Sample records for chauffeurs

  1. Gender differences in chauffeuring children among dual-earner families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanen, T.


    The chauffeuring of children to/from school and childcare providers has received limited attention in previous research, although it structures parents' everyday activities in important ways. Combining analytical and cultural perspectives on juggling employment and caregiving, I explore the impact o

  2. APreliminary Study on Regulations on Internet Chauffeured Car%“专车”立法刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on technology of mobile Internet and big data, real-time Internet chauffeured car that provide auto service via mobile app have features of gig economy. Regulations on Internet chauffeured car is necessary to build consensus, prevent risk, and promote innovation, which should begin from local regulations and construct a more inclusive legislation mode which can accommodate free ride via mobile Internet.%“专车”系基于移动互联网与大数据技术,通过手机软件提供的预约用车,具有实时召车与零工经济特性。推动“专车”立法是凝聚改革共识、防范化解风险、引领创新的必然要求。“专车”立法应从地方性法规入手,构建容纳网约“顺风车”的立法模式。

  3. L’expression de l’affectivité d’un solitaire : le chauffeur de La Tournée d’automne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Sandu-Goilan


    Full Text Available Notre étude se propose d’analyser, en prenant comme exemple le roman « La tournée d’automne » de l’écrivain québécois Jacques Poulin, comment le protagoniste du récit poulinien exprime son affectivité à travers la communication verbale et non verbale. Le Chauffeur, comme tous les autres personnages de son univers romanesque, est un solitaire nomade à la recherche du bonheur et de la chaleur humaine. Il entreprend cette quête à travers les relations sociales (travail, amitié et amour qui le mettent en interaction avec d’autres individus et qui lui demandent des compétences sociales où l’attention portée à l’autre est capitale.

  4. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting, or How Stephen Hawking's Chauffeur and Chubby Wise's Fiddle Are Related to the Hubble Deep Field (At Least In My Mind and Experience!) (United States)

    Lucas, R. A.


    Sometimes, in the most extraordinary conditions and times, strange things happen which remind us of just how small a world we really inhabit, and how so many varied things may suddenly be juxtaposed in our lives, and in the lives of others. My most memorable AAS meeting involves not only the meeting but events while getting there. It was January 1996, and we had just finished our observations and initial data reduction of the Hubble Deep Field, the members of the HDF working group doggedly coming in to the STScI by various means over the December holidays and the New Year, in the midst of several blizzards which even closed STScI for a number of days. Not surprisingly, work on the HDF AAS presentations was ongoing until the last minute, until people left snowy Baltimore for sunny San Antonio. My street was plowed for the first time in a week a few hours before my 6AM flight, so after digging out my car, with no time for sleep, between 3AM and 6AM on the morning I left, I soon discovered my own surprising connections between Stephen Hawking's chauffeur, Chubby Wise's fiddle, and the Hubble Deep Field. I'll elaborate in this paper if you're curious!

  5. 钱钟书《围城》与夏目漱石《公子哥》①比较研究%The Comparison Study Between"Fortress Besieged"By Qian Zhongshu and "the Constantly Chauffeured" By Soseki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    parallel study is one of the research method of comparative literature. The paper makes a comparison study between "fortress besieged" by Qian zhongshu and "the constantly chauffeured" by soseki from the aspects of the author's similar experience, the influence of the works, the worship of education and Diploma and hero ending. they change as the period of criticism master, with their original penetrating insight and sharp humor tactful words to show a vivid picture of life.%平行研究是比较文学的研究方法之一。从作者的相似经历、作品的影响力、对教育和文凭的崇拜以及主人公的结局几方面,对钱钟书的《围城》和夏目漱石的《公子哥》二者进行比较。他们作为变革时期的批判大师,以他们独到精辟的知识和犀利幽默机智的文字向世人展示了一幅生动逼真的生活画卷。

  6. 共享经济的法律规制问题——以互联网专车为例%The Legal Regulation of Sharing Economy:A Case Study on Internet Chauffeured Car Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development and popularization of internet technology, the sharing economy depending on internet platform has made great stride forward. The internet chauffeured car services, which is a typical case of sharing economy impacts the traditonal taxi industry and triggers a lot of regualtion puzzles. As to the new industry of 'internet +', regulators should not put it as internetization of traditonal industries, and regulate it according to traditional rules of the "all-or-nothing" regulation strategy. With the aim of encouraging maket innovation, regualtors should fulfill the reponsive regulation stratey stipulated in Adiministative Licence Law, probe into the deep reasons and value of regualtion and reduce administrative intervention.%随着互联网技术的发展和普及,依托互联网平台的共享经济得到长足发展.以互联网专车为代表的共享经济冲击着传统出租车行业,引发诸多规制难题.对于"互联网+"这一新兴业态,规制者不应简单地将之视为传统行业的互联网化,并依据全有全无的规制策略,以类比方式施加传统规则.为鼓励市场创新,规制者应践行《行政许可法》所规定的回应型规制策略,探讨规制的深层理据和价值,减少行政干预.

  7. La drôle d'histoire des voitures de tourisme avec chauffeur


    Darbéra, Richard


    Dans les pays européens, qui contrairement aux Pays-Bas ou à la Suède, n'ont pas totalement dérégulé le secteur des taxis, on trouve à côté des taxis qui ont le monopole des courses commandées dans la rue, une offre importante de transports particuliers de personnes qui assure les courses commandées par téléphone, comme les minicabs au Royaume-Uni ou les mietwagen en Allemagne. En France, depuis que sous la pression des taxis le ministère de l'Intérieur a étranglé la petite remise, la demande...

  8. Een mentorsysteem voor beginnende chauffeurs bij vervoersbedrijven in Nederland : een verkenning van de mogelijkheden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C. & Twisk, D.A.M.


    This report mainly offers an interim exploration of how practical supervision for young, novice lorry drivers during their probationary period could be effected in The Netherlands through a formalized mentor system. Based on a literature study, an inventory was made of the available information abou

  9. The air pollution of automobile origin among Parisian artisans taxi drivers: perception inquiry and exposure study; La pollution atmospherique d'origine automobile chez les chauffeurs de taxi artisans parisiens: enquete de perception et etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagury, E.


    The study concerns the impact of the atmospheric pollution of automobile origin in the drivers population. It includes two parts:the first part is an inquiry to 188 Parisian artisans taxi drivers, with a questionnaire. The objective is to determine the behavior about this phenomenon and what perception they have of it. The second part is an exposure study that consists in four pollutants (carbon monoxide, fine particulates in suspension, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide). It is in order to reveal the concentrations of these pollutants inside 29 cabs during the professional activity. The taxi drivers complain of headaches, eyes and throat irritations, respiratory difficulties. The results of exposure measurements show 3.8 p.p.m. for carbon monoxide, 168 micrograms/m{sup 3} for the fine particulates in suspension, 625 micrograms for nitrogen monoxide and 139 micrograms/m{sup 3} for nitrogen dioxide. These measures are clearly higher than these ones measured in Parisian ambient air, even higher than these ones of stations that are exposed to the maximum level to automobile effluents. (N.C.)

  10. 49 CFR 1245.6 - Cross reference to standard occupational classification manual. (United States)


    ... Operators: Truck Driver 8213 and 8214. Bus Driver 8215. Driver Chauffeur 8216. 300Maintenance of Way and...: Electrical Worker (lineman) 6433. Electrical Worker (groundsman) 6432. Communications Maintainer 6151... Reclamations Plant 6318. Assist. General Foreman 6318. 403Equipment, Shop, Electrical Inspectors:...

  11. 49 CFR 1245.5 - Classification of job titles. (United States)


    ... truck driving Truck Driver, Bus Driver, Driver, Chauffeur Consolidates present STB Nos. 24 and 25. 300... Communications equipment installers, Maintainers, and repairmen Electrical Worker (Lineman), Electrical Worker.... 403 Equipment, Shop, Electrical Inspectors Title is descriptive Chief Electrical Inspector, Chief...

  12. 幽默互动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>ice cream:凡荣登"翻译优胜榜"者,均可获得一份好礼!所以请参与者务必写清真实姓名、详细地址和邮政编码。I’m Going toLet My Chauffeur Answer it A famous scientist was on his way to yet another lecture when his chauffeur offered an idea.

  13. 一九九六年上半年全国高等教育自学考试英语试题(公外)(续上期)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Passage 2 At one time, Einstein travelled over the States,giving lectures on the theory of relativity.He travelled by car, and became quite friendly with chauffeur.The chauffeur always listened to Einstein’s lecture which he gave over and over again.One day he told Einstein that he knew the lecture so well that he was sure he could give it himself.Thinking this was amusing, Einstein said that,as nobody knew him in the place where he had to give his next lecture,perhaps the chauffeur could give the lectrue in his place.That evening they went along to the lecture hall.Both Einstein and the chauffeur wore dark blue suits and ties.Everybody applauded the chauffeur as he took his place on the stage.The lecture was a huge success.The chauffeur didn’t make a single mistake or hesitation.When it was over,he collected the papers and put them in Einstein’s bag.Then he started to leave,followed quietly by Einstein a few paces behind.Just before they got to the door,a man stopped them. He introduced himself to the

  14. Problème de livraison - collecte dans un environnement hospitalier : méthodes d'optimisation, modèle de simulation et couplages


    André, Virginie


    La thèse porte sur la proposition de méthodes d'optimisation (modèles mathématiques et métaheuristique) et leur couplage avec un modèle de simulation pour la résolution de problèmes de livraison collecte incluant la planification des horaires des chauffeurs. L'originalité de ces travaux porte sur la diversité des ressources (véhicule, chauffeur, quai de chargement, de déchargement, contenant, ligne de production, aire de nettoyage) et des contraintes (incompatibilité véhicule/contenant, date ...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 37 - Construction and Interpretation of Provisions of 49 CFR Part 37 (United States)


    ... that provide luxury cars and chauffeurs for senior proms and analogous adult events) are regarded as... 49 CFR Part 37 D Appendix D to Part 37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Interpretation of Provisions of 49 CFR Part 37 This appendix explains the...

  16. Supply Chain et Gestion des ressources humaines


    Nondonfaz, Robert


    Rappels de quelques exigences de la Supply Chain en matière de gestion des ressources humaines; spécificités de certains métiers : chauffeur, magasinier, acheteur, gestionnaire de stock, gestion des imprévus

  17. 《过界男女》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Bends is Hong Kong female director Flora Lau's debut feature. It tells the story about a wealthy Hong Kong woman and her chauffeur (from the Chinese mainland), and how they make an indefinable connection with each other as they cope with their respective financial troubles.

  18. Estimation of weapon-radius versus maneuverability trade-off for air-to-air combat (United States)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.


    A chase in a horizontal plane between a pursuer with a large capture radius and a more maneuverable evading vehicle is examined with constant-speed vehicle models. An approximation to the 'sidestepping' maneuver of the Homicidal Chauffeur Game is modified to account for the effect of evader turning rate, and an estimate of capture radius required is so obtained which agrees remarkably well with Cockayne's point-capture result. The maneuver assumes central importance for barrier surfaces appearing in the Game of Two Cars. Results are given for required weapon capture-radius in terms of the maneuverability of the two vehicles. Some calculations of capture radius are presented.

  19. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines (United States)

    Riedler, A


    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  20. Using travel socialization and underlying motivations to better understand motorcycle usage in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen


    This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. PMID:25846101

  1. Règlement de compte à Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Amiot-Guigaz


    Full Text Available Mexico, un fait divers qui tourne mal. Marcos, chauffeur d’un général, kidnappe avec sa femme un enfant contre rançon ; mais l’enfant meurt accidentellement. Cette intrigue – somme toute assez banale – va servir de fil conducteur pour nous entraîner dans un monde noir et cru. Si l’on ne connaît pas le pays, on ne peut qu’être frappé par la vision que le cinéaste nous révèle d’une société mexicaine où ne règnent que corruption et dépravation. Qu’il s’agisse de métis ou de blancs, Carlos Reyga...

  2. Parental Traffic Safeguarding at School Sites: Unequal Risks and Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Tigar McLaren


    Full Text Available Scholars recognize the importance of parental chauffeuring in urbanenvironments, but pay remarkably little attention to how parents, as part of everyday, domestic practices, safeguard their children in auto-dominated streets. Based on in-depth, qualitative interviews with parents whose children attend public elementary schools, this exploratory study compares traffic safeguarding experiences on the east and west sides of Vancouver, British Columbia. The analysisshows how social class and gender intersect in three traffic sites: school streetscapes, school entrances, and school traffic safety volunteerism. Utilizing automobility and feminist theories, we argue that urban parental traffic safeguarding is a complex and variegated phenomenon involving unequal risks and responsibilities. Our analysis illustrates the ways in which parental traffic safeguarding is a lynchpin to the automobility system, particularly with respect to itsillusion of safety, and how, conversely, this system shapes parenting by constituting traffic safeguarding as part of domestic responsibilities.

  3. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities. (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica


    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population.

  4. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities. (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica


    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population. PMID:27075420

  5. Remembrances of a UK scientist in Russia. 1966-67. (United States)

    Phillips, David


    David Phillips was a post-doctoral fellow on a Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Texas, Austin, where he acted as host and chauffeur to one of the IUPAC representatives, the Soviet delegate, Professor Nikolai N. Kondratiev, then Deputy Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow. During the course of ferrying him around, Nikolai asked .David about his plans after his two-year stay in Texas, David replied that he had intended to return to Europe, but was looking for one more year as a post-doctoral fellow before seeking an academic position probably back in the UK Nikolai invited him to spend time in his Institute, and eventually, through the Royal Society/Academy of Sciences Exchange programme, this came to pass. Professor Phillips now describes his experiences, both cultural and scientific, in Russia during 1966-67 where he learned much about the Russian people, and also about himself. He returned with a taste for good music, Russian literature and language, and travel generally, and for taking chances in life. PMID:25549410

  6. What's "quickest and easiest?": parental decision making about school trip mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Guy EJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential benefits of active school travel (AST are widely recognized, yet there is consistent evidence of a systematic decline in the use of active modes of transportation to school since the middle part of the 20th century. This study explored parental accounts of the school travel mode choice decision-making process. Methods Thirty-seven parents of children (17 who walked; 20 who were driven from four elementary schools in Toronto, Canada participated in semi-structured interviews. The schools varied with respect to walkability of the built environment and socio-economic status. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified a two-stage decision-making process. Results An initial decision concerned the issue of escorting or chauffeuring a child to/from school. This decision appeared to be primarily influenced by concerns about traffic, the child's personal safety, and the child's maturity and cognitive ability regarding navigating his/her way to/from school safely. Following the escort decision, parents considered mode choice, typically selecting what they perceived to be the easiest and most convenient way to travel. The ascription of convenience to the various modes of transportation was influenced by perceptions of travel time and/or distance to/from school. Convenience became a particularly salient theme for parents who found it necessary to complete multi-activity trip chains. Conclusions The school travel mode choice decision process is complex. Future research and practice should continue to address safety concerns that are typically the focus of active school transport initiatives while addressing more explicitly the behavioural cost of competing mode choices.

  7. The profitable art of service recovery. (United States)

    Hart, C W; Heskett, J L; Sasser, W E


    In services, mistakes are a fact of life. No matter how hard companies try, they can't prevent the occasional late flight or missed delivery. But they can learn to recover from them. Consider how Club Med-Cancun turned a service nightmare into a memorable experience. When a flight to Cancun left New York six hours late, made two unexpected stops, ran out of food, and had a rough landing, the vacationers on board were certain their holiday was ruined. But the Club Med manager greeted the travelers with food and music and chauffeured them back to the resort. In the end, the vacationers had a better time than if the flight had gone like clockwork. Service recovery starts with identifying the problem. The Bank of Maine in Portland pays customers $1 for writing a letter about the service they received. American Express uses an "800" number to solicit customer complaints. Once they've identified a problem, service companies must act fast. When Smith & Hawken realized that it was taking months to resolve customers' problems by mail, the company decided to use the phone instead. Most important, service companies should encourage frontline employees to deviate from the rules when necessary. Some companies use role playing to help employees develop the creative thinking needed to deal with unusual situations. Sonesta Hotels uses a game in which teams win points for coming up with good solutions to realistic problems. Also, employees must have the authority and responsibility to act on their beliefs-to make phone calls, credit accounts, or send flowers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10106796

  8. Musings: Junkets and trinkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh


    Full Text Available During the brief interregnum of a recent medical conference, we sat by the side of a pool. It was dusk. And just before the entertainments for the evening were to begin with cocktails and dinner, we were chatting about conferences and sponsorship.The arrangements were, to say the least, lavish. And docs from all over were visibly wallowing in five star luxuries. Strolling the lawns, sipping drinks, moving in and out of chauffeur driven cars, being treated like some feudal lords of yester years. Gratis . The joy of meeting friends, and networking with colleagues for positions and honours, was palpable. And that all this was complementary added to the fun. Although it was taken for granted. And accepted as part of conference commitment of sponsors, who made their bucks due to docs' prescriptions anyway.I had lately been studying the working of pharma sponsors. Talking to some of them too. Well, I found they had their priorities perfect. No option but to pamper docs, they said. But see to it that prescriptions poured in. The greater the pampering, the greater the doc's commitment expected. If it did not work out that way, discreet reminders. Later, more insistent ones. Finally, stoppage of sponsorship. Never talk about the idiosyncrasies and demands of one doc to another, howsoever idiotic they may be. (I meant the demands, but applying it to the docs may not really be invalid. And never forgot that all activities were with only one motive in mind: translating into profits for the company.What did we talk at the poolside? I expressed my concern to my fellow docs. Where did all this money come from? The sponsors put in millions for delegates. Plus ads. Plus now litigation costs as patients and activists had become belligerent. And the litigation costs were sky rocketing, as drugs reported serious side effects. Plus the brakes on price escalation of drug by legislators and activists. Was it not time to rein in the expenses? For docs to expect less

  9. [The effects of manpower emigration on income distribution and consumption models in the Egyptian economy]. (United States)

    Abdel Fadil, M


    This work analyzes the effects of emigration from Egypt on the distribution of income and the consumption model of the Egyptian economy. The increasing role of remittances as a principal source of household income has disturbed the old division of income among socioeconomic groups. It is difficult to estimate the volume of remittances with any precision because of the variety of ways in which they can be made. Official statistics tend to underestimate their value by ignoring black market transactions, remittances of merchandise, and other forms. An estimate was made of the value of remittances in 1980 taking account of wage levels of 5 different types of workers in the principal employing countries, their average propensities to save, and the employment structure of migrants by socioprofessional groups. The average educational level of emigrants appears to have declined somewhat between 1972-78. Average monthly income for emigrants was estimated to range from 792 Egyptian pounds for technical and professional workers to 252 for unskilled workers and the propensity to save was estimated to range from 40% for technical and scientific workers to 15% for unskilled workers. The total income remitted in 1980 in millions of Egyptian pounds was estimated at 912 for 240,000 technical and scienfific workers, 739 for 360,000 intermediate level workers, 415 for 300,000 artisans and workers, 60 for 60,000 chauffeurs, and 109 for 240,000 unskilled workers. Although remittances have elevated the per capita income of the low income groups, their impact has been diminished by severe inflationary pressures which have led to a decline in living levels and a less complete satisfaction of basic needs. Salary levels of construction workers were 7-9 times higher in Egyptian pounds in 1977 in 3 countries of immigration than in Egypt, while they were 7-10 times higher in 4 countries for university professors. Remittances are used by families receiving them for subsistence or investment

  10. La grève comme drame social Strike as a social drama, an anthropological analysis of an urban transportation conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Gallenga


    Full Text Available Cet article propose une lecture ethnologique de la grève dont la Régie des Transports de Marseille (RTM a été le théâtre en 1995-96, en l’associant à la grille d’analyse du drame social selon l’acception de Victor Turner. L’analyse de la grève s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une lecture diachronique des processus de « modernisation » des entreprises de service public. La méthode ethnographique retenue pour la recherche est celle de l’immersion avec occupation d’un poste de travail - chauffeur de bus dans un dépôt d’un quartier dit sensible de Marseille lors de l’éclatement de la grève. À travers une analyse ethnographique détaillée des phases successives de ce drame social - rupture, crise, ajustement, réintégration - l’article souligne les effets de rupture que celui-ci a engendrés ainsi que la visibilité majeure de certains symboles hérités de la communitas. Ceux-ci marquent la phase de crise à l’intérieur du drame social de la grève. La grève de décembre 1995 - janvier 1996 s’est transformée en un marqueur identitaire et est devenue, à l’instar de « la Grande guerre », dans l’évocation de maints traminots, « la Grande grève ».This paper is an ethnological analysis of the long strike that occurred in 1995-96 within the Public Transportation Society of the French city of Marseilles. The analysis grid is inspired from the social drama concept of Victor Turner. The analysis of the strike is being understood as a diachronic reading of modernization processes within the public utility sector. The research was conducted through an ethnographic field work which took the form of driving regular buses in a popular neighbourhood of Marseilles as the strike broke out. Through the detailed ethnography of the successive steps of this social drama – breach, crisis, adjustment, redressive action - the paper stresses the breach phenomenon which this social drama brought along as well as the

  11. 出租汽车经营行政许可之合宪性分析%Constitutionality Analysis of Administrative License to Taxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从宪法视角看,出租汽车经营行政许可制度禁止个人利用其非营运车辆从事有偿运送服务,构成了对公民财产权和劳动权的法律限制。从法律保留原则角度看,这种禁止规范的法律基础并不牢固。从明确性原则看,出租车行政许可的规范欠缺必要的明确性,在实施过程中有较大任意性。从比例相当性原则角度考量,在移动互联网等信息技术快速发展的背景下,这一禁止的妥当性虽在理论上勉强成立,但其必要性和手段目的之衡平性大有疑问。网络约车平台现已具备审查车辆安全性能和司机背景资质以及通过信息技术、合同安排和责任保险最大程度保护乘客、司机和第三人安全的能力。对非营运车辆的网络预约服务有条件、有限度的放开,已具备开展试点进行探索的条件。%To view from the constitution angle, the system of administration license to taxi prohibits individuals from doing paid delivery service by their non-operating vehicles, which forming the legal restriction of citizens’ property right and labor right. However, to view from the legal reservation doctrine angle, such prohibition norm lacks sufficient legal basis. To view from the principle of definiteness, such license lacks necessary definition causing more arbitrariness in the implementation process. To view from the principle of proportion, under the background of fast development of internet technology, although the validity of such prohibition barely has grounds in theory, there is much doubt of the balance between its necessity and the due means. Since now the internet chauffeured car platform is already able to examine the safety performance of vehicles and the background and qualification of drivers as well as protecting the safety of passengers, drivers and third parties by information technology, contract arrangement and liability insurance to the most, there is enough