with drilling companies this geological data set was translated into a geotechnical map which allows drilling companies the usage of the most efficient drilling within a certain type of underground. The scale of the created map is 1: 100,000 for all over Europe. This leads to cost reductions for the final consumers. Further there will be the definition of different heat conductivity classes based on the reinterpreted PAR-MAT-DOM data set which will provide underground information. These values will be reached by sampling data all over Europe and literature data. The samples will be measured by several

  6. Investments on a Rugged Landscape: The Effect of Investor Population, Network Structure, and Complexity on Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Mas Tur, Elena

    landscape”, and select potential investment targets according to their perceived risk-adjusted returns, where risks are a function of the technology’s maturity and the returns of the achieved technology fitness. Subject to imperfect information and bounded rationality, financial agents are heterogeneous...... the rate and direction of investments in potential innovation projects. To do so, we present an agent-based simulation model of technology investment by heterogeneous financial agents connected in a co-investment network. We model these agents as to observe emerging technologies on a technology “fitness...... in their (i.) their position and “search radius” on the landscape, determining the potential investment targets they are able to spot, and (ii.) “forecasting ability”, determining the accuracy of their prediction of achievable technological fitness. We observe which population of financial agents lead to high...

  7. Food Byproducts as a New and Cheap Source of Bioactive Compounds: Lignans with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Le; Lou, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-08-19

    During the process of manufacturing hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) juice and jam, a significant quantity of byproducts (leaves, seeds) is generated. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of hawthorn seeds has led to the isolation of eight new lignans, hawthornnins A-H (1-8), and seven known analogues (9-15). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra. The radical-scavenging effects of all isolated compounds were investigated. 1-6 and 8 showed moderate activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), whereas 1-6 and 14 displayed good 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities that were even more potent than that of trolox. In addition, all isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by detecting the nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by the LPS-induced murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, and compounds 1-7, 13, and 14 exhibited potent inhibition of NO and TNF-α production. The structure-activity relationships of isolated lignans were also examined, and the results obtained show that C. pinnatifida seeds can be regarded as a potential new and cheap source of antioxidants and inflammation inhibitors.

  8. Evolution of the genetic code: partial optimization of a random code for robustness to translation error in a rugged fitness landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Artem S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2007-10-23

    trajectories that converged at the same level of robustness to translation errors as the optimization path of the standard code; however, the standard code required considerably fewer steps to reach that level than an average random code. When evolution starts from random codes whose fitness is comparable to that of the standard code, they typically reach much higher level of optimization than the standard code, i.e., the standard code is much closer to its local minimum (fitness peak) than most of the random codes with similar levels of robustness. Thus, the standard genetic code appears to be a point on an evolutionary trajectory from a random point (code) about half the way to the summit of the local peak. The fitness landscape of code evolution appears to be extremely rugged, containing numerous peaks with a broad distribution of heights, and the standard code is relatively unremarkable, being located on the slope of a moderate-height peak. The standard code appears to be the result of partial optimization of a random code for robustness to errors of translation. The reason the code is not fully optimized could be the trade-off between the beneficial effect of increasing robustness to translation errors and the deleterious effect of codon series reassignment that becomes increasingly severe with growing complexity of the evolving system. Thus, evolution of the code can be represented as a combination of adaptation and frozen accident.

  9. Cheap diagnosis using structural modelling and fuzzy-logic based detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, Mogens; Katebi, Serajeddin

    2003-01-01

    relations for linear or non-linear dynamic behaviour, and combine this with fuzzy output observer design to provide an effective diagnostic approach. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference method is used. A fuzzy adaptive threshold is employed to cope with practical uncertainty. The methods are demonstrated...

  10. Striving for Victory on the Cheap: Imposing Democracy in the Absence of Total War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    effectively as the recognized and supported interim government of Grenada.93 Panama’s “leader of national stature” was Guillermo Endara, who had...2000. Churchill, Sir Winston S. The Second World War Volume 6: Triumph and Tragedy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953. Cohen , Eliot A. Supreme

  11. Rapid, easy, and cheap randomization: prospective evaluation in a study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When planning a randomized controlled trial (RCT, investigators must select randomization and allocation procedures based upon a variety of factors. While third party randomization is cited as being among the most desirable randomization processes, many third party randomization procedures are neither feasible nor cost-effective for small RCTs, including pilot RCTs. In this study we present our experience with a third party randomization and allocation procedure that utilizes current technology to achieve randomization in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner. Methods This method was developed by the investigators for use in a small 48-participant parallel group RCT with four study arms. As a nested study, the reliability of this randomization procedure was prospectively evaluated in this cohort. The primary outcome of this nested study was the proportion of subjects for whom allocation information was obtained by the Research Assistant within 15 min of the initial participant randomization request. A secondary outcome was the average time for communicating participant group assignment back to the Research Assistant. Descriptive information regarding any failed attempts at participant randomization as well as costs attributable to use of this method were also recorded. Statistical analyses included the calculation of simple proportions and descriptive statistics. Results Forty-eight participants were successfully randomized and group allocation instruction was received for 46 (96% within 15 min of the Research Assistant placing the initial randomization request. Time elapsed in minutes until receipt of participant allocation instruction was Mean (SD 3.1 +/− 3.6; Median (IQR 2 (2,3; Range (1–20 for the entire cohort of 48. For the two participants for whom group allocation information was not received by the Research Assistant within the 15-min pass threshold, this information was obtained following a second

  12. Validation and assessment of matrix effect and uncertainty of a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method for pesticides in papaya and avocado samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Susana Pano-Farias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of using the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC–MS was developed for the analysis of five frequently applied pesticides in papaya and avocado. The selected pesticides, ametryn, atrazine, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methyl parathion, represent the most commonly used classes (carbamates, organophosphorous, and triazines. Optimum separation achieved the analysis of all pesticides in 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ in papaya ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.35 mg/kg and from 0.06 mg/kg to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile for avocado, LOD values varied from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.28 mg/kg and LOQ values ranged from 0.22 mg/kg to 0.40 mg/kg. Recoveries obtained for each pesticide in both matrices ranged between 60.6% and 104.3%. The expanded uncertainty of the method was < 26% for all the pesticides in both fruits. Finally, the method was applied to other fruits.

  13. Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} heterostructures on a DVD as easy&cheap photoelectrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Michele; Calvillo, Laura; Zheng, Jian; Rizzi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: gianandrea.rizzi@unipd.it; Durante, Christian; Giallongo, Giuseppe; Chirkov, Dymitrov; Colazzo, Luciano; Marega, Carla; Gennaro, Armando; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-03-31

    Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles have been grown by pulse-electrochemical deposition on a Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) which acts as a nanostructured electrode. Prior to Cu{sub 2}O deposition, the silver-coated rectangular-shaped grooves of the disassembled DVD were coated with a TiO{sub 2} thin film by a modified sol–gel method, where oxalic acid is used in place of the usual mineral acids to peptize the precipitated hydrous titania formed from the hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide. This procedure leaves no inorganic residues after UV-curing, resulting in a high quality film, mainly composed of TiO{sub 2}-anatase. As demonstrated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, the DVD grooves are filled by a 120–130 nm thick TiO{sub 2} film, while the thickness of the TiO{sub 2} deposit on the crests is only ca. 50 nm. This inhomogeneous thickness leads to an inhomogeneous electric field when the DVD is used as an electrode for depositing Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles, which eventually leads to the growth of Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles only on the DVD crests. A highly regular and reproducible Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} stripe-like heterostructure is obtained where both semiconducting oxides are aside. This system has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements. A possible use of this easy&cheap electrode as a visible light responsive sensor to water soluble organics in basic solution is suggested. - Highlights: • A commercial DVD is recycled to prepare cheap photo-electrochemical sensors. • The sensing elements are Cu{sub 2}O nanostripes grown on a nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin film obtained at room temperature. • Water soluble organics can be detected by dissolved O{sub 2} activation with visible light.

  14. Cocoa Husk/Cassava Leaf Inclusions in Layers Mash Produced Quality Cheap Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubamiwa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-week trial was conducted to investigate the effects of cocoa husk meal (CHM/cassava leaf meal (CLM mixtures in layers mash on laying hen production performance and egg quality. Results were compared with those obtained using two locally popular standard commercial feeds (CFDs. CHM/CLM mixtures were included in the two test diets in the following order : Diet 1 (7.3 CHM/2.7 % CLM and Diet 2 (14.6 CHM/5.4 CLM. Forty 6-month-in-lay individually caged Black Nera hens were randomly allocated to the four diets. Feeding was ad libitum Feed intake, egg weight and percentage egg production were reduced (P <0.05 on Diet 2 relative to the CFDs. The reduction in egg weight was however marginal while the values were in line with the 56-58 g in the literature. Similarly, the value of 65 % percent egg production was considered not poor. Feed efficiency, yolk colour index, shell thickness and yolk percentage were not influenced by diet. On average, feed cost of the CHM/CLM diets were 60 % of those of the CFDs while the feed cost/kg egg was roughly doubled on the latter. It was concluded that the inclusion of CHM/CLM in layers mash promises to be a very economically rewarding venture where the two farm by-products are available.

  15. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McCreless

    Full Text Available The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  16. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  17. Production of Fungal Amylases Using Cheap, Readily Available Agriresidues, for Potential Application in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at isolation and screening of fungal amylase producer, optimization of solid state fermentation conditions for maximum amylase production by the best amylase producer, and characterization of the crude amylases, so produced. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 showed the highest amylase activity (164.1 U/mL in secondary screening under SSF conditions and was selected for further studies. The test strain showed maximum amylase production (341.7 U/mL and supernatant protein concentration (9.7 mg/mL for incubation period (6 days, temperature (35°C, initial pH (6.0, nutrient salt solution as moistening agent, and beef extract as nitrogen source. Pomegranate peel produced maximum amylase activity, but wheat bran (only slightly lesser amylase activity as compared to that of pomegranate peel was chosen for further studies, keeping in mind the seasonal availability of pomegranate peel. TLC confirmed the amylase produced to be α-type and 60 kDa was the molecular weight of the partially purified amylase. The enzyme showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 6.0, temperature of 55°C, and incubation time of 60 minutes. UV (616.0 U/mL and chemical (814.2 U/mL mutation enhanced amylase activity as compared to wild test strain. The study indicates that Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 can be an important source of amylase and the crude enzyme, hence obtained, can be cost effectively applied in multiple sections of textile wet processing.

  18. Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

  19. Ensete ventricosum (WELW. CHEESMAN: A CHEAP AND ALTERNATIVE GELLING AGENT FOR PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE IN VITRO PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Ayenew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are tried so far to reduce the production cost of plant tissue culture through increasing multiplication rate and/or substituting expensive components for wider usage of the technology. Subsequently, replacing the most common gelling agent, agar, took an attention since higher proportion of media cost comes from it. Up to now different alternatives were tried though they have drawbacks due to their inherent chemical characteristics. Therefore the search for new alternatives like Enset ventricosum is important. Enset flour, ‘Bulla’, has been tried in this study for the first time to substitute agar and showed no significant difference for shoots number, root number, shoot height, leaf number and an associated fresh weight of the plantlets besides good gelling ability than Agar. Subsequently, ‘Bulla’ at 80g L-1 gelled well and gave 11.8 shoots with 0.95g and 13.33 roots having 1.37 cm length. This rate can also save up to 76 % cost of gelling though significant difference was found for root length of 3.23 cm with Agar, 8 g L-1. This indicates further study on biochemical and/ or hormonal activity and across crop genotypes to use ‘Bulla’ as a cheap alternative commercial gelling agent.

  20. CheapStat: an open-source, "do-it-yourself" potentiostat for analytical and educational applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A Rowe

    Full Text Available Although potentiostats are the foundation of modern electrochemical research, they have seen relatively little application in resource poor settings, such as undergraduate laboratory courses and the developing world. One reason for the low penetration of potentiostats is their cost, as even the least expensive commercially available laboratory potentiostats sell for more than one thousand dollars. An inexpensive electrochemical workstation could thus prove useful in educational labs, and increase access to electrochemistry-based analytical techniques for food, drug and environmental monitoring. With these motivations in mind, we describe here the CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80, open-source (software and hardware, hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry. As we demonstrate, it is suitable for a wide range of applications ranging from food- and drug-quality testing to environmental monitoring, rapid DNA detection, and educational exercises. The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license.

  1. A New Metre for Cheap, Quick, Reliable and Simple Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) Measurements in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2017-09-03

    This paper deals with the thermal transmittance measurement focused on buildings and specifically in building energy retrofitting. Today, if many thermal transmittance measurements in a short time are needed, the current devices, based on the measurement of the heat flow through the wall, cannot carry out them, except if a great amount of devices are used at once along with intensive and tedious post-processing and analysis work. In this paper, from well-known physical laws, authors develop a methodology based on three temperatures measurements, which is implemented by a novel thermal transmittance metre. The paper shows its development step by step. As a result the developed device is modular, scalable, and fully wireless; it is capable of taking as many measurements at once as user needs. The developed system is compared working together on a same test to the currently used one based on heat flow. The results show that the developed metre allows carrying out thermal transmittance measurements in buildings in a cheap, quick, reliable and simple way.

  2. Nickel electrodes as a cheap and versatile platform for studying structure and function of immobilized redox proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiao Xia [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Li, Junbo [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Öner, Ibrahim Halil [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Zhao, Bing [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Leimkühler, Silke [Institut für Biochemie und Biologie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Straße 24-25, H. 25, Golm D-14476 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Weidinger, Inez M., E-mail: i.weidinger@mailbox.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-10-19

    Practical use of many bioelectronic and bioanalytical devices is limited by the need of expensive materials and time consuming fabrication. Here we demonstrate the use of nickel electrodes as a simple and cheap solid support material for bioelectronic applications. The naturally nanostructured electrodes showed a surprisingly high electromagnetic surface enhancement upon light illumination such that immobilization and electron transfer reactions of the model redox proteins cytochrome b{sub 5} (Cyt b{sub 5}) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) could be followed via surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy. It could be shown that the nickel surface, when used as received, promotes a very efficient binding of the proteins upon preservation of their native structure. The immobilized redox proteins could efficiently exchange electrons with the electrode and could even act as an electron relay between the electrode and solubilized myoglobin. Our results open up new possibility for nickel electrodes as an exceptional good support for bioelectronic devices and biosensors on the one hand and for surface enhanced spectroscopic investigations on the other hand. - Highlights: • Nickel electrodes were used without further functionalization as supports for various redox proteins. • It was possible to monitor the immobilized proteins via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. • The native structure of the immobilized proteins was preserved and they could exchange electrons with the Ni electrode. • The immobilized redox proteins worked as an electron relay between electrode and solubilized myoglobin.

  3. Environmentally friendly AND cheap?

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the initiative to make CERN a greener laboratory (see the Word from the DG in issue 20-21/2009 of the Bulletin), the Safety Commission’s General Safety Group has acquired CERN’s first electric bicycle. Picture of a cyclist wearing personal protective equipment riding the new bike at CERN.What with the Medical Service’s "Be active" health campaign, the emphasis placed on two-wheel safety this spring and the sheds for two-wheeled vehicles that are springing up all over the CERN site, it’s time to get on your bike… or one of the bikes available to the personnel, such as the DG/SCG’s new electric cycle. On Tuesday, 21 July, Building 57 welcomed CERN’s first electric bicycle, and the message to the DG/SCG group is clear: "Use it rather than taking one of the CERN cars as often as you can". With this new means of transport that’s easy on the environment (no direct gas emissions) as well as on the walle...

  4. As Cheap as Possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Behrmann, Gerd; Brinksma, Ed

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for efficiently computing optimal cost of reaching a goal state in the model of Linearly Priced Timed Automata (LPTA). The central contribution of this paper is a priced extension of so-called zones. This, together with a notion of facets of a zone, allows th...

  5. Good terrain geometry, cheap!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchaineau, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wolinsky, M.; Sigeti, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Real-time terrain rendering for interactive visualization remains a demanding task. We present a novel algorithm with several advantages over previous methods: our method is unusually stingy with polygons yet achieves real-time performance and is scalable to arbitrary regions and resolutions. The method provides a continuous terrain mesh of specified triangle count having provably minimum error in restricted but reasonably general classes of permissible meshes and error metrics. Our method provides an elegant solution to guaranteeing certain elusive types of consistency in scenes produced by multiple scene generators which share a common finest-resolution database but which otherwise operate entirely independently. This consistency is achieved by exploiting the freedom of choice of error metric allowed by the algorithm to provide, for example, multiple exact lines-of-sight in real-time. Our methods rely on an off-line pre-processing phase to construct a multi-scale data structure consisting of triangular terrain approximations enhanced ({open_quotes}thickened{close_quotes}) with world-space error information. In real time, this error data is efficiently transformed into screen-space where it is used to guide a greedy top-down triangle subdivision algorithm which produces the desired minimal error continuous terrain mesh. Our algorithm has been implemented and it operates at real-time rates.

  6. Talk is cheap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew Nelson

    1998-01-01

    In an interview, Chuck Williams, president and CEO of Brightware Inc., discussed the need for new customer service applications on I-commerce sites and why responding to Internet customers' needs is crucial...

  7. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  8. Cheap and Effective: The Impact of Student-Led Recitation Classes on Learning Outcomes in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Wendy A.; Ward, Kevin; Folsom, Justin; Borrenpohl, Teresa; Mumford, Sophie; Pershin, Zach; Carriere, Danielle; Smart, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the impacts of enrollment in a voluntary one-credit recitation class for ECON 101 students, focusing on course grades, course retention, and outcomes in later economics courses. The recitation classes were taught by undergraduate peer leaders with experience in upper-level microeconomics. Instead of being paid, the peer leaders…

  9. About the ''end of the cheap petroleum''; A propos de la ''fin du petrole bon marche''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses the catastrophic scenario presented by two geologists on the end of a cheap petroleum in the next ten years (paper presented in the french magazine ''Pour la Science'' in may 1998). The authors analysis is more moderate and bring the attention on other arguments as the geo-political and environmental aspects of the problems. (A.L.B.)

  10. Analysis of tomato matrix effect in pesticide residue quantification through QuEChERS and single quadrupole GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Domínguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pesticide in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. matrix using Gas Chromatography hyphenated to Mass Spectrometry detector (GC/MS can affect the sensitivity of the analysis by enhancement or suppression of their chromatography response, the percentages of recoveries and leading to errors in the quantification of the pesticides. In this study, the matrix effect was investigated using nine pesticides, and "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS-GC/MS analytical technique was validated for pesticides multiresidue analysis. The matrix effect was determined using not statistical and statistical procedures including ANOVA, with similar results. Strong negative matrix effect was found for the pesticides trifluralin, 4,4'-DDT, and permethrin, resulting in the increment of the chromatogram background and a decrease in their detection responses. Contrary, an enhancement induced by the matrix presence was obtained for carbaryl and azinphos methyl, showing a positive medium matrix effect. While, dimethoate, simazine, 4,4'-DDE, and iprodione did not exhibit matrix effect. The detection limits (LOD obtained, varied from 0.003 to 0.1 mg kg-1. Reproducibility was less than 20% for each pesticide. Recoveries were found to be between 71% and 121%, except for dimethoate, carbaryl, and azinphos methyl which reached values lower than 70%. Recoveries relative standard deviations were less than 22%. QuEChERS-GC/MS technique was used for evaluation of fresh commercial tomatoes samples, detecting carbaryl in all of them, but in concentration levels lower than the maximum residue limits according to regulations of Codex.

  11. Temperature and chain length dependence of ultrafast vibrational dynamics of thiocyanate in alkylimidazolium ionic liquids: A random walk on a rugged energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzer, Thomas; Garrett-Roe, Sean

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of a thiocyanate vibrational probe (SCN-) was used to investigate local dynamics in alkylimidazolium bis-[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide ionic liquids ([Imn,1][Tf2N], n = 2, 4, 6) at temperatures from 5 to 80 °C. The rate of frequency fluctuations reported by SCN- increases with increasing temperature and decreasing alkyl chain length. Temperature-dependent correlation times scale proportionally to temperature-dependent bulk viscosities of each ionic liquid studied. A multimode Brownian oscillator model demonstrates that very low frequency (modes primarily drive the observed spectral diffusion and that these modes broaden and blue shift on average with increasing temperature. An Arrhenius analysis shows activation barriers for local motions around the probe between 5.5 and 6.5 kcal/mol that are very similar to those for translational diffusion of ions. [Im6,1][Tf2N] shows an unexpected decrease in activation energy compared to [Im4,1][Tf2N] that may be related to mesoscopically ordered polar and nonpolar domains. A model of dynamics on a rugged potential energy landscape provides a unifying description of the observed Arrhenius behavior and the Brownian oscillator model of the low frequency modes.

  12. Having the rug pulled from under your feet: one project's experience of the US policy reversal on sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busza, Joanna

    2006-07-01

    After the election of President George W Bush in 2000, US government policy toward sexual and reproductive health changed dramatically. In May 2003, the Global AIDS Act was passed and prohibits allocation of US government funds to organizations that 'promote or advocate' legalization and practice of prostitution and sex trafficking. There are few documented examples of early impacts of this policy reversal on USAID-funded programmes already working with sex worker communities. This paper offers an anecdotal account of one programme in Cambodia that found itself caught in the ideological cross-fire of US politics, and describes consequent negative effects on the project's ability to offer appropriate and effective HIV prevention services to vulnerable migrant sex workers.

  13. Universal time-dependence of the mean-square displacement in extremely rugged energy landscapes with equal minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Jacobsen, Jacob M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the time dependence of the mean-square displacement for symmetric random energy barrier hopping models at low temperatures, where the frequency dependence of the normalized diffusion constant D-tilde becomes universal, i.e., independent of the energy barrier...... probability distribution [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11 709 (1994)]. The universal time dependence of the mean-square displacement is calculated from the effective medium approximation (EMA) universality equation, D-tilde lnD-tilde=s-tilde, where s-tilde is the dimensionless imaginary frequency, as well...... as for the approximation to the EMA universality equation D-tilde~=s-tilde/ln(1+s-tilde). At long times the universal mean-square displacement is linear in time, corresponding to ordinary diffusion, whereas the mean-square displacement at short times t in dimensionless units varies as 2/ln(t-1)....

  14. Rugged Direct-Current Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    Direct-current transducer withstands thermal and mechanical shocks. Operates from single, nominally 15-V power supply and nearly insensitive to both large variations in temperature and variations of as much as plus or minus 5 V in supply voltage. Its output voltage highly linear function of sensed current, with full-scale value of about 3 Vdc and offset of about 0.1 Vdc at 0 sensed current. Ruggedness of transducer due in large part to novel magnetic core, machined from solid block of nickel/iron high-permeability, low-hysteresis alloy.

  15. Using air, soil and vegetation to assess the environmental behaviour of siloxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratola, N.; Ramos, S.; Homem, V.

    2016-01-01

    range of human presence and land uses (urban, industrial, remote and beach areas). By adopting a "green" approach in terms of analytical methods, namely reducing the clean-up steps for the passive air samples and using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) technology for soils...

  16. Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study we developed and evaluated three new diffe...

  17. APPLICATION OF QuEChERS METHOD FOR MULTI-RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    number of these fruits (e.g. apples) and vegetables. (e.g. lettuce) are often eaten without prior washing increasing the risk of contamination from ingestion. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and. Safe) has found wide spread use for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables [1, 4-12].

  18. Validation and use of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for multiresidue pesticide analysis in blackcurrants including studies of matrix effects and estimation of measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    A triple quadrupole GC-QqQ-MS/MS method was optimized for multiresidue analysis of over 180 pesticides in blackcurrants. The samples were prepared by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) analytical protocol. To reduce matrix co-extractives in the final extract, the supernatant was cleaned up by dispersive-solid phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) with a mixture of sorbents: primary secondary amine (PSA), octadecyl (C18) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). The validation results demonstrated fitness for purpose of the streamlined method. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) spanned between 70% and 116% (102% on average) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 3% and 19% except for chlorothalonil (23%). Response linearity was studied in the range between 0.005 and 0.5 mg kg(-1). The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the slopes obtained in solvent and blackcurrant matrix. The optimized method provided small matrix effect (matrix effect was 10-20%, 20-30% and >30%, respectively. Following the application of "top-down" approach, the expanded measurement uncertainty was estimated as being 21% on average (coverage factor k=2, confidence level 95%). If compared with samples of other crops, the analyses of blackcurrants revealed a high percentage of exceedance of the legislative maximum residue levels (MRLs), as well as some instances of the detection of pesticides unapproved on this crop. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Comment on ’”Debate over free exchange of data roils geohysical world” by Julie Wakefield”] Geophysics data: Neither free nor cheap in today's political, economic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Hartley

    A Feb. 14, 1995, Eos article, “Debate Over Free Exchange of Data Roils Geophysical World,” discussed a controversial proposal to develop a three-tiered system for meteorological data exchange. In response to the call for related Forum pieces, I offer the following comments.Environmental data does not come cheap. The real costs of environmental data are frequently “buried” in the budgets of the multipurpose infrastructures that gather the information. Costs include instrumentation and calibration, siting and access, technical support, and data processing. Many producers and consumers probably do not know the actual “cost per information unit.” Smart systems, with communications links, are reducing acquisition costs; but the trend is countered by increasingly sophisticated and costly sensor technology and acquisition schemes.

  20. Optimisation of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Alabi, Taofic; Nieus, Clément; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Éric; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-30

    The health status of the indigenous people of Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared with that of the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The development of crickets, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest. Diets based on cassava leaves seem to be the most promising. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiments must be devised in which cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Chitosan application in maize ( Zea mays ) to counteract the effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chitosan application in maize ( Zea mays ) to counteract the effects of abiotic stress at ... for protection of corn can be considered a cheap and clean technology. ... Positive effect was observed in seeds treated with chitosan or stressed with ...

  2. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in

  4. Dirt Cheap and Without Prescription: How Susceptible are Young US Consumers to Purchasing Drugs From Rogue Internet Pharmacies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O´Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    advised to buy cheaper drugs at pharmacies such as these but the majority (62%) suggested that people should be warned against buying drugs from such internet sellers. Over 22% of respondents would recommend pharmacy A to friends and family (10% pharmacy B). One-third of participants supplied online health information to others for decision-making purposes. After controlling for the effects of education, health major, and age, these respondents had significantly worse judgment of Internet pharmacies than those who did not act as information suppliers. Conclusions At least a quarter of students, including those in health programs, cannot see multiple signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies. Many more are likely to be misled by online sellers that use professional design, veil untrustworthy features, and mimic reputable websites. Online health information consumers would benefit from education initiatives that (1) communicate why it can be dangerous to buy medications online and that (2) develop their information evaluation skills. This study highlights the importance of regulating rogue Internet pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to consumers. PMID:20439253

  5. Dirt cheap and without prescription: how susceptible are young US consumers to purchasing drugs from rogue internet pharmacies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanitskaya, Lana; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-04-26

    such as these but the majority (62%) suggested that people should be warned against buying drugs from such internet sellers. Over 22% of respondents would recommend pharmacy A to friends and family (10% pharmacy B). One-third of participants supplied online health information to others for decision-making purposes. After controlling for the effects of education, health major, and age, these respondents had significantly worse judgment of Internet pharmacies than those who did not act as information suppliers. At least a quarter of students, including those in health programs, cannot see multiple signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies. Many more are likely to be misled by online sellers that use professional design, veil untrustworthy features, and mimic reputable websites. Online health information consumers would benefit from education initiatives that (1) communicate why it can be dangerous to buy medications online and that (2) develop their information evaluation skills. This study highlights the importance of regulating rogue Internet pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to consumers.

  6. Amorphous silicon-carbon nanospheres synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using cheap methyltrichlorosilane as improved anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zailei; Zhang, Meiju; Wang, Yanhong; Tan, Qiangqiang; Lv, Xiao; Zhong, Ziyi; Li, Hong; Su, Fabing

    2013-06-21

    We report the preparation and characterization of amorphous silicon-carbon (Si-C) nanospheres as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. These nanospheres were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition at 900 °C using methyltrichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3) as both the Si and C precursor, which is a cheap byproduct in the organosilane industry. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermal gravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the synthesized Si-C nanospheres composed of amorphous C (about 60 wt%) and Si (about 40 wt%) had a diameter of 400-600 nm and a surface area of 43.8 m(2) g(-1). Their charge capacities were 483.6, 331.7, 298.6, 180.6, and 344.2 mA h g(-1) at 50, 200, 500, 1000, and 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than that of the commercial graphite anode. The Si-C amorphous structure could absorb a large volume change of Si during Li insertion and extraction reactions and hinder the cracking or crumbling of the electrode, thus resulting in the improved reversible capacity and cycling stability. The work opens a new way to fabricate low cost Si-C anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  7. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite str...

  8. A pilot study on the content and the release of Ni and other allergenic metals from cheap earrings available on the Italian market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocca, B. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: b.bocca@iss.it; Forte, G.; Senofonte, O.; Violante, N.; Paoletti, L.; De Berardis, B.; Petrucci, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cristaudo, A. [Istituto Dermatologico S. Gallicano, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The capability of alloys used in cheap jewellery to release metal ions on contact with the skin causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is generally acknowledged. To reduce the diffusion of the Ni-induced ACD the Council Directive 94/27/EC [Council Directive 94/27/EC of 30 June 1994. Official Journal L 188, 22/07/1994, 1.] limited the total Ni content in alloys and its release rate in artificial sweat. In this work, three different aspects were explored: i) the frequency of skin sensitization to Ni-containing earrings in patients before and after the introduction of the Directive's limit; ii) metal composition of alloys by X-ray analysis; iii) metal leaching in artificial sweat followed by Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) quantification. Well-known allergenic metals, as Ni, Cr and Co, and possible emergent allergens, as Al, Ag, Au, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ir, Mn, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sn, V and Zn, were studied. Results showed that the frequency of allergy due to earrings did not decrease after the introduction of the Ni limit: in 1994 and in 2005 patients positive to Ni patch tests were 54.3% and 53.5%, respectively. The earring components analyzed were Fe-based or alloys of Cu/Zn or Fe/Cr/Ni, plated with a thin film of precious metal (Ag, Au) which, in several cases, was combined with a Ni layer beneath. Five out of 10 items were not in compliance with the Ni Directive 94/27/EC having a total Ni content > 0.05%. In three cases the release of Ni concentrations was higher than the safe sensitizing limit given by the above mentioned Regulation (i.e., < 0.5 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/week). The release of Cu and Zn was very variable among the different pieces (Cu: 0.134-30.9 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/week; Zn: 0.141-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/week); two objects released high amounts of Fe (358 and 586 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/week) and one released considerable Mn (21 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/week). Lead was released from 70% of the objects, while Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr and Sn from ca. 30

  9. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D). Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients [ISRCTN 1894

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisdijk, F.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Tak, E.C.P.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle

  10. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D). Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients [ISRCTN 1894

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisdijk, F.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Tak, E.C.P.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle

  11. Comparison of data from co-located sensor packages and implications for dispersion modeling: An in situ case study of rugged versus low-threshold anemometers and natural-versus forced-ventilation solar shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, F.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    We compared 27 days of 15-minute-average data from two sets of co-located wind and temperature sensors at 10- and 40-m levels on a tower at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One anemometer set was rugged and the other was more sensitive with a lower threshold. At moderate winds (2

  12. Employee motivation and employee performance in child care : the effects of the introduction of market forces on employees in the Dutch child-care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on

  13. Exploring matrix effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of pesticide residues in tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Coy, Ana María; Marín, José M; Serrano, Roque; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Félix

    2015-05-01

    Tropical fruits are being increasingly consumed around the world because of their appreciated characteristics, particularly their high nutritional value and distinctive taste, which are different from those of traditional fruits. Owing to their introduction into international markets it is necessary to have a reliable analytical methodology available for the sensitive determination of pesticide residues in order to monitor the compliance of maximum residue limits (MRLs). From an analytical point of view, tropical fruits have generally been far less studied than other fruits frequently consumed in the European Union or USA, which are among the most important markets. In this work, LC-MS/MS-based methodology using a triple quadrupole analyzer was developed for the multi-residue determination of selected pesticides and metabolites in tropical fruits, which were selected among the most popular in Colombia, one of the most important suppliers of tropical fruits around the world. After selection of a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe)-based sample treatment, the study focused on the evaluation of matrix effects, in order to find a simple way for their correction. Twelve different food matrices were selected to perform this study: the seven Colombian tropical fruits of highest value for domestic and international markets (uchuva, tamarillo, granadilla, gulupa, maracuya, papaya, and pithaya), and five more matrices highly consumed in Colombia (lulo, carambolo, feijoa, mangostan, and guayaba). Twenty compounds, including pesticides widely applied in tropical fruits pest control and several metabolites considered in residue definition, were used as model compounds in this work. Correction factors were used on the basis of calibration graphs obtained with standards in solvent and in matrix, and their usefulness was supported by validation of the method in all the matrices tested at 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The analysis of real-world samples revealed the

  14. HIV-1 Env C2-V4 diversification in a slow-progressor infant reveals a flat but rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abigail Smith

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 fitness has been associated with virus entry, a process mediated by the envelope glycoprotein (Env. We previously described Env genetic diversification in a Zambian, subtype C infected, slow-progressor child (1157i in parallel with an evolving neutralizing antibody response. Because of the role the Variable-3 loop (V3 plays in transmission, cell tropism, neutralization sensitivity, and fitness, longitudinally isolated 1157i C2-V4 alleles were cloned into HIV-1NL4-3-eGFP and -DsRed2 infectious molecular clones. The fluorescent reporters allowed for dual-infection competitions between all patient-derived C2-V4 chimeras to quantify the effect of V3 diversification and selection on fitness. 'Winners' and 'losers' were readily discriminated among the C2-V4 alleles. Exceptional sensitivity for detection of subtle fitness differences was revealed through analysis of two alleles differing in a single synonymous amino acid. However, when the outcomes of N = 33 competitions were averaged for each chimera, the aggregate analysis showed that despite increasing diversification and divergence with time, natural selection of C2-V4 sequences in this individual did not appear to be producing a 'survival of the fittest' evolutionary pattern. Rather, we detected a relatively flat fitness landscape consistent with mutational robustness. Fitness outcomes were then correlated with individual components of the entry process. Env incorporation into particles correlated best with fitness, suggesting a role for Env avidity, as opposed to receptor/coreceptor affinity, in defining fitness. Nevertheless, biochemical analyses did not identify any step in HIV-1 entry as a dominant determinant of fitness. Our results lead us to conclude that multiple aspects of entry contribute to maintaining adequate HIV-1 fitness, and there is no surrogate analysis for determining fitness. The capacity for subtle polymorphisms in Env to

  15. Rugged Preheaters For Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Sander, Lewis D.; Power, Christopher A.; Sander, Heather L.; Nguyen, Dalton D.

    1994-01-01

    Electric preheater units built to ensure large workpieces to be coated with metals by vacuum plasma spraying heated uniformly to requisite high temperatures by time plasma torch arrives. Units similar to electrical-resistance ribbon heaters in toasters and in some small portable electric "space" heaters. Nichrome resistance-heating ribbons wrapped around ceramic insulating spools on rings and on plates. Round workpiece placed in middle of ring preheater. Plate preheaters stacked as needed near workpiece.

  16. Phonocardiograph microphone is rugged and moistureproof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. J.

    1966-01-01

    Microphone used as a phonocardiograph transducer monitors small amplitude audio signals in the presence of large shock loads and high humidity. It contains a lead zirconate-lead titanate piezoelectric plate encapsulated in a flexible polyurethane resin. The resin is contained in a sealed nylon case having a diameter of less than one inch.

  17. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  18. Rugged Optical Atmospheric Humidity Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trace species measurement on unmanned atmospheric research craft suitable for interplanetary travel is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet...

  19. Pesticides in Ichkeul Lake-Bizerta Lagoon Watershed in Tunisia: use, occurrence, and effects on bacteria and free-living marine nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Fida Ben; Said, Olfa Ben; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Monperrus, Mathilde; Grunberger, Olivier; Duran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most commonly used agricultural pesticides around Ichkeul Lake-Bizerta Lagoon watershed. First survey of pesticide use on agricultural watershed was performed with farmers, Regional Commissioner for Agricultural Development, and pesticide dealers. Then, sediment contamination by pesticides and response of benthic communities (bacteria and free-living marine nematode) were investigated. The analysis of 22 active organochlorine pesticides in sediments was performed according to quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method, biodiversity of indigenous bacterial community sediment was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and free-living marine nematodes were counted. The results of the field survey showed that iodosulfuron, mesosulfuron, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D), glyphosate, and fenoxaprops were the most used herbicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole the most used fungicides, and deltamethrin the most used insecticide. Sixteen organochlorine pesticide compounds among the 22 examined were detected in sediments up to 2 ppm in Ichkeul Lake, endrin, dieldrin, and hexachlorocyclohexane being the most detected molecules. The most pesticide-contaminated site in the lake presented the higher density of nematode, but when considering all sites, no clear correlation with organochlorine pesticide (OCP) content could be established. The bacterial community structure in the most contaminated site in the lake was characterized by the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) 97, 146, 258, 285, and 335 while the most contaminated site in the lagoon was characterized by the T-RFs 54, 263, 315, 403, and 428. Interestingly, T-RFs 38 and 143 were found in the most contaminated sites of both lake and lagoon ecosystems, indicating that they were resistant to OCPs and able to cope with environmental fluctuation of salinity. In contrast, the T-RFs 63, 100, 118, and 381 in the lake and the T

  20. Cheap non-toxic non-corrosive method of glass cleaning evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and SEM-EDX measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tania; Naughton, Daragh

    2017-05-01

    Glass surface cleaning is the very first step in advanced coating deposition and it also finds use in conserving museum objects. However, most of the wet chemical methods of glass cleaning use toxic and corrosive chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), piranha (a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). On the other hand, most of the dry cleaning techniques like UV-ozone, plasma, and laser treatment require costly instruments. In this report, five eco-friendly wet chemical methods of glass cleaning were evaluated in terms of contact angle (measured by optical tensiometer), nano-scale surface roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy or AFM), and elemental composition (measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy or SEM-EDX). These glass cleaning methods are devoid of harsh chemicals and costly equipment, hence can be applied in situ in close proximity with plantation such as greenhouse or upon subtle objects such as museum artifacts. Out of these five methods, three methods are based on the chemical principle of chelation. It was found that the citric acid cleaning method gave the greatest change in contact angle within the hydrophilic regime (14.25° for new glass) indicating effective cleansing and the least surface roughness (0.178 nm for new glass) indicating no corrosive effect. One of the glass sample showed unique features which were traced backed to the history of the glass usage.

  1. Anatase TiO2as a Cheap and Sustainable Buffering Filler for Silicon Nanoparticles in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Fabio; Carbonari, Gilberto; Croce, Fausto; Tossici, Roberto; Nobili, Francesco

    2017-12-08

    The design of effective supporting matrices to efficiently cycle Si nanoparticles is often difficult to achieve and requires complex preparation strategies. In this work, we present a simple synthesis of low-cost and environmentally benign aAnatase TiO 2 nanoparticles as buffering filler for Si nanoparticles (Si@TiO 2 ). The average anatase TiO 2 crystallite size was approximately 5 nm. A complete structural, morphological, and electrochemical characterization was performed. Electrochemical test results show very good specific capacity values of up to 1000 mAh g -1 and cycling at several specific currents, ranging from 500 to 2000 mA g -1 , demonstrating a very good tolerance to high cycling rates. Postmortem morphological analysis shows very good electrode integrity after 100 cycles at 500 mA g -1 specific current. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a cheap Sphaeranthus indicus extract: Impact on plant cells and the aquatic crustacean Artemia nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Gopinath, Kasi; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Lokesh, Ravi; Arumugam, Ayyakannu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    The impact of green-fabricated gold nanoparticles on plant cells and non-target aquatic species is scarcely studied. In this research, we reported an environment friendly technique for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using the Sphaeranthus indicus leaf extract. The formation of the metal NPs was characterized by UV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and TEM analyses. The UV-Visible spectra of Au NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance peak at 531nm. FT-IR analysis indicated functional bio-molecules associated with Au NPs formation. The crystalline nature of Au nanoparticles was confirmed by their XRD diffraction pattern. TEM revealed the spherical shape with a mean particle size of 25nm. Au NPs was tested at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10% doses in mitotic cell division assays, pollen germination experiments, and in vivo toxicity trials against the aquatic crustacean Artemia nauplii. Au NPs did not show any toxic effects on plant cells and aquatic invertebrates. Notably, Au NPs promoted mitotic cell division in Allium cepa root tip cells and germination of Gloriosa superba pollen grains. Au NPs showed no mortality on A. nauplii, all the tested animals showed 100% survivability. Therefore, these Au NPs have potential applications in the development of pollen germination media and plant tissue culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Unrecorded Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Harm in Rural Sabah, Malaysia: A Socio-economically Deprived Region with Expensive Beer and Cheap Local Spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Oo Tha, Naing; Naing, Khin Saw; Abbas, Roslee Bin Haji; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris

    2016-11-01

    To investigate recorded and unrecorded alcohol and the relation to alcohol-related harm in a region with high taxation, economic deprivation and cultural use of alcohol. Two participants per household were systematically sampled from 12 different villages chosen using stratified random sampling in the North of Sabah, Malaysia. Participants were asked about each type and amount of drink consumed; price paid, whether tax was paid, number of days sick in the last year and whether they had experienced various health problems. A brief screen for mental disorders (PHQ) and an alcohol disorder screening test (AUDIT) were completed. Village heads were also interviewed about alcohol-related problems at village level. 470 people were interviewed. The most commonly drunk beverages were beer and Montoku (a local distilled beverage), which had average prices of RM3.85 and RM0.48 per standard drink respectively. Montoku was more likely to be drunk by problem drinkers. Only 3.1% of alcohol drunk was believed by respondents to be taxed. Men with an AUDIT score of more than 15 were more likely to have had a sick day in the last year and have a female household member with symptoms of mental disorder on PHQ. Change in the taxation structure needs to be considered to reduce alcohol-related harm. Most alcohol consumed in rural Sabah is smuggled or informal. The low price of local spirits is likely to be contributing to alcohol-related harm. Differential effects on minority populations need to be considered when designing alcohol policy. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Multilevel structures of Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon nanocomposites derived from hybrid V-MOFs for long-life and cheap lithium ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Chuanjiang; Fang, Leyong

    2017-10-01

    The Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon (LVP/P-C) nanocomposites with multilevel structures (such as spheroidal, foam, prism and flower-like structures) are synthesized via one-pot in-situ synthesis using hybrid vanadium metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the LVP/P-C nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and element mapping. The results show that the multilevel structures are generated from the assemblies of the hybrid surfactant templates in the glass fiber drawing wastewater (GFDW) and the hybrid V-MOFs. The structure of LVP/P-C nanocomposite is controlled by V-MOFs. The nanocomposites exhibit a long service life, a discharge capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at 10 C with 90% capacity retention after 1100 cycles. The high cycling stability is attributed to the multilevel structures, which is ideal for making rechargeable lithium ion batteries. More importantly, our results have demonstrated that GFDW can be transformed into treasure of multilevel structure nanocomposites for cheap Li ion batteries.

  5. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  6. "Dirt Cheap" Project Teaches Soils Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a soil-testing activity that enables students to learn some interesting and useful things about how soil behaves under varied conditions. It offers a great way to give them a practical pre-engineering experience and will show them how engineers think about construction and how local soils influence building design. The…

  7. Simulated trust: a cheap social learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Ahn, René M C; Barakova, Emilia I

    2009-11-01

    Animals use heuristic strategies to determine from which conspecifics to learn socially. This leads to directed social learning. Directed social learning protects them from copying non-adaptive information. So far, the strategies of animals, leading to directed social learning, are assumed to rely on (possibly indirect) inferences about the demonstrator's success. As an alternative to this assumption, we propose a strategy that only uses self-established estimates of the pay-offs of behavior. We evaluate the strategy in a number of agent-based simulations. Critically, the strategy's success is warranted by the inclusion of an incremental learning mechanism. Our findings point out new theoretical opportunities to regulate social learning for animals. More broadly, our simulations emphasize the need to include a realistic learning mechanism in game-theoretic studies of social learning strategies, and call for re-evaluation of previous findings.

  8. Cheap Retrieval Bag for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy | Shyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholelithiasis. Use of a laparoscopic bag for facilitating extraction/ morcellation of the operative specimen has been shown to minimize infection of wound and abdominal cavity. Various laparoscopic bag substitutes like latex gloves and glove fingers have been used. We described a sterilized plastic surgical drain cover as a ...

  9. Stack 'em deep and teach 'em cheap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Johansen, Trine Susanne; Clausen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Business Communication (BCOM) is expected to reduce teaching related costs. In our paper, we address this challenge by highlighting options available such as usage of student teaching assistants, increase in class size and the creation of online learning environments, and discuss...

  10. A simple, cheap and reliable method for control of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wines. Screening of fining agents for reducing volatile phenols levels in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheiro, Juliana; Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2017-01-15

    Brettanomyces/Dekkera produces 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG) from hydroxycinnamic acids that affect the wine aroma and overall quality. A simple, cheap, fast and reliable quantitation method is needed for routine quality control of wines. In this work a simple method based on one simple liquid-liquid extraction with pentane/diethyl ether (2:1) and analysis by GC-MS allow to obtain very good recoveries (98-102%) and low quantification limits (24 and 11μg/L for 4-EP and 4-EG, respectively), well below the sensory threshold for these volatile phenols and with an adequate measurement uncertainty: 70, 1.75 and 78, 1.95 and 1.35μg/L for levels of 1000, 25μg/L for 4-EP and 1000, 25 and 10μg/L for 4-EG, respectively. In addition a screening of eight fining agents (mineral, protein and polysaccharide based) for reducing the levels of these volatile phenols in red wines was performed, and the impact on the physicochemical characteristics of red wines was evaluated. At the levels used, activated carbon was the most efficient fining agent in removing 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol from red wines (57%) resulting in a 75% decrease of headspace concentration of these volatile phenols. Lower reductions were observed when using egg albumin (19%) resulting in a 30% decrease in the headspace concentration. Other fining agents although not reducing the total amount of the volatile phenols present in wine decreased their concentrations in the headspace like isinglass (27%), carboxymethylcellulose (15%) and chitosan (27%). All of these fining agents could be a possibility for treating wine contaminated with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiseizure effects of ketogenic diet on seizures induced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a cheap and effective alternative therapy for most epilepsy. There are paucity of experimental data in Nigeria on the usefulness of KD in epilepsy models. This is likely to be responsible for the poor clinical acceptability of the diet in the country. This study therefore aimed at providing experimental ...

  12. Serach for polarization effects in the antiproton production process

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to study polarization effects in the production of antiprotons at the PS test beam line T11 at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. A polarization in the production process has never been studied but if existing it would allow for a rather simple and cheap way to generate a polarized antiproton beam with the existing facilities at CERN.

  13. Effect of different hydropriming times on the quantitative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In dry land areas of the western half of Iran, chickpea due to exposure to rotation with wheat and barley play an important role in maintaining survival of agriculture in these regions. Seed priming is a simple and cheap method and is highly efficient and acceptable, especially in areas with low fertility. In this study, effects of ...

  14. 1 The effectiveness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predictive value, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound in detection of bladder tumour were 83%, 93%, 89% and 89%, respectively. In conclusion, ultrasound is an effective method for evaluating patients presenting with haematuria or suspected to have bladder tumours. It is cheap, available, affordable and ...

  15. Energy-Effective Rotation Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kascheev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents invention, which allows to create compact and cheap fog-forming devices for industrial hothouses (plants, greenhouses, storehouses, testing polygons and other Objects. Besides, this invention gives the possibilities to modernize the traversers of gas-water fire-fighting type AGVS-100 or AGVS-150, using turbojet engines. Utilization of fog-forming machines among fire-fighting devices will increase the effectiveness in fire-fighting of forest and industrial Objects and oil fields.

  16. The Effect of Alcohol Extract of Neem Seed on Ovulation, Estrous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a search for a cheap, available and effective contraceptive to meet the increasing need for population control. This study was designed to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of Neem seed on the estrous cycle, ovulation and fertility of 38 female cyclic adult Sprague–Dawley rats weighing between 140 – 180g.

  17. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a blended exercise intervention for patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis : Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, C.J.J.; Bossen, D.; Veenhof, C.; van Dongen, J.M.; Dekker, J.; de Bakker, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise therapy in patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis is effective in reducing pain, increasing physical activity and physical functioning, but costly and a burden for the health care budget. A web-based intervention is cheap in comparison to face-to-face exercise therapy and

  18. Solvent free one-pot multi-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones catalyzed by mesoporous NH4H2PO4/MCM-41 as an environmentally friendly, cheap, and effective catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tayebee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A green and efficient method is described for the solvent free synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones through one-pot three-component condensation of ethyl acetoacetate, an aryl aldehyde, and urea using mesoporous MCM-41 supported ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4/MCM-41 as catalyst. The present methodology offers several advantages such as high yields, relatively short reaction times, mild reaction condition, easy work up, and using a highly recyclable catalyst. Some mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction would be achieved via formation of an acyliminium ion, followed by an acid-catalyzed cyclodehydration step.

  19. The use of dispersive pipet extraction (DPX) tips for the sample cleanup of apples, pears, and oranges in the analysis of formetanate HCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorniak, Lynda V

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Analytical Chemistry Laboratory evaluated the effectiveness of dispersive pipet extraction (DPX) tip cleanup and compared the results with the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe dispersive tube cleanup for the sample preparation of three different fruit matrixes analyzed for formetanate HCI (FHCI). Using LC/MS/MS, the target LOD and the LOQ achieved for FHCI with dispersive tubes, 0.1 and 0.3 ng/g, respectively, were similar to the DPX tip sample cleanup. Recoveries at the LOQ ranged from 94 to 109%. A set of 20-40 samples could be prepared in one working day by one chemist.

  20. Effect of low dose Lead (Pb) administration on tail immersion test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb) is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive ...

  1. The beneficial effect of Batroxobin on blood loss reduction in spinal fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Chen, Li; Frary, Charles Edward

    2015-01-01

    . There were no cases of superficial wound infection. None of the subjects died during the study. Conclusions In this study, prophylactic use of Batroxobin provided an effective and cheap method for reducing blood loss without coagulopathy during or after operations. The use of Batroxobin for patients...

  2. Effect of Two Pot Types on Iron Content of Fufu, a Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40% and 20.54% of dietary iron of an adult male, adult female and a toddler respectively. These findings show that contaminant iron that leached into fufu in the course of preparation may be a cheap source of dietary iron, and encouraging the consumption of fufu thus prepared may be an effective way of alleviating iron ...

  3. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation techniques on anxiety in Patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Jariani

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: progressive muscle relaxation can reduce the amount of anxiety, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in CCU ward, therefore it can play an effective role as a supplement non-medicinal, simple and cheap treatment for these patients

  4. Effect of pond depth and lining plastic color on growth and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacteria are a cheap source of nitrogen and quite suitable for farmers of developing countries. Although, they live in a diverse range of environments, different environmental variables influence their nitrogen fixing ability. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of pond depth and lining plastic colors on nitrogen fixing ...

  5. Implementação de método analítico para determinação de resíduos de organofosforados em leite por cromatografia a gás com detector fotométrico de chama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Pinto Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the implementation of the QuEChERS method for the analysis by GC-FPD of 53 different pesticides from the organophosphate class, in whole UHT and pasteurized milk. Selectivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery and limits of detection and quantification were evaluated. Of all pesticide recoveries, 51 were considered satisfactory since the values ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD < 20%. The quantification limits ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 mg kg-1. The QuEChERS method was suitable for determination of 52 pesticides, presenting several advantages - quick, cheap, easy, effective, rugged and safe - with regard to other traditional methodologies.

  6. Determination of aflatoxins M1, M2, B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanut by modified QuEChERS method and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry | Determinação de aflatoxinas M1, M2, B1, B2, G1 e G2 em amendoim utilizando um método QuEChERS modificado e cromatografia líquida de ultraeficiência com detecção por espectrometria de massas sequencial

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Swensson de Mattos; Yuri Pereira Souza; Rosana Pereira dos Santos; Maria Heloísa Paulino de Moraes; Armi Wanderley da Nóbrega

    2015-01-01

    A suitable method for routine analysis of aflatoxins M1, M2, B1, B2, G1, G2 in peanut by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was performed using a triple partitioning (water/acetonitrile/hexane) modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. For the first time, this method is reportedly used for aflatoxins analysis in peanut. Satisfactory recoveries ranged from 71 to 101%, with relati...

  7. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  8. Miniature, Rugged, Pulsed Laser Source for LIDAR Application Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Princeton Optronics proposes to develop a high energy pulsed laser source based on a novel approach. The approach consists of a technique to combine a large number...

  9. Rugged industrial computers for on-site engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... of industrial automation applications-for example, one Profibus and two Profinet interfaces for connection to the automation process, as well as four USB 3.0 interfaces. Simatic memory cards can be programmed directly on the industrial notebook through the Simatic Card Reader interface. The Simatic Field PG M5 is delivered ready-to-run with pre-in...

  10. Ombuds’ corner: Do not put things under the rug!

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Due to his technical expertise and a mastery in his domain of activity, Jim* was nominated supervisor of his Unit at CERN. In fact, he was considered perhaps the only person who could face, along with his team, the great challenges of a very complicated technical development, and succeed in overcoming all the difficulties. Jim really believed in his strategy, so he developed on his own a solid plan of action He set strict milestones for the project and the ways to operate, so that the overall project could be done on time and budget. Of course he counted on everyone in the team to be fully dedicated to his master plan. His management applauded his work and was confident that th...

  11. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  12. The Rugged Frontier: A Decade of Charter Schooling in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bryan C.; Terrell, Michelle Godard

    2004-01-01

    Arizona's charter experience over the past decade has clearly shown the power of a relatively open chartering system. Schools have sprung up in all corners of the state; parents and teachers have flocked to them in great numbers. Interesting new approaches have emerged. Quite a few of the schools have been strikingly successful. In many places,…

  13. Improved production from grazf,rug cattle when given protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tein supplemented heifers had an ADG of 500 g during the winter and were at a suitable live weight for mating at 15 ... het 'n ADG van 500 g gedurende die winter gehad en het op 15 maande 'n geskikte lewende massa gehad om ... digestibility and l,SVo N (Cohen, 1978). However, with the onset of frosts, fogs, heavy dew ...

  14. T-transformation: traversability analysis for navigation on rugged terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cang; Borenstein, Johann

    2004-09-01

    In order to maneuver autonomously on rough terrain, a mobile robot must constantly decide whether to traverse or circumnavigate terrain features ahead. This ability is called Obstacle Negotiation (ON). A critical aspect of ON is the so-called traversability analysis, which evaluates the level of difficulty associated with the traversal of the terrain. This paper presents a new method for traversability analysis, called T-transformation. It is implemented in a local terrain map as follows: (1) For each cell in the local terrain map, a square terrain patch is defined that symmetrically overlays the cell; (2) a plane is fitted to the data points in the terrain patch using a least-square approach and the slope of the least-squares plane and the residual of the fit are computed and used to calculate the Traversability Index (TI) for that cell; (3) after each cell is assigned a TI value, the local terrain map is transformed into a traversability map. The traversability map is further transformed into a traversability field histogram where each element represents the overall level of difficulty to move along the corresponding direction. Based on the traversability field histogram our reactive ON system then computes the steering and velocity commands to move the robot toward the intended goal while avoiding areas of poor traversability. The traversability analysis algorithm and the overall ON system were verified by extensive simulation. We verified our method partially through experiments on a Segway Robotics Mobility Platform (RMP), albeit only on flat terrain.

  15. The effect of seeding with bacteria on biogas production rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangoggo, S.M. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry; Aliyu, M.; Atiku, A.T. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Energy Research Centre

    1996-09-01

    Biogas as a clean and cheap fuel is studied with the aim of determining the effect of seeding with bacteria on its production rate using four different substrates. The seeding with four different digesters was carried out with 5g of digested cowdung sludge obtained from a working digester. Results indicate that of all the substrates used for the studies, ipomea asarifobia produced the highest amount of biogas over a period of 40 days. (Author)

  16. Antiseizure Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures Induced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    *1E.O. Sanya, 2A. O. Soladoye, 1O.O. Desalu, 1P. M. Kolo, 2L. A. Olatunji, 1J. K. Olarinoye. Departments of 1Medicine and 2Physiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Summary: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a cheap and effective alternative therapy for most epilepsy. There are paucity of experimental data in Nigeria on the ...

  17. Evaluation of a new modified QuEChERS method for the monitoring of carbamate residues in high-fat cheeses by using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed M; Moreno-González, David; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the determination of 28 carbamates in high-fat cheeses is proposed. The methodology is based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure as sample treatment using a new sorbent (Z-Sep+ ) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination. The method has been validated in different kinds of cheese (Gorgonzola, Roquefort, and Camembert), achieving recoveries of 70-115%, relative standard deviations lower than 13% and limits of quantification lower than 5.4 μg/kg, below the maximum residue levels tolerated for these compounds by the European legislation. The matrix effect was lower than ±30% for all the studied pesticides. The combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with this modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure using Z-Sep+ allowed a high sample throughput and an efficient cleaning of extracts for the control of these residues in cheeses with a high fat content. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Research Progress of QuEChERS Extraction Method in Pesticide Residues Determination in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of pesticide residues in food has been a daunting challenge for its high impurities disturbances, low residual content, andmultitudinous inseparable impurities using traditional extraction methods. The requirements of sample pre-treatment has been raised due todiverse food contaminants, a wide variety of pesticides and its physicochemical properties and growing emergence of new pesticides. In recentyears, QuEChERS(quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe, a novel extraction method, has become a widely used new sample pretreat-ment technology at domestic and abroad for its quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe features. QuEChERS method has been widelyused in determining pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and veterinaries using gas or liquid chromatographic method. The article made a summaryabout the application of pesticide residue detection and method improvement of QuEChERS in various types of food and other animal/plant-agricultural products, and then the prospects of QuEChERS method for pesticide residues detection were proposed.

  19. EFFECT OF WATER BORNE DISEASES ON INDIAN ECONOMY: A COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATHAK Hemant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper expressed the effect of water borne diseases, risk assessment and potential consequences on Indian economy. In Indian sub-continent higher burden of waterborne diseases due to a deteriorating public drinking water distribution system, increasing numbers of unregulated private water systems, and a limited, passive waterborne disease surveillance system. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. It isn’t cheap to treat water so that it is safe to drink. But it also isn’t cheap to treat everyone who becomes ill during a waterborne illness outbreak. As the level of protection becomes more effective, the cost of water treatment generally rises, as well. Unfortunately, government agencies generally attempt to minimize costs while the health effects have not been properly assessed.

  20. A six-month, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative, prospective, observational study of the efficacy and tolerability of atorvastatin in the primary care setting(estudio del control de las hiperlipidemiasen atención primaria): the cheap study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gerique, Juan A; Alvarez-Sala, Luis A; Armada, Beatriz; Fernández-Arias, Isabel; Martinez, Javier; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2003-06-01

    A close relationship exists between high levels of total cholesterol (TC) (particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which is associated with an increased risk for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence shows that atorvastatin produces significantly greater reductions in LDL-C and TC than other hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. However, the results achieved in clinical studies could be different from those found in general clinical practice, where patient follow-up is less thorough and poorer compliance may reduce the effectiveness of the lipid-lowering therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of atorvastatin in achieving the LDL-C levels recommended by several Spanish scientific societies, as well as its tolerability in standard clinical use. This 6-month, open-label, noncomparative, prospective, observational study was conducted in 1351 primary care centers in Spain. All patients were aged 18 to 80 years and had primary hypercholesterolemia (TC >200 mg/dL and triglycerides [TG] 200 mg/dL and fasting TG 200-400 mg/dL). All patients also had LDL-C levels higher than those established by the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis [SEA]) according to baseline cardiovascular risk and previous use of lipid-lowering therapy (for patients with low, moderate, or high cardiovascular risk, the recommended LDL-C goals are ≤175 mg/dL, ≤155 mg/dL, and ≤135 mg/dL, respectively; for patients with CVD, the LDL-C goal is ≤100 mg/dL). None of the patients had creatine kinase activity ≥540 U/L or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels ≥60 U/L. Study visits occurred at months 0, 2, and 6 of treatment. Patients received atorvastatin calcium 10 mg/d for 2 months. The dosage was then doubled to 20 mg/d in patients who did not achieve the SEA LDL-C goal and also

  1. The Effect of Feedback by SMS-text messages and email on Household Electricity Consumption: Experimental Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two...... the invitation. Results suggest that the type of feedback provided in this experiment can reduce consumption by up to 3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective....

  2. Thermophilic fermentation of hydrolysates: the effect of inhibitors on growth of thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasser, Christiane; Danner, Herbert; Neureiter, Markus; Saidi, Bamusi; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has great potential as a cheap feedstock in biological processes to produce biofuels or chemicals; however, dilute acid pretreatment at high temperatures produces undesirable compounds. Toxicity tests were done with inhibitors in standard media, to predict the growth-limiting effects on thermophilic strains. The 22 inhibitors included furfural, levulinic acid, acetic acid, and cinnamaldehyde. Neutralizing reagents and additional treatment steps have been tested.

  3. Genuine Onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    audio, and interactive storytelling are still available for designers willing to use HTML5 and CSS3. What we have described so far implies a relatively...onion- sites and the protocols to interact with them. Indeed, these are generally referred to collectively as Tor Hidden Services in the research...a directory system. In a successful interaction , the client and onionsite then both create Tor circuits to a client- selected Rendezvous Point. The

  4. Characterization of Episodic Air Pollution in Cities (CHEAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen HJTh; Mennen M; Meulen A van der; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To assess the behaviour of fine suspended particulate matter (PM10), a descriptive study was undertaken in the Netherlands in the City of Amsterdam and in a rural area some 50 km north-east of Amsterdam. During winter-smog episodes the contribution of PM1 to PM10 increases from approximately 10 to

  5. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available for South Africa (2x) Solar irradiation in South Africa ... ... as compared to Germany, where solar PV is now close to cost competitiveness with new coal and gas Source: Joint Research Center of the European Commission, PVGIS, BCG analysis 10 More sun makes...

  6. CHEAP MONEY POLICY AND ITS ROLE IN TRIGGERING FINANCIAL CRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dumitru CHIRITESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nothing is more natural inside the evolution of a living system than the crisis itself, the only thing that distinguishes systems from each other is represented by how crises are solved and future developments. The biggest mistake would be to think that there are companies that can develop linearly. Arbitrary, indeterminacy they are well outlined in any development.

  7. THE MAKING OF CHEAP LABOUR POWER: NOKIA'S CASE IN CLUJ

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoltán Mihály

    2015-01-01

    ...: the Nokia factory in Cluj, Romania. Two interrelated factors contributed to this. Firstly, the arrival of neoliberal economic rationality created favourable conditions for transnational capital's free passage through the country...

  8. Next big thing in physics not coming cheap

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "The price of exploring inner space just went up. At a news conference in Beijing an international consortium of physicists released the first detailed design of whant they believe will be the Next Big Thing in physics. A machine 20 miles long.......would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to build the machine, the group reported." (1 page)

  9. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  10. Genuine onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Syverson, Paul; Boyce, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Tor is a communications infrastructure widely used for unfettered and anonymous access to Internet websites. Tor is also used to access sites on the .onion virtual domain. The focus of .onion use and discussion has traditionally been on the offering of hidden services, services that separate their reachability from the identification of their IP addresses. We argue that Tor's .onion system can be used to provide an entirely separate benefit: basic website authentication. We also argue that no...

  11. Fast, cheap and in control: spectral imaging with handheld devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Deutsch, Erik R.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing has moved out of the laboratory and into the real world. Instruments using reflection or Raman imaging modalities become faster, cheaper and more powerful annually. Enabling technologies include virtual slit spectrometer design, high power multimode diode lasers, fast open-loop scanning systems, low-noise IR-sensitive array detectors and low-cost computers with touchscreen interfaces. High-volume manufacturing assembles these components into inexpensive portable or handheld devices that make possible sophisticated decision-making based on robust data analytics. Examples include threat, hazmat and narcotics detection; remote gas sensing; biophotonic screening; environmental remediation and a host of other applications.

  12. Limits on the Power of Cryptographic Cheap Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Rosen, Alon

    2013-01-01

    solutions so far were either sequentially unstable, or were restricted to a limited class of correlated equilibria (specifically, those that do not dominate any NE, and hence playing them does not offer a clear advantage over playing any NE). In the context of computational NE, we classify necessary...

  13. Evaluation of clinical model for deep vein thrombosis: a cheap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical features are non-specific and the clinical diagnosis is unreliable. The objective testing for the correct diagnosis is not usually available in most developing countries and the expertise are not readily available couple ...

  14. Cheap arbitrary high order methods for single integrand SDEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2017-01-01

    -series of the exact solution and numerical approximation are, due to the single integrand and the usual rules of calculus holding for Stratonovich integration, similar to the ODE case. The only difference is that integration with respect to time is replaced by integration with respect to the measure induced...

  15. Cheap and Near Exact CASSCF with Large Active Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E T; Mussard, Bastien; Holmes, Adam A; Sharma, Sandeep

    2017-11-14

    We use the recently developed Heat-bath Configuration Interaction (HCI) algorithm as an efficient active space solver to perform multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations (HCISCF) with large active spaces. We give a detailed derivation of the theory and show that difficulties associated with non-variationality of the HCI procedure can be overcome by making use of the Lagrangian formulation to calculate the HCI relaxed two-body reduced density matrix. HCISCF is then used to study the electronic structure of butadiene, pentacene, and Fe-porphyrin. One of the most striking results of our work is that the converged active space orbitals obtained from HCISCF are relatively insensitive to the accuracy of the HCI calculation. This allows us to obtain nearly converged CASSCF energies with an estimated error of less than 1 mHa using the orbitals obtained from the HCISCF procedure in which the integral transformation is the dominant cost. For example, an HCISCF calculation on the Fe-porphyrin model complex with an active space of (44e, 44o) took only 412 s per iteration on a single node containing 28 cores, out of which 185 s was spent in the HCI calculation and the remaining 227 s was used mainly for integral transformation. Finally, we also show that active space orbitals can be optimized using HCISCF to substantially speed up the convergence of the HCI energy to the Full CI limit because HCI is not invariant to unitary transformations within the active space.

  16. Hypoglycaemia, sleep and the problems of cheap air travel!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barrie

    As I write this piece I must confess to being both an insulin dependent diabetic (or whatever the current politically correct description is), and according to my GP, the second worst controlled diabetic in his surgery.

  17. Cheap Oil and the Impact on Rebuilding Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    hostilities, and I will show that it will not make economic sense to invest in rebuilding Syria’s oil infrastructure post- conflict . I will use the...Additionally, I will examine Iraq’s use of oil revenue to rebuild after a prolonged conflict . I will show that Iraq’s success with post- conflict oil ...years prior to the current conflict . Yemen’s oil revenues were $5 billion in 2011 (Syria had $3 billion the same year). Also, both countries’ oil

  18. Experimental Demonstration of a Cheap and Accurate Phase Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinger, Kenneth; Kimmel, Shelby; Lobser, Daniel; Maunz, Peter

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate an experimental implementation of robust phase estimation (RPE) to learn the phase of a single-qubit rotation on a trapped Yb+ ion qubit. We show this phase can be estimated with an uncertainty below 4 ×10-4 rad using as few as 176 total experimental samples, and our estimates exhibit Heisenberg scaling. Unlike standard phase estimation protocols, RPE neither assumes perfect state preparation and measurement, nor requires access to ancillae. We crossvalidate the results of RPE with the more resource-intensive protocol of gate set tomography.

  19. The high cost of cheap clothes | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... Four years after the collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory killed more than 1000 people in Bangladesh, a Dhaka-based think tank continues to push for wholesale changes to one of the country's most important industries. Part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing ...

  20. Estonia no longer a cheap labor stop - Parts / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Neli välismaalastest ettevõtte omanikku on sulgenud tehased Eestis, kuna ei leia tööjõudu. Peaminister Juhan Parts tõdes Eesti-Suurbritannia kaubanduskoja konverentsil, et Eestis pole enam odavat tööjõudu. J. Parts on pidanud vajalikuks, et Eesti ostaks tagasi Hansapanga

  1. Electricity Submetering on the Cheap: Stick-on Electricity Meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Lorek, Michael; Pister, Kristofer

    2014-08-17

    We demonstrate a low-cost, 21 x 12 mm prototype Stick-on Electricity Meter (SEM) to replace traditional in-circuit-breaker-panel current and voltage sensors for building submetering. A SEM sensor is installed on the external face of a circuit breaker to generate voltage and current signals. This allows for the computation of real and apparent power as well as capturing harmonics created by non-linear loads. The prototype sensor is built using commercially available components, resulting in a production cost of under $10 per SEM. With no highvoltage install work requiring an electrician, home owners or other individuals can install the system in a few minutes with no safety implications. This leads to an installed system cost that is much lower than traditional submetering technology.. Measurement results from lab characterization as well as a real-world residential dwelling installation are presented, verifying the operation of our proposed SEM sensor. The SEM sensor can resolve breaker power levels below 10W, and it can be used to provide data for non-intrusive load monitoring systems at full sample rate.

  2. Effect of Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization on the Soluble Salts Composition and Chemical Properties of Sodic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jinman Wang; Zhongke Bai; Peiling Yang

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using t...

  3. Effect Of Processing On Antinutrients Contents Of African Elemi Canarium Schweinfurthii And African Walnut Plukenetia Conophora Consumed As Traditional Snacks In Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Anyalogbu Ernest Anayochukwu Aniemeka; Ezejiofor Tobias Innocent Ndubuisi

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that seeds and fruits but for their content of antinutrients could offer a cheap means of providing adequate nutrients to their consumer. The effect of processing on antinutrients contents of the pulp of African elemi AE Canarium schweinfurthii and kernel of African walnut AW Plukenetia conophora consumed as traditional snacks masticatories in Nigeria were investigated. The levels of the antinutrients in raw samples of the traditional snacks as well as their corresponding...

  4. Theophylline: Adverse Effects, Poisoning and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Charehsaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Theophylline, which is a methylxanthine derivative, has been commonly used in all over the world for many years due to its cheapness and effectiveness in treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is a close relationship between its bronchodilator effect and blood levels of theophylline. Maintenance of its blood level between 10-20 μg/ml is important to obtain a maximum bronchodilator effect. Besides having a narrow therapeutic range, its alteration of pharmacokinetic characteristics due to individually factors, drugs, diet, and habits such as smoking and alcohol has led to requirement of more carefully use of theophylline for patients at every age. In the present review article, in addition to pharmacokinetic/ dynamic properties of theophylline, its adverse effects, poisoning with over dose of theophylline and approaches of its treatment have been given.

  5. Vahdet-i Vücûd Düşüncesini Açıklamada Halı Sembolizmi ve Muhyiddin-i Rûmî’nin Temsîl-i Kālîçe İsimli Risâlesi / The Symbolism of the Rug (Qalicha to Expound the Doctrine of the Unity of Being and Muhyiddin al-Rumi's treatise "Tamthil Qalicha"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hür Mahmut Yücer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Islamic thought, Wahdat Wujud (The Unity of Being is generally defined as a doctrine which discusses the transition of the real being (the absolute being to the methaphorical (the relative one, its formation and quality. By means of this doctrine, questions concerning the relations of Allah, the universe and human being are answered and many obscure issues found in the Holy Qur'an and the hadiths become intelligible. In the center of the doctrine of the Unity of Being occur the categories of being such as maratib al-wujud (the ranks of being, hadarat khamsa (the five presences and tanazzulat sab'a (the seven condescensions. The categories of being have been long dealt with in a similar manner in almost every corner of the Islamic World through explanatory works like those in the form of sharh (commentary. In order to facilitate the comprehension of the subject in question a number of symbolisms such as seed and tree, point and letter, steam and ice, mirror and dream (shadow have been utilised. The symbolism of the rug (qalicha which is focused by the present study has not been studied or drawn attention to until today. Thus Muhyi's treatise, Tamthil Qalicha is quite compelling. This study firstly endeavors to elucidate the symbolism of the rug and then presents a Turkish transliteration of the said treatise of Muhyi, Tamthil Qalicha. Öz Vahdet-i vücûd, İslam düşüncesinde en genel anlamıyla hakîki varlıktan mecâziye geçişi, kılınış (ca’liyet ve nasıllığı anlatan nazariyenin adıdır. Bu nazariye ile Allah-âlem-insan münasebeti hakkında sorular karşılıklarını bulurve Kur’ân-ı Kerîm ve hadislerde geçen birçok müteşabih konu anlaşılır hale gelir. Vahdet-i vücud nazariyesinin ana çatısını merâtibü’l-vücûd, hazerât-ı hams, tenezzülât-ı seb’a gibi farklı isimlerle ifade edilen varlık kategorileri oluşturur. Varlık mertebeleri tarih boyunca İslam dünyasının her b

  6. Analysis of 10 systemic pesticide residues in various baby foods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Angel; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Goudah, Ayman; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Do, Jung-Ah; Choi, Ok-Ja; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-06-01

    Ten systemic pesticides, comprising methomyl, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, carbofuran, fosthiazate, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, diethofencarb, propiconazole, and difenoconazole, were detected in 13 baby foods (cereals, boiled potatoes, fruit and milk) using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) for sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for analysis. The matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2) ) >0.992. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.0015-0.003 and 0.005-0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of three different concentrations ranged from 69.2 to 127.1% with relative standard deviations market, and none of the samples were found to contain pesticide residues. This method is suitable for the identification and quantification of systemic pesticides with matrix-matched standards in various baby foods. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Screening assay of residual antibiotics in livestock samples by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takayuki; Sasamoto, Takeo; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kanda, Maki; Takeba, Kazue; Kanai, Setsuko; Kusano, Tomoko; Matsushima, Yoko; Takano, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    A LC-MS/MS screening assay of multi-class antibiotics was developed for 19 residual antibiotics in livestock samples. Sample preparation employed the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach using 0.5% formic acid in acetonitrile-methanol (8 : 2), with salting-out using magnesium sulfate, trisodium citrate and sodium chloride. Recovery values from 5 different livestock samples ranged from 45.5 to 121.6%, and the RSDs were under 18% at two concentration levels. The limit of quantification values of 19 analytes were under 10 µg/kg in all livestock samples, and the procedure can detect almost all analytes under the MRL. Screening capability was confirmed by employing spiked samples. This new screening assay for residual antibiotics in livestock samples is expected to be useful for routine laboratory tests.

  8. Determination and dissipation of fipronil and its metabolites in peanut and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Li, Puyu; Wang, Lin; Feng, Mengyuan; Han, Lijun

    2015-05-13

    In this study, a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was established for the extraction and cleanup of fipronil and its three metabolites (fipronil solfone, sulfide, and desulfinyl) in peanut kernel, shell, straw, seedling, and soil samples, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for analysis. The average recoveries were 66-116% at the level of 0.001-0.1 mg/kg with the RSD fipronil dissipated more rapidly in peanut seedling than in soil, with half-lives of Fipronil-desulfinyl and fipronil-sulfone were the highest residue metabolites in peanut plant (seedling and straw) and soil samples, respectively.

  9. Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods To Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Devos, Tom; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Diana Di Mavungu, José; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah

    2016-06-22

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe based analytical methodologies to quantitate both free (alternariol (1), alternariol monomethyl ether (2), tenuazonic acid (3), tentoxin (4), altenuene (5), altertoxin-I (6)) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of 1 and 2) Alternaria toxins in fruit and vegetable juices and tomato products were developed and validated. Acceptable limits of quantitation (0.7-5.7 μg/kg), repeatability (RSDr Alternaria toxins (sulfates of 1 and 2) were repeatedly detected. A deterministic dietary exposure assessment revealed the possible risk for human health related to the presence of 1 and 2 in tomato based foodstuffs, whereas 3 is unlikely to be of human health concern.

  10. Pesticide Residues in Honey from the Major Honey Producing Forest Belts in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Godfred; Addai Tabi, Jonah; Adjaloo, Michael Kodwo; Borquaye, Lawrence Sheringham

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides residues in honey sampled from the major honey producing forest belts in Ghana were determined. Samples were purposively collected and extracted using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method and analysed for synthetic pyrethroids, organochlorine, and organophosphate pesticide residues. Aldrin, γ-HCH, β-HCH, ∑endosulfan, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin methoxychlor, ∑DDT, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, malathion, dimethoate, and diazinon were all detected at the concentration of 0.01 mg/kg, while cyfluthrin and permethrin were detected at mean concentrations of 0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. All the pesticide residues detected were very low and below their respective maximum residue limits set by the European Union. Hence, pesticide residues in honey samples analyzed do not pose any health risk to consumers.

  11. Eruca sativa: Benefits as antioxidants source versus risks of already banned pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M Luz; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Coelho, Andreia; Barroso, M Fátima; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Eruca sativa (rocket salad) has been intensely consumed all over the world, insomuch as, this work was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant status and the environmental contamination (positive and negative nutritional contribution) of leaves and stems from this vegetable. Antioxidant capacity of rocket salad was assessed by mean of optical methods, such as the total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extent of the environmental contamination was reached through the quantification of thirteen organochlorine pesticides (OCP) by using gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD) and compound confirmations employing gas chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The OCP residues were extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) methodology.The extent of the environmental contamination was reached through the quantification of thirteen OCP by using gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD) and compound confirmations employing GC-MS/MS. The OCP residues were extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) methodology. This demonstrated that leaves presented more antioxidant activity than stems, emphasizing that leaves contained six times more polyphenolic compounds than stems. In what concerns the OCP occurrence, the average recoveries obtained at the three levels tested (40, 60 and 80 µg kg(-1)) ranged from 55% to 149% with a relative standard deviation of 11%, (except hexachrorobenzene). Three vegetables samples were collected from supermarkets and analysed following this study. According to data, only one sample achieved 16.21 of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, confirmed by GC-MS/MS. About OCP quantification, the data indicated that only one sample achieved 16.21 µg kg(-1) of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, confirmed by GC-MS/MS, being the QuEChERS a good choice for the of OCPs extraction. Furthermore, the

  12. Beneficial effect of shot peening on steamside oxidation of 300-series austenitic steels: An electrochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrianský, Václav; Krausová, Aneta; Macák, Jan; Děd, Jiří; Eltai, Elsadig; Hamouda, Abdel Magid

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a protective oxide ensures the good corrosion resistance of austenitic steels in high temperature steam. However after long-term interaction even the protective oxide may tend to exfoliate and cause operational problems. With shot peening believed to be an effective method for mitigating steamside oxidation and exfoliation, we compared oxide layers formed on two materials: AISI 316H with a rugged untreated surface and Super304H with a shot-peened surface. In addition to conventional methods (SEM/EDS, Raman spectroscopy), Mott-Schottky analysis was used to characterize the oxide layers in order to determine the quality of the protective oxide. The oxides formed on Super 304H showed unexpected semiconducting behaviour with a significantly lower charge carrier density, thereby supporting the benefits of shot peening. Our findings extend the knowledge applicable to the design of more efficient coal-fired power plants.

  13. Effect of Commiphora molmol on Bithynia connollyi with special reference to their morphology and medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, Nahla M

    2006-08-01

    Morphological studies on B. connollyi dealt with the shell description, concerning colour, number of whorls, measurements, the correlation coefficient between shell shape and thickness, weight, length and width. Electrophoretic studies were carried out on snail's foot. Examination of B. connollyi showed a lot of gymnocephalus cercariae of liver fluke, Opisthorchis sp. Commiphora mohmol (Myrrh) has molluscicidal effect on B. connollyi at concentration (80 ppm) after 72 hr exposure. The mortality rate increased with the increasing the exposure time (death 100% at 72 hr. with 80 ppm & death 100% at 96 hr. with 40 ppm). Based on safety to man, animals and environment, C. molmol is highly recommended as a cheap herbal molluscicide.

  14. The effect of feedback by SMS-text messages and email on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Maria; Larsen, Anders; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control....... Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap...

  15. Plasmonic Nanosensors for the Determination of Drug Effectiveness on Membrane Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijado-Guzmán, Rubén; Menten, Julia; Prasad, Janak; Lambertz, Christina; Rivas, Germán; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2017-01-11

    We demonstrate the potential of the NanoSPR (nanoscale surface plasmon resonance sensors) method as a simple and cheap tool for the quantitative study of membrane protein-protein interactions. We use NanoSPR to determine the effectiveness of two potential drug candidates that inhibit the protein complex formation between FtsA and ZipA at initial stages of bacterial division. As the NanoSPR method relies on individual gold nanorods as sensing elements, there is no need for fluorescent labels or organic cosolvents, and it provides intrinsically high statistics. NanoSPR could become a powerful tool in drug development, drug delivery, and membrane studies.

  16. The l\\tlanufacture of Syntrletic L)rugs and Fine Chemicals+ -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acid, chlorsulphonic acid, etc. - which may no longer be available. The writer was at one time associated with a factory manufacturing aspirin from imported salicylic acid and acetic anhydride, and when a rise in price of the latter removed the small margin of profit, the project had to be abandoned, the manufacture of acetic ...

  17. "Beards, Sandals, and Other Signs of Rugged Individualism": Masculine Culture within the Computing Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensmenger, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 1960s and 1970s, male computer experts were able to successfully transform the "routine and mechanical" (and therefore feminized) activity of computer programming into a highly valued, well-paying, and professionally respectable discipline. They did so by constructing for themselves a distinctively masculine identity in which individual artistic genius, personal eccentricity, anti-authoritarian behavior, and a characteristic "dislike of activities involving human interaction" were mobilized as sources of personal and professional authority. This article explores the history of masculine culture and practices in computer programming, with a particular focus on the role of university computer centers as key sites of cultural formation and dissemination.

  18. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  19. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes: exact dynamics and information theoretical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B; Fontanari, José F

    2009-10-01

    The parallel mutation-selection evolutionary dynamics, in which mutation and replication are independent events, is solved exactly in the case that the Malthusian fitnesses associated to the genomes are described by the random energy model (REM) and by a ferromagnetic version of the REM. The solution method uses the mapping of the evolutionary dynamics into a quantum Ising chain in a transverse field and the Suzuki-Trotter formalism to calculate the transition probabilities between configurations at different times. We find that in the case of the REM landscape the dynamics can exhibit three distinct regimes: pure diffusion or stasis for short times, depending on the fitness of the initial configuration, and a spin-glass regime for large times. The dynamic transition between these dynamical regimes is marked by discontinuities in the mean-fitness as well as in the overlap with the initial reference sequence. The relaxation to equilibrium is described by an inverse time decay. In the ferromagnetic REM, we find in addition to these three regimes, a ferromagnetic regime where the overlap and the mean-fitness are frozen. In this case, the system relaxes to equilibrium in a finite time. The relevance of our results to information processing aspects of evolution is discussed.

  1. A Rugged Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Circular Planar Monopole for Multichannel Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    quickly or how slowly the tapered slot expands .11 If the exponential growth is too large or too small, then the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) can...The antenna is centered along the axis parallel to the feed location and sits atop a stack of polystyrene foam with another thin layer of foam on top

  2. Disparate HDV ribozyme crystal structures represent intermediates on a rugged free-energy landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sripathi, K.N.; Tay, W.W.; Banáš, P.; Otyepka, M.; Šponer, Jiří; Walter, N. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 7 (2014), s. 1112-1128 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1878 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : time-resolved FRET * steady-state FRET * small ribozyme Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2014

  3. Returning Images: Mandela, Marikana and the Rugged Road to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Oboe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is only appropriate to begin with his face. The intense, rainbow-colored Mandela portrait that opens this issue is the work of a young Indonesian digital artist, Ihsanulhakim, who captures a serious, reflective and aged version of the South African leader. The writing on the top left of the image is a quote from Mandela’s famous reflection on death translated into Indonesian: “Death is something inevitable. When a man has done what he considers to be his duty to his people and his country, he can rest in peace”.[1] [1] RIP Nelson Mandela © Muhammad Ihsanulhakim. I wish to thank the artist for generously allowing Altre Modernità to reproduce his work. The quote is from an interview for the documentary “Mandela”, 1994, in Nelson Mandela by Himself: The Authorised Book of Quotations © 2010 by Nelson R. Mandela and The Nelson Mandela Foundation.

  4. 75 FR 42315 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Carpets and Rugs: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Standardization (ISO)/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 17025:2005, ``General Requirements... and of the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory accreditation standard is provided in the....org/membersbycategory.html . The accreditation must be to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General...

  5. Adaptation in tunably rugged fitness landscapes: the rough Mount Fuji model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Johannes; Szendro, Ivan G; Krug, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Much of the current theory of adaptation is based on Gillespie's mutational landscape model (MLM), which assumes that the fitness values of genotypes linked by single mutational steps are independent random variables. On the other hand, a growing body of empirical evidence shows that real fitness landscapes, while possessing a considerable amount of ruggedness, are smoother than predicted by the MLM. In the present article we propose and analyze a simple fitness landscape model with tunable ruggedness based on the rough Mount Fuji (RMF) model originally introduced by Aita et al. in the context of protein evolution. We provide a comprehensive collection of results pertaining to the topographical structure of RMF landscapes, including explicit formulas for the expected number of local fitness maxima, the location of the global peak, and the fitness correlation function. The statistics of single and multiple adaptive steps on the RMF landscape are explored mainly through simulations, and the results are compared to the known behavior in the MLM model. Finally, we show that the RMF model can explain the large number of second-step mutations observed on a highly fit first-step background in a recent evolution experiment with a microvirid bacteriophage. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Single-Cell Studies of Phage λ: Hidden Treasures Under Occam's Rug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Ido

    2016-09-29

    Studies over more than half a century have resulted in what some consider a complete narrative for the life cycle of bacteriophage λ. However, this narrative is only complete within the limited resolution offered by the traditional genetic and biochemical approaches that were used to create it. A recent series of studies performed at the single-cell and single-phage levels has revealed a wealth of previously unknown features. By pointing to many open questions, these new studies highlight the limitations of our current understanding of λ, but they also initiate the process of forming a more detailed and quantitative narrative for the system.

  7. Construction of rugged, ultrastable optical assemblies with optical component alignment at the few microradian level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killow, Christian J; Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Hough, James; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Rowan, Sheila; Ward, Henry

    2013-01-10

    A method for constructing quasimonolithic, precision-aligned optical assemblies is presented. Hydroxide-catalysis bonding is used, adapted to allow optimization of component fine alignment prior to the bond setting. We demonstrate the technique by bonding a fused silica mirror substrate to a fused silica baseplate. In-plane component placement at the submicrometer level is achieved, resulting in angular control of a reflected laser beam at the sub-10-μrad level. Within the context of the LISA Pathfinder mission, the technique has been demonstrated as suitable for use in space-flight applications. It is expected that there will also be applications in a wide range of areas where accuracy, stability, and strength of optical assemblies are important. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  8. Compact, Rugged and Low-Cost Atmospheric Ozone DIAL Transmitter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bridger Photonics Inc. (Bridger) proposes to develop the most compact, efficient and low-cost ultra-violet ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) transmitter...

  9. The Chameleon on a Tartan Rug: Adaptations of Three Academic Developers' Professional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Renc-Roe, Joanna; Morón-García, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This paper builds on discussions of academic developers' identity experienced as a discomfiting, troubled, and often marginal space. Three experienced academic developers, located in research-intensive institutions in three different countries, using auto-ethnographic writing and a shared narrative inquiry, explore moments of congruence and…

  10. Compact, Rugged, and Low-Cost Wavelength-Versatile Burst Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-20

    close contact and standoff threat chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRNE) analysis. These operate in a burst laser mode with...the laser crystals and harmonics generation crystals start lensing and the thermal stress induce birefringence. All this change need to be...70F – 80F to a wider range if needed, 2) control the laser remotely via WiFi, Blue Tooth, etc. with smart phone if needed, 3) add safety features like

  11. Compact, rugged, and intuitive thermal imaging cameras for homeland security and law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Charles M.

    2005-05-01

    Low cost, small size, low power uncooled thermal imaging sensors have completely changed the way the world views commercial law enforcement and military applications. Key applications include security, medical, automotive, power generation monitoring, manufacturing and process control, aerospace application, defense, environmental and resource monitoring, maintenance monitoring and night vision. Commercial applications also include law enforcement and military special operations. Each application drives a unique set of requirements that include similar fundamental infrared technologies. Recently, in the uncooled infrared camera and microbolometer detector areas, major strides have been made in the design and manufacture of personal military and law enforcement sensors. L-3 Communications Infrared Products (L-3 IP) is producing a family of new products based on the amorphous silicon microbolometer with low cost, low power, high volume, wafer-level vacuum packaged silicon focal plane array technologies. These bolometer systems contain no choppers or thermoelectric coolers, require no manual calibration, and use readily available commercial off-the-shelf components. One such successful product is the Thermal-Eye X100xp. Extensive market needs analysis for these small hand held sensors has been validated by the quick acceptability into the Law Enforcement and Military Segments. As well as this product has already been received, L-3 IP has developed a strategic roadmap to improve and enhance the features and function of this product to include upgrades such as the new 30-Hz, 30-μm pitch detector. This paper describes advances in bolometric focal plane arrays, optical and circuit card technologies while providing a glimpse into the future of micro hand held sensor growth. Also, technical barriers are addressed in light of constraints, lessons learned and boundary conditions. One conclusion is that the Thermal Eye Silicon Bolometer technology simultaneously drives weight, cost, size, power, performance, producibility and design flexibility, each individually and all together - a must for the portable commercial law enforcement and military markets.

  12. Direct Burial Broadband Seismic Instrumentation that are Rugged and Tilt Tolerant for Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tim; Winberry, Paul; Huerta, Audrey; Bainbridge, Geoff; Devanney, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The integrated broadband Meridian Posthole and Compact seismic systems have been engineered and tested for extreme polar environments. Ten percent of the Earth's surface is covered in glacial ice and the dynamics of these environments is a strategic concern for all. The development for these systems was driven by researchers needing to densify observations in ice covered regions with difficult and limited logistics. Funding from an NSF MRI award, GEOICE and investment from the vendor enabled researchers to write the specifications for a hybrid family of instruments that can operate at -55C autonomously with very little power, 1 watt for the Meridian Compact system and 1.5 watts for the Meridian 120PH. Tilt tolerance in unstable ice conditions was a concern and these instruments have a range of up to +/-5 degrees. The form factor, extreme temperature tolerance and power load of the instruments has reduced the bulk of a complete station by 1/2 and simplified installation greatly allowing more instruments to be deployed with limited support and a lighter logistical load. These systems are being tested in the Antarctic at SouthPole Station and McMurdo for the second year and the investment has encouraged other instrument and power system vendors to offer polar rated equipment including telemetry for ancillary support.

  13. An Improved Method For Retrieving Land Surface Albedo Over Rugged Terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo is a very important parameter, which can be derived from a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model with angular integration of BRDF in a particular distribution of downward solar irradiance. The Algorithm for MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Anisotropic of

  14. Rugged Low Temperature Actuators for Tunable Fabry Perot Optical Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During our Phase I SBIR research, we propose to integrate a novel low-temperature large-strain actuator technology into Fabry-Perot optical filters. The resulting...

  15. Development of a fieldable rugged TATP surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Sylvia, James M.

    2011-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has repeatedly been shown to be capable of single molecule detection in laboratory controlled environments. However, superior detection of desired compounds in complex situations requires optimization of factors in addition to sensitivity. For example, SERS sensors are metals with surface roughness in the nm scale. This metallic roughness scale may not adsorb the analyte of interest but instead cause a catalytic reaction unless stabilization is designed into the sensor interface. In addition, the SERS sensor needs to be engineered sensitive only to the desired analyte(s) or a small subset of analytes; detection of every analyte would saturate the sensor and make data interpretation untenable. Finally, the SERS sensor has to be a preferable adsorption site in passive sampling applications, whether vapor or liquid. In this paper, EIC Laboratories will discuss modifications to SERS sensors that increase the likelihood of detection of the analyte of interest. We will then demonstrate data collected for TATP, a compound that rapidly decomposes and is undetected on standard silver SERS sensors. With the modified SERS sensor, ROC curves for room temperature TATP vapor detection, detection of TATP in a non equilibrium vapor environment in 30 s, detection of TATP on a sensor exposed to a ventilation duct, and detection of TATP in the presence of fuel components were all created and will be presented herein.

  16. Initial Results on Rugged Low Power Compact Silicon MEMS Sensors for Use in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Standley, Ian M; Pike, W. T

    2008-01-01

    .... Laboratory studies have demonstrated that frozen rock is significantly stronger than unfrozen rock, and it has been hypothesized that this increased strength, due to ice in the pores and cracks, can alter seismic yield...

  17. Fencing and mowing as effective methods for reducing tick abundance on very small, infested plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) transmits a large variety of pathogens to humans and is therefore a matter of concern for public health. Different strategies for reducing the risk of tick bite, and thus of infection, have been developed and vary according to the kind of exposure (occupational, recreational, peridomestic). The present study (carried out in an endemic region for both Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis) aimed to assess the efficacy of two simple and cheap interventions for reducing I. ricinus abundance around residential properties surrounded by wooded areas. The immediate impact of exclosures (host-targeted control methods) and mowing (vegetation management) on very small surfaces (fencing (even if applied on very small surfaces), by preventing the entrance of tick reproductive hosts, can decrease the abundance of parasites in a short time, and that mowing can contribute to reach the goal. This control method could be of great value in small portions of heavily infested areas that have to be kept tick-free to reduce the risk of peridomestic exposure or to permit their recreational use (e.g. picnic areas within natural parks). Benefits appear even greater when considering that these interventions are environmental safe, cheap, technically simple and effective even in close proximity to heavy infested woodlands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eggshell particles (ES on the microstructures and properties of Al–Cu–Mg/ES particulate composites have been studied. A total of 2–12 wt.% ES particles were added. The microstructures of the Al–Cu–Mg/eggshell particulate composites produced were examined by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS. The physical and mechanical properties measured included: density, tensile strength, hardness values and impact energy. The results revealed that the tensile strength increased by 8.16% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 14.28% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES, the hardness values increased by 10.01% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 25.4% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES with decrease in the density by 6.50% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 7.4% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES. The impact energy decreased by 23.5% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 24.67% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES particles, respectively. These increases in strength and hardness values are attributed to the distribution of hard phases of the ES particles in the ductile Al–Cu–Mg alloy matrix. These results showed that using the carbonized eggshell as reinforcement in the Al–Cu–Mg alloy gives better physical and mechanical properties as compared to uncarbonized ES particles. Hence addition of ES particles upto 12 wt.% can be used as a low cost reinforcement for the production of metal matrix composites for engineering applications.

  19. Costs and cost- effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tuberculosis management strategy in Hlabisa with three alternative strategies ... directly observed therapy for tuberculosis, a strategy that is cheap and ..... Historical Perspec;tive and Critical Evaluation of Current Information. Pretoria: Medical ...

  20. Eficácia do extrato aquoso de Azadiracta indica no controle de Boophilus microplus em bovino Effectiveness of Azadiracta indica watery extract on the control of bovine ticks Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valente

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with two groups of bovines naturally infected with Boophilus microplus. One group was treated every week during a month with Neem's watery extract and the other group was treated only once (at the test onset with amabectin pour-on. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference (P¹ day30] and age brackets (cowseffect. Neem’s watery extract was cheap and easy to prepare, even at farm and could replace amabectin in the control of Boophilus microplus in bovines.

  1. Effect of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Uddin Umar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4% of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehye (MDA in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.

  2. Effect of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Uddin Umar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4% of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.

  3. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Malerba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity.

  4. Facile fabrication of eco-friendly nano-mosquitocides: Biophysical characterization and effectiveness on neglected tropical mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. Eco-friendly control tools of Culicidae vectors are a priority. In this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a cheap leaf extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocyanaceae). Bio-reduced Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of I. frutescens leaf extract and green-synthesized Ag NPs was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 14.22, 15.84 and 17.26μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 636.61 to 2098.61μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of I. frutescens, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of poly-disperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cheap DECAF: Density Estimation for Cetaceans from Acoustic Fixed Sensors Using Separate, Non-Linked Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    were applied to each spectrum , corresponding to two principal varieties of noise: (1) Reduction of narrowband noise – spikes in the power spectrum ...filter that, for each frequency f in the spectrum , examines the neighborhood [f ˗ Δf, f + Δf] about f and replaces the spectrum value at f with the...1.5 Hz was found to work well. (2) Reduction of broadband noise, whether impulsive or relatively stationary, which came from seismic airguns

  6. ServoSEA concept: Cheap, miniature series-elastic actuators for orthotic, prosthetic and robotic hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, Sedar; Sluiter, Victor IJzebrand; Lammertse, P.; Stienen, Arno

    2014-01-01

    For interactive humanoids, rehabilitation robots, and orthotic and prosthetic devices, the human-robot interaction is an essential but challenging element. Compliant Series-Elastic Actuators (SEAs) are ideal to power such devices due to their low impedance and smoothness of generated forces. In this

  7. CheapSMC: A Framework to Minimize Secure Multiparty Computation Cost in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Pattuk, Erman; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Ulusoy, Huseyin; Malin, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Part 6: Reasoning about Security and its Cost; International audience; Secure multi-party computation (SMC) techniques are increasingly more efficient and practical, due in part, to various improvements. For instance, recent research has shown that different protocols that are implemented using different sharing mechanisms (e.g., boolean and arithmetic sharings) can have varying computational and communication costs. Although there are some approaches to automatically mix protocols of differe...

  8. Don't Worry, Be Scrappy: Good, Cheap Tech for Schools, Cloud Computing and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    When asked to weigh in on what might be the next best thing in educational technology, the author scanned the horizon for the next gizmo or software advance that would eventually grow legs, rise up, and utterly transform the library profession. But what he saw was more about evolution than revolution. Sure, Windows Vista will become Windows 7, USB…

  9. Coffee Beans and Rice Paddies - War on the Cheap: American Advisors in El Salvador and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Strategic Services PDC Partido Democrata Christiano RVN Republic of Vietnam SDC Self Defense Corps STABOPS Stability Operations USSR Union...the Self Defense Corps ( SDC ) and the Civil Guard (CG), being the closest to the populace, often in and around the Strategic Hamlets, were also among...indirectly, driving the population to the Vietcong through the corruptness of the paramilitary forces. By 1960, CG and SDC units were in such a state of

  10. Cheap Talk and Credibility: The Consequences of Confidence and Accuracy on Advisor Credibility and Persuasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Moore, Don A.; MacCoun, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to increase one's influence simply by behaving more confidently? Prior research presents two competing hypotheses: (1) the confidence heuristic holds that more confidence increases credibility, and (2) the calibration hypothesis asserts that overconfidence will backfire when others find out. Study 1 reveals that, consistent with the…

  11. Preparation and investigation of cheap polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Ma, Yue; Lund, Peter Brilner

    The electrolyte of choice for low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has tra­di­ti­o­nal­ly been DuPontTM Nafion® membranes or similar poly(perfluorosulfonic acid)s. The chemical struc­ture and morphology in the hydrated state of Nafion® is shown in figure 1 from which it is seen...... that the material consists of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. This structure gives hy­drated Nafion® very high proton conductivity as well as great stability.[i]           However, the poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) membranes are very expensive materials, and their high water uptake, significant methanol...... crossover, and relatively poor thermal stability constitute seri­ous drawbacks with respect to their fuel cell use.[ii],[iii],[iv] These aspects propel the search for cheaper and better alternatives.           In this study membrane systems consisting of a hydrophobic poly...

  12. Fast and cheap prototyping of non-standard optical components for sensing speckle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Stubager, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and time can become a prohibitively large part of a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces of a molding tool may be done directly using diamond turning, but it is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, however, calling for manual......, designed for optical spatial filtering velocimetry. The spatial filter is the key component in an optical sensor for non-contact measurement of surface vibrations, based on speckle dynamics. The optical element is casted in silicon. The results of smoothing an optical element will be demonstrated...

  13. The DEMETER micro satellite launch campaign: A cheap access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Kainov, Vladimir; Thoby, Michel; Silkin, Olexyi; Solovey, Vladislav

    The CNES micro satellite DEMETER has been successfully launched on June 29th 2004 by a DNEPR launcher, from the Baïkonur Cosmodrome. DEMETER was the main payload among eight co-passengers. Initiated by CNES in 1998, DEMETER is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of products; its objectives are both scientific and technological; the satellite has now been flying for science for almost one year. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian company Yuzhnoye, and a complete fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 to confirm the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interfaces. The launch campaign took place at Baïkonur Cosmodrome from the end of May to the end of June 2004, implying a close partnership between the CNES satellite team and the Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER has been a pioneer not only for the concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (three axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) to be launched on a former intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service was managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it was the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. The present paper deals with the details of DEMETER satellite and its launch, and preliminary results.

  14. Clean, Cheap, Convenient: Promotion of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G Sears

    2017-04-01

    Videos on YouTube promote e-cigarettes as safer than other tobacco products. Videos appearing to be user-generated contained different marketing claims compared to professional videos. Further research is necessary to assess how the perceived source of the video impacts the ways these marketing claims shape public perception and influence use.

  15. SKYLARK - A crossbow-launched micro scale cheap UAV for close aerial surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Marius PANAIT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Close air support of ground troops especially in densely populated, urban environments has an ever increasing prevalence in the modern warfare. Counter-terrorism activities as well as land-based “surgical strikes” impose a set of special requirements on all the used weapons and equipment so as to minimize weight, cost and complexity and maximize efficiency. Small scale UAVs are in service with all the armed forces around the globe; micro UAVs are emerging as the ground troop close support preferred solution. Endurance and range of these devices is regularly small to very small, and their speed is low. Their small size makes them virtually un-targetable if somewhat still detectable. A new generation of micro-drones is proposed, with a higher speed (up to 350 km/h ground speed averaged and automatic recovery system. Project SKYLARK consists of a reusable minimal micro-UAV featuring a portable micro-USB camera and an aerodynamically assisted timer-based recovery system.

  16. Fast and cheap prototyping of nonstandard optical components for sensing speckle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Kühn, Jan; Pedersen, H. C.

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the work carried out a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothening standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development price and time can become a prohibitively large part of a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces of a molding tool may be done directly using diamond turning, but it is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, however, calling for manual polishing afterwards. Particularly, this last process is expensive as well, and will introduce an uncertainty in precisely how much material the polishing process will remove, introducing roughness on a larger lateral scale, such as waviness. Therefore, we have investigated the possibilities of smoothening surfaces of various shapes succeeding a standard CNC machining process. Different coatings have been tested for their abilities to fill and smoothen out structures of larger scales, while removing the small-scale roughness, which is critical for optical uses. In this work we will present an optical element, designed for optical spatial filtering velocimetry. The spatial filter is the key component in an optical sensor for non-contact measurement of surface vibrations, based on speckle dynamics. The optical element is casted in silicon. The results of smoothing an optical element will be demonstrated, and the sensor will be demonstrated for real-time measurements.

  17. USE OF WASTE WATER OF LIVESTOCK IN ORDER TO OBTAIN BIOMASS FODDER CHEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNICIUC CRISTINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the combination of two directions for use of algae: algae biomass obtaining fodder minor and wastewater purification. Subject research have served cianofite species of algae: Nostoc gelatinosum, N. flagelliforme and Anabaena propinqua. As nutrient medium were used wastewater from livestock complexes (poultry and pigs with a rich content of organic substances. Investigations carried out indicate that the largest quantity of biomass of Nostoc flageliforme is achieved in the cultivation with wastewater by 1% from pig complexes -13.2 g / l, Nostoc gelatinosum-1% -68 g / l. and Anabaena propinqua-5%-8.8g/l.

  18. Using Video Streaming: Setting Up a Cheap System for Distributing Information to Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Thomas, Jr.; Kearns, Landon

    2005-01-01

    Video streaming can be a very useful tool for educators. It is now possible for a school?s technical specialist or classroom teacher to create a streaming server with tools that are available in many classrooms. In this article we describe how we created our video streamer using free software, older computers, and borrowed hardware. The system…

  19. What if solar energy becomes really cheap? A thought experiment on environmental problem shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Folke, C.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Solving one environmental problem may often invoke or intensify another one. Such environmental problem shifting (EPS) is a neglected topic in global sustainability research. Indeed, it is difficult to study as it requires the merging of insights from various research areas. Here we identify

  20. What if solar energy becomes really cheap? A thought experiment on environmental problem shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, Van den Jeroen; Folke, Carl; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Steffen, Will

    2015-01-01

    Solving one environmental problem may often invoke or intensify another one. Such environmental problem shifting (EPS) is a neglected topic in global sustainability research. Indeed, it is difficult to study as it requires the merging of insights from various research areas. Here we identify

  1. A cheap and simple passive sampler using silicone rubber for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional and enhanced sensitivity, solvent-free analysis by comprehensive gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry .... Nitrogen gas (nitrogen generator) was used for both the cold jets and the hot jets. The gas for ... temperature was 230°C, the electron energy was 70 eV in the electron ionisation mode ...

  2. Cheap C18-modified silica monolith particles as HPLC stationary phase of good separation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ashraf; Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Woo Jo [Dept. of of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The columns packed with particles have a high efficiency but they are accompanied with a high column back pressure due to lower permeability, while the monolithic columns have a high permeability but they result in inferior separation efficiency for the analysis of small molecules in HPLC. In our laboratory,we have been using the pseudo-monolithic silica particles with C-18 ligand or polystyrene film. The column to column reproducibility was evaluated based on three columns made of three different batches of silica monolith particles, and better than 4.5% in N, and 1.6% in retention time were observed. The day to day reproducibility of a single column for three consecutive days was found better than 1.5% both in N and retention time. The van Deemter plots were derived for awide range of flow rates. The trends of van Deemter plots were similar to those of common patterns and the optimal flow rate was found to be 25 μL/min.

  3. Clean, cheap, convenient: promotion of Electronic cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Clara G; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Lee, Alexander S; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney

    2017-04-01

    Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public's opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in user-generated and professional YouTube videos. Through content analysis, this study evaluated six marketing claims and descriptive information about YouTube videos (n = 50) related to "electronic cigarettes" and "vape". Overall, the most frequent marketing claim promoted e-cigarette use as better than traditional tobacco use (52%). Approximately 65% of videos appeared to be user-generated and 35% were professionally-produced. Compared to user-generated videos, significantly more professional videos made claims that e-cigarettes are cleaner (p YouTube promote e-cigarettes as safer than other tobacco products. Videos appearing to be user-generated contained different marketing claims compared to professional videos. Further research is necessary to assess how the perceived source of the video impacts the ways these marketing claims shape public perception and influence use.

  4. Animal welfare and eggs - cheap talk or money on the counter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2011-01-01

    Our estimate revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model. We utilise a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We estimate willingness to pay for organic...... eggs controlling for trust in a positive connection between the public good animal welfare and the organic label and the private good food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that in the real world, animal welfare plays a minor role in the demand for agricultural products....

  5. Cheap, Flexible, and Thermal-Sensitive Paper Sensor through Writing with Ionic Liquids Containing Pencil Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Saijun; Duan, Zhilong; Wang, Xun; Lai, Gan; Zhang, Xinyue; Wei, Hao; Liu, Lianhe; Ma, Ning

    2017-08-30

    The flexible and portable paper-based sensors have a broad potential application in electronic detection and devices. In this work, a flexible thermoresponsive paper sensor was reported by writing on A4 paper with composite pencil leads which contain thermoresponsive pyrene-based ionic liquid [Pyrmim]+[Br]-. The [Pyrmim]+[Br]- was transferred onto the A4 paper surface with graphite by pencil writing for the facile preparation of thermal-sensitive paper chips. The as-prepared paper sensor was very sensitive to the NIR irradiation and warm objects. What is more, the pliable paper chip also had regular responses along with the varication of the folding angles, which could be employed for the angle goniometer of electronic robots.

  6. Hey, Small Spender: An Insider's Guide to Navigating ALA's Chicago Conference on the Cheap

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an insider's guide to navigating the American Library Association's (ALA) annual conference in Chicago on July 9-15. As for the extracurricular activities, Chicago has a lot to offer. This article provides tips from the arts and entertainment bible "Time Out Chicago" on where to go and what to do (on a limited…

  7. War on the Cheap: U.S. Military Advisors in Greece, Korea, The Philippines, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    were typically junior in rank to their counterparts, there was value in the senior advisor being of a near-equivalent grade to the senior military...inconspicuous during times when aggressive action was needed most. During times of indecisiveness or timidity on the part of the Greeks, advisors could not...from the west became uncharacteristically timid and took three hours to move to the 118 Sheehan

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on impregnated powdered activated carbon as cheap substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mamun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalysis and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs composite are reported in this work. Carbon nanofibers were produced on oil palm shell powdered activated carbon (PAC, which was impregnated with nickel. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD of C2H2 was used in the presence of hydrogen at ∼650 °C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs formed directly on the surface of the impregnated PAC. Variable weight percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% of the catalyst salt (Ni+2 were used for the impregnation. However, the best catalysis was observed on the substrate with 3% Ni+2. The product displayed a relatively high surface area, essentially constituted by the external surface. New functional groups also appeared compared to those in the PAC. Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, BET surface area analysis and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX were used for the characterization of the new carbon nano product, which was produced through a clean novel process.

  9. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A

    2015-12-01

    Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Secret to Patron-Centered Web Design: Cheap, Easy, and Powerful Usability Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erica

    2008-01-01

    When the Johnson County Library (JoCo Library), a midsize suburban public library in Kansas City, Kansas, completely rebuilt its 2,000-plus-page website--one that had remained relatively stable for almost 5 years--the reaction from patrons and staff members was overwhelmingly positive. The web development team at the JoCo Library realized that the…

  11. Going cheap: determinants of bird price in the Taiwanese pet market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Su

    Full Text Available International wildlife trade is the largest emerging source of vertebrate invasive alien species. In order to prevent invasions, it is essential to understand the mechanics of trade and, in particular, which traded species are most likely to be released or escape into the wild. A species' economic value is a key factor, because we expect cheaper species to be less assiduously secured against escaping, and more likely to be deliberately released. Here, we investigate determinants of the price of species in the Taiwanese bird trade. Taiwan is an international hub for bird trade, and several native species are threatened by alien bird species.We investigated the relationship between the traded species sale price in Taiwan and the species availability for trade (the number of birds for sale, geographic range size and their origin, conservation and CITES status and traits (body size, coloration, song attractiveness. We used phylogenetic generalized least squares models, with multi-model inference, to assess the variables that are best related to the price of birds in the Taiwanese pet trade.We found that species available for sale in larger numbers, native to Taiwan, not globally endangered, and small-bodied are all relatively cheaper, as too are species lacking yellow coloration and without attractive songs. Our models of price revealed high levels of phylogenetic correlation, and hence that closely related species tended to be sold for similar prices. We suggest that, on the basis of price, native species are more likely to be deliberately or accidentally released than alien species. Nevertheless, our survey of bird shops recorded 160 species alien to Taiwan (7,631 individuals, several of which are for sale cheaply and in large numbers. Alien bird species in trade therefore present an ongoing, non-trivial invasion risk on the island.

  12. Going cheap: determinants of bird price in the Taiwanese pet market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan; Cassey, Phillip; Vall-Llosera, Miquel; Blackburn, Tim M

    2015-01-01

    International wildlife trade is the largest emerging source of vertebrate invasive alien species. In order to prevent invasions, it is essential to understand the mechanics of trade and, in particular, which traded species are most likely to be released or escape into the wild. A species' economic value is a key factor, because we expect cheaper species to be less assiduously secured against escaping, and more likely to be deliberately released. Here, we investigate determinants of the price of species in the Taiwanese bird trade. Taiwan is an international hub for bird trade, and several native species are threatened by alien bird species. We investigated the relationship between the traded species sale price in Taiwan and the species availability for trade (the number of birds for sale, geographic range size and their origin, conservation and CITES status) and traits (body size, coloration, song attractiveness). We used phylogenetic generalized least squares models, with multi-model inference, to assess the variables that are best related to the price of birds in the Taiwanese pet trade. We found that species available for sale in larger numbers, native to Taiwan, not globally endangered, and small-bodied are all relatively cheaper, as too are species lacking yellow coloration and without attractive songs. Our models of price revealed high levels of phylogenetic correlation, and hence that closely related species tended to be sold for similar prices. We suggest that, on the basis of price, native species are more likely to be deliberately or accidentally released than alien species. Nevertheless, our survey of bird shops recorded 160 species alien to Taiwan (7,631 individuals), several of which are for sale cheaply and in large numbers. Alien bird species in trade therefore present an ongoing, non-trivial invasion risk on the island.

  13. Utilising Raspberry Pi as a cheap and easy do it yourself streaming device for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, F.; Soegijoko, W.; Yamani, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in personal computing platforms have been revolutionary. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi series and the Arduino series, sub USD 100 computing platforms have changed the playing field altogether. It used to be that you would need a PC or an FPGA platform costing thousands of USD to create a dedicated device for a a dedicated task. Combining a PiCam with the Raspberry Pi allows for smaller budgets to be able to stream live images to the internet and to the public in general. This paper traces our path in designing and adapting the PiCam to a common sized eyepiece and telescope in preparation for the TSE in Indonesia this past March.

  14. Lippia javanica: a cheap natural source for the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanocolloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Mukesh; Halder, Dipankar; Mitra, Atanu

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous silver nanocolloid was synthesized in a single step by a biogenic approach using aqueous leaf extract of Lippia javanica plant which acts as both reducing as well as capping agent. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis absorption spectra of colloidal silver nanoparticles showed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak centered at a wavelength of 415 nm. The kinetic study showed that the reduction process was complete within 2 h of time. The TEM analysis showed that most of the particles were spherical in shape and their average diameter was about 17.5 nm. FTIR study confirmed the presence of some organic functional groups in leaf extract and their participation during the reduction as well as stabilization process. In addition, the as-synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated pathogenic strain of E. coli and B. subtilis.

  15. Planning a Library Leadership Retreat on the Cheap: Case Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Staying ahead of the pitch: an old baseball metaphor that means to anticipate where the ball is going to go so that the batter can score a hit. But to anticipate changes in a field as robust and challenging as information sciences, reflection and contemplation are often key to good planning. With simple day-to-day management of libraries already…

  16. Air Force Policy for Advanced Education: Production of Human Capital or Cheap Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    is not prima facie evidence that all on-base and distance-learning graduate programs offered to military members are devoid of any production of...then becomes whether or not most officers engaged in vol­ untary off- duty education programs do so to augment their promotion opportunities or to...their capability to perform the duties of the next rank. However, members of the board do not have information such as IQ, Air Force Officer Qualifying

  17. Brand cigarillos--a cheap and less harmful alternative to cigarettes? Particulate matter emissions suggest otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alexander; Bigelow, Alexander; Schulze, Michaela; Groneberg, David A

    2015-01-06

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS) Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Mean concentrations (Cmean) and area of the curve (AUC) of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package.

  18. Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gerber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS-associated particulate matter (PM constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean and area of the curve (AUC of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package.

  19. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, J.; Chick, J; Black, H.; Rees, C; O'May, F.; Rush, R; McPake, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Study design: Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. Methods: 639 patients with seriou...

  20. Cheap Talk: “Team Factors and Management Practices Influence on Team Trust”

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Padmini Selvaratnam; Aini Aman; Muhamad Maziz Mahyuddin Bin Kamaludin; Gary Lynn; Richard Reilly

    2016-01-01

    Team trust has been cited as a contributing factor towards team performance. This paper looks at the antecedents of team trust and to what extent they influence team trust. The antecedents of team trust are team factors like team autonomy, team stability and team member experience; and the management practices are top management involvement and management support. The results demonstrated that team factors and management practices influence team trust individually. The key find...

  1. High Resolution Melting Analysis for fast and cheap polymorphism screening of marine populations

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Isabelle Calves, Sébastien Artigaud, Carolyn S. Friedman, Christine Paillard, Jean Laroche & Claude Ferec ### Abstract This protocol permits the mutation scanning of PCR products by high-resolution DNA melting analysis requiring the inclusion of a saturating intercalating dye in the PCR mix without labelled probe. During a scanning process, fluorescent melting curves of PCR amplicons are analyzed. Mutations modifying melting curve shapes, are allowed...

  2. The high cost of cheap clothes | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Four years after the collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory killed more than 1000 people in Bangladesh, a Dhaka-based think tank continues to push for wholesale changes to one of the country's most important industries. Part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, ...

  3. The Making of Cheap Labour Power: Nokia’s Case in Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Zoltán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures that minimized labour costs in a typical offshore factory of a large corporation from the global market: the Nokia factory in Cluj, Romania. Two interrelated factors contributed to this. Firstly, the arrival of neoliberal economic rationality created favourable conditions for transnational capital’s free passage through the country. Secondly, under the imperative of flexibilization, the 2011 Labour Code modifications diminished employee rights and increased employers’ privileges, allowing companies such as Nokia to freely assemble the region’s labour force – engaging it in a complex production process – and disassemble it without any major consequences. Flexibilization permitted the use of outsourced labour power in the form of external employees, partly from rural areas, with short-term contracts and minimum wages.

  4. Cheap but flighty: how global imbalances create financial fragility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahnert, T.; Perotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Can a wealth shift to emerging countries explain instability in developed countries? Investors exposed to political risk seek safety in countries with better property right protection. This induces private intermediaries to offer safety via inexpensive demandable debt, and increase lending into

  5. "Small Talk Is Not Cheap": Phatic Computer-Mediated Communication in Intercultural Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz-Arévalo, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to analyse the phatic exchanges performed by a class of nine intercultural Master's students during a collaborative assignment which demanded online discussion using English as a lingua franca (ELF). Prior studies on the use of phatic communication in computer-mediated communication have concentrated on social networking…

  6. Cheap carbon and biodiversity co-benefits from forest regeneration in a hotspot of endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J.; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A.; Wheeler, Charlotte; Baptiste, Brigitte L. G.; Medina Uribe, Claudia A.; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change and biodiversity loss can be addressed simultaneously by well-planned conservation policies, but this requires information on the alignment of co-benefits under different management actions. One option is to allow forests to naturally regenerate on marginal agricultural land: a key question is whether this approach will deliver environmental co-benefits in an economically viable manner. Here we report on a survey of carbon stocks, biodiversity and economic values from one of the world's most endemic-rich and threatened ecosystems: the western Andes of Colombia. We show that naturally regenerating secondary forests accumulate significant carbon stocks within 30 years, and support biodiverse communities including many species at risk of extinction. Cattle farming, the principal land use in the region, provides minimal economic returns to local communities, making forest regeneration a viable option despite weak global carbon markets. Efforts to promote natural forest regeneration in the tropical Andes could therefore provide globally significant carbon and biodiversity co-benefits at minimal cost.

  7. Elements of Regolith Simulant's Cost Structure--Why Rock Is NOT Cheap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of lunar regolith simulants is much higher than many users anticipate. After all, it is nothing more than broken rock. This class will discuss the elements which make up the cost structure for simulants. It will also consider which elements can be avoided under certain circumstances and which elements might be altered by the application of additional research and development.

  8. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    find the OOR to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the CT applied without the OOR. This suggests that the CT practice should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment...... format, rather than merely being adopted directly from Contingent Valuation....

  9. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sona; Seetharaman, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  10. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona John

    Full Text Available Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  11. Family matters? The effect of kinship care on foster care disruption rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Compared with other types of out-of-home care, kinship care is cheap, and offers the child a more familiar environment. However, little is known about the causal effect of kinship care on important outcomes. This study is the first to estimate causal effects of kinship care on placement stability, using full-sample administrative data (N=13,157) and instrumental variables methods. Results show that, in a sample of children of age 0-17 years, kinship care is as stable as other types of care, and only when the kin caregiver is particularly empathic and dutiful does this type of care prove more stable. Thus, in terms of stability, most children do not benefit additionally from being placed with kin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of 3D virtual haptics force feedback on brand personality perception: the mediating role of physical presence in advergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-06-01

    This study gauged the effects of force feedback in the Novint Falcon haptics system on the sensory and cognitive dimensions of a virtual test-driving experience. First, in order to explore the effects of tactile stimuli with force feedback on users' sensory experience, feelings of physical presence (the extent to which virtual physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects) were measured after participants used the haptics interface. Second, to evaluate the effects of force feedback on the cognitive dimension of consumers' virtual experience, this study investigated brand personality perception. The experiment utilized the Novint Falcon haptics controller to induce immersive virtual test-driving through tactile stimuli. The author designed a two-group (haptics stimuli with force feedback versus no force feedback) comparison experiment (N = 238) by manipulating the level of force feedback. Users in the force feedback condition were exposed to tactile stimuli involving various force feedback effects (e.g., terrain effects, acceleration, and lateral forces) while test-driving a rally car. In contrast, users in the control condition test-drove the rally car using the Novint Falcon but were not given any force feedback. Results of ANOVAs indicated that (a) users exposed to force feedback felt stronger physical presence than those in the no force feedback condition, and (b) users exposed to haptics stimuli with force feedback perceived the brand personality of the car to be more rugged than those in the control condition. Managerial implications of the study for product trial in the business world are discussed.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of HIV drug resistance testing to inform switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in low income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    outcomes were assessed over 2015-2025 in terms of viral suppression, first line failure, switching to second line regimen, death, HIV incidence, disability-adjusted-life-years averted and costs. Potential future low costs of resistance tests ($30) were used. RESULTS: The most effective strategy, in terms......BACKGROUND: To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations...... being identified. METHODS: An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa...

  14. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.. We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  15. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Ferrari, Marika; Geneletti, Davide; Klug, Hermann; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES) provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.). We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  16. Predicting Behavioral Suites From Genetic Profiles: Variation in Mating, Aggression & Exploration in Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-22

    others. 50 animals arrived from Tanzania in January 2013. The animals were quarantined, tested for Monkey pox (though a collaboration with the...Inc. is developing the Rugged Automated Training (RAT) system, a cost-effective, rugged, automated environment to train and deploy small animals to

  17. Alkali Metal-O2 Batteries. Performance and Lifetime Limiting Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm

    The rechargeable Na-O2 and Li-O2 batteries are attractive battery technologies as they potentially are very cheap and as they theoretically possess about 3 and 10 times higher energy density than the current Li-ion technologies. This PhD thesis is dedicated to studying the effects that limit cell...... performance of these two technologies.  The Li-O2 battery was first introduced in 1996 and focus in the field is still on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling discharge and charge. This PhD thesis was mainly dedicated to the Li-O2 battery and initially charge conduction through the discharge...... transport through Li2O2 gives further evidence that hole transport dominates charge-transfer through Li2O2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to conduct detailed investigations of surface capacitance, ion transport, and chargetransfer reactions in the cathode of the Li-O2 cell...

  18. Investigating the effect of particle size and shape on high speed tableting through radial die-wall pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh; Alshihabi, Firas; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-07-15

    Investigating particle properties such as shape and size is important in understanding the deformation behavior of powder under compression during tableting. Particle shape and size control the pattern of powder rearrangement and interaction in the die and so the final properties of the compact. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of particle size and shape on compactability. Particle friction and adhesion were investigated through radial die-wall (RDW) pressure monitoring. To fulfill this aim, powders and granules of different sizes and shapes of materials with different compaction behaviors were used. Compaction simulation using the Presster with an instrumented die was applied. Small particle size increased residual die-wall pressure (RDP) and maximum die-wall pressure (MDP) (pparticle size had an opposite effect. No effect was found on brittle material, however big particle size showed higher friction for such materials. Regarding morphology, fibrous elongated particles of microcrystalline cellulose had less friction tendency to the die-wall in comparison to rugged surface mannitol particles. RDW pressure monitoring is a useful tool to understand the compactability of particles in respect to size and shape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  20. Effect of Surfactant Te on the Formation of MnS Inclusions in Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lichun; Malfliet, Annelies; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2017-10-01

    The effect of surfactant Te on the formation of MnS inclusions was studied by adding different amounts of Te to liquid steel at 1873 K (1600 °C). Coarse and fine MnS inclusions, which were formed, respectively, during and after solidification, were observed. Both types show a chain-like pattern, suggesting that they precipitate in the interdendritic regions. Te significantly decreases the area fraction of the coarse inclusions in the interdendritic regions. Moderate Te additions (25 and 50 ppm) make these inclusions more globular, whereas high Te addition (120 ppm) makes their surfaces rugged. Te also decreases the area fraction of the fine inclusions. High Te addition (120 ppm) modifies these inclusions from faceted to spherical, and makes them homogeneously distributed in the steel matrix. The suppressed precipitation of both coarse and fine MnS inclusions in the interdendritic regions suggests that Te alleviates S segregation. The mechanisms by which Te alleviates S segregation and modifies the morphology of MnS inclusions were discussed.

  1. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Pfannkoch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138% linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue.

  2. QuEChERS-Based Method for Pesticides Analysis in Adipose Tissue Associated with Rat Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamariola, Nathalie; Toledo Netto, Pedro; da Silva Franchi, Carla Adriene; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    The concomitant exposure to low doses of various pesticides is one of the most relevant issues in human toxicology today. An experimental toxicology study was developed to evaluate the effects of this type of exposure on the reproductive capacity of females of three species of rats that were exposed to mixtures of dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan and permethrin at low doses (LOAEL and NOAEL). In this context, we have developed a method for determining pesticides in adipose tissue (0.5 g, 49% lipid) associated with the ovaries, based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) strategy. The method quantification limit (LOQ) was 0.5 mg/kg for dicofol and permethrin, 0.05 mg/kg for endosulfan and dieldrin and 0.2 mg/kg for diclorobenzophenone. Mean recoveries ranged from 75% to 93% with a relative standard deviation <13%. The unspecific selectivity (matrix effect) indicates the mandatory use of analytical curves constructed on the matrix extract. All the analyzed samples (53 adipose tissue associated to ovaries) showed residues of dichlorobenzophenone + dicofol, dieldrin and cis-permethrin while trans-permethrin were detected in 40% of the samples but were below the LOQ. The data indicated the bioaccumulation characteristics of these substances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Novel approaches in analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals employing ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasova, M.; Lacina, O.; Malachova, A.; Kostelanska, M.; Poustka, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Godula, M. [Thermo Fisher Scientific, Czech Republic, Slunecna 27, 100 00 Prague 10 (Czech Republic); Hajslova, J., E-mail: jana.hajslova@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-03

    Rapid, simple and cost-effective analytical methods with performance characteristics matching regulatory requirements are needed for effective control of occurrence of Fusarium toxins in cereals and cereal-based products to which they might be transferred during processing. Within this study, two alternative approaches enabling retrospective data analysis and identification of unknown signals in sample extracts have been implemented and validated for determination of 11 major Fusarium toxins. In both cases, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HR MS) was employed. {sup 13}C isotopically labeled surrogates as well as matrix-matched standards were employed for quantification. As far as time of flight mass analyzer (TOF-MS) was a detection tool, the use of modified QuEChERS (quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe) sample preparation procedure, widely employed in multi-pesticides residue analysis, was shown as an optimal approach to obtain low detection limits. The second challenging alternative, enabling direct analysis of crude extract, was the use of mass analyzer based on Orbitrap technology. In addition to demonstration of full compliance of the new methods with Commission Regulation (EC) No. 401/2006, also their potential to be used for confirmatory purposes according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC has been critically assessed.

  4. Effect of short circuited DC link capacitor of an AC–DC–AC inverter on the performance of induction motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeed Ahmed Sher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are widely used in industrial power plants due to their robustness, reliability and high performance under variable operating conditions in the electrical power system. Modern industrial progress is dependent on these ruggedly constructed induction motors. Almost every sophisticated process of the industry is based on induction motors. Most of these motors are controlled by means of inverters that change the line frequency. The change in parameters of inverter makes it possible to control the motor according to the design requirements. The reliability of inverter based motor control is an important issue for industrial applications and therefore, it becomes very vital for design engineers to have comprehensive analysis of the inverter fed induction machine. This paper investigates one of the faults that may occur on the DC link of an inverter fed induction motor. The effect of the capacitor short circuit is presented in this paper. It also deals with the effects of short circuited capacitor on freewheeling diode. DC link capacitors are well designed and even the probability of capacitor failure is high, it is always a rare case if they puncture, however this analysis will add to the reliability of the induction machine under variable operating condition.

  5. Increasing Shelf Life of Sous-Vide Cooked Rainbow Trout by Natural Antioxidant Effective Rosemary: Basic Quality Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner ÇETİNKAYA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the rosemary was applied as a natural antioxidant after grinding. Dust ground rosemary were applied on the fillet surface (0.1% percent of the fillets weight, and then were packaged with the vacuum and sous-vide processed. Every five days, chemical composition, pH, TVB-N, TBARS analyzes and sensorial assessment was carried out until the spoilage. The ash, moisture, protein, and lipid content of raw rainbow trout was 1.63±0.11%, 78.36±0.18%, 16.49±0.20%, and 3.37±0.30%, respectively. The pH value raw fish was 6.29±0.01. TVB-N values were determined between 12.86±0.15 and 21.94±0.29 mg/100g. in RAG. The highest TBARS value was determined as 0.80±0.03 in RAG. Odor parameter was effective to deteriorate the decision of panelists for all the samples The vacuum packaged fresh fish (VFF was spoiled in the 10th days while, the rosemary untreated group (RUG was spoiled in the 40th days, and rosemary applied group (RAG was spoiled in the 45th days. With the rosemary treatment, the shelf life and acceptability of the samples was extended to at least 5 days. Also, applied rosemary as the natural antioxidant had no negative effects with regard to sensory and nutritional criteria.

  6. Effects of Heat Treatments on the On-Line Service Life of a Press Die Manufactured by W-Edm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kye-Kwang; Lee, Yong-Shin

    Effects of heat treatments on the on-line service life of a press die manufactured by W-EDM are studied. In this work, four manufacturing processes for a press die are considered: (1) milling and then grinding, (2) wire-cut electric discharge machining (W-EDM), (3) low temperature heat treatment after W-EDM, and (4) high temperature heat treatment after W-EDM. On-line punching experiments for an automobile part of BL646-chain are performed. The amount of wear of the die and punch, roll-over and burnish depth in the punched chain are measured every 1,000 strokes. Overall productivities are carefully compared. Finally, it is concluded that heat treatment after W-EDM for a press die can enhance its on-line service life. Especially, high temperature heat treatment after W-EDM is very attractive as a fast and cheap manufacturing method for a press die.

  7. Determination of pesticides and their metabolites in processed cereal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, M Á; Hernández-Borges, J; Borges-Miquel, T M; Rodríguez-Delgado, M Á

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen pesticides including some of their metabolites (disulfoton sulfoxide, ethoprophos, cadusafos, dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malaoxon, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, terbufos sulfone, disulfoton sulfone and fensulfothion) were analysed in milled toasted wheat and maize as well as in wheat flour and baby cereals. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) methodology was used and its dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure was optimised by means of an experimental design with the aim of reducing the amount of co-extracted lipids and obtaining a clean extract. Gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection were used as the separation and detection techniques, respectively. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, recoveries, calibration, precision and accuracy as well as matrix effects. Limits of detection were between 0.07 and 34.8 µg kg(-1) with recoveries in the range of 71-110% (relative standard deviations were below 9%). A total of 40 samples of different origin were analysed. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl were found in six of the samples at concentrations in the range 0.08-0.47 mg kg(-1), which were below the MRLs established for this pesticide in cereal grains. Tandem mass spectrometry confirmation was also carried out in order to identify unequivocally the presence of this pesticide.

  8. Pesticide analysis in toasted barley and chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Á; Dionis-Delgado, Samara; Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Analytical potentiality of a modified version of the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method has been studied and validated for the extraction of a group of 11 pesticides (ethoprophos, cadusafos, dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos and fensulfothion) and some of their metabolites (malaoxon, disulfoton sulfoxide, terbufos sulfone and disulfoton sulfone) in toasted barley and chickpea flours. The method involves separation and quantification by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen phosphorus detection (NPD) using triphenylphosphate as the internal standard. Matrix-matched calibration was carried out for both flours due to the existence of a matrix effect. Linearity, recovery, precision and accuracy studies of the proposed QuEChERS-GC-NPD method were evaluated in each sample matrix. Mean recovery values were in the range of 73-118% with relative standard deviation values below 10%. Limits of detection of the whole method were between 0.07 and 57.39 μg/kg. The method was finally applied for the analysis of 14 samples collected in different zones of the Tenerife island. The residues of pirimiphos-methyl were found in 13 of them, confirming its unequivocal presence by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2012 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Evaluation of the TLC quantification method and occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Denise Felippin de Lima; Oliveira, Melissa Dos Santos; Furlong, Eliana Badiale; Junges, Alexander; Paroul, Natalia; Valduga, Eunice; Backes, Geciane Toniazzo; Zeni, Jamile; Cansian, Rogério Luis

    2017-12-01

    The study evaluated a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction method for use with a TLC quantification procedure for deoxynivalenol (DON). It also surveyed DON occurrence in wheat flour from the southern region of Brazil. Forty-eight wheat flour samples were analysed, divided into 2 different harvest lots, each consisting of 24 different brands. The detection and quantification limits of the method were 30 and 100 ng of DON on the TLC plate. The various concentrations of DON presented high linearity (R 2  = 0.99). A negative matrix effect (-28%) of the wheat flour was verified, with suppression of the chromatographic signal of DON, and 80.2-105.4% recovery. The TLC method was reliable for DON evaluation, with a coefficient of variation of less than 10%. High-performance liquid chromatography of lot 2 samples confirmed the presence of DON in all samples identified DON-positive by the TLC technique. Of the 48 wheat flour samples in lots 1 and 2 analysed by TLC, 33.3 and 45.8% of the samples respectively were above the Brazilian legislation limit. Correlations were observed between the water activity and DON content, and between the fungal count and moisture content of the wheat flours.

  10. A comparative study of primary secondary amino (PSA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as QuEChERS absorbents for the rapid determination of diazepam and its major metabolites in fish samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Huan; Wu, Lidong

    2016-01-30

    A simple and fast modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method is presented for the determination of diazepam and its three major metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam (benzodiazepines) in fish samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. Muscle tissues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned with primary secondary amino (PSA) adsorbents. The cleanup effect of PSA was compared with that of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in term of extraction efficiency. The better results were obtained when PSA was used. The chromatography separation was achieved within 5.0 min on a C18 column. The limit of detection was 0.5 µg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification was 2.5 µg kg(-1). Average recoveries of diazepam and its main metabolites were in the range of 88.5-110.1%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 10.0%. The proposed method for fish samples gives good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Quantitative Multiclass Pesticide Residue Analysis in Apple, Pear, and Grape by Modified QuEChERS and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Viera, Mariela de S; Martins, Manoel L; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-11-01

    Most of the analytical methods currently applied in food control laboratories are focused on the determination of target compounds using LC coupled to tandem MS, which is an effective technique, but low-resolution MS is limited. Thus, a method for determination of pesticide multiresidues in fruits (pear, apple, and grape) using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and LC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) MS was developed and validated. The proposed method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.99) from 1 to 100 μg/L. Recoveries for blank samples spiked at 0.01, 0.04, and 0.10 mg/kg were between 66 and 122%, with RSDs pesticide residue determination in apple, pear, and grape samples, proving that high-resolution MS using full scan mode can be a powerful and reliable technique for quantification purposes, being adequate for application in the surveillance of maximum residue limits set by different legislations.

  12. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-02

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India.

  13. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Miao, Shui; Lehotay, Steven J; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Heng; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Lu, Ji-Wei; Lan, Lan; Ji, Shen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, A. dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin and Lonicera japonica Thunb., was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was applied. Due to the unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitised carbon black and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ng g(-1), with seven replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% gave recoveries from 80% to 110% and pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1) for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultra-trace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs.

  14. Chemometric-assisted QuEChERS extraction method for post-harvest pesticide determination in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Dai, Chao; Wang, Fengzhong; Kong, Zhiqiang; He, Yan; Huang, Ya Tao; Fan, Bei

    2017-02-01

    An effective analysis method was developed based on a chemometric tool for the simultaneous quantification of five different post-harvest pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), carbendazim, thiabendazole, iprodione, and prochloraz) in fruits and vegetables. In the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method, the factors and responses for optimization of the extraction and cleanup analyses were compared using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) screening design. Furthermore, the significant factors (toluene percentage, hydrochloric acid (HCl) percentage, and graphitized carbon black (GCB) amount) were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) combined with Derringer’s desirability function (DF). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be 1.0 μg/kg for 2,4-D, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and prochloraz, and 1.5 μg/kg for iprodione in food matrices. The mean recoveries were in the range of 70.4-113.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.9% at three spiking levels. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was determined using the bottom-up approach, which yielded an average value of 7.6%. Carbendazim was most frequently found in real samples analyzed using the developed method. Consequently, the analytical method can serve as an advantageous and rapid tool for determination of five preservative pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

  15. A fast and accurate isotope dilution GC-IT-MS/MS method for determination of eugenol in different tissues of fish: application to a depletion study in mandarin fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongtao; Ai, Xiaohui; Li, Le; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Hong

    2017-12-11

    An accurate, rapid and effective method was established for determination of eugenol in plasma, muscle, skin, liver, kidney and gill of fish using gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS). Samples of muscle, skin, liver, kidney and gill were prepared using the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure, and plasma sample was prepared by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Eugenol was monitored in less than 7 min using an electron-ionization source (EI) in MS/MS mode and quantified by internal standard (IS) of eugenol-d3 . The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.0 μg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10.0 μg/kg. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-1000 μg/L (R2 = 0.9996). Intra- and inter- precisions of eugenol expressed as an RSD within 9.74%, and the accuracy exhibited an RE ranged from -2.20% and 8.89%. The developed method was successfully used to study the elimination regularity of eugenol in mandarin fish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection and Quantitative Analysis of the Non-cytotoxic allo-Tenuazonic Acid in Tomato Products by Stable Isotope Dilution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Krug, Isabel; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-23

    Tenuazonic acid (1) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi of the genus Alternaria. It occurs in a variety of agricultural products. allo-Tenuazonic acid (2) is an isomer of 1 that is not chromatographically separated from 1 in most analytical methods. Therefore, both isomers are quantitated as a sum parameter. In this study a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) based stable isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS method including the chromatographic separation of both isomers was developed and applied to 20 tomato products from the German market. All products showed contamination with both toxins. 1 was found in a range from 5.3 ± 0.1 to 550 ± 15 μg/kg (average = 120 μg/kg) and 2 in a range from 1.5 ± 0.4- to 270 ± 0.8 μg/kg (average = 58 μg/kg). 2 represents 7.0-44% of the sum of both isomers (average = 29%). This is the first reported occurrence of 2 in food samples. To evaluate and compare the cytotoxicities of 1 and 2, both compounds were isolated from a synthetic racemic mixture. 1 showed moderate cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells starting at 100 μM, whereas 2 exhibited no activity. 2 was not produced in liquid cultures of Alternaria alternata in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium, but could be detected in small amounts in tomato puree inoculated with the fungus.

  17. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Jbara; Zulkafli, Othaman; M, A. Saeed

    2016-05-01

    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. Project supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq, Ibnu Sina Institute and Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM RUG Vote No. 06-H14).

  18. Assessing the effects of removing of energy subsidies on urban passenger transportation within the city of Tehran based on a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jadidi Ardakani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap subsidized fuel supplied to transportation section has the most impact on traffic jam and air pollution in the Iranian megacities, especially Tehran. The 5th Five-Year Development Plan of the country aims at elimination of energy subsidies. Accordingly, this study examines the effects of the increase in the price of energy carriers in two different scenarios on megacities’ traffic and the corresponding variables. A system dynamics model is first designed to identify the most effective variables on traffic and urban transportation. The model considers an increase in the price of energy carriers based on the world price trends, until 2014 (the final year of the Subsidy Targeting Program, and evaluates the its impact on the relevant variables. The results reveal a short time reduction in transportation traffic volume. However, due to incremental trends in demand and production of vehicles, it returns to its first state.

  19. Bluetongue outbreaks: Looking for effective control strategies against Culicoides vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Buttazzoni, Luca; Canale, Angelo; D'Andrea, Armando; Del Serrone, Paola; Delrio, Gavino; Foxi, Cipriano; Mariani, Susanna; Savini, Giovanni; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Several arthropod-borne diseases are now rising with increasing impact and risks for public health, due to environmental changes and resistance to pesticides currently marketed. In addition to community surveillance programs and a careful management of herds, a next-generation of effective products is urgently needed to control the spread of these diseases, with special reference to arboviral ones. Natural product research can afford alternative solutions. Recently, a re-emerging of bluetongue disease is ongoing in Italy. Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects ruminants and is spread through the bite of bloodsucking insects, especially Culicoides species. In this review, we focused on the importance of vector control programs for prevention or bluetongue outbreaks, outlining the lack of effective tools in the fight against Culicoides vectors. Then, we analyzed a field case study in Sardinia (Italy) concerning the utilization of the neem cake (Azadirachta indica), to control young instar populations of Culicoides biting midges, the vectors of bluetongue virus. Neem cake is a cheap and eco-friendly by-product obtained from the extraction of neem oil. Overall, we propose that the employ of neem extraction by-products as aqueous formulations in muddy sites close to livestock grazing areas may represent an effective tool in the fight against the spread of bluetongue virus in the Mediterranean areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of landslide potential parameters on Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway and adverse effects of landslides in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Eray

    2014-04-01

    Landslides are natural phenomena in the same class of natural disasters as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, erosion, and volcanic eruptions that adversely affect human lives and property. Owing to their widespread occurrence, landslides are easily visible and able to be partially understood by people witnessing them. Nevertheless, to comprehend the detail of their formation and determine their potential, it is necessary to undertake geodetic, geological, and geophysical measurements in regions prone to landslides. By analyzing these measurements, it is possible to better ascertain those regions predisposed to landslides and thus provide the means to prevent loss of life and property. The city of Zonguldak, situated in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, has a high occurrence of landslides owing to its harsh topography with rugged and steep slopes and rainfall in almost every season. Furthermore, the diurnal temperature ranging up to 10 °C in all seasons, especially in winter, plays a crucial role in rock disintegration in this region. Other factors damage ground composition and trigger landslides, such as underground mining operations, road construction that collapses rocky hills using explosives, and excavation works in steep terrain for building construction. This study gives a detailed account of the causes and adverse effects of landslides and their parameters through examples of landslide occurrences in the region, together with the results and analyses of two periods of geodetic measurements conducted on the Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway in Ilıksu district.

  1. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  2. Design and Validation of a Novel Learning Tool, the "Anato-Rug," for Teaching Equine Topographical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Francesca; Williams, Sarah B.; Weller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of anatomical landmarks in live animals (and humans) is key for clinical practice, but students often find it difficult to translate knowledge from dissection-based anatomy onto the live animal and struggle to acquire this vital skill. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate the use of an equine anatomy rug…

  3. M e Multidr enriche rug-res ed for sistant CD133 of TG t hepa 3 subp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    ain treatme and tumor r bset of cance studies sugg herapy regu enrich CS therapy regu. DR) human H eatedly at a s ular sensitiv kers express ng. Our resu e six months raction and sulted in en ttenuated the nriched with mad3 pathw lar carcinoma. (HCC) is th wuguoyang_m r stem cells or c litaxel. remain perma. 4 e t hepa.

  4. M e Multidr enriche rug-res ed for sistant CD133 of TG t hepa 3 subp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Therapeutic strategies against this disease target mostly rapidly growing differentiated tumor cells. However, the result is often dismal because of the chemo-resistant nature (Thomas et al., 2008). Recent research efforts on stem cells and cancer biology have shed light on new directions for the eradication of CSCs in HCC ...

  5. 16 CFR 1630.63 - Suspension of washing requirements for carpets and rugs with alumina trihydrate in the backing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specimens thereof selected for testing under the standard shall be washed prior to the cutting of test... the cutting of test specimens, in such manner as the manufacturer or other interested party has... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY...

  6. Mesophotic and Deep-sea Demersal Fish Assemblages on Rugged Hardbottoms of the Greater-Lesser Antilles Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, A.; Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    Caribbean fish communities in shallow waters have been well studied along the Greater and Lesser Antilles for decades; however, the mesophotic (>50 m) and deep (>200 m) assemblages remain poorly known due to the technical challenges associated with surveying greater depths. Numerous seafloor features (e.g., seamounts, island ridges, banks) punctuate the insular margins and increase habitat heterogeneity, which may lead to enhanced diversity of the deeper demersal fish community in the region. Recent (2013-2015) expeditions in the area using the E/Vs Nautilus and Okeanos Explorer and ROVs Hercules and Deep Discoverer surveyed fish communities during 18 dives across different seafloor features at depths ranging from 64 to 2944 m. These surveys enabled us to investigate whether demersal fish assemblages differed among these seafloor features and/or in response to other (e.g., dissolved oxygen, microhabitat) abiotic factors. A totla of 3,532 fishes representing at least 140 species in 53 families were documented. Assemblage differences were primarily influenced by depth, but differences in microhabitat (i.e., soft substrate, profile, slope) further influenced assemblage structure. Several range and depth extensions were documented. The morid Lepidion sp., previously known only from the eastern and the western North Atlantic, was documented on Norôit Seamount. A new species of labrid, Polylepion sp. A, known only from Curacao, was documented on Conrad Seamount. Many mesophotic reef species were observed deeper than previously known, including the butterflyfishes Chaetodon sedentarius and Prognathodes aculeatus. This study further supports the importance of environmental conditions, particularly depth and microhabitat, influencing local-scale distribution of demersal fishes, while demonstrating how little is still known about the biogeography of numerous deep-sea and mesophotic species.

  7. Cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids, methyl maslinate and uvaol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L I; Shode, F O; Mipando, M

    2004-02-01

    The cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of four triterpenoid derivatives, namely oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA), and uvaol (UV), isolated from the leaves of African wild olive (Olea europaea, subsp. africana) as well as methyl maslinate (MM) isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea (Cape cultivar) were examined. The derivatives showed low toxicity on brine shrimp test. They displayed significant, dose-response vasodepressor effect and sinus bradicardia, most prominent for OA and MM. The derivatives acted as beta-adrenergic antagonists, blocking the effect of adrenaline and isoprenaline. The established positive inotropic and dromotropic effects were most distinctive for OA and MM. The antidysrhythmic effects were evaluated on CaCl2- and adrenaline-induced chemical arrhythmias, and on ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmia. OA and UA displayed antidysrhythmic effects on both types of chemical arrhythmia; OA and UV in dose 40 mg/kg conferred significant antidysrhythmic activity on ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias. The effect was comparable to that of propranolol and suggestive of beta-adrenergic antagonistic activity. On the basis of the vasodepressor, cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of these compounds, it was concluded that OA and UV isolated from wild African olive leaves, or crude extract containing all components, can provide a cheap and accessible source of additive to conventional treatment of hypertension, complicated by stenocardia and cardiac failure.

  8. Multiresidue pesticide analysis by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Hayward, Douglas G; Kai-Meng, Chin

    2011-01-01

    A multiresidue pesticide method using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described for the determination of 166 organochlorine, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid pesticides, metabolites, and isomers in spinach. The pesticides from spinach were extracted using acetonitrile saturated with magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by solid-phase dispersive cleanup using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black sorbents and toluene. Analysis is performed using different GC-MS techniques emphasizing the benefits of non-targeted acquisition and targeted screening procedures. Non-targeted data acquisition of pesticides in the spinach was demonstrated using GC coupled to a single quadrupole mass spectrometery (GC-MS) in full scan mode or multidimensional GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometery (GC  ×  GC-TOF/MS), along with deconvolution software and libraries. Targeted screening was achieved using GC-single quadrupole mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) mode or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The development of these techniques demonstrates the powerful use of GC-MS for the screening, identification, and quantitation of pesticide residues in foods.

  9. Impact of physicochemical parameters on the decomposition of deoxynivalenol during extrusion cooking of wheat grits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Lohrey, Lilia; Cramer, Benedikt; Yuan, Zonghui; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-12-14

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by molds of the Fusarium genus and is known to cause a spectrum of diseases in animals such as vomiting and gastroenteritis. It is found in cereals and cereal products as most processing techniques lead only to a partial reduction of deoxynivalenol levels. One technique with a reported relatively high impact on deoxynivaleol decomposition is extrusion cooking. In the current work, systematic studies of a range of physicochemical parameters, such as temperature, moisture, compression, residence time in the extruder, pH value, and protein content, on their impact on deoxynivalenol decomposition during extrusion cooking were performed. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was made by high-performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based cleanup with 15-d(1)-deoxynivalenol as an internal standard. It could be shown that the reduction of deoxynivalenol levels is dependent on a set of parameters partially interacting with each other. Especially the moisture content and compression are key factors for the reduction of deoxynivalenol levels. A correlation between residence time of the mycotoxin in the extruder and deoxynivalenol degradation was also observed when screws without a compression factor were used. Generally, the reduction of deoxynivalenol levels was increased by the use of screws with a high compression factor. As known from cooking, deoxynivalenol could also be easily degraded by extrusion under alkaline conditions. Furthermore, an increase of the protein content of the starting material resulted in higher reduction rates of deoxynivalenol.

  10. Simultaneous stereoselective detection of chiral fungicides in soil by LC-MS/MS with fast sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tingting; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing

    2014-03-01

    An enantioselective method was developed for the simultaneous detection of five chiral fungicides in soil, including fenbuconazole (1), tetraconazole (2), nuarimol (3), triticonazole (4), and simeconazole (5) by LC-MS/MS on a chiral stationary phase of cellulose tris-(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) with a gradient elution. A new multifunctional filter was designed to simplify the QuEChERS (where QuEChERS is quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method by simultaneous cleanup and filtration when the sample extracts were directly passed through it. Good linearities (R2 > 0.9980) were obtained in the range 0.005-2.5 mg/L, and the recovery rates were 77.4-103.6% with RSDs of 0.7-12.2% for intraday precision and 1.2-11.0% for interday precision. The LODs and LOQs for all enantiomers were in the range 0.1-0.2 and 0.25-0.5 μg/kg, respectively. The analysis of the incubated soil suggests that this method is reliable and practical for the stereoselective detection of chiral fungicides. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Method validation and dissipation kinetics of four herbicides in maize and soil using QuEChERS sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Nannan; Wang, Tielong; Hu, Jiye

    2016-01-01

    A versatile liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation was developed for the determination of rimsulfuron, mesotrione, fluroxypyr-meptyl, and fluroxypyr. By adjusting the amount of graphitized carbon black, the herbicide analytes could be quantified with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 80-110%. A dissipation kinetics study conducted under open field conditions at two sites during 2014 showed first order equations with half-lives between 0.6d and 3.6d, illustrating an appropriate degree of stability and safety. The dissipation kinetics were different in the different matrices. Although the herbicides had higher initial residues in straw than those in soil, they degraded faster in straw. The terminal residues for the herbicides formulated in two water dispersible granules were all below maximum residue limits. These results not only gave insights about the analytes but also contributed to environmental protection and food safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of sample preparation techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the sample preparation techniques used for the analysis of pesticides in soil. The present status and recent advances made during the last 5 years in these methods are discussed. The analysis of pesticide residues in soil requires the extraction of analytes from this matrix, followed by a cleanup procedure, when necessary, prior to their instrumental determination. The optimization of sample preparation is a very important part of the method development that can reduce the analysis time, the amount of solvent, and the size of samples. This review considers all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and cleanup. Classical extraction techniques, such as shaking, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and modern techniques like pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) are reviewed. The different cleanup strategies applied for the purification of soil extracts are also discussed. In addition, the application of these techniques to environmental studies is considered.

  13. Aflatoxin B1and sterigmatocystin in wheat and wheat products from supermarkets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Wang, Qiongshan; Huang, Jianxiang; Ma, Liyan; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Fuhua

    2018-03-01

    Wheat is an important cereal but it is often contaminated with mycotoxins. The natural occurrence of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and sterigmatocystin (STC) was determined in 178 food samples (32 wheat samples and 146 wheat products) purchased from Chinese supermarkets. The methodology was validated, the wheat and wheat products samples were treated with a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From these samples 18.8% of wheat and 8.2% of cracker samples were contaminated with AFB 1 . Mean levels were 0.06 µg/kg and 0.05µg/kg, respectively. There was no AFB 1 contamination in white bread or whole meal bread. Meanwhile 53.1% of wheat, 59.2% of crackers, 20.8% of white bread and 16% of whole meal bread samples were contaminated with STC. The mean levels were 0.07, 0.79, 0.12 and 0.12 µg/kg respectively. Although the levels were low, this demonstrates the need for more comprehensive surveys for these two mycotoxins in wheat and wheat products from China.

  14. Assessment of ochratoxin A occurrence in Argentine red wines using a novel sensitive quechers-solid phase extraction approach prior to ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Repizo, Leonardo; Gargantini, Raquel; Manzano, Humberto; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad

    2017-06-01

    The assessment of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine is relevant for food safety and its continuous control allows to reduce the risk of intake. Thus, a novel sensitive QuEChERS-SPE (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe - Solid Phase Extraction) pretreatment prior to liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of OTA in red wine samples from different grape-growing regions in Argentine. A sensitive methodology was achieved and thus the limits of detection and quantification were 0.02 and 0.05 µg L -1 , respectively. Recoveries ranged from 89.0% to 105.3%. The method was applied to 136 red wine samples (Argentina's flagship varieties: Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon) from ten grape-growing regions, during vintages 2013-2015. Although all of the samples investigated were contaminated with OTA (concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.98 µg L -1 ), the levels detected were lower than the maximum allowable concentration limit of 2.0 µg L -1 established by international regulations. The methodology proposed is suitable for reliable OTA analysis in red wines. Similarly, the values obtained from the samples analyzed were in accordance with the current regulations and, as a consequence, preventive actions to reduce this mycotoxin incidence can be undertaken. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Multiresidue analysis of 16 pesticides in jujube using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Fengmao; Xue, Xiaofeng; Pan, Canping

    2014-11-01

    Although jujube is a minor crop and very few pesticides are registered on it, the application of pesticides during the growth stage of jujube is inevitable to control the pests or diseases. This situation has led to pesticide misuse. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using a novel sorbent, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, as a dispersive solid-phase extraction sorbent combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, was developed for the determination of 16 pesticides in jujube. Under the optimized conditions, recoveries of 76.7-112.4% were obtained for the target analytes at three spiked concentration levels. The relative standard deviations ranged from 1.2 to 12.3%. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for 16 pesticides ranged from 1 to 10 and 3 to 30 μg/kg, respectively. The residues of chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, and cyhalothrin were detected from samples obtained from the market. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. UHPLC-MS/MS Determination of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisins in Coffee Using QuEChERS Extraction Combined with Mixed-Mode SPE Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed...... system increased the signal intensity by 50% and decreased the ion-suppression with 50−75% in roasted coffee samples. About half of the roasted coffee samples (n = 57, from 9 countries) contained detectable levels of OTA, however, with only 5 samples above the EU regulatory limit of 5 μg....../kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However...

  17. Graphene oxide-SiO2nanocomposite as the adsorbent for extraction and preconcentration of plant hormones for HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Niu, Jiahua; Zhang, Xiaoting; Xiao, Rui; Lu, Minghua; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-03-01

    In this research, a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method based on graphene oxide@SiO 2 (SiO 2 @GO) nanocomposite as adsorbent of dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the analysis of four plant hormones in different plants was established. The as-prepared SiO 2 @GO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The experimental conditions for dSPE, including the ratio of material to liquid, pH of sample, adsorption and desorption time, desorption temperature as well as desorption solution, were investigated. The detection limits for the analysis of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 1-naphthylacetic acid and abscisic acid were achieved below 0.05μgmL -1 . The established method was applied to the analysis of the plant hormones in fruits, vegetables and other food samples. The obtained results indicated that the method was sensitive, accurate, convenient and quick, which provided an alternative analytical approach for plant hormones in complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated multi-plug filtration cleanup for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric pesticide multi-residue analysis in representative crop commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Fangbing; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Xu, Haowei; Qian, Meiyuan; Pan, Canping

    2016-09-02

    An automated multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. The automatic device was aimed to reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps. It could control the volume and the speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this work, m-PFC was based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with other sorbents and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed tip for analysis of pesticide multi-residues in crop commodities followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 25 pesticides in six representative matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, automated pulling and pushing volume, automated pulling speed, and pushing speed for each matrix were optimized. After optimization, two general automated m-PFC methods were introduced to relatively simple (apple, citrus fruit, peanut) and relatively complex (spinach, leek, green tea) matrices. Spike recoveries were within 83 and 108% and 1-14% RSD for most analytes in the tested matrices. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.997 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated Multiplug Filtration Cleanup for Pesticide Residue Analyses in Kiwi Fruit (Actinidia chinensis) and Kiwi Juice by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; He, Yining; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Li, Yanjie; Chen, Ronghua; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-08-10

    To reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps, an automated multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method for QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. It could control the volume and speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this study, m-PFC was based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with primary-secondary amines (PSA) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed column for analysis of pesticide residues followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 33 pesticides in kiwi fruit and kiwi juice matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, 4 mL of automated pulling and pushing volume, 6 mL/min automated pulling speed, and 8 mL/min pushing speed were optimized for each matrix. After optimization, spike recoveries were within 71-120% and 0.99 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples.

  20. Sample Preparation of Eggs From Laying Hens Using QuEChERS Dispersive Extraction for the Simultaneous Determination of Melamine and Cyromazine Residues by HPLC-DAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsali, Niki; Samanidou, Victoria F.

    2015-01-01

    A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) dispersive extraction method is proposed herein for the isolation and cleanup of melamine and cyromazine from chicken egg yolk. Analytes are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using photodiode array detector after separation on a LiChroCART® (250 × 4 mm)—LiChrospher® RP-8e, 5 μm analytical column using a mobile phase of 0.1% trifluoracetic acid and methanol (80:20 v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute. Extraction of isolated compounds was achieved by methanol and acetonitrile mixture (1:1 v/v). Recovery rates ranged between 74.5% and 115.8%. The method was validated in terms of 657/2002/EC decision. The within-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was <11%. Decision limits (CCalfa) were 2.56 mg/kg for melamine and 0.22 mg/kg−1 for cyromazine, and the corresponding results for detection capability (CCbeta) were 2.8 mg/kg for melamine and 0.24 mg/kg for cyromazine. Ruggedness was estimated according to the Youden approach studying egg yolk mass, sorbent mass, centrifugation time, organic solvents volume, evaporation temperature, and vortex time. PMID:26715832

  1. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  2. Evaluation of GC-ICP-MS/MS as a New Strategy for Specific Heteroatom Detection of Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Chlorine Determination in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Hopfer, Helene; Silva, Fabio; Wilbur, Steve; Chen, Jianmin; Shiota Ozawa, Kumi; Wylie, Philip L

    2015-05-13

    For the first time in the literature, application of a GC-ICP-MS/MS method for the selective and sensitive detection of specific heteroatoms of phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine has been accomplished. As a proof of concept, organophosphorus, organosulfur, and organochlorine pesticides in various food matrices have been studied. For the detection of organophosphorus and organosulfur pesticides, oxygen was used in the collision reaction cell (CRC) to convert P (m/z 31) to PO(+) (m/z 47) and S (m/z 32) to SO(+) (m/z 48). Similarly, ClH2(+) (m/z 37) was monitored after the reaction of Cl (m/z 35) with hydrogen in the CRC for the determination of organochlorine pesticides. Real food samples (baby food purees, fresh vegetables, loose tea) were screened for their pesticide content, following preparation of triplicate extracts using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe). Excellent linearity with correlation coefficients R ≥ 0.997 was achieved, and the lowest detection limits obtained for the organophosphorus, organosulfur, and organochlorine pesticides were 0.0005, 0.675, and 0.144 μg/kg, respectively.

  3. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation permethrin. All of the pesticides analyzed were detected in red pepper and green coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Determination of Ochratoxin A contamination in grapes, processed grape products and animal-derived products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongmei; Wu, Xiaohu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Zheng, Yongquan; Ji, Mingshan

    2018-02-01

    We developed a sensitive and rapid analytical method to determine the level of Ochratoxin A contamination in grapes, processed grape products and in foods of animal origin (a total of 11 different food matrices). A pretreatment that followed a "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" protocol was optimized to extract Ochratoxin A from the matrices, and the extracted Ochratoxin A was then detected with the use of a highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Good linearities of Ochratoxin A were obtained in the range of 0.1-500 µg L -1 (correlation coefficient (R 2 ) > 0.9994 in each case). Mean recovery from the 11 matrices ranged from 70.3 to 114.7%, with a relative standard deviation ≤19.2%. The method is easy to use and yields reliable results for routine determination of Ochratoxin A in food products of grape and animal origin. In store-purchased foods and foods obtained from the field and wholesale suppliers, the Ochratoxin A concentration ranged from undetectable to 10.14 µg kg -1 , with the more contaminated samples being mainly those of processed grape products. Our results indicate that the necessity for regulation of and supervision during the processing of grape products.

  5. Determination of fenobucarb residues in animal and aquatic food products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a QuEChERS extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weijia; Park, Jin-A; Zhang, Dan; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Min; Shim, Jae-Han; Chang, Byung-Joon; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2017-07-15

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI + /MS-MS) was developed for quantification of fenobucarb residues in animal food products, such as porcine muscle, egg, and whole milk, and aquatic food products, such as eel, flatfish, and shrimp. Acetonitrile with the addition of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was employed as an extraction solvent and was compared with acetonitrile alone and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. All extracted samples were purified using C18 sorbent. The best extraction efficiencies, expressed as recovery at two spiking levels equivalent to 1- and 2-times the limit of quantification (LOQ=2μg/kg) were achieved using 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile and ranged from 61.38 to 102.21% in all matrices, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) 20%). Six-point matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification and the determination coefficients were good (R 2 ≥0.9865). The method was verified by application to samples purchased from local markets and none of the samples tested positive. In conclusion, the developed method is simple and versatile and can be used for the routine detection of fenobucarb in different animal food products having varying protein and fat contents with satisfactory accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enantiomeric determination and evaluation of the racemization process of atropine in Solanaceae seeds and contaminated samples by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2016-11-25

    A new method has been developed for the enantioselective separation of (-) and (+) hyoscyamine in Solanaceaes seeds and contaminated buckwheat. Chromatographic separation was optimized, evaluating two chiral columns, Chirobiotic V and Chiralpal-AY3. Better resolution was obtained using a Chiralpak-AY3 column, utilizing as mobile phase ethanol (0.1% diethanolamine). An extraction procedure based on a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) was applied, using water and acetonitrile containing 1% of acetic acid, and a clean-up step utilizing primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) as sorbents. The extract was diluted with ethanol (50/:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis, and the separation was carried out avoiding the racemization during this stage. Enantiomerization process of atropine was studied in samples at different conditions such as temperature (30, 50 and 80°C) and pH (3, 5, 7 and 9), observing that racemization occurs at high pH (9) and temperature (80°C). Stramonium and Brugmansia seeds were analyzed and the concentration of (-)-hyoscyamine was 1500mg/kg and 320mg/kg respectively. Contaminated buckwheat was also determined and (-)-hyoscyamine was detected at 170μg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Accra Metropolis markets, Ghana, 2010-2012: a case study in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Paul Osei; Donkor, Augustine; Ziwu, Cephas; Dubey, Brajesh; Kingsford-Adaboh, Robert; Asante, Isaac; Nyarko, Stephen; Tawiah, Rose; Nazzah, Noble

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of pesticide residues in food commodities of plant origin is part of the regular controls on food to safeguard consumer's health. This study reports for the first time in Ghana a 3-year (2010-2012) monitoring of pesticide contamination of fruits and vegetables and their health implications. A total of 3483 samples were purchased in notable markets within Accra Metropolis and analysed for pesticide residues, employing the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe analytical procedure. The results indicated that almost all the fruits and vegetables studied had residues above maximum residue limits (MRLs). The commodities with the greatest concentrations exceeding the European Union (EU) MRLs were long green beans (60.6%) and lettuce (57.1%) with watermelon (10%) and green pepper (8.6%) having the least. The relative occurrence of the pesticides was fenvalerate 11.3%, fenitrothion 5.6%, lambda-cyhalothrin 3.6%, dimethoate 3.2%, permethrin 2.7% and deltamethrin 2.2%. These results will serve as a baseline on which annual or other long-term studies could be compared with, thus emphasizing the need for continuous monitoring programmes to regulate trends of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables to safeguard the consumers' health.

  8. Analysis of imidacloprid residues in fruits, vegetables, cereals, fruit juices, and baby foods, and daily intake estimation in and around Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, M K; Srivastava, Ashutosh Kumar; Patel, D K; Garg, Veena; Srivastava, L P

    2013-03-01

    A total of 250 samples-including fruits, fruit juices, and baby foods (50 samples each), vegetables (70 samples), and cereals (30 samples)-were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of imidacloprid residues. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method of extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis were carried out, and imidacloprid residues were qualitatively confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Imidacloprid was not detected in samples of fruit juices and baby foods. It was, however, detected in 38 samples of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which is about 15.20% of the total samples. Of samples of fruits, 22% showed the presence of imidacloprid, and 2% of samples showed residues above the maximal residue limit. Although imidacloprid was detected in 24% of vegetable samples, only 5.71% showed the presence of imidacloprid above the maximal residue limit. However, 33% of cereal samples showed the presence of imidacloprid, and about 3% of samples were above the maximal residue limit. The calculated estimated daily intake ranged between 0.004 and 0.131 µg/kg body weight, and the hazard indices ranged from 0.007 to 0.218 for these food commodities. It is therefore indicated that lifetime consumption of vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, baby foods, wheat, rice, and pulses may not pose a health hazard for the population of Lucknow because the hazard indices for imidacloprid residues were below one. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Multi-residue method for the determination of antibiotics and some of their metabolites in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Compte, Albert; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2017-06-01

    The presence of antibiotics in seafood for human consumption may pose a risk for consumers. A methodology for the analysis of antibiotics in seafood based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction, followed by detection and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method was evaluated for the determination of 23 antibiotics (including parent compounds and some metabolites) in fish, mussels and clams. Recoveries ranged between 30% and 70% for most of the compounds and method detection and quantification limits (MDLs and MQLs) were between 0.01 and 0.31 ng/g dry weigh (dw) and 0.02-1.03 ng/g (dw) respectively. Real seafood samples were analysed using this method. Nine antibiotics were found at levels above MDLs; however none of them exceed the maximum residue limits (MRL) established by the authorities. Tetracycline was the most ubiquitous compound, presenting also the highest concentration: 5.63 ng/g (dw) in fish from Netherlands. In addition, an alternative technique based on microbial growth inhibition was explored as semiquantitative detection method of antibiotics in seafood. This methodology could be applied as a fast screening technique for the detection of macrolides and β-lactams in seafood but further research is needed for other antibiotics families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of isotopically labeled 13C2-tenuazonic acid and development of a rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of tenuazonic acid in tomato and pepper products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrey, Lilia; Marschik, Stefanie; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-09

    Tenuazonic acid is a fungal secondary metabolite that is produced by a number of Alternaria species and is therefore a natural contaminant of food and feed samples. This paper describes a new strategy for the efficient and economical large-scale synthesis of the isotopically labeled internal standard (13)C(2)-tenuazonic acid via a three-step procedure. Furthermore, a new reliable and quick method based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) cleanup is presented for the determination of tenuazonic acid in food and feed samples utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) by application of the stable isotope dilution analysis. This new method has a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.86 μg/kg and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 2.89 μg/kg. In total 26 tomato samples and 4 bell pepper samples from the German market were analyzed. Tenuazonic acid was found in each sample with levels from 3 to 2330 μg/kg.

  11. A modified QuEChERS method for the determination of some herbicides in yogurt and milk by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lei, Lei; Nian, Li; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Shuting; Ren, Ruibing; Wang, Yeqiang; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2013-02-15

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of triazines and phenylureas from milk and yogurt. The herbicides was extracted by the mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane and cleaned by primary secondary amine (10mg/mL). The frozen-out centrifugation was applied to further remove fatty. The proposed method can achieve efficient extraction and cleanup. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction method, extraction solvent and adsorbent, pH of sample solution, extraction time and amount of primary secondary amine and sodium chloride were investigated and optimized. The precision and absolute recoveries of eight herbicides vary from 0.07 to 5.86% and from 78.9 to 99.9%, respectively. The detection limits for simeton, monuron, chlorotoluron, simetryne, atrazine, karmex, ametryne and propazine range from 0.15 to 0.35 ng/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS Determination of 187 Pesticides in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cheung, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem MS method to determine pesticides in wine. We adopted the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERs) method for extraction and used core-shell column to achieve ultra-HPLC to develop and validate a simple and fast method to analyze 187 pesticide residues in red and white wine samples. Pesticide residues were extracted from wine samples using QuEChERS. Ultra HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem MS quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards with an analytical range from 5.0 to 500.0 μg/L. The method performance characteristics that included overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated according to a nested experimental design. Generally, 98.4% (in red wine) and 96.8% (in white wine) of the pesticides had recoveries between 71 and 120%; 98.9% (in red wine) and 99.5% (in white wine) of the pesticides had the intermediate precision ≤20%; and 99.5% (in red wine) and 98.4% (in white wine) of the pesticides had measurement uncertainty ≤50%.

  13. Multiresidue Analysis of Five Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Primary Metabolite in Cucumbers and Soil Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F; Hussein, Lobna A; El Azab, Noha F

    2017-01-01

    A sensitive, selective, and validated HPLC-diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five neonicotinoid insecticides-acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, flonicamid, and thiacloprid-and their primary metabolite, 6-chloronicotinic acid, in cucumbers and soil based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique as a pretreatment procedure. In the QuEChERS procedure, cucumber samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned using C18, whereas soil samples were extracted with an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mixture (1 + 2). The HPLC conditions were optimized by separating neonicotinoids using an acetonitrile-water mixture (25 + 75) and a Synergi Hydro RP C18 column. Matrix-matched calibration standards were prepared in cucumber and soil to eliminate any matrix interference. RSDs were ≤9% in all recovery tests. LODs and LOQs for the five neonicotinoids were in the ranges of 0.006-0.122 and 0.018-0.366 μg/g, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine residues, the rate of disappearance of the five neonicotinoids from cucumber and soil, and the half-lives of the neonicotinoids.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of 19 Plant Growth Regulator Residues in Plant-originated Foods by QuEChERS and Stable Isotope Dilution-Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijie; Wu, Yongning; Fang, Chiguang; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive and fast method of QuEChERS (acronym of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) combined with isotope dilution-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 plant growth regulators in plant-originated foods. The samples were initially extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then the QuEChERS method was applied after the pH value was adjusted to 5.5 - 6.0, using 3-indolepropionic-d2 acid and forchlorfenuron-d5 as internal standard. The targeted 19 plant growth regulators were separated on an HSS T3 column using acetonitrile: 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phase. Quantitative results were based on multiple reaction monitoring mode after ionization in positive and negative electrospray ionization mode. Good linearity was achieved within a wide range and all the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.997. The limit of quantification was 0.060 - 6.0 μg/kg. Rate of recovery and relative standard deviation were 72.3 - 115.8 and 1.78 - 5.32%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to measure 19 plant growth regulator residues in 280 plant-originated commercial foods collected from local supermarkets in China. Twelve plant growth regulators were found in some of the analyzed samples.

  15. [Determination of six plant growth regulator residues in strawberry by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Jingtang

    2012-10-01

    A novel method was established for the determination of six plant growth regulators (PGRs), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic (2,4-D), 4-chlorophenoxy-acetic acid (CAP), 4-(3-indolyl)-butyric acid (BAA), forchlorfenuron (CPPU), abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-zeatin (ZT) in strawberry using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q TOF MS). The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method (QuEChERS) has been validated for the extraction. In this QuEChERS method, the sample was extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned up with C18 adsorbent. The extract was measured directly by LC-Q TOF MS with electrospray ionization in negative mode. The compounds were separated on an Eclipse XDB-C8 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with acetonitrile-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0. 1% formic acid as mobile phase under gradient elution. The confirmatory analysis was carried out by determining the accurate masses of all compounds and fragment ions upon Target MS/MS. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 1 microg/kg and 5 microg/kg. The linear range was 0.005-1.0 mg/L for each analyte. The recoveries ranged from 87% to 107% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10% (n = 6). The method was proved to be simple and accurate.

  16. Simultaneous determination of two plant growth regulators in ten food samples using ion chromatography combined with QuEChERS extraction method (IC-QuEChERS) and coupled with fluorescence detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nadeem; Subhani, Qamar; Wang, Fenglian; Lou, Chaoyan; Liu, Junwei; Zhu, Yan

    2018-02-15

    A new simple, isocratic, selective and highly sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of two plant growth regulators (PGRs): 2-(1-Naphthyl)acetic acid (NAA) and 2-(Naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide (NAD). Both PGRs were extracted by modified and miniaturized ion chromatography-Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (IC-QuEChERS) method from ten food samples. The separation and sensitive determination were carried out by using ion chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultraviolet (IC-FLD/UV) detector. The proposed analytical and extraction methods were validated by using blank samples, fortified with a standard solution of these two PGRs at three concentration levels 5, 15 and 25µg/kg. The method showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.980), satisfactory recoveries (76.3-112) with tolerable precision having relative standard deviations less than 15.4% (RSDs, n=3). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were also in the range of 0.08-6.6ng/kg and 2.2-20ng/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd by modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Ma, Junmei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis was developed for the determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. Yuba and dried beancurd samples were soaked by deionized water, then acetonitrile was added to extract the analytes. Sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate were added for liquid-liquid separation. The extracts were cleaned-up by dispersive solid-phase using N-propyl diethylamine. The analytes were separated by liquid chromatography and determined by mass spectrometry. External standard method was used for quantification. The recoveries of dimethyl yellow were in the range of 73.5%-84.5% at spiked levels of 0.3, 1 and 10 kg/kg and the recoveries of diethyl yellow were in range of 70.5%-81.2% at spiked levels of 0.1,1 and 10 µg/kg; relative standard deviations of the method were lower than 11%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of dimethyl yellow were 0.1 µg/kg and 0.3 µg/kg, respectively; the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of diethyl yellow were 0.05 µg/kg and 0.1 µg/kg, respectively. This method can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd.

  18. Determination of methiocarb and its degradation products, methiocarb sulfoxide and methiocarb sulfone, in bananas using QuEChERS extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, Alexandra; Paíga, Paula; Lopes, David H; Correia, Manuela; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-01-16

    The present work describes the development of an analytical method for the determination of methiocarb and its degradation products (methiocarb sulfoxide and methiocarb sulfone) in banana samples, using the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure followed by liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (LC-PAD). Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.5-10 mg L⁻¹ for all compounds studied. The average recoveries, measured at 0.1 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight, were 92.0 (RSD = 1.8%, n = 3), 84.0 (RSD = 3.9%, n = 3), and 95.2% (RSD = 1.9%, n = 3) for methiocarb sulfoxide, methiocarb sulfone, and methiocarb, respectively. Banana samples treated with methiocarb were collected from an experimental field. The developed method was applied to the analysis of 24 samples (peel and pulp) and to 5 banana pulp samples. Generally, the highest levels were found for methiocarb sulfoxide and methiocarb. Methiocarb sulfone levels were below the limit of quantification, except in one sample (not detected).

  19. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R. [CPDEE - UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  20. Dissipation and residues of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites in a rape-field ecosystem using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Liang, Lin; Liu, Fengmao

    2014-01-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites (clethodim sulfoxide and clethodim sulphone) in soil, rape plant and rape seed was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method ranged from 0.002mg/kg to 0.01mg/kg, and average recoveries were 78.7-104.2%. The trial results showed that clethodim dissipated so rapidly that few clethodim residues were detectable. Clethodim sulfoxide dissipated quickly in rape plant and soil with half-lives of 4.3 and 4.0days, respectively. Clethodim sulphone showed a tendency of rapid increase initially followed by a decrease in rape plant but could not be detected in soil. The terminal residues of clethodim in rape seedsat harvest time were below the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite in various types of honey and royal jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weijia; Park, Jin-A; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Min; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Ramadan, Amer; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, honey products have been polluted by different contaminants, such as pesticides, which are widely applied in agriculture. In this work, a modified EN - quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of pesticide residues, including cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite 2,4-dimethylaniline (2,4-DMA), in four types of honey (acacia, wild, chestnut, and manuka) and royal jelly. Samples were buffered with 0.2M dibasic sodium phosphate (pH 9), and subsequently, acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. A combination of primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18 sorbents was used for purification prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI + /MS-MS) analysis. The estimated linearity measured at six concentration levels presented good correlation coefficients (R 2 )≥0.99. The recovery, calculated from three different spiking levels, was 62.06-108.79% in honey and 67.58-106.34% in royal jelly, with an RSDhoney and royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of pesticide residues in market basket samples of vegetable from Lucknow City, India: QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K; Trivedi, Purushottam; Srivastava, M K; Lohani, M; Srivastava, Laxman Prasad

    2011-05-01

    The study was conducted on 20 vegetables including leafy, root, modified stem, and fruity vegetables like bitter gourd, jack fruit, french-bean, onion, colocassia, pointed gourd, capsicum, spinach, potato, fenugreek seeds, carrot, radish, cucumber, beetroot, brinjal, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, okra, and bottle gourd. Forty-eight pesticides including 13 organochlorines (OCs), 17 organophosphates (OPs), 10 synthetic pyrethriods (SPs), and eight herbicides (H) pesticides were analyzed. A total number of 60 samples, each in triplicates, were analyzed using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method. The quantification was done by GC-ECD/NPD. The recovery varies from 70.22% to 96.32% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 15%. However the limit of detection ranged from 0.001-0.009 mg kg(-1)for OCs, SPs, OPs, and H, respectively. Twenty-three pesticides were detected from total 48 analyzed pesticides in the samples with the range of 0.005-12.35 mg kg(-1). The detected pesticides were: Σ-HCH, Dicofol, Σ-Endosulfan, Fenpropathrin, Permethrin-II, β-cyfluthrin-II, Fenvalerate-I, Dichlorvos, Dimethoate, Diazinon, Malathion, Chlorofenvinfos, Anilophos, and Dimethachlor. In some vegetables like radish, cucumber, cauliflower, cabbage, and okra, the detected pesticides (Σ-HCH, Permethrin-II, Dichlorvos, and Chlorofenvinfos) were above maximum residues limit (MRL) (PFA 1954). However, in other vegetables the level of pesticide residues was either below detection limit or MRL.

  3. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits.

  4. Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Dry Samples (Rice and Wheat Flour) Using Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande-Martínez, Ángel; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Moreno, Laura Díaz; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of around 100 pesticides in dry samples (rice and wheat flour) by ultra-performance LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass analyzer working in tandem mode (UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS). The sample preparation step was optimized for both matrixes. Pesticides were extracted from rice samples using aqueous ethyl acetate, while aqueous acetonitrile extraction [modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method] was used for wheat flour matrixes. In both cases the extracts were then cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with MgSO4 and primary secondary amine+C18 sorbents. A further cleanup step with Florisil was necessary to remove fat in wheat flour. The method was validated at two concentration levels (3.6 and 40 μg/kg for most compounds), obtaining recoveries ranging from 70 to 120%, intraday and interday precision values≤20% expressed as RSDs, and expanded uncertainty values≤50%. The LOQ values ranged between 3.6 and 20 μg/kg, although it was set at 3.6 μg/kg for the majority of the pesticides. The method was applied to the analysis of 20 real samples, and no pesticides were detected.

  5. QuEChERS Method Followed by Solid Phase Extraction Method for Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Khorshid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GCMS method was developed and validated for determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in fish using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS method for extraction and solid phase extraction for sample cleanup to remove most of the coextract combined with GCMS for determination of low concentration of selected group of PAHs in homogenized fish samples. PAHs were separated on a GCMS with HP-5ms Ultra Inert GC Column (30 m, 0.25 mm, and 0.25 µm. Mean recovery ranged from 56 to 115%. The extraction efficiency was consistent over the entire range where indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene and benzo(g,h,iperylene showed recovery (65, 69%, respectively, at 2 µg/kg. No significant dispersion of results was observed for the other remaining PAHs and recovery did not differ substantially, and at the lowest and the highest concentrations mean recovery and RSD% showed that most of PAHs were between 70% and 120% with RSD less than 10%. The measurement uncertainty is expressed as expanded uncertainty and in terms of relative standard deviation (at 95% confidence level is ±12%. This method is suitable for laboratories engaged daily in routine analysis of a large number of samples.

  6. Degradation of three fungicides following application on strawberry and a risk assessment of their toxicity under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caixia; Cang, Tao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinquan; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xueping

    2015-05-01

    The health risk to humans of pesticide application on minor crops, such as strawberry, requires quantification. Here, the dissipation and residual levels of three fungicides (pyraclostrobin, myclobutanil, and difenoconazole) were studied for strawberry under greenhouse conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry after Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe extraction. This method was validated using blank samples, with all mean recoveries of these three fungicides exceeding 80%. The residues of all three fungicides dissipated following first-order kinetics. The half-lives of pyraclostrobin, myclobutanil, and difenoconazole were 1.69, 3.30, and 3.65 days following one time application and 1.73, 5.78, and 6.30 days following two times applications, respectively. Fungicide residue was determined by comparing the estimated daily intake of the three fungicides against the acceptable daily intake. The results indicate that the potential health risk of the three fungicides was not significant in strawberry when following good agricultural practices (GAP) under greenhouse conditions.

  7. Residue dynamics of pyraclostrobin in peanut and field soil by QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Di; Pan, Hongji; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A modified QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS (acronym of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) method for the analysis of pyraclostrobin residue in peanut and soil was developed and validated. Pyraclostrobin residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions in peanut and soil were studied. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for pyraclostrobin in soil, plant, shell and peanut samples were 0.00057, 0.00026, 0.003 and 0.0037 mg kg(-1), respectively. At fortification levels of 0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) in all samples, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 80.3% to 109.4% with relative standard deviations of 1.1-8.2% (n=5). The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T(1/2)) of pyraclostrobin in soil and plants were 13.1-16.5 days and 10.3-11.2 days, respectively. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 14, 21 and 28 days, pyraclostrobin residue were 0.005-0.20 mg kg(-1) in soil, 0.006-0.27 mg kg(-1) in plants, below 0.053 mg kg(-1) in shells and not detectable in peanuts. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyraclostrobin wash-off from sugarcane leaves and aerobic dissipation in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, James M; Wayment, Darcey G; White, Paul M; Webber, Charles L

    2014-03-12

    To mitigate damage from the fungal sugarcane pathogen brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala), a Section 18 Emergency Use Label was put in place by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for the application of pyraclostrobin (trade name Headline SC, produced by BASF, Research Triangle Park, NC) on sugarcane in 2008. To assess the dynamics of this fungicide in Louisiana soil, samples (n = 24) from a non-treated field were spiked with pyraclostrobin (3.1 μg g(-1)) and analyzed in laboratory conditions over the course of 63 days using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) dispersive solid-phase extraction/high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (dSPE/HPLC-UV). Modeling was performed using Microsoft Excel to predict DTx values. Pyraclostrobin was found to follow biphasic kinetics with DT50 and DT90 values of 60 and 282 days, suggesting that it is moderately persistent to persistent in soils. Wash-off studies on sugarcane indicate that very little fungicide is in the wash-off after 48 h. If applied to sugarcane according to label recommendations, the fungicide should have minimal dissipation from rainfall events.

  9. Determination of Eleven Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Textiles by Using HPLC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting-Ting; Lu, Chun-Mei; Li, Han; Zhang, Zai-Xiao; Zhao, Yun-Hui; Li, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of organophosphorus pesticides on cotton production is a big concern in China today. Therefore, developing methods for the rapid screening and confirming of pesticide residues in textiles has become a top public health security priority. Here, a method was established for the rapid screening and quantifying of 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, coumaphos, profenofos, diazinon, ethion, parathion, phosalone, quinalphos, dicrotophos, azinphos methyl, and tribuphos) in textiles by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). Rapid screening and quantifying could be completed by using software of Peakview and MultiQuant. Samples were extracted by the method of modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) and analyzed in the positive mode with MS detection. The results showed that the limits of detection were between 0.1 and 5.0 ng g-1, with correlation coefficients above 0.9990. The recoveries were in the range of 70.3 - 109.8%, with relative standard deviations from 5.1 to 16.4%. This method is accurate and simple, which can be used in the rapid screening and quantitative analysis of 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides in textiles.

  10. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20°C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products using modified QuEChERS and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure was evaluated. Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) was studied as clean-up step, using graphitized black carbon (GBC) and primary secondary amine (PSA). The extract was diluted with water (50:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis. The method was validated and recoveries (except chia samples spiked at 10μg/kg) ranged from 75% to 92%. Intra and inter-day precision was lower than or equal to 17%. The limit of quantification of atropine and scopolamine was 0.4 and 2μg/kg, respectively. Eight types of samples (buckwheat, wheat, soy, buckwheat flour, buckwheat noodle, amaranth grain, chia seeds and peeled millet) were analyzed. Target compounds were not found above the detection limits of the method, but three transformation products of scopolamine (norscopine, hydroscopolamine and dihydroxyscopolamine) were putative identified in the tested samples using high resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive-Orbitrap). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tebuconazole and Azoxystrobin Residue Behaviors and Distribution in Field and Cooked Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Teng, Peipei; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Wenzhuo

    2017-06-07

    Residue behaviors of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin in field condition and the variation of their residue levels during the boiling process were evaluated. The terminal residues of peanut kernels were determined by using a modified QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) by means of the optimization of the novel purification procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4-magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4-MNP) in the presence of an external magnetic field, and the terminal residues were all at trace level at harvest time. The residues in shells were detected as well to investigate the distribution in peanuts. Tebuconazole and azoxystrobin residue levels varied before/after boiling in kernels and shells to different degrees due to various factors, such as the modes of action and physicochemical properties of pesticides. The residues have been transferred from peanut into the infusion during boiling with the higher percentage of azoxystrobin as its lower logKow. The processing factors (PFs) for tebuconazole and azoxystrobin after processing were <1, indicating that home cooking in this study could reduce the residue levels in peanut. Risk assessment showed there was no health risk for consumers.

  13. Residue analysis and risk assessment of tebuconazole in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiuguo; Xu, Jinli; Zheng, Xiao; Sui, Chengcheng

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a sensitive and reliable analytical method, based on a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure, was established for determination of tebuconazole in jujube. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. At fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 2.0 mg kg-1 , the average recoveries of tebuconazole in jujube were in the range 97.6-101.9%, with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.5%. The dissipation and residual levels of tebuconazole in jujube under field conditions were investigated. Tebuconazole dissipated relatively slowly in jujube, with a half-life of 33.0 days. The terminal residue experiments of tebuconazole in jujube were conducted in four locations in China and the risk was evaluated using risk quotients (RQ). RQ values were found to be significantly lower than RQ = 1, indicating that the risk to human health of using the recommended doses of tebuconazole in jujube was not significant. This study could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of tebuconazole in jujube and serve as a reference for the establishment of limit of maximum residue in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in milk using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: triple quadrupole versus Q-Orbitrap mass analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúbies, Antoni; Guo, Lili; Centrich, Francesc; Granados, Mercè

    2016-08-01

    We developed a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the high throughput determination of 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in milk samples using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole (QqQ) instrument and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The new extraction procedure is highly efficient, and we obtained absolute recoveries in the range 78.1-97.1 % for the extraction and clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation is performed in the gradient mode with a biphenyl column and acidic mobile phases consisting of water and acetonitrile containing formic acid. The chromatographic run time was about 12 min, and NSAID peaks showed a good symmetry factor. For MS/MS detection, we used multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, using ESI in both positive and negative modes. Our method has been validated in compliance with the European Commission Decision 657/2002/EC, and we obtained very satisfactory results in inter-laboratory testing. Furthermore, we explored the use of a hybrid high resolution mass spectrometer, combining a quadrupole and an Orbitrap mass analyzer, for high resolution (HR) MS/MS detection of NSAIDs. We achieved lower NSAID quantification limits with Q-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) detection than those achieved with the QqQ instrument; however, its main feature is its very high selectivity, which makes HRMS/MS particularly suitable for confirmatory analysis.

  15. Residue level and dissipation of carbendazim in/on pomegranate fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; S, Lekha

    2016-07-01

    Carbendazim is widely used on pomegranate for control of a large number of fungal diseases. Its residue levels in/on pomegranate fruits and soil were evaluated under field conditions. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method in conjunction with liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was used for analysis of carbendazim. Recovery of carbendazim was within 78.92-96.28 % and relative standard deviation within 3.8-10.9 % (n = 6). Carbendazim residues on pomegranate fruits dissipated at the half lives of 17.3 and 22.8 days from treatments at 500 and 1000 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Its residues in pomegranate aril were highest on the tenth day and reduced thereafter. The residue level of carbendazim on pomegranate whole fruits from standard dose treatment was less than the EU maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.1 mg kg(-1) at harvest. The carbendazim residues were pomegranate were 65.4 and 103.4 days. The results of this study can be used to determine the judicious use of carbendazim for plant protection of pomegranate crop.

  16. Determinação de agrotóxicos na água e sedimentos por HPLC-HRMS e sua relação com o uso e ocupação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Chiarello

    Full Text Available In present times, the Brazil is in the middle of the largest pesticide consumers worldwide, which demands proper control of environmental contamination. This study evaluated herbicides, acaricide, insecticides and fungicides in water and sediment carried-out from Lageado Tacongava hydrographic basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For analysis, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, and/or SPE (Solid-Phase Extraction using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography with MS (Mass Detector was optimized. As result, the Linearity R2 > 0.99; Recuperation between 78 a 117%; and RSD < 20% for the 70 compounds simultaneously analyzed. The Acetamiprid, Azoxystrobin, Bendiocarb, Fenamidone, metribuzin, Pendimethalin, pyridaben, Thiophanate-methyl and Truflumizole found in water, and Acetamiprid, Azoxystrobin, Bendiocarb, boscalid and thiophanate-methyl in sediment, at concentrations from 0.1 µg kg-1 to 39.6 µg kg-1. Standard of pesticide residues in water and sediment studies are needed to evaluate such contamination. Regional samplings standard, as was done here, will be useful in a future water resources contamination mapping.

  17. Determination of 16 mycotoxins in vegetable oils using a QuEChERS method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Xiuying; Shen, Chen; Qu, Baocheng

    2017-02-01

    A simple and efficient method for determining multiple mycotoxins was developed using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe)-based extraction procedure in vegetable oils. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used for the quantification and confirmation of 16 chemically diversified mycotoxins. Different extraction procedures were studied and optimised by spiking 16 analytes into blank matrix, and the extraction with 85% MeCN solution and C18 as cleaning sorbent allowed an efficient recovery of 72.8-105.8% with RSDs less than 7%. The limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.04 to 2.9 ng g(-1). The developed method was finally applied to screen mycotoxins in 62 vegetable oil samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) were detected, with maximum concentrations of 0.59 (AFG1)-42.5 (ZEN) ng g(-1). The method developed has the advantages of high sensitivity, accuracy and selectivity, and it can be applied to the target screening of mycotoxins in real samples.

  18. Fate of Free and Conjugated Mycotoxins within the Production of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Vaclavikova, Marta; Tomaniova, Monika; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-06-22

    Contamination of feed with mycotoxins represents a serious worldwide problem concerning animal health and related economic losses. The present paper provides comprehensive knowledge about the fate of mycotoxins during the production of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out using naturally infected maize material in five repetitions. For mycotoxin analysis, a QuEChERS-like ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") isolation approach and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. A significant increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its glycosylated form, DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc), was observed during the first part of fermentation, when hydrolytic enzymes were added. After yeast addition, the total DON content rapidly decreased. An opposite trend was observed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), in which yeast addition contributed to increase of its content. Further considerable change in mycotoxin content occurred during the drying step, in which approximately two-thirds of the original content was lost.

  19. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dissipation kinetics of organophosphorus pesticides in milled toasted maize and wheat flour (gofio) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Herrero, Miguel; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-08-15

    The dissipation/degradation of the pesticides dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, and pirimiphos-methyl were evaluated in milled toasted maize and wheat flour (gofio) during three months of storage. Their dissipation kinetics and residual levels were determined, as well as their possible decomposition into some of their main transformation products (disulfoton sulfoxide, terbufos sulfone and disulfoton sulfone). For this purpose, pesticide-free milled toasted maize and wheat samples were spiked with the pesticides, and they were then stored in the darkness at ambient temperature in a closed container to simulate current storage conditions of such packed food. A multiresidue analysis based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was performed for the simultaneous determination of these pesticides and their metabolites. After three months of storage, the dissipation of residues ranged between 34% (pirimiphos-methyl) and 86% (disulfoton) for maize gofio and between 69% (terbufos) and 92% (disulfoton and pirimiphos-methyl) for wheat gofio. The results demonstrated that the degradation was slower in gofio than in wheat gofio and that none of the selected metabolites were detected in any of the samples. Dissipation curves of all studied pesticides fitted to a first-order decay curve in both types of cereals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of sulfonamides, tilmicosin and avermectins residues in typical animal matrices with multi-plug filtration cleanup by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Jatamunua, Freedom; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Yanjie; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Shan, Jihao; Jiang, Yanbin; Pan, Canping

    2017-05-15

    The frequent use of various veterinary drugs could lead to residue bioaccumulation in animal tissues, which could cause dietary risks to human health. In order to quickly analyze the residues, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for detecting Sulfonamides, Tilmicosin and Avermectins (AVMs) residues in animal samples. For sample preparation, modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods were used. For sample cleanup, n-Hexane delipidation and multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method based on primary-secondary amine (PSA) and octadecyl-silica (C18) were used, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. It was validated on 7 animal matrices (bovine, caprine, swine meat and their kidneys, milk) at two fortified concentration levels of 5 and 100μg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 82 to 107% for all analytes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 15%. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with coefficients of determination above 0.998 for all analytes within concentration levels of 5-500μg/kg. The developed method was successfully used to analysis veterinary drugs of real animal samples from local markets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon under field conditions by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Di; Zhang, Haizhen; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Fei; Shi, Lihong; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Kankan

    2017-11-01

    An optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (1% formic acid) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for all three analytes. The recoveries of the fungicides in watermelon, pulp and soil were 72.32-99.20% for difenoconazole, 74.68-87.72% for trifloxystrobin and 78.59-92.66% for trifloxystrobin acid with relative standard deviations of 1.34-14.04%. The dissipation dynamics of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin in watermelon and soil followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives of 3.2-8.8 days in both locations. The final residue levels of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin were below 0.1 mg/kg (maximum residue level [MRL] set by China) and 0.2 mg/kg (MRL set by European Union), respectively, in pulp samples collected 14 days after the last application. These results could help Chinese authorities to establish MRL of trifloxystrobin in watermelon and provide guidance for the safe and proper application of both fungicides on watermelon. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Residues and dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in tomatoes and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Wenming; Li, Puyu; Li, Minghui; Chen, Shuo; Han, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    A simple residue analytical method using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for the determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid (CGA321113) in tomato and soil was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection were 0.0005 mg/kg for trifloxystrobin and 0.001 mg/kg for trifloxystrobin acid, respectively. The average recoveries in tomato and soil ranged from 73-99 % for trifloxystrobin and 75-109 % for trifloxystrobin acid, with relative standard deviations below 15 %. The method was then used to study the dissipation and residues in tomato and soil. The dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in tomato were 2.9 days (Beijing) and 5.4 days (Shandong), while in soil were 1.9 days (Beijing) and 3.0 days (Shandong), respectively. The final results showed that the major residue compound was trifloxystrobin in tomato whereas it was its metabolite, trifloxystrobin acid, in soil. The final residues of total trifloxystrobin (including trifloxystrobin acid) were below the EU maximum residue limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1) in tomato 3 days after the treatment.

  4. Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[α-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-α[1-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits.

  5. Biophysical characterization of Acacia caesia-fabricated silver nanoparticles: effectiveness on mosquito vectors of public health relevance and impact on non-target aquatic biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2017-02-05

    Mosquito-borne diseases lead to serious public health concerns in tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide, due to development of mosquito resistance to synthetic pesticides, non-target effects of pesticides, and socioeconomic reasons. Currently, green nanotechnology is a promising research field, showing a wide range of potential applications in vector control programs. The employ of natural products as reducing agents to fabricate insecticidal nanocomposites is gaining research attention worldwide, due to low costs and high effectiveness. Interestingly, biophysical features of green-synthesized nanoparticles strongly differ when different botanicals are employed for nanosynthesis. In this study, a cheap Acacia caesia leaf extract was employed to fabricate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with ovicidal, larvicidal, and adulticidal toxicity against three mosquito vectors, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Ag NPs were analyzed by various biophysical methods, including spectroscopy (UV-visible spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR, EDX) and microscopy (SEM, TEM, AFM) techniques. High acute larvicidal potential was observed against larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 10.33 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 11.32 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 12.35 μg/ml). Ag NPs completely inhibited egg hatchability on three vectors at 60, 75, and 90 μg/ml, respectively. In adulticidal assays, LD50 values were 18.66, 20.94, and 22.63 μg/ml. If compared to mosquito larvae, Ag NPs were safer to three non-target aquatic biocontrol agents, with LC50 ranging from 684 to 2245 μg/ml. Overall, our study highlights the potential of A. caesia as an abundant and cheap bioresource to fabricate biogenic Ag NPs effective against mosquito young instars and adults, with moderate impact on non-target aquatic biocontrol agents.

  6. Long-Term Effect of a Leonardite Iron Humate Improving Fe Nutrition As Revealed in Silico, in Vivo, and in Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieschi, María T; Caballero-Molada, Marcos; Menéndez, Nieves; Naranjo, Miguel A; Lucena, Juan J

    2017-08-09

    Novel, cheap and ecofriendly fertilizers that solve the usual iron deficiency problem in calcareous soil are needed. The aim of this work is to study the long-term effect of an iron leonardite fertilizer on citrus nutrition taking into account a properly characterization, kinetic response with a ligand competition experiment, efficiency assessment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and finally, in field conditions with citrus as test plants. Its efficiency was compared with the synthetic iron chelate FeEDDHA. Leonardite iron humate (LIH) is mainly humic acid with a high-condensed structure where iron is present as ferrihydrite and Fe(3+) polynuclear compounds stabilized by organic matter. Iron and humic acids form aggregates that decrease the iron release from these kinds of fertilizers. Furthermore, LIH repressed almost 50% of the expression of FET3, FTR1, SIT1, and TIS11 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, indicating increasing iron provided in cells and improved iron nutrition in citrus.

  7. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor...

  8. Fermentation of Plant Material - Effect on Sugar Content and Stability of Bioactive Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruno A. dos Reis; Agnieszka Kosińska-Cagnazzo; Rudolf Schmitt; Wilfried Andlauer

    2014-01-01

    .... Fermentation might be a simple, cheap and efficient way of sugar elimination. In our study, black tea and goji berries, both known for their health benefits, were used and alcoholic fermentation by was carried out to eliminate sugars...

  9. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  10. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL-1. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL-1. The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL-1. This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of sulfur amendments on the geochemistry of sulfur, phosphorus and iron in the mangrove plant (Kandelia obovata (S. L.)) rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Li; Junyi, Yu; Jingchun, Liu; Chongling, Yan; Haoliang, Lu; Spencer, Kate L

    2017-01-30

    P (phosphorus) and Fe (iron) are limiting elements and S (sulfur) is an important element of the biogeochemical cycle in the mangrove environment. To assess the effects of sulfur on the geochemical cycling of Fe and P at the sediment-plant interface, the speciation distributions of Fe, P and S in sediments were examined. The data showed that higher proportions of amorphous Fe, Fe-bound phosphate, chromium reducible sulfur and elemental sulfur were found in the rhizosphere, while more crystalline Fe, exchangeable phosphate and acid-volatile sulfide were determined in the non-rhizosphere. Sulfate application induced an increase in the Ex-P concentration, high P accumulation and high iron plaque deposition in the roots. In conclusion, sulfate applications had a significant influence on the geochemical cycling of Fe and P in the sediments. It significantly curtailed the Fe and P limit to plant growth and enhanced plant resistance to the rugged surroundings in mangrove. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbonized cellulose paper as an effective interlayer in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiqi; Ren, Guofeng; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Dong, Zhihua [Hangzhou Dianzi University, No. 1158, 2nd Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province (China); Warzywoda, Juliusz [Materials Characterization Center, Whitacre College of Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zhaoyang.fan@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile and economical method to fabricate interlayer for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated. • The performance of lithium-sulfur batteries without and with interlayer was compared. • The mechanism for the function of interlayer was explained. - Abstract: One of the several challenging problems hampering lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery development is the so-called shuttling effect of the highly soluble intermediates (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}–Li{sub 2}S{sub 6}). Using an interlayer inserted between the sulfur cathode and the separator to capture and trap these soluble intermediates has been found effective in diminishing this effect. Previously, most reported interlayer membranes were synthesized in a complex and expensive process, and might not be suitable for practical cheap batteries. Herein, a facile method is reported to pyrolyze the commonly used cellulose filter paper into highly flexible and conductive carbon fiber paper. When used as an interlayer, such a carbon paper can improve the cell capacity by several folds through trapping the soluble polysulfides. The enhanced electronic conductivity of the cathode, due to the interlayer, also significantly improves the cell rate performance. In addition, it was demonstrated that such an interlayer can also effectively mitigate the self-discharge problem of the Li-S batteries. This study indicates that the cost-effective pyrolyzed cellulose paper has potential as interlayer for practical Li-S batteries.

  13. Carbonized cellulose paper as an effective interlayer in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Ren, Guofeng; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Dong, Zhihua; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-02-01

    One of the several challenging problems hampering lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery development is the so-called shuttling effect of the highly soluble intermediates (Li2S8-Li2S6). Using an interlayer inserted between the sulfur cathode and the separator to capture and trap these soluble intermediates has been found effective in diminishing this effect. Previously, most reported interlayer membranes were synthesized in a complex and expensive process, and might not be suitable for practical cheap batteries. Herein, a facile method is reported to pyrolyze the commonly used cellulose filter paper into highly flexible and conductive carbon fiber paper. When used as an interlayer, such a carbon paper can improve the cell capacity by several folds through trapping the soluble polysulfides. The enhanced electronic conductivity of the cathode, due to the interlayer, also significantly improves the cell rate performance. In addition, it was demonstrated that such an interlayer can also effectively mitigate the self-discharge problem of the Li-S batteries. This study indicates that the cost-effective pyrolyzed cellulose paper has potential as interlayer for practical Li-S batteries.

  14. Mitigation of indirect environmental effects of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, J.D; May, M.J; Perry, J.N; Poppy, G.M

    2007-01-01

    Currently, the UK has no procedure for the approval of novel agricultural practices that is based on environmental risk management principles. Here, we make a first application of the ‘bow-tie’ risk management approach in agriculture, for assessment of land use changes, in a case study of the introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) sugar beet. There are agronomic and economic benefits, but indirect environmental harm from increased weed control is a hazard. The Farm Scale Evaluation (FSE) trials demonstrated reduced broad-leaved weed biomass and seed production at the field scale. The simplest mitigation measure is to leave a proportion of rows unsprayed in each GMHT crop field. Our calculations, based on FSE data, show that a maximum of 2% of field area left unsprayed is required to mitigate weed seed production and 4% to mitigate weed biomass production. Tilled margin effects could simply be mitigated by increasing the margin width from 0.5 to 1.5 m. Such changes are cheap and simple to implement in farming practices. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the bow-tie risk management approach and the transparency with which hazards can be addressed. If adopted generally, it would help to enable agriculture to adopt new practices with due environmental precaution. PMID:17439853

  15. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  16. Systematic Review of the Effects of Chemical Insecticides on Four Common Butterfly Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Mulé

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Safeguarding crop productivity by protecting crops from pest attacks entails the wide use of plant protection products that provide a quick, easy and cheap solution. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of insecticides used in agriculture on non-target butterflies, specifically on the families Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Hesperiidae, and Papilionidae. To achieve this goal, a formal systematic review was performed according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA guidelines, by entering a combination of keywords on 3 online databases. Three reviewers independently extracted information on study characteristics and quality. The main results were collected and grouped by the insecticide used, butterflies species and family, and endpoints. The output was valuable but heterogeneous as the endpoints and methodologies of the studies reviewed were different. Few experimental studies on the effects of insecticides on the most common butterfly families have been published. Naled and permethrin are the most commonly used insecticides in the experiments, whilst the target organisms of these studies are Vanessa cardui, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius charitonius, belonging to the Nymphalidae family, and Eumaeus atala, belonging to the Lycaenidae family; the effects were evaluated on all developmental stages, with special attention to the larval phase. This systematic review highlights the need for more studies on the effects of chemical insecticides on non-target Lepidoptera in light of their ecological importance and the extensive use of these chemical products.

  17. Talk Is Cheap: Skype Can Make VoIP a Very Real Communication Option for Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There have been many tools that people can use to get connected with each other worldwide. Cell phones, blogs, wikis, podcasts, e-mail--the world hinges upon people's ability to connect, share, collaborate, and communicate. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is another tool schools can use to help their students get connected with the world. One…

  18. A New Metre for Cheap, Quick, Reliable and Simple Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) Measurements in Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jose Manuel Andújar Marquez; Miguel angel Martínez Bohórquez; Sergio Gómez Melgar

    2017-01-01

    .... Today, if many thermal transmittance measurements in a short time are needed, the current devices, based on the measurement of the heat flow through the wall, cannot carry out them, except if a great...

  19. Resisting inequality but loving those cheap ironed shirts: Danish expatriates’ experiences of becoming employers of domestic staff in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schliewe, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is based on empirical findings from a longitudinal study of Danish expatriates and their domestic staff in New Delhi. The premise is that most Danish expatriates strongly react—or resist—when they move to India and encounter what they experience as obvious inequality or inhumane work...

  20. A Comparison of Standard One-Step DDA Circular Interpolators with a New Cheap Two-Step Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Moroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and study existing digital differential analyzer (DDA algorithms for circle generation, including an improved two-step DDA algorithm which can be implemented solely in terms of elementary shifts, addition, and subtraction.

  1. Neighborhood Variation in the Price of Cheap Tobacco Products in California: Results From Healthy Stores for a Healthy Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Andersen-Rodgers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xueying; Roeseler, April; Sun, Dennis L; Johnson, Trent O; Schleicher, Nina C

    2017-11-01

    Retail marketing surveillance research highlights concerns about lower priced cigarettes in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of racial/ethnic minorities but focuses almost exclusively on premium brands. To remedy this gap in the literature, the current study examines neighborhood variation in prices for the cheapest cigarettes and a popular brand of cigarillos in a large statewide sample of licensed tobacco retailers in a low-tax state. All 61 local health departments in California trained data collectors to conduct observations in a census of eligible licensed tobacco retailers in randomly selected zip codes (n = 7393 stores, completion rate=91%). Data were collected in 2013, when California had a low and stagnant tobacco tax. Two prices were requested: the cheapest cigarette pack regardless of brand and a single, flavored Swisher Sweets cigarillo. Multilevel models (stores clustered in tracts) examined prices (before sales tax) as a function of neighborhood race/ethnicity and proportion of school-age youth (aged 5-17). Models adjusted for store type and median household income. Approximately 84% of stores sold cigarettes for less than $5 and a Swisher Sweets cigarillo was available for less than $1 in 74% of stores that sold the brand. The cheapest cigarettes cost even less in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of school-age residents and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Neighborhood disparities in the price of the cheapest combustible tobacco products are a public health threat. Policy changes that make all tobacco products, especially combustible products, less available and more costly may reduce disparities in their use and protect public health. Much of what is known about neighborhood variation in the price of combustible tobacco products focuses on premium brand cigarettes. The current study extends this literature in two ways, by studying prices for the cheapest cigarette pack regardless of brand and a popular brand of flavored cigarillos and by reporting data from the largest statewide sample of licensed tobacco retailers. Significantly lower prices in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of youth and of racial/ethnic groups with higher smoking prevalence are a cause of concern. The study results underscore the need for policies that reduce availability and increase price of combustible tobacco products, particularly in states with low, stagnant tobacco taxes.

  2. Accurate nonadiabatic quantum dynamics on the cheap: making the most of mean field theory with master equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aaron; Brackbill, Nora; Markland, Thomas E

    2015-03-07

    In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times.

  3. Car windshield fragments as cheap alternative glass beads for homogenization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Afu Ochang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a global health problem which has been compounded by the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistant strains. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually requires homogenization of cultures using 3–5 mm glass beads. In resource limited settings, these important material may either not be readily available in the country as in our case requiring that one orders them from abroad or they may be too expensive. In both situations, this would impact on the usually lean budget. In our centre were we recently introduced tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility testing using the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS technique, we successfully used glass fragments from a broken car windshield obtained from a mechanic workshop to homogenize solid cultures to prepare positive controls. All cultures homogenized with these local beads gave consistent MODS results. The challenge of the limited availability of resources for research in resource limited settings can be met by adapting available materials to achieve results.

  4. Car windshield fragments as cheap alternative glass beads for homogenization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochang, Ernest Afu; Collier, Dami; Bode-Sojobi, Ibidunni; Oladele, Rita; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem which has been compounded by the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistant strains. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually requires homogenization of cultures using 3-5mm glass beads. In resource limited settings, these important material may either not be readily available in the country as in our case requiring that one orders them from abroad or they may be too expensive. In both situations, this would impact on the usually lean budget. In our centre were we recently introduced tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility testing using the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) technique, we successfully used glass fragments from a broken car windshield obtained from a mechanic workshop to homogenize solid cultures to prepare positive controls. All cultures homogenized with these local beads gave consistent MODS results. The challenge of the limited availability of resources for research in resource limited settings can be met by adapting available materials to achieve results. Copyright © 2014 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Good Stewards, Cheap Talkers, or Family Men? The Impact of Mutual Fund Closures on Fund Managers, Flows, Fees, and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Bris; Huseyin Gulen; Padmaja Kadiyala; Raghavendra Rau

    2005-01-01

    We examine a sample of 125 equity mutual funds that closed to new investment between 1993 and 2004. We find that funds close following a period of superior performance and abnormal fund inflows. Fund managers raise their fees when they close to compensate managers for losses in income due to the restrictions in size imposed by the fund closure decision. Managers reopen when fund size declines. However, they do not earn superior returns after re-opening, suggesting that the fund closure decisi...

  6. CONTENTIOUS MOBILITIES AND CHEAP(ER) LABOUR: TEMPORARY FOREIGN WORKERS IN A NEW BRUNSWICK SEAFOOD PROCESSING COMMUNITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Knott

    2016-01-01

      Canada's Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) is highly contentious. Particularly contentious are those parts of the program that have allowed for exploitative labour practices and the replacement of Canadian workers...

  7. Nano-Se: Cheap and easy-to-obtain novel material for all-dielectric nano-photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. K.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Klevkov, Yu. K.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Smirnov, N. A.; Zayarny, D. A.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Tolordava, E. R.; Baranov, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Milligram-per-second production of selenium nanoparticles in water sols was realized through few W, kHz-rate nanosecond laser ablation of a solid selenium pellet. High-yield particle formation mechanism and ultimate mass-removal yield were elucidated by optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater depths and topographies. Deposited particles were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, while optical transmission Raman and dynamic light scattering spectroscopy characterized their hydrosols.

  8. Consequences of removing cheap, super-strength beer and cider: a qualitative study of a UK local alcohol availability intervention

    OpenAIRE

    McGill, E.; Marks, D; Sumpter, C; Egan, M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Increasingly, English local authorities have encouraged the implementation of an intervention called ?Reducing the Strength? (RtS) whereby off-licences voluntarily stop selling inexpensive ?super-strength? (?6.5% alcohol by volume (ABV)) beers and ciders. We conceptualised RtS as an event within a complex system in order to identify pathways by which the intervention may lead to intended and unintended consequences. Design A qualitative study including a focus group and semistructu...

  9. Alcohol oxidation with H2O2 catalyzed by a cheap and promptly available imine based iron complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Giosia, Simone; Barbieri, Alessia; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Di Stefano, Stefano

    2016-12-07

    We previously reported that the iminopyridine iron(ii) complex 1, easily and quantitatively obtainable in situ, can activate H2O2 to form a powerful oxidant, capable of aliphatic C-H bond hydroxylation. In the present study we expand the application of this catalyst to the oxidation of a series of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. The oxidation of aliphatic alcohols proceeds smoothly, while that of benzylic alcohols is shown to be challenging. Some collected pieces of evidence suggest a preference of the oxidizing species for the aromatic ring instead for the alcoholic moiety. The decrease of the electron density in the aromatic ring shifts the oxidation from the aromatic towards the alcoholic moiety. Quite surprisingly, preferential oxidation of cyclohexanol versus benzylic alcohol was achieved, showing unprecedented selectivity.

  10. A new simple and cheap, high-resolution planar optode imaging system: Application to oxgen and pH sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Borisov, Sergey M.; Gunwald, Björn

    2011-01-01

    commercial digital single lens reflex cameras to simultaneously record different colors (red, green, and blue) of luminophore emission light using only one excitation light source. Using the ratio between the intensity of the different colors recorded in a single image analyte concentrations can......) salt derivate for O2 and pH measurements, respectively. The brightness of both indicators is dramatically enhanced by making use of energy transfer from a donor molecule (Macrolex yellow coumarin). Furthermore, the emission from the donor serves as an internal reference for the O2 sensor. The approach...

  11. Stats on the Cheap: Using Free and Inexpensive Internet Resources to Enhance the Teaching of Statistics and Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The present article describes four free or inexpensive Internet-based activities that can be used to supplement statistics/research methods/general psychology classes. Each activity and subsequent homework assessment is described, as well as homework performance outcome and student opinion data for each activity. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Consequences of removing cheap, super-strength beer and cider: a qualitative study of a UK local alcohol availability intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Elizabeth; Marks, Dalya; Sumpter, Colin; Egan, Matt

    2016-09-29

    Increasingly, English local authorities have encouraged the implementation of an intervention called 'Reducing the Strength' (RtS) whereby off-licences voluntarily stop selling inexpensive 'super-strength' (≥6.5% alcohol by volume (ABV)) beers and ciders. We conceptualised RtS as an event within a complex system in order to identify pathways by which the intervention may lead to intended and unintended consequences. A qualitative study including a focus group and semistructured interviews. An inner-London local authority characterised by a high degree of residential mobility, high levels of social inequality and a large homeless population. Intervention piloted in three areas known for street drinking with a high alcohol outlet density. Alcohol service professionals, homeless hostel employees, street-based services managers and hostel dwelling homeless alcohol consumers (n=30). Participants describe a range of potential substitution behaviours to circumvent alcohol availability restrictions including consuming different drinks, finding alternative shops, using drugs or committing crimes to purchase more expensive drinks. Service providers suggested the intervention delivered in this local authority missed opportunities to encourage engagement between the council, alcohol services, homeless hostels and off-licence stores. Some participants believed small-scale interventions such as RtS may facilitate new forms of engagement between public and private sector interests and contribute to long-term cultural changes around drinking, although they may also entrench the view that 'problem drinking' only occurs in certain population groups. RtS may have limited individual-level health impacts if the target populations remain willing and able to consume alternative means of intoxication as a substitute for super-strength products. However, RtS may also lead to wider system changes not directly related to the consumption of super-strengths and their assumed harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. The academic birth rate: Production and reproduction of the research work force, and its effect on innovation and research misconduct

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Universities have been churning out PhD students to reap financial and other rewards for training biomedical scientists. This deluge of cheap labour has created unhealthy competition, which encourages scientific misconduct.

  14. Nasal breathing exercise and its effect on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and chronic health problem with a high prevalence and a significant effect on the health care expenditure. Intranasal steroid spray is recommended as the first line therapy for patients with moderate to severe AR. Our study clinically analysed the use of nasal breathing exercise (NBE) as an adjunct to intranasal steroid spray as a cheap and effective mode of management of AR. A 3 month, parallel, randomized study was carried out in a zonal and tertiary care referral center. In this study, participants (N = 60) with symptomatic AR were administered either a intranasal steroid spray fluticasone propionate (group A) or fluticasone propionate nasal spray and NBE (group B). Participants assessed their symptom severity daily over the 3 month treatment period. The mean total nasal symptom scores were lower in both the groups (5.1 vs. 3.8333 for group A and 5.2 vs. 2.6777 for group B) and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The patients showed a definite improvement in overall and individual symptoms for both groups with significantly greater reduction in individual symptoms in the group B (P < 0.05). In our study we have found that both treatments provided clinically meaningful responses, but the overall results favored fluticasone propionate and the NBE group. Hence NBE is a simple and cost effective measure to reduce symptoms of AR and improve patient satisfaction.

  15. Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, John A O; Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Oyelami, Oyeku A; Adeyemi, Lateef A

    2007-03-01

    The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous.

  16. Effect of Ice Massage on Hoku Point for Reduction of Labor Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naghshin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One the most anxious moments for mothers and families is labor pain and various methods for its relief have an effect on labor management, patient satisfaction and labor outcome. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are used to relieve labor pain, but in recently years, researchers have focused their attention to non-pharmacological methods for reduction of labor pain. Acupressure is one of the pain relieving methods that can be used for labor pain, but there have been few studies to date. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Hoku point ice massage on labor pain. Methods: Participants of this clinical trial study were 60 pregnant women having the inclusive criteria. Participants were randomly divided to two groups of thirty, each. (Control Group=only touch of Hoku point, Case group= ice massage of Huko point. This procedure was done for thirty minutes. Labor pain of subjects was measured by visual analog scale before and after the procedure. Results: There was no statistical difference between the gestational age, parity and age of the two groups. Results showed that reduction of labor pain by ice massage of Huko point was statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Acupressure is a noninvasive, simple and cheap method of relieving pain and our study confirms its effect on reduction of labor pain. This method is therefore applicable in delivery rooms.

  17. Efficacy of Foley's Catheter and the Effect of Histopathology, Age and Endometrial Thickness Relative to the Measured Outcomes in Menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadia, Zaheera; Farrukh, Robina; Rasool, Madiha Ghulam

    2017-07-01

    Menorrhagia adversely affects the quality of life. Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. A thermal balloon is an effective but costly option. We used a Foley's catheter as an alternative to commercially available thermal balloons. If effective, it will provide a cheap alternative to the thermal balloon. A Foley's catheter was placed in the uterine cavity for 10 minutes using 0.9% saline. The measured outcomes were amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, oligomenorrhea or failure of the therapy. Endometrial thickness, age and endometrial biopsy results were also measured to determine if these variables had any effects on the outcome. Out of the total 42 participants, nearly half had amenorrhea (42.9%, n=18). Furthermore, 28.6% had oligomenorrhea (n=12) and 26.2% experienced eumenorrhea (n=11). Only one participant failed to respond (2.4%, n=1). There were no differences in outcomes between the different forms of histopathology. This means that thermal balloon therapy is effective in causing amenorrhea. No significant relationships existed between participants' measured outcomes and a model containing predictor variables (age and endometrial thickness), R=0.313, R2=0.098, p=0.141. A Foley's catheter is effective with reasonable measured outcomes in cases of menorrhagia.

  18. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  19. The effects of titanium dioxide coatings on light-derived heating and transdermal heat transfer in bovine skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, S. J.; Thomson, D. U.; Gehring, R.; van der Merwe, D.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of titanium dioxide coatings of bovine hides on light absorption and transdermal transfer of light-derived heat were investigated. Four hair-on rug hides from Holstein cattle were purchased. Twelve samples about 20 cm on a side were cut from each hide; nine from the black-colored areas, and three from the white areas. Samples were randomized and assigned to four coating treatments: (1) white hide with no coating (White), (2) black hide with no coating (Black), (3) black hide with 50% coating (Mid), and (4) black hide with 100% coating (High). Coatings were applied to the black hide samples using a hand sprayer. Lux measurements were taken using a modified lux meter at three light intensities generated with a broad spectrum, cold halogen light source. Reflectance over a wavelength range of 380 to 900 nm was measured using a spectroradiometer. The transdermal transfer of heat derived from absorbed light was measured by applying a broad spectrum, cold halogen light source to the stratum corneum (coated) side of the sample and recording the temperature of the dermis-side using a thermal camera for 10 min at 30-s intervals. At the high light level, the White, Black, Mid, and High coating treatments had different ( P White hide samples reflected 60 to 80% of the light energy. The average maximum temperatures at the dermis-side of the hides due to transferred heat were 34.5, 70.1, 55.0, and 31.7, for the White, Black, Mid, and High treatments, respectively. Reflective coatings containing titanium dioxide on cattle hides were effective in reducing light energy absorption and reduced light-derived heat transfer from the skin surface to deeper skin layers.

  20. Effect of jute yarn on the mechanical behavior of concrete composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohammad; Ahmed, Mashud; Hoque, Md Mozammel; Hannan, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of introducing jute yarn on the mechanical properties of concrete. Jute fibre is produced abundantly in Bangladesh and hence, very cheap. The investigation on the enhancement of mechanical properties of concrete with jute yarn as reinforcement, if enhanced, will not only explore a way to improve the properties of concrete, it will also explore the use of jute and restrict the utilization of polymer which is environmentally detrimental. To accomplish the objective, an experimental investigation of the compressive, flexural and tensile strengths of Jute Yarn Reinforced Concrete composites (JYRCC) has been conducted. Cylinders, prisms and cubes of standard dimensions have been made to introducing jute yarn varying the mix ratio of the ingredients in concrete, water cement ratio, length and volume of yarn to know the effect of parameters as mentioned. Compressive, flexural and tensile strength tests had been conducted on the prepared samples by appropriate testing apparatus following Standards of tests. Mechanical properties of JYRCC were observed to be enhanced for a particular range of lengths of cut (10, 15, 20 and 25 mm) and volume content of jute yarn (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 %). The maximum increment of compressive, flexural and tensile strengths observed in the investigation are 33, 23 and 38 %, respectively with respect to concrete without jute yarn.

  1. Preparation and effects of nano mineral particle feeding in livestock: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Swain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nano minerals are widely used in diversified sectors including agriculture, animal, and food systems. Hence, their multiple uses provoke the production of nanomaterials at the laboratory level, which can be achieved through physical, chemical or biological methods. Every method is having its own merits and demerits. But keeping all in mind, chemical methods are more beneficial, as uniform nano-sized particles can be produced, but the use of corrosive chemicals is the main demerits. When it comes to environmental issues, biological methods are better as these are free from corrosive chemicals, but maintaining the culture media is the disadvantage. For animal feeding, chemical methods are mostly followed to produce nano minerals as it is cheap and less time consuming. These nano minerals also showed their significant effects even at lower doses of recommendations than the conventional mineral sources. These nano minerals have significant growth promoting, immuno-modulatory, antibacterial effects than the conventional counterparts. They also alter the rumen fermentation pattern on supplementation in the animal feeds. Apart from these, nano minerals are reported to enhance the reproduction in the livestock and poultry.

  2. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  3. Effects of lecturing on selfcare oral health behaviors of elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadkhah, Fatemeh; Amin Shokravi, Farkhondeh; Karimy, Mahmood; Faghihzadeh, Sograt

    2014-01-01

    Despite the efforts, the level of dental caries remains prevalent in developed countries; It hasincreased in developing countries due to dietary changes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the oral health of students in Chabahar city. This quasi-experimental study carried out on 200 students selected with systematic cluster sampling from schools located in Chabahar city, (100 students in each case and control groups). The data was collected using a questionnaire before the intervention, that was lecturing on oral health, and immediately and 3 months later. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 11. The mean age of participants was 11.3 ± 1.3 years. The findings indicated that rate of oral self-care behaviors were significantly increased in the case group compared to the control group after the intervention (tooth brushing for twice a day 69%, Flossing tooth 34%, mouthwash 69%, and regular visiting a dentist 6% in case group versus 47% (p< 0.002), 14% (p< 0.001), 57% (p< 0.03) and 5% (p< 0.007) in the control group (, , , respectively. Lecturing is an effective and cheap method on the promotion of oral health preventive behaviors particularly in deprived areas like Chabahar city.

  4. The effect of different bracket base cleaning method on shear bond strength of rebonded brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maaitah, Emad F; Alomari, Sawsan; Abu Alhaija, Elham S; Saf, Ahmed Am

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effect of different bracket base conditioning method on shear bond strength (SBS) of rebonded brackets. Eighty brackets were bonded to freshly extracted premolar teeth using light cured composite adhesive. SBS was measured for 20 random samples as control group (G1). After debonding, 60 debonded brackets were allocated randomly into three groups of bracket base conditioning methods to remove the remaining adhesives. G2: bracket base cleaned with slow speed round carbide bur (CB), G3: cleaned with ultrasonic scaler (US), G4: cleaned with sandblasting (SB). After that, brackets were rebonded in the same manner as frst bonding and SBS was measured. Modifed adhesive remnant index (ARI) was recorded for all groups. SBS for new brackets was 11.95 MPa followed by 11.65 MPa for G2, 11.56 MPa for G4 and 11.04 MPa for G3 group. There were no statistically signifcant differences between all groups (p = 0.946). In all groups, failure mode showed that the majority of adhesive composite remained on the bracket base with ARI of 4. There was no statistically signifcant difference between all groups in ARI (p = 0.584). In-offce methods; slow speed CB and US are effective, quick and cheap methods for bracket base cleaning for rebonding.

  5. Quantification of pesticides in food crops using QuEChERS approaches and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jimi; Lee, Jonghwa; Lim, Chai-Uk; Ahn, Jongsung

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of pesticides in food products requires accurate measurements for which standardised protocols have been developed. This paper reports the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe)-based methods applied to three different food samples (brown rice, red pepper and mandarin orange) analysed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical methods used to measure 113 pesticides, including various insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, was conducted in three food matrices and at three spiking levels by three different laboratories. The set of validated results was interpreted, statistically analysed and visualised using principal component analysis (PCA). Notably, the matrix effects in GC-MS analysis for most of the tested pesticides from different matrices were lowered to practical values (less than 30%) appropriate for routine analysis. This allowed for the quantification of pesticides in the samples using standard and analyte protectants (APs) in the reagent method blank as a screening measure, providing an alternative to matrix-matched calibration. Alternatively, the use of only one standardised calibration (grape matrix) in combination with APs also allowed for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of pesticides in different matrices. The inclusion of APs reduced the differences in the matrix-induced enhancement effects of various samples. The use of an internal standard (IS) to correct the matrix effects was also noted. The normalisation of the analyte peak with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) as an IS resulted in a slight improvement of validation values such as precision and linearity in only one laboratory, but it lowered the value of matrix effects in all three laboratories.

  6. Temporal dynamics of the compositions and activities of soil microbial communities post-application of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liu, Jia; Li, Weitao; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2017-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a newly developed insecticide widely used in rice fields in China. There has been few studies evaluating the toxicological effects of CAP on soil-associated microbes. An 85-day microcosm experiment was performed to reveal the dissipation dynamics of CAP in three types of paddy soils in subtropical China. The effects of CAP on microbial activities (microbial biomass carbon-MBC, basal soil respiration-BSR, microbial metabolic quotient-qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities) in the soils were periodically evaluated. Microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to evaluate the change of soil microbial community composition on day 14 and 50 of the experiment. CAP residues were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuChERS) method and quantification was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The half-lives (DT 50 ) of CAP were in the range of 41.0-53.0 days in the three soils. The results showed that CAP did not impart negative effects on MBC during the incubation. CAP inhibited BSR, qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities in the first 14 days of incubation in all the soils. After day 14, the soil microbial parameters of CAP-treated soils became statistically at par with their controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) determining abundance of biomarker PLFAs indicated that the application of CAP significantly changed the compositions of microbial communities in all three paddy soils on day 14 but the compositions of soil microbial communities recovered by day 50. This study indicates that CAP does not ultimately impair microbial activities and microbial compositions of these three paddy soil types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods with a modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhaobin; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of three selected fungicides (propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, and isopyrazam) in seven animal origin foods. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) spanned between 72.3 and 101.4% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.7 and 14.9%. The method shows good linearity in the concentrations between 0.001 and 1 mg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (R (2)) value >0.99 for each target analyte. The limit of detections (LODs) for target analytes were between 0.04 and 1.26 μg kg(-1), and the limit of quantifications (LOQs) were between 0.13 and 4.20 μg kg(-1). The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the areas obtained in solvent and matrix standards. The optimized method provided a negligible matrix effect for propiconazole within 20%, whereas for pyraclostrobin and isopyrazam, the matrix effect was relatively significant with a maximum value of 49.8%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 210 animal origin samples obtained from 16 provinces of China. The results suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods.

  8. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on a Host-Pathogen System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rachel; Lo, Rachel; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    While it has been shown that decades of astronauts and cosmonauts can suffer from illnesses both during and after spaceflight, the underlying causes are still poorly understood, due in part to the fact that there are so many variables to consider when investigating the human immune system in a complex environment. Invertebrates have become popular models for studying human disease because they are cheap, highly amenable to experimental manipulation, and have innate immune systems with a high genetic similarity to humans. Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) have been shown to experience a dramatic shift in immune gene expression following spaceflight, but are still able to fight off infections when exposed to bacteria. However, the common bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens was shown to become more lethal to fruit flies after being cultured in space, suggesting that not only do we need to consider host changes in susceptibility, but also changes in the pathogen itself after spaceflight conditions. Being able to simulate spaceflight conditions in a controlled environment on the ground gives us the ability to not only evaluate the effects of microgravity on the host immune system, but also how the microorganisms that cause immune disorders are being affected by these drastic environmental shifts. In this study, I use a ground-based simulated microgravity environment to examine the genetic changes associated with increased S. marcescens virulence in order to understand how microgravity is affecting this pathogen, as well as how these genetic changes influence and interact with the host immune system. This study will provide us with more directed approaches to studying the effects of spaceflight on human beings, with the ultimate goal of being able to counteract immune dysfunction in future space exploration.

  9. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jokonya

    provide cheap sources of protein, micronutrients and mineral elements that can ... determine the crude protein content and iron concentration of open-air dried leaf ..... African Journal of. Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development 2007; 7(3): 631-632. 3. Nielsen SS, Ohler TA and TA Mitchell Cowpea leaves for human.

  10. Effect of chloroquine on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Over 2 million children globally are HIV positive. More than 90% are infected in utero from their mothers. Current pharmacological methods to reduce the rate of vertical transmission are too expensive for the developing world. Chloroquine, a cheap, widely available drug, has ant-HIV properties. We conducted a ...

  11. Short Communication: A cost effective light trap for sampling tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—A simple and relatively cheap locally-assembled light trap was used to sample pre-settlement fish larvae in the Malindi Marine Park, Kenya, for two years. The trap was assembled locally using a water dispenser bottle, plastic bottle necks, buckets, 12V rechargeable alkaline batteries and a diver's dry box. The light ...

  12. Effects of Natural Fermentation on the Nutrient Composition of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    which happen to be part of the staple food of Nigerians. ... ingredients. One of such by-products is brewer's grain, a by-product from the brewing industry. The brewing industry is among the leaders in the Nigerian industrial sector and possibly the largest ..... cheap synthetic essential amino acids is recommended. Animal ...

  13. Effect of benzylaminopurine on in vivo multiplication of French ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... Objective: In vivo macropropagation is an alternative simple and cheap technique for banana multiplication. However, the response of cv. “Itoke Sege” to in vivo macropropagation combined with different benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations is not known. This study was conducted to determine the.

  14. Color effects from scattering on random surface structures in dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe; Christiansen, Alexander B; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized...

  15. Effective isolation protocol for secondary metabolites from saffron: semi-preparative scale preparation of crocin-1 and trans-crocetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschläger, Marcus; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Sendker, Jandirk; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from saffron, the dried stigmata from Crocus sativus L. are recognized as valuable tools for pharmaceutical development in neuroprotection and antidepressive therapy. One major lead compound is crocin-1 (1), which gets metabolized to the C20-dicarboxylic acid trans-crocetin (2) being responsible for potential NMDA-antagonistic effects in the central nervous system. Neither crocin-1 nor crocetin are commercially available in sufficient quality and to a reasonable price. The following protocol describes effective methods to obtain both compounds from an EtOH-water extract (2:8) in good yields (about 43% related to the starting material). Crocin-1 (purity>90%) can be obtained from the extract by means of partition chromatography (FCPC) in a single run without fractionation of the mobile phase by using only the stationary phase and in yields of about 48%, related to the saffron extract. Trans-crocetin can be obtained from the EtOH-water extract by enzymatic deglycosylation of crocins using commercially available cheap glycosidase mixtures as e.g. Röhm Enzyme® or RohamentCL®. Further polishing can be achieved by flash chromatography on MCI® stationary phase with yields between 6 and 11%. The protocols described provide effective isolation of crocin-1 and trans-crocetin reference compounds for further preclinical and analytical studies with saffron extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hang-ju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Hao, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Song, Xiao-mei

    2014-04-15

    The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium cv. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MS(n). Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p<0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiclass pesticide residue analysis in fish muscle and liver on one-step extraction-cleanup strategy coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyński, Piotr; Łozowicka, Bożena; Perkowski, Maciej; Szabuńko, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of pesticide residues in fish samples is challenging due to the low concentrations and large number of analytes that need to be monitored and quantified in a complex matrix. This is the first report providing a novel one-step extraction-cleanup strategy for simultaneous analysis of over 340 pesticides in a fatty fish and liver matrix, coupled with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The samples of fish muscle and liver were prepared according to the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure, wherein the extraction and cleanup protocol were integrated into one step. Among the tested cleanup dispersive solid phase extraction sorbents (C18, primary-secondary amine, Z-Sep), chitin yielded the best results. Spike-in experiments were carried out at three different spiking levels in fish and liver to determine the recovery, precision and limits of detection of the method as well as the matrix effect. The method's detection limits ranged from 0.05 to 1.2μgkg-1, while recoveries of most pesticides were in the range of 70-120% with associated precision - relative standard deviations below 20%. A linear relationship was observed within the range of 0.005-1mgkg-1, and the correlation coefficient was R2>0.997. Expanded measurement uncertainty was estimated to be between 7% and 52%, on average. Matrix effects were evaluated and were not significant for the vast majority of pesticides. The validated method was employed in the analysis of 54 real fish and liver samples in which 10 different pesticides with concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.047mgkg-1 were detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-residue method for determination of 238 pesticides in Chinese cabbage and cucumber by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison of different purification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Ai; Feng, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2014-11-26

    This paper describes the comparison of five sample cleanup procedures for the determination of 238 pesticides via triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, with only 10 min of chromatographic running time) in Chinese cabbage and cucumber. Samples were extracted with a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuECHERS) preparation method and cleanup with different sorbents, including primary secondary amine (PSA), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and polystyrene (PLS), to find out the most suitable cleanup methods for Chinese cabbage and cucumber. The recovery and matrix effect were evaluated by monitoring the main parameters in one group of 238 pesticides at the spiked level of 8 and 40 μg/kg. In Chinese cabbage, when PSA dispersive solid-phase extraction (D-SPE) was applied, recoveries of 183 pesticides ranged between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values lower than 20% at a spiked level of 40 μg/kg, indicating the effectiveness of the purification step. In cucumber, 203 pesticides were in the 70-120% recovery range with good reproducibility by PSA mini-cartridge column cleanup at a spiked level of 40 μg/kg and RSD values were generally below 20%. The limits of quantitation [LOQs; signal-to-noise (S/N) = 10] were in the range of 0.16-10.20 μg/kg for Chinese cabbage and 0.06-21.06 μg/kg for cucumber, while the limits of detection (LODs; S/N = 3) were between 0.05 and 3.06 μg/kg and between 0.02 and 6.32 μg/kg in Chinese cabbage and cucumber, respectively. The proposed methods that might be applied for the multi-residue analysis in Chinese cabbage and cucumber are contributed to their rapid speed and good recoveries.

  19. Efficacy of Foley’s Catheter and the Effect of Histopathology, Age and Endometrial Thickness Relative to the Measured Outcomes in Menorrhagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Robina; Rasool, Madiha Ghulam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Menorrhagia adversely affects the quality of life. Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. Aim Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. A thermal balloon is an effective but costly option. We used a Foley’s catheter as an alternative to commercially available thermal balloons. If effective, it will provide a cheap alternative to the thermal balloon. Materials and Methods A Foley’s catheter was placed in the uterine cavity for 10 minutes using 0.9% saline. The measured outcomes were amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, oligomenorrhea or failure of the therapy. Endometrial thickness, age and endometrial biopsy results were also measured to determine if these variables had any effects on the outcome. Results Out of the total 42 participants, nearly half had amenorrhea (42.9%, n=18). Furthermore, 28.6% had oligomenorrhea (n=12) and 26.2% experienced eumenorrhea (n=11). Only one participant failed to respond (2.4%, n=1). There were no differences in outcomes between the different forms of histopathology. This means that thermal balloon therapy is effective in causing amenorrhea. No significant relationships existed between participants’ measured outcomes and a model containing predictor variables (age and endometrial thickness), R=0.313, R2=0.098, p=0.141. Conclusion A Foley’s catheter is effective with reasonable measured outcomes in cases of menorrhagia. PMID:28892979

  20. Magnetic dipolar coupling and collective effects for binary information codification in cost-effective logic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.chiolerio@iit.it [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Allia, Paolo [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Graziano, Mariagrazia [Electronic and Telecommunication Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    effects on the magnetic coupling. Numerical Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations show a possible microspin arrangement producing such magnetostatic coupling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We realized micrometer-sized thin film Co elliptical elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found data retention capabilities in multidomain states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed FEM simulations to qualitatively confirm experimental results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cheap and stable system proposed is particularly interesting for applications.